Genealogy Trails
PULASKI COUNTY, INDIANA
HISTORY OF COUNTY

Postcard of Pulaski County Courthouse, circa 1914

This county bears the name of the celebrated Polish soldier, Count Pulaski, who, failing to sustain the Independence of his own country, came to this during the revolutionary war, was appointed a brigadier-general. and fell, mortally wounded, in the attack on Savannah, in 1771. The surface of the county is mostly level, though in several parts there are ridges of low-sandy hills. About one-half of the county is prairie; the other half oak openings, though portions of it have a very heavy growth of the various species of oak timber. A few of the bottoms of the Tippecanoe and other streams have small groves of walnut, sugar tree and white maple, and the soil is well adapted to the growth of fruit trees. An arm of the Grand Prairie extends several miles into the southwest corner of the county. The other principal prairies are Fox- grape, Dry, Northwestern. Oliver's, and Pearson's. The west prairies are favorable for grazing, and, through a process of drainage, they arc being rapidly improved, so as to be cultivated with profit. The dry prairies and openings are mostly a black loam mixed with sand, and occasionally a good deal of mud, and are well adapted to wheat, corn, oats, etc.

Winnemac, the county seat, is located a little to the east of the center of the county. It is a flourishing town, with good railroad facilities, educational advantages, and commercial thrift. The county is well settled and in a very prosperous condition.

Sources: An Illustrated History Of The State Of Indiana, by De Witt Clinton Goodrich and Prof. Charles Richard Tuttle 1875; Indiana Government & Historical Bureau; Transcribed by C. Anthony


The physical features of Pulaski County present no special attractions, yet there are certain economic questions, arising from the consideration of soil and climate, which bear more or less upon the health and happiness of the citizens, and which necessarily require some attention. Geologically considered, Pulaski County lies upon the line dividing the Upper Silurian limestones from the Lower Devonian sandstones, though all these primitive rocks are covered, in some places to a great depth, by drift deposits. This line enters the county in Beaver Township, thence passing northwesterly, and leaving the county near the northwestern corner of White Post Township. All that portion of the county east of this line lies within the Upper Silurian region, where, .if excavations are made to a sufficient depth, limestone rocks are likely to be found next underneath the drift. All west of the line lies within the Lower Devonian region, where sandstone is likely to be found after passing through the drift. As geological lines of this character are usually very irregular, these statements are, of course, only approximately correct.

The Drift.—It must be borne in mind, then, that all the surface soil of Pulaski County, from a few feet in depth along the Tippecanoe River, to more than 200 feet in depth on some of the surrounding elevations, belongs to what is known as the Drift deposits, or soil which has been transported here from distant regions through the agency of ice, and deposited upon the primitive rocks of the Silurian and Devonian periods. As the rocks of these periods are too far down to ever be of much practical value, their further consideration will be dropped, and the nature and characteristics of the Drift will be noticed. Geologists suppose that, during a period called glacial, all the earth's surface north of about forty degrees of north latitude, was covered, sometimes to the tops of the highest mountains, with a vast body of ice, that is thought to have been formed during a period of some 12,000 years, when the north pole was turned farthest from the sun, owing to a peculiar variation in the direction of the earth's axis through a period of about 24,000 years. At least, all the evidences show that the earth's surface north of about forty degrees of north latitude was once, and for a long period, covered with vast fields of ice, and at other periods with tropical vegetation, even as far north as the eighty-second degree of north latitude. After the ice had been formed through this long period of years, the north pole slowly returned toward the sun in response to the motion of the earth mentioned, and, as it did so, the southern border of the vast ice field began to melt away. This resulted in a general southerly movement of the ice, which was forced along, pushing down the elevations of land, and slowly but surely grinding the primitive rocks into powder, sand or gravel, and transporting them to latitudes farther south. Glacial markings are found on the rocks everywhere, and all indicate that the movements of the glaciers were southerly. In this movement, the glaciers took, or scooped up, vast quantities of soil in northern localities, which became frozen in until the ice had reached the warmer sections and had thawed, when such soil was dropped upon the primitive rocks, or upon similar deposits of transported earth. This soil is now known as the " Drift," or " Bowlder deposit," and covers all Northern Indiana, including Pulaski County, to a depth of from a few feet to several hundred feet.

It will be at once seen, that soil deposited under the conditions above stated, would render the surface very uneven or billowy, forming, in some places, high hills, and, in others, deep hollows. The action of the elements in subsequent periods would reduce the hills and elevate the vales. The deep hollows without outlets would become lakes. Lowland would unite with lowland, and the chain thus connected would form a brook or river. Thus is presented in outline what, no doubt, actually took place ; and thus is reached the consideration of the surface features.

The Soil.—The character of the soil and the configuration of the land, considered in relation to the effect upon life and property, may be classified as follows: 1. Nature and peculiarity of the surface features and soil. 2. Economic and sanitary questions arising from their consideration. In regard to the first, it may be stated that about half of the county is prairie land, the other half woodland. The woodland is situated mostly along the water-courses, but is sometimes found far out on prairie tracts, and is almost invariably located on the sand hills and ridges. The forest trees are usually scrubby oaks, though very large trees are often found near the streams. Hickory, sugar and soft maple, walnut, whitewood, and a few other varieties of wood are found in limited quantities. The surface in the neighborhood of the streams is well drained by natural outlets, but back some distance becomes very low and level, and largely lacks natural facilities for drainage. There are large tracts of land so low and wet, that their utilization, even for pasturage, is only partly successful. The woodland soil is usually very sandy, so much so as to be quite sterile and unproductive. The prairie land is usually alluvial, richer and better for the agriculturist. Tippecanoe and Metamonong Rivers and their branches drain the entire county. Bruce Lake, lying on the line between Harrison Township and Fulton County, is the only lake. An arm of Grand Prairie extends several miles into the southwest part of the county. Other prairies are Rocky, Two-mile, Foxgrape, Dry, Northwestern, Oliver's and Pearson's. A few of the groves are named. Farther west in Illinois, the groves are all named; and farther east in Indiana, Ohio, etc., all prairies are named. Pulaski County is situated between these two extremes. The wet prairies, when properly drained, are excellent for grazing; and the dry prairies are excellent for almost all the farm products. Soil for brick, tile and pottery is found in various portions of the county. Extensive fields of bog-iron ore underlie the wet prairie tracts in Cass, Rich Grove, Franklin, Jefferson and other townships. Several are so rich in the ore that it is only a question of time when smelting works will appear.

Drainage.—Owing to the large amount of wet land in the county, a very important subject is that of drainage. It may be said, in general, that all land should be underdrained. It is clear that in ,times of heavy rains the rolling lands are washed of a large portion of their richest material; and also, as the rain itself contains many necessary elements of fertility, if it be permitted to run off without having first passed through the soil, such elements are lost, or conveyed to the low lands. Here, then, are two causes which combine to impoverish the rolling lands.

Judicious underdrainage will, in a large measure, prevent both. The following may be considered a general summary of the benefits of underdrainage :

1. The surplus water which greatly damages the growth of crops is removed.

2. The depth of the soil is increased, thus allowing the roots of plants to descend to greater and better depth for the necessary food, and beyond the action of continued droughts.

3. Air, containing vital elements of life for the plant, is admitted to the roots.

4. The soil is enabled to absorb fertilizing substances from the lower depths of the ground, that otherwise could not be used.

5. The decayed vegetation in the soil, and the nitrogenous food absorbed from the air during a considerable time of fair weather, are prevented from being washed away by sudden freshets.

6. Such rainfalls are passed through the surface soil, which absorbs the ammonia, nitrogen, and other plant foods contained therein.

7. The surplus water, after passing through the surface soil, is carried off rapidly through the drains, thus preventing the severe cooling process of the evaporation of such water, and rendering the soil warm and porous.

8. The warmth and moderate moisture promote the germination of seed.

9. The cheerless labor of replanting is avoided.

10. The packing and baking of the soil is prevented; it is left open, porous and easily pulverized.

11. Winter crops are prevented from being frozen out.

12. The damages of long-continued wet weather are avoided.

13. The surface soil, from its porosity, can, in time of drought, absorb moisture from the air, and draw drafts of water from the lower depths of the ground, a most desirable state of affairs.

14. The uniformity and yield of crops are satisfactory.

15. The quality of crops is greatly improved.

16. Years of useless labor are saved and enjoyed.

17. The source of half the diseases incident to humanity is destroyed, and all the attendant blessings follow.

Perhaps the strongest reason for a thorough system of drainage, especially about dwellings, is the certain means thus adopted for the total avoidance of the various malarial disorders resulting from the poison spread broadcast in the atmosphere by the large quantities of decaying vegetation. That many of the fevers, such as typhoid, typho-malarial, intermittent, remittent, bilious, ague, etc., and their attendants, neuralgia, pneumonia, bronchitis, diphtheria and consumption, are largely due to malarial poison, is no longer a question of doubt. In order to avoid these distressing disorders, the cause must be removed; this can only be done by judicious drainage. The real magnitude of the cause is not fully realized. Families will continue to drink from wells that are the silt basins of barnyards or backyards, implanting seed in the blood of children, that, in after years, make their appearance in the full and sorrowful fruitage of permanent blood or epidermic disorders. The plowing and opening of new land are followed by a saturation of the atmosphere with malarial poison, as the decay of vegetation in the soil is rapidly increased; but, after a few years, when the cultivation of the soil leads to the swift destruction of such vegetation, the cause is thus removed. The drainage of wet lands is followed in a similar manner by a severe poisoning of the atmosphere; but, after the sun and the elements have destroyed the mosses, grasses, roots and branches, a most fruitful cause of disease is removed. The citizens of Pulaski County are beginning to realize the splendid results of drainage. J. H. Falvey, the County Auditor, states, that about 200 miles of open drains have been dug in the county, and almost the whole of this has been done within the last ten or fifteen years. The total cost of this vast system of artificial water-courses, is not far from $75,000. Compared with open drainage, the under drainage is almost reduced to naught. It remains for the future to fully develop the seventeen benefits of under drainage specified above. But the most important point remains to be considered. Prominent physicians who have lived and practiced in the county for many years state that malarial disorders are reduced from twenty to fifty per cent from what they were thirty and forty years ago, and that the greater portion of this great reduction has taken place within the past fifteen years. It certainly does not require any reasoning to connect the reduction of malarial ills to the destruction of malarial poison by the drainage and cultivation of the soil. The future will see still greater results in the same direction.

The Indians.—For many centuries prior to the advent of the white man, the territory embraced in what is now Pulaski County was claimed and occupied by native Americans, or Indians. All the region of country whose approximate corners are Detroit, the mouth of the Scioto River, the mouth of the Wabash River, and the southern point of Lake Michigan, was the property of the Twigtwees, or Miamis, until they relinquished portions, first to other tribes, and later by cessions to the whites.* Within this vast scope of country they had lived for many generations, engaged in all the barbarous and peculiar customs of savage tribes. Here they were found as early as 1672, by French traders and missionaries, and here they had undoubtedly lived for centuries before. But during the latter part' of the last century, and the early part of the present one, as the resolute white men began to enter the domain of the In

At the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, Mish-e-ken-o-quah, or Little Turtle, a distinguished Miami chief, said to Gen. Wayne: " I hope you will pay attention to what I now say. * * * It is well known by all my brothers present that my forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit; thence he extended his lines to the head-waters of the Scioto; thence to its mouth; thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabaah, and thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan."—American State Papers. Indian ___ 1,570.
Indians lying northwest of the Ohio River, the soil was slowly yielded to the stronger race, and the Eastern tribes of Indians began to enter the broad territory of the Miamis. Thus it was that eventually the major part of the Miami lands was relinquished to members of other tribes, and finally by them ceded to the whites. At the time of the appearance of the whites in Northern Indiana, from 1820 to 1840, the greater portion of the Miami landrt north of the Wabash River was occupied by the Pottawatomies, while the former tribe occupied the country south of the Wabash. What is now Pulaski County was ceded by the Pottawatomies to the United States on the 26th of October, 1832, by a treaty held near Rochester, between Jonathan Jennings, John W. Davis and Mark Crume, Commissioners in the service of the Government, and Wah-she-o-nos, Wah-ban-she, Aub-bee-naub-bee, and other chiefs on the part of the Pottawatomies. The Indians did not leave for their new homes west of the Mississippi until about the year 1842, though the first detachment went in 1838 or 1839. The treaty of 1832 was not confirmed by President Jackson until 1836. Very soon after the conclusion of the treaty of 1832, white trappers, hunters and squatters began to appear in what is now Pulaski County, and erelong their rude log cabins could be seen here and there on the streams.

Creation of the County.—The following is the act creating the county of Pulaski:

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana: * * * * * ** * * * * *

Section 11. That all the territory within the following boundary shall constitute a county to be known by the name of Pulaski: beginning at the northwest corner of Township 31 north, Range 4 west, thence east twenty-four miles, thence south with the meridian line eighteen miles, thence west with the line dividing Townships 28 and 29 north twenty-four miles, thence north with the line dividing Ranges 4 and 5 west eighteen miles to the place of beginning.

This act to be in force from and after its passage.

Approved February 7, 1835.

No other action was taken by the State Legislature regarding Pulaski County, until the population had become sufficient to warrant its organization, when the following special law was passed :

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana : That from and after the first Monday of May next, the county of Pulaski shall enjoy all the rights and privileges, benefits and jurisdictions which do or may properly belong or appertain to separate or independent counties.

Sec. 2. That William Wardon and John Barr, of White, and David Martin, of Carroll, and James Gordon and James H. Kentner, of Cass Counties, be, and they are hereby appointed Commissioners, agreeable to an act entitled " An act fixing the seats of justice for all new counties hereafter laid off." The Commissioners aforesaid shall meet on the first Monday of May next, at the house of John Pearson in Winnemack, in the county of Pulaski, and shall immediately proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by law; and it shall be the duty of the Sheriff of White County, either in person or writing, to notify said Commissioners of their appointment on or before the first Monday of April next, and for such services he shall receive such compensation as the law requires.

Sbc. 3. The circuit court and the Board of County Commissioners when elected under the writ of election from the executive department, shall meet at the house of Mr. Pearson, and hold their first session, and adjourn to any other place they see proper until the public buildings are erected.

Sec. 4. The board doing county business may, as soon as elected and qualified, hold special sessions not exceeding three during the first year after the organization of said county, and appoint an Assessor, and make all other necessary appointments, and do all other business that may be necessary, and take such steps to collect State and county revenue as may be necessary, any law or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

Sec. 5. The circuit court of the county of Pulaski, shall, after the expiration of twelve months from the passage of this act, be held at the county seat of said county, or as near as a convenient house can be had for that purpose, the Friday after the courts (ire held in White County; and the courts in Jasper shall be held the Monday after the courts in Pulnski; and said county of Pulaski shall remain attached to the county of White for judicial purposes, until twelve months from the passage of this act. This act to be in force from and after its passage.

Approved February 18, 1839.

The County Before its Organization.—Previous to these enactments, however, and probably before the county had a single permanent white family within its borders, provision had been made for the administration of justice by the attachment of the territory now composing the county to other organized counties, as will be seen by the following enactment:

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana : That all the territory lying north of the county of Cass to the 1 i>» dividing Townships 32 and 33 north be and the same is hereby attached to said county for judicial and representative purposes and that all the territory lying north of the county of White and of the territory attached thereto to the aforesaid line be and the same is hereby attached to the county of White for the same purpose. This act to be in force from and after its publication in the Indiana Journal, printed at Indianapolis.

Approved December 24, 1834.

From this, it will be seen that the eastern tier of townships in Pulaski County wa3 attached to Cass County, and the three western tiers were attached to White County. In 1829, when Cass County was organized, the Commissioners of that county ordered all the attached territory on the north to the State line organized as St. Joseph Township. As the last enactment quoted above was not approved until 1834, it is probable that the eastern tier of townships of Pulaski County was not a part of this St. Joseph Township. The eastern tier remained attached to Cass until Pulaski was organized. Immediately after the above enactment of 1834 was passed, the Commissioners of White County attached the three tiers of townships of Pulaski County to old Union Township of the former county, of which they remained a part until September, 1837, when, by a reorganization of the townships of White County, they became a part of Monon Township. At this time, all of Pulaski County north of old Liberty Township of White County was attached to such township. Thus Pulaski County remained until its organization in pursuance of the enactment quoted above, approved February 18, 1839.

The Pint Election.—During the spring of 1839, George P. Terry, then living at what is now Winamac, was appointed a Sheriff by Gov. Wallace to organize the county of Pulaski. Mr. Terry ordered an election of three County Commissioners, two Associate Judges and one County Clerk and Recorder, to be held on the 13th of May, 1839, and so far as known the polls were opened in no other place in the county except Winamac. The following is the result of this election: Associate Judges, Elijah T. Oliver, 38; Andrew Keys, 29; Joseph Conkling, 8; County Commissioners, John A. Davis, 24; Peter W. Demoss, 22; Jesse Coppock, 20; Moses Holmes, 14; Clerk and Recorder (one man), John Pearson, 19; Joshua Lindsey, 8; Alexander Patterson, 7. The officers of this election were, Clerks, David Harris and William Wall; Judges, Joseph Smith and Jesse Conn; Inspector, David Klinger. Unfortunately the names of the voters at this first election in the county cannot be .given. Before this election was held, the commissioners appointed by the Legislature to locate the county seat, William Warden, John Barr, David Martin, James Gordon and James H. Kentner, met, took the oath to faithfully comply with the law, before Joshua Lindsey, Justice of the Peace, performed the duties enjoined upon them by law, and made the following report of their proceedings:

The undersigned Commissioners, appointed by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, to locate the seat of justice of Pulaski County, met at the house of John Pearson, in the town of Winamac, on Monday, the 6th day of May, 1839, and after being duly sworn according to law, proceeded as follows, to wit: We have selected the town of Winamac as the seat of justice of Pulaski County, the court house to be on the court house square as designated on the plat of said town. We have further received of William Polk and John Pearson, proprietors of said town, as a donation, the public square as designated on the town plat. Also an acre of ground [on which] to build a public seminary, on the north of Madison street and opposite Lots 121 and 168, being 280 feet on said street, and running at right angles back for quantity. Also, two acres of ground at some suitable point adjacent to the town for a public graveyard. Also, we [they] will further agree to donate for the purpose of a court house for said county Lot 33, on which is a good hewed-log house, erected 18x26 feet, for the term of four years from this date, after which it is to be considered the property of the proprietors, their heirs or assigns. Also, one note of $1,575, and payable in three years with interest from date. Also, one note of the same date and amount, payable in four years from date, with interest as aforesaid note of three years. Also, the sum of $125 to be paid at the first session of the Commissioners' Court. Given under our hands and seals this 8th day of May, 1839.

The bond of William Polk and John Pearson specified the following property donated to the county: The public square for county buildings; Lot 159 for a schoolhouse; one acre of land for a county seminary north of Madison street, opposite Lots 121 and 168; two acres fora public graveyard on the southwest corner of the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 14, Town 30, Range 2 west, and donate Lot 33 with the house thereon for the term of four years to be used for court purposes. The three years' note for $1,575 donated to the county was signed by William Polk, John Pearson, John Harrison and George P. Terry» This note was dated May 8, 1839. Another note for the same amount, and for the same purpose, but having four years to run, was made on the same day, by the same four parties. The one for $125 due at the first session of the Commissioners was signed by William Polk and John Pearson.

The Board of Commissioner a.—At the first meeting of the Board of Commissioners of the county of Pulaski, held at the house of John Pearson in Winamac, the place fixed by law for holding courts, on the 27th of May, 1839, pursuant to law, present John A. Davis, Peter W. Demoss and Jesse Coppock, Commissioners elect of the county. Each Commissioner produced his certificate of election from the organizing Sheriff, duly sworn to, and was permitted to take his seat with the board. At the election of the 13th of May, 1839, John A. Davis had been elected Commissioner for the long term—three years; Peter Demoss for two years, arid Jesse Coppock for one year. The first act of the Commissioners on this, their first meeting, was to lay off the county into three Commissioners' districts as follows: No. 1. To begin at the northeast corner of the county; thence south to the south line of Township 31, Range 1 west; thence running west with the township line to the western line of the county. No. 2. To begin at the northeast corner of Township 30, Range 1 west; thence south to the southeast corner of said township; thence west with the township line to the western boundary of the county. No. 3. To begin at the northeast corner of Township 29, thence running south to the corner of said township; thence west with the south line of said county to the western boundary of the county. It was then ordered that the county be laid off into'the following civil townships: All that portion of Pulaski County lying east of the line dividing Ranges 3 and 4, and north of the line dividing Townships 30 and 31, to be known as Tippecanoe Township. All that portion of the county in Township 30 and Ranges 1, 2 and 3, to be known as Monroe Township. All that portion of the county in Township 29 and Ranges 1, 2 and 3, to be known as Beaver Township. All that portion of the county lying west of the line dividing Ranges 3 and 4, to be known as White Post Township. It was ordered that an election be held in Tippecanoe Township at the house of Eli Demoss, with Jesse Justice, Inspector; in Monroe Township at the house of John Pearson, with David Klinger, Inspector; in Beaver Township at the house of Asa Inman, with Moses L. Washburn. Inspector ; in White Post Township at the house of Mrs. Cowan, with Lewis Dowson, Inspector. It does not appear that the day of election in these townships was fixed at this time. At this time, the report of the Locating Commissioners quoted above was received by the county board.

Miscellaneous Items.—At this first meeting of the County Commissioners, the Sheriff of White County was paid $8 for notifying the Locating Commissioners to fix the seat of justice of Pulaski County. Comfort Olds was appointed Three Per Cent Commissioner. Michael Munson was appointed Assessor. A tax of 50 cents was levied on each $100 valuation for county purposes, and a poll tax of 50 cents. Peter Quigley was appointed County Treasurer. The Sheriff was ordered to post notices that an election would be held in each of the townships June 15, 1839, for one Justice of the Peace, one Constable, one Supervisor of Roads, two Overseers of the Poor and two Fence Viewers. John C. Waldo was appointed County Agent, and Isaac Olds, County Surveyor. The first road was ordered established in August, 1839, at a special session, and extended from the Rochester & Monticello State road, Section 3, Township 29, Range 2, to intersect the State road extending from Winamac to Monticello, ending at the northeast corner of Section 34, Township 30, Range 2. Moses L. Washburn was appointed Viewer. On the 6th of August, the 3 per cent Commissioner reported on hand $865.75. Of this, $300 was ordered expended on the Chicago State road, east of Winamac. In October, 1839, Michael Monson was appointed County Collector.

The Squatters.—Considerable land in the county was occupied previous to the sale of the public lands. (See Chapter I, White County history, for dates of sales.) Quite a number of families had come into the county prior to its organization, and had "squatted" upon tracts of land which they expected to purchase as soon as the market was opened, or before. As the time approached for the sale, it became apparent that shrewd, unscrupulous speculators were on the lookout, ready, like hawks, to pounce down upon the unsuspecting ' squatters," and secure the farms which, in many cases, had been subjected to quite an extensive state of cultivation, before the latter were aware of their peril. This induced many to prove up their " claims " before the public sale of the land. In this manner they founded their title, and blocked the heartless game of the speculators. A number of the first tracts of land entered in the county will be seen in the following table:

In addition to these, the following men entered land in 1838: James Higginbotham, John Nerhood, James Lemon, Samuel C. Sample, Ira Brown, Elisha Hall, Samuel Burson, George Heater, Robert R. Dickey, Elias Weiker, William Fisher, William J. Walker, John Reeder, James Lemou, Jr., David Fisher, Noah S. Larose, Moses L. Washburn, Mercer Brown, Joseph Smith, Benjamin Grant, William Craig, Robert Scott, William Murphey, Isaac Coppock, William M. Sherrard, John Dowl, Samuel Collins, George Stump, Bethsheba Cowan and Strother Moore. The following additional men entered land in 1839: Thomas J. Falcon, George Shull, Peter Nichols,'Jacob Nichols, George Wood, Mrs. Louisa Wood, John Hollenbeck, Samuel McFadden, Henry Worley, William McConnel, Thomas Buck, Henry Tomlinson, John Harman, James Pierce, Robert Quigley, Elijah T. Oliver, Peter Blue, James G. McKinley, John Tilman, Sr., William Rogers, Andrew Tilman, Daniel D. Gemberling, Martin R. Tilman, Lawrence Cunningham, Archibald Hammel, Jacob Ruff, George Wollenburg, Jonas Good, Samuel Decker, Joseph Felker, Daniel McCanfil, Amos Benfer, Daniel March and William Rhonemns. In 1839, 129 tracts of land were entered; in 1840, 27 only, and in 1841, 175.

The Circuit Court.—The first term of the Pulaski County Circuit Court was begun on the 24th of April, 1840, the court assembling first in the house of John Pearson, but immediately adjourning to the schoolhouse. Hon. Isaac Naylor, President Judge, was present, as was also Elijah T. Oliver, one of the two Associate Judges. E. A. Hannegan, Samuel C. Wilson, Hiram Allen and Thomas M. Thompson were sworn in as lawyers, Wilson acting as Prosecuting Attorney. The Grand Jurors were Moses L. Washburn, Foreman, Tilghman Hackett, John Shoe, Joseph Conkling, Asa Inman, Moses R. Holmes, Elijah Justice, Oliver B. Hayden, Peter W. DeMoss, Andrew Farmer, Joseph T. Wallace, Joseph Wason, David T. Woods, John Reeder, John Davenport, Moses Cleveland, Jesse Conn and Joseph Smith. The Petit Jurors were Robert White, John A. Davis, William W. Curtis, John Reese, James Ballinger, William C. Coppock, John C. Waldo, John Dowl, Jacob Phipps, William Fisher, Lewis Dawson, Michael Munson, George Stump, Elisha Hall, Eli Demoss, Comfort Olds, David Fisher, Andrew Hamilton, Robert White, Jr., Jacob Replogle, John Nitcher, Jesse Justice, Hampton W. Hornbeck and Jesse Coppock. One appealed case, John A. Davis vs. George P. Terry, was brought before the court, and judgment rendered for the plaintiff. The Grand Jury returned an indictment against Benjamin Ganson for retailing spirituous liquors without a license. At the October (1840) term of the Circuit Court, held in the schoolhouse, Judge Naylor was present; also E. T. Oliver and Andrew Keys, Associate Judges, and S. C. Wilson, Prosecuting Attorney. In the case of the State vs. Benjamin Ganson, the defendant pleaded guilty, whereupon he was fined $2, which amount went into the County Seminary fund. The grand jury returned the following indictments: The State vs. Andrew Keys ; assault and battery. The State vs. J. T. Wallace ; assault and battery. The State vs. Joseph Conkling; assault and battery. The State vs. Allen Whitson and James Murphy ; assault and battery. Among the early practitioners of law in the county were Daniel D. Pratt, J. W. Wright, H. P. Biddle, W. Z. Stuart, W. S. Palmer, G. W. Blakemore, D. M. Dunn, T. A. Weakley, C. D. Hathaway, E. A. Hannegan, G. S. Adams, J. Turpie, L. Chamberlain, H. H. Evans and J. W. Eldridge.

County and State Roads.—The County Commissioners, as rapidly as the funds would allow, began to view, lay out and complete roads in all directions. Several State roads, extending across the county, had been commenced before the county was organized; these were pushed as speedily as possible to completion. What was known as the three per cent fund had been provided by the State for the purpose of building roads. A Commissioner was appointed, and required to expend this fund under the orders of the County Commissioners. Something like $250 was thus due the county annually. Before the county was organized, Lewis Dawson, then a resident, had been appointed Three Per Cent Commissioner by the Board of White County. This was in 1838. During the summer of this year, under his superintendency, George Stump built in the western part of the county what became well known as the " Stump Bridge." The Logansport & Winamac road was one of the first, having been commenced in 1837. In 1838, Congress established a postal route from Logansport via Winamac, Sherwood's Ferry on the Kankakee, Valparaiso to City West, in Porter County, on Lake Michigan; also one from Monticello via White Post to Winamac. At the time Lewis Dawson was appointed Three Per Cent Commissioner for Pulaski County, there was due the county from that fund the sum of $4,000. This was almost a godsend. The La Fayette & Michigan City State road was one of the first to reach the county. From this early time, on through the years until the present, the county records are filled with hundreds of roads viewed, laid out and built, at a cost in the aggregate of hundreds of thousands of dollars. From a beginning of one or two State roads running along over a picked location on the higher lands, there is now a perfect spider-web of well-graded and well-bridged highways, some of which are almost as solid as graveled turnpikes* There is much more work and expense of a similar character for the future to develop.

The County Board, at its first meeting, levied the tax mentioned a few pages back, and took measures to have the same collected. Hotel, mercantile and liquor licenses brought in some revenue, but large amounts were paid out annually for many years for wolf scalps. Notwithstanding the heavy tax levied, the county could not meet its necessary obligations, and was forced to issue its " orders ".due at some distant day. Though these orders depreciated considerably in value, still they were almost a legal tender in the county, and, in the almost total absence of bank issues or coin, served the excellent means of helping to increase commercial transactions. Men holding the orders would buy store supplies with them; the merchant would hand them to the Auditor in payment for his licenses, and the Auditor would destroy them, and, when necessary, issue others in their place, under the orders of the Commissioners. Taxes were extensively paid with them. In the exchange of personal property and commodities, they were frequently used to settle balances. But, like all paper serving the purpose of money, there came a time for- their redemption. In 1845, taxes to the amount of $882.66 were paid with county orders. In 1849, orders to the amount of $3,000 were scattered over the county. At this time, owing to the fact that the county was making but little effort to pay them, new orders sold at 62J cents on the dollar. Soon after this, however, the debt was ordered to be funded in county bonds drawing six per cent interest, payable in five years. Upon the sale of the bonds, which were taken at about their face, the old orders were redeemed and canceled.

The following is the report of the Three Per Cent Commissioner from 1839 to 1842, inclusive:

Received from Lewis Dawson $900 00

Received from Indianapolis 215 00

Received from Indianapolis 302 38

Received from Indianapolis 259 00

Received from Indianapolis 282 00

Total receipts $ 1,958 38

Amount paid out as per vouchers 1,501 00

Balance on hand $457 38

County Buildings.—As will be seen a few pages back, the proprietors of the county seat donated a small hewed-log building in 1839, to be used four years as a court house, and then to revert to the owners. For some reason, which was probably for want of sufficient room, this building was not used either by the courts or by the County Commissioners. The schoolhous* was the court house; but this structure was not completed until 1843, though begun in 1840, and so nearly finished that it could be occupied. At the March term of the board in 1841, in accordance with the provisions of the contract between the proprietors of the county seat and the county agent, the lots in Winamac were disposed of thus: The agent chose one lot, then the proprietors two, then the agent one, then the proprietors two again, and so on, until all the lots had been selected by either of the parties. Those belonging to the county were immediately offered for sale and disposed of ad fast as a satisfactory price could be secured. Quite a revenue was obtained from this source. At this time, also (March, 1841), a suitable building in which to hold court was sought, but could not be found, and thus the schoolhouse came into use for that purpose. If the writer is correctly informed, the log building designed at first for a court house was really and wholly occupied by the county officers and the land officers. If this is true, it is clear why the courts were compelled to use the schoolhouse. It was not the wish to build an insignificant court house that would have to be replaced within a few years, and the county felt too poor to build a good one. In this dilemma, the* schoolhouse was used. Talk, however, of building a new house was freely and extensively (at the county seat) indulged in, and this, erelong, discovered and developed the plan by which the old frame court house was built. In April, 1843, there were fifty-six county lots remaining unsold. There was also unoccupied and unsold the land for a cemetery, for a seminary and for a court house; and there was a note of $1,575, donated by the proprietors in 1889, which would fall due in the autumn of 1843. These facts and the earnest desire to have a new court house led 109 property holders to petition the County Commissioners to give up most of the above donations and to take in lieu thereof from the proprietors of Winamac a money consideration of $3,717. The prayer of the petitioners was granted, specifications were prepared and proposals for the new building were called for. Stephen Bruce, Abraham Bruce, John Steiner and Rudolph Hoch engaged to erect the building. About this time the above arrangements were almost wholly changed, and Rudolph Hoch undertook to erect the building, receiving his pay largely in town lots. William M. Lemon, Rufus Brown and 0. H. P. Grover were appointed building committee. The building was begun, but after the work had reached an important point Mr. Hoch found himself unable to proceed, owing to a lack of money, his consideration for the job beiiig largely town lots. He refused to continue the work, and Carter D. Hathaway, County Attorney, was ordered by the Commissioners to bring suit on his bond. Daniel D. Pratt was afterward employed for the same purpose. A compromise, however, was effected by the appointment of appraisers, who estimated the value of the work done by Mr. Hoch at $948.43, which amount was paid him in money and town lots. He was wholly released from the contract, and the buildings (court house and jail) were completed by others. The first court was held in the new house late in 1849. Thus this insignificant frame court house, which cost something less than $1,000, and the jail, which did not cost half as much, were struggled over for six long years before completed. The fable of the mountain and the molehill comes vividly before the mind.

In 1857, the propriety of building a new court house began to be discussed. Jacob Shoup was sent to Rochester to get specifications of the new court house there. The subject dragged along until June, 1859, when proposals for the contemplated building were advertised for in the Pulaski Democrat, and in August the contract was given to Mathew J. McBird, who immediately began the work. The building was to be finished ! y August 1, 1861, provided the Chicago & Cincinnati Railroad was sufficiently completed by the 1st of May, 1860, to transport the necessary materials, but if not then one year was to be added to the time. If the materials could not be brought on the railroad by May 1, 1861, either party was at liberty to retire from the contract. The structure was to cost $12,000, to be paid in monthly installments as the work progressed, and when the cash on hand was exhausted bonds were to be issued for the remainder due. About this time, the old frame court house was abandoned, and the county offices were removed to the lower story of the new Odd Fellows Hall, situated just south of the court yard. While the new county buildings were being constructed, town lots were ordered sold and other means were pushed to provide the necessary means. During the latter part of 1862, the present brick court house was completed and immediately occupied by the county officers. It was found necessary issue several thousand dollars in bonds ; they were afterward paid as they fell due. In 1862, the old court house was sold to Rudolph Hoch, onehalf the purchase price to be paid in advance and the remainder in six months.

Jail.—The present brick jail building was. commenced in 1870 and completed in 1871, the architect being Edwin May, and the contractors Richard Epperson and Samuel Favorite. The building was to include a Jailer's or Sheriff's residence and a jail proper, and was to cost $7,000. Some alterations were made in the original contract, but the building substantially as above described was completed and occupied.

Library.—An enactment of the Legislature, approved in 1838, provided for the subscription of funds for a county library; and, immediately after the organization of the county, money for this purpose began to accumulate. Nothing was done with the library fund, except to loan it out at interest until the autumn of 1848, when, on the written request of 0. D. Hathaway, John Pearson and some eight or ten others, a county library association was organized, William C. Barnett being appointed Treasurer, and John Pearson, Librarian. The funds (some $300) were deposited with the Treasurer, who was directed to expend a certain portion in books. This was repeated from time to time, $120 being thus spent in 1854, until at last, about the time of the last war, the books were distributed to the townships, and the county library, like the hope of youth, became a thing of the past. Before this, however, in 1857, what was known as the " McClure Library Association " was formed for the purpose of procuring a library of useful books " to improve ourselves in reading, discussions and lectures, and to acquire useful and practica knowledge." After continuing a number of years, the association was abandoned. Its books may yet be seen in the county.

Land Offices.—From 1839 until about 1857, Government land offices were established at Winamac. E. A. Hannegan was the first Register and Dr. Jesse Jackson was the first Receiver. Grosvenor S". Adams was Jackson's clerk, and H. P. Rowan was Hannegan's. Among the Registers who succeeded Hannegan were Maj. John Gardner, Col. Sigler and D. A. Farley. Among the Receivers after JJackson were Jeremiah Grover, A. L. Wheeler and W. M. Patterson. The presence of these offices at Winamac, especially in early years, added greatly to the interests centered there, and brought many important personages to the town.

County Seminary.—A legislative enactment of February, 1838, made provision for the maintenance of county seminaries throughout the State by the appropriation of certain fines and penalties, such as for breaking the Sabbath, for profane swearing and for assault and battery, etc., etc., and it was made the duty of the Board of Commissioners in each county to appoint Trustees, who were to constitute a body politic, with general powers to found, control and maintain such seminary of learning. Funds for this worthy object began to accumulate, even before the county was organized, but their accumulation was s.low, the funds in 1854 amounting to only $247.65. The law provided that as soon as $400 had been accumulated, the erection of a seminary might be commenced, but this sum was not reached, and no house was built. The organization of free public schools throughout the State did away with the seminary project, and the funds were turned over to the support of the common schools. The proprietors of Winamac in 1839 donated suitable lots for the county seminary, but they were not used, and after remaining the property of the county until about 1864, were sold to several citizens of the county seat.

County Poor.—The old way of taking care of the indigent and helpless was to appoint Overseers of the Poor in each township, who were required to provide for the paupers at the expense of such townships. The care of the poor was sold to the lowest bidder. Sometimes great hardships were thus wrought upon the helpless, as they often fell into the tender mercies of heartless persons, who endeavored to make money out of the bargain, and this generally could only be done by neglecting, halfclothing and half-starving the unfortunates. After many years, the system was so far changed that the county, instead of the townships, bore the expense and assumed the responsibility, though still the care of the paupers was sold to the lowest bidder. Finally a "county physician" was employed at so much by the year to furnish the poor with the necessary medical attendance. The following is taken from an early record :

This is to certify that the undersigned Overseer of the Poor of the Township of Monroe, sold at private sale a certain pauper by the name of , of said township, to Jesse Klinger, for the sum of $5 per week, this 14th day of October, 1839.
Given under my hand, etc. Oliver B. Hatden.

This pauper was doctored by John M. Cowan and Hugh Carroll. In 1843, a certain Dr. W. Hambel Salter presented a bill of $188.79 to the Commissioners for medical attendance upon one of the county paupers. The bill was duly considered and the amount cut down to $50, which sum was paid the doctor in full for his services. The poor expense for the fiscal year ending May 31, 1851, was $762.56; but for the following year it was only $585.80. At last, in March, 1865, the present poor farm was purchased of James Boyles for $6,000, a portion of which amount went to pay off certain mortgages against the property. The farm at that time consisted of 165 acres, on the southwest quarter and the north part of the southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 30 north, Range 2 west. Joel Whipple became the first Superintendent of the Poor Farm. Here the county paupers (some ten or twelve in number) were removed. At this time there was upon the farm only an ordinary farmhouse, hut some additions were made until the few inmates were comfortable. Mr. Whippie remained Superintendent until the spring of 1869, when he was succeeded by Joseph K. Boyles, who remained until 1875, his successor being Elias Pattison. In 1875, an addition was built to the poor house by Peter J. Eldridge, at a cost of $538. Mr. Boyles again became Superintendent in 1877. In 1881, the fine, two-storied brick poor house was built at a cost of $3,300. -This building and the farm upon which it rests are a credit to the humanity of Pulaski County. Joseph Shields is the present Superintendent, and has the care of some thirteen inmates.

Townships.—In May, 1839, Tippecanoe Township was created and at that time included the present Tippecanoe, Franklin and Rich Grove Townships. In September, 1854, Rich Grove was created, leaving Franklin and the present Tippecanoe together under the latter name. In June, 1855, Franklin was created, leaving Tippecanoe as it now is. In May, 1839, Monroe Township-was created to include the present Monroe, Harrison and Jefferson Townships. In March, 1841, Harrison was created, leaving the present Monroe and Jefferson Townships together under the former name. In March, 1851, Jefferson was created, leaving Monroe as it is at present. In May, 1839, Beaver Township was created, to include the present Beaver, Indian Creek and Van Buren Townships. In March, 1842, Van Buren was created, leaving Indian Creek and Beaver together under the latter name. In December, 1842, Indian Creek was created, leaving Beaver as it now is. In May, 1839, White Post Township was created, and at that time comprised the present White Post, Salem and Cass Townships. In September, 1843, Salem was created, leaving Cass and White Post together under the latter name. In March, 1850, Cass was created, leaving White Post as it now is. This, in brief, has been the alteration in the political divisions of the county.

Medical Society.—In 1876, the "Pulaski County Medical Society" was organized by the following prominent physicians: H. E. Pattison, William Kelsey, G. W. Thompson, H. Kittinger, W. H. Thompson, D. J. Loring, J. H. Mullin and F. B. Thomas. The society was organized as an adjunct of the Indiana State Medical Society. The officers were a President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer and three Censors. The specified objects of the society were " the advancement of medical knowledge, the elevation of professional character, the protection of the interests of the members, the extension of the bounds of medical science and the promotion of all measures adapted to the relief of the suffering, and to improve the health and protect the lives of the community." A seal was adopted bearing the words "Pulaski County Medical Society, organized June, 1876." A graduate of medicine in good moral standing, by the payment of $2 into the treasury, could become a member. The full anticipations of the founders of this society have not been realized.

Petroleum Company.—In May, 1865, there was incorporated at Winamac the " Tippecanoe Petroleum Company," the object of which was to mine coal, petroleum, etc., in Pulaski, Cass, Fulton, Marshall, Starke, Jasper and White Counties. The dompany started in business with the announced modest capital of $200,000, and the term of existence was to be fifty years. The reader will probably recognize the names of some of the following incorporators: Daniel Sigler, Melvin McKee, J. S. Wright, Daniel A. Farley, W. L. Farrow, H. P. Rowan, W. S. Huddleston, M. D. Falvey, W. H. Jacks, F. B. Thomas, W. C. Barnett, G. T. Wickersham and Jacob Nickless. It is stated that when the formation of this company became publicly known the price of kerosene at Winamac fell flat, though the statement is probably a character of satire. It was argued that surely a capital of such magnitude ought to fully develop the vast resources of petroleum stored up at numerous points in the county, and no one thought of questioning the energy and ability of the incorporators. They were all prominent men in the community where they resided, and their connection with the company was positive assurance of its usefulness. The citizens of Winamac raised their heads a degree higher, looked sagely down their noses, and thought unutterable things. The incorporators were in ecstacies. The future sky was radiant. For further information on this score, the reader is cited to the incorporators.

Railroads.—In 1853-54, the New Albany & Salem Railroad was built across the western part of the county. This was an important event, and brought with it renewed growth and prosperity. In 1859, the road became the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad and this is yet the name. In 1860—b'l, the Chicago & Cincinnati Railroad was built across the central part of the county. This was a great era for Winamac, which, for years, had been anxiously waiting the appearance of the iron horse. Since then it has been no trouble to float the commerce of the county. The Atlantic Railroad was built across the northeastern corner in 1882. These roads were assisted somewhat by the citizens, but to what extent cannot be learned.

Agricultural Society.—At an early period, efforts looking to the formation of a society for the promotion of agriculture, horticulture, etc., were made ; but the limited population, the lack of means and the absence of the necessary interest, owing largely to unfavorable surroundings, effectually ended all enterprise in the right direction. Even after the lapse of years, when the population was much greater, and in comfortable circumstances, and when proper efforts would have been rewarded with success, no further attempt was made. At last, in 1872, the "Pulaski County Agricultural and Mechanical Society " was created and organized by the following stockholders, each of whom at first took the number of shares set opposite his name : Jacob Nickless, 2; George Burson, 2; G. T. Drake, 2 ; Phillip Walters, 1; Israel Hoch, 1; Jonas Good, 2; F. S. McCay, 1; John A. Wirick, 1; P. J. Falvey, 2; F. B. Thomas, 10; J. P. Barnett, 2; John M. Baker, 1; G. R. Allen, 2; George Parrott, 2; John Mulvaney, 5; J. C. Eisert, 1; James Key, 1; William Overmeyer, 1; Jacob Keiser, 1 ; T. H. Keys, 6 ; J. C. Faris, 1; J. W. Vint, 1; Jacob Shoup, 3 ; William Kelsey, 2; I. B. Washburn, 2; E. P. Washburn, 1; B. F. Zellers, 1; J. H. Dick, 1; W. C. Barnett, 5 ; D. B. Phillips, 2 ; William March, 1; D. A. Singer, 1; William Enyart, 1; Jacob Megahan, 1; Jacob March, 1; Samuel A. Smith, 1; Bennett Brothers, 3; Enos Kissinger, 1; Cyrus Nye, 1; Thomas Casey, 1; William Key, 1; John Wilson, 1; Adam Simmermaker, 1; Samuel Decker, 1; L. W. Estes, 5; D. W. Brown, 1 ; W. S. Huddleston, 5; Daniel Martz, 1; Samuel Good, 5; Charles N. Raver, 1; S. R. Richey, 1; J. B. Agnew, 10; John Lowery, 1; S. I. Brown, 2; M. D. Falvey, 5 ; W. R. Ballinger, 4 ; J. R. Dukes, 2; Daniel Bruce, 2; Peter Kroft, 1; Mike Burgle, 2 ; J. D. Vurpillat, 3; L. Ruff, 3 ; William Spangler, 2 ; Jesse Taylor, 4; John W. Clark, 1; Abner Byers, 1; James Gill, 1; G. W. Mull, 1; William Zeider, 1. The articles of association were recorded January 14, 1873. The stock was divided into 150 shares of $10 each. A board of eight Directors was elected as follows: F. B. Thomas, W. S. Huddleston, G. R. Allen, J. B. Agnew, Daniel Bruce, William Overmeyer, Thomas H. Keys and George Burson. Suitable grounds near Winamac were purchased for $650, and put in condition, with fences, sheds, floral hall, and a race track one-half mile in length. It was found necessary to levy an additional assessment for $1,000 to cover the necessary expenses. The grounds comprise twenty acres, favorably situated northwest of town. The first officers were: President, Thomas H. Keys; Vice President, G. R. Allen ; Secretary, George Burson; Treasurer, Jacob Shoup. The first fair was held in 1873 ; was well attended and encouraging. Fairs have continued to be held annually since, with the exception of the years 1876 and 1877, when none were held, owing to the opposition on the part of some of the stockholders. The present officers are : President, H. Kittinger; Vice President, J. B. Agnew; Secretary, Jesse Taylor; Treasurer, J. D. Vurpillat; Directors: H. Kittinger, Jacob Shoup, J. B. Agnew, A. D. Perry, F. B. Thomas, Jesse Taylor, W. R. Ballinger, J. D. Vurpillat, W. C. Bennett, J. H. Holsinger, J. Bair, Daniel Bruce and George Douglas.

Statistics.—In 1840, the population of the county was 561; in 1850, 2,595; in 1860,5,711; in 1870,7,801; in 1880,9,851. In 1840, there were 62 males under five years of age; 37 from five to ten years; 37 from ten to fifteen; 23 from fifteen to twenty; 73 from twenty to thirty ; 41 from thirty to forty; 14 from forty to fifty ; 16 from fifty to sixty ; 3 from sixty to seventy. Of females, there were 51 under five years; 53 from five to ten; 30 from ten to fifteen; 20 from fifteen to twenty; 48 from twenty to thirty ; 28 from thirty to forty ; 15 from forty to fifty; 7 from fifty to sixty ; 2 from sixty to seventy ; 1 from seventy to eighty. In 1840, there was not an established school in the county. In 1880, there were 3,636 school children. In 1870, there were 578 taxable polls, and in 1880, 1,276. In 1880, there were 2,221 voters. In 1840, there were 122 engaged in agriculture ; 2 in commerce; 5 in manufacturing or trading; 4 learned professors or engineers. In 1855, there were 765 polls. In 1856, there were 1,910 school children, but in 1860 only 1,897.

In 1880, there were acres of wheat, 15,416 ; bushels of wheat, 173,021; acres of corn, 17,765; bushels of corn, 366,875 ; acres of oats, 6,776; bushels of oats, 83,036; acres of barley, 31; bushels of barley, 84; acres of rye, 853; bushels of rye, 6,187 ; acres of potatoes, 2,171; bushels of potatoes, 34,201; acres of sweet potatoes, 18; bushels of sweet potatoes, 468 ; acres of tobacco, 1; pounds of tobacco, 1,510 ; acres of buckwheat, 207 ; bushels of buckwheat, 2,031; acres of timothy meadow, 14,286; tons of hay, 22,318; bushels of seed, 181; acres of clover, 3,817 ; bushels of seed, 1,349; bushels of blue grass seed, 705; acres of flax, 124 ; bushels of seed, 505 ; tons of hemp straw, 8 ; threshing machines, 25; bushels of plums, 2 ; bushels of cranberries, 768 ; bushels of quinces, 1; pounds of grapes, 15,855 ; gallons of strawberries, 1,551; gallons 'of cherries, 2,369; acres of melons, 18; acres of cabbage, 14; acres of beans, 46; acres of onions, 8; acres of cranberries, 18; acres of strawberries, 55 ; stands of bees, 1,202 ; cattle in 1880, 10,834 ; cattle in 1881, 17,158 ; horses in 1880, 2,719; horses in 1881, 4,216 ; mules in 1880, 617; mules in 1881, 256; hogs, 15,513; sheep, 12,054 ; pounds of wool in 1880, 39,061; gallons of cider, 31,091; gallons of vinegar, 4,391; gallons of wine, 333; gallons of sorghum, 8,850 ; gallons of maple molasses, 40 ; pounds of maple sugar, 600 ; gallons of milk, 730,838; pounds of butter, 178,926; dozens of eggs, 102,473; pounds of feathers, 1,321 ; population of county in 1880, 9,851; marriages for eleven years, ending 1880, 923 ; number of pianos, 19 ; organs and melodions, 61; sewing machines, 937 ; numberof teachers, 94; schoolhouses, 86.

The Old Settlers' Association.—This association was organized at the court house in Winamac September 15, 1879. Hon. Stephen Bruce was elected President, and W. E. Carter, Secretary. The objects nf the association were the renewal of old associations, the preservation of early records, etc. The meeting was adjourned to meet on the fair ground the last day of the fair, 1879. It was then voted to hold the first re-union of old settlers one week from that date. The day came, and as the President was absent, Hon. Jacob Shoup was called to the chair. Addresses were delivered by Rev. John P. Barnett, Dr. F. B. Thomas, and others, and 120 names were presented for membership. A large assemblage was present, and a most enjoyable day was passed recounting old incidents and jokes. On the 25th of September, 1880, the second re-union was held. President Stephen Bruce delivered the opening address. He was followed by Hon. Jacob Keiser, Hon. W. C. Barnett, Rev. A. Lewis, Dr. F. B. Thomas, and others. The election of officers resulted: J. P. Barnett, President; W. E. Carter, Secretary. At the re-union September 17, 1881, J. B. Agnew, Sr., acted as President. The orators were Hons. Jacob Keiser and Samuel Decker. The officers elected were J. B. Agnew, Sr., President; W. E. Carter, Secretary. The meeting of September 2, 1882, was held at Huddleston's Grove, the officers being present and addresses being delivered by Rev. A. Lewis, Hon. Samuel Decker, Rev. J. P. Barnett, and others. The present officers are Jacob Shoup, President; T. B. Hedges, Secretary. Would it not be well for this association to put on record all the old items that can be gathered, either from memory or from written accounts, for some future historian ? Now is the time to do this, if ever.

Receipts and expenditures of Pulaski County for the fiscal year ending May 31, 1882 :

AUGUST IN COUNTY TREASURY JUNE 1ST, 1881.

On account of county revenue $1874.18

On account of specific fund  1548.96

On account of poor fund 1434.83

On account of bridge fund 5195.52

On account of estray fund 49.05

On account of road fund 6195.26

On account of township fund 1504.25

On account of special school fund 2868.68

On account of dog fund  457.39

On account of corporation fund  264. 14

On account of schoolhouse fund 703.14

On account of township tuition fund 1347.16

On account of common school fund (principal) 125.02

On account of Congressional school fund (principal) 835.13

On account of tax sale redemptions 72.63

On account of liquor license 400.00

On account of Congressional school fund interest 456.93

Total amount in treasury June 1st, 1881 $25322.22

AMOUNT RECEIVED DURING THE YEAR

On account of county revenue, December settlement, 1881 $5817.14

On account of county revenue. May settlement, 1882 9158.06

On account of county revenue, miscellaneous receipts 7564.95

Total amount of above receipts $22540.15

On account of specific fund 1425.06

On account of poor fund 1425.08

On account of bridge fund 5759.62

On account of State tax 4094.08

On account of State-house tax 569.96

On account of school tax 5378.31

On account of school fund interest 777.77

On account of docket fees 70.00

On account of swamp lands 110.80

On account of University lands 296.93

On account of interest on University lands 160.67

On account of tuition fund (common) 9847.20

On account of Congressional school fund (principal) 2945.03

On account of Congressional school fund (interest) 2074.87

On account of common school fund 1329.68

On account of liquor license 1250.00

Ou account of road fund 6931.79

On account of township fund 2264.83

On account of special school fund 4770.07

On account of township tuition fund 2485.72

On account of dog tax fund 956.58

On account of corporation fund 528.80

On account of schoolhouse fund 1065.03

On account of tax sale redemptions 2652.20

On account of 3 per cent fund 56.78

Total receipts $81767.01

AMOUNT PAID OUT DURING THE YEAR.

On account of county orders redeemed $20391.86

On account of county bonds canceled ; 4000.00

On account of specific fund 1532.25

On account of bridge fund ($5,000 transferred to county revenue) 9215.83

On account of State Treasurer on account of State revenue 11297.85

On account of tuition (common) 9847.20

On account of road fund 10171.44

On account of township fund 2720.54

On account of special school fund 5426.38

On account of township tuition fund 2704.01

On account of dog fund 1001.31

On account of corporation fund 494.90

On account of schoolhouse fund 1199 .82

On account of Congressional school fund 2630. 12

On account of Congressional school fund interest 1717. 44

On account of liquor license 1150. 00

On account of common school fund 1322. 00

On account of tax sale redemptions 2545 .56

On account of estray fund 49 .05

On account of poor fund 1424 .83

On account of Bloomington University 160 .67

Total disbursements , - $91008 .06

BALANCE IN COUNTY TREASURY JUNE 1, 1882.

Of county revenue $ 2242

Of bridge fund 1739 .81

Of specific fund 1441 .77

Of poor fund 1425 .08

Of road fund 2955. 61

Of township fund 1048 .54

Of special school fund 2212. 37

Of dog fund 412. 66

Of corporation fund 298. 04

Of schoolhouse fund 568. 85

Of township tuition fund 1128 .87

Of common school fund 182. 70

Of Congressional school fund . 1150 .04

Of Congressional school fund interest 814 .86

Of tax sale redemptions 179 .27

Of liquor license 500. 00

Of three percent fund 56 .78

Total $ 16086 .17

County orders outstanding $ 401 .03

County bonds outstanding, at 6 per cent interest 8000 .00

Total indebtedness $8401. 00

ITEMIZED LIST OF COUNTY EXPENDITURES.

On account of fees and salaries 83859. 49

On account of jurors 1679 .15

On account of bailiffs 285 .50

On account of poor 2786. 14

On account of specific 375 .05

On account of criminals 469 .60

On account of public buildings 268 .02

On account of Coroner's inquests 77 .70

On account of public highways 265. 95

On account of poor farm 4915. 22

On account of elections 35. 20

On account of books and stationery 801 .08

On account of assessors ; 936 .75

On account of insane 381 .35

On account of printing and advertising 261. 80

On account of courts 847 .00

On account of ditches 619 .81

On account of fox and wolf bounty 107. 50

On account of County Superintendent 893. 00

On account of fuel 181. 66

On account of County Attorney 130. 00

On account of County Poor Superintendent 826 .16

On account of common school fund interest 247. 86

On account of special judge 10. 00

Total $20760. 49

County Commissioner —The first County Commissioners were elected May 13, 1839, and were sworn in May 27, Jesse Coppock for one year; Peter W. Demoss for two years; and John W. Davis for three years, the length of the term of each being determined by the number of votes polled. Moses Holmes was appointed May 21 to succeed Mr. Davis, resigned ; but, as he did not qualify, Joseph Wason was appointed on the 25th. Robert Scott, 1840; John M. Cowan, 1840 ; Jesse Justice, 1841; Martin H. Venard, 1842; Ira Brown, 1843; Jonas Good, 1843; Moses L. Washburn, 1846; Edward Highland, 1847; Elijah T. Oliver, 1848; Felix B. Thomas, 1848, by appointment to succeed Oliver; John Decker, 1849; Joseph B. Shultz, 1849 ; Martin Weygandt, 1850; C. S. Rice, 1851; Jacob Shoup, 1853; John Decker, 1854; Artemus Estabrook, 1855; W. C. Barnett, 1857; Coneway Stone, 1858; W. R. Williams, 1859; Laban W. Estes, 1860; Michael Klickner, 1862; John Decker, 1863 ; Jacob Byers, 1864 ; Jacob Shoup, 1865 ; David Hubbell, 1866 ; Daniel Martz, Jr., 1867; Laban W. Estes, 1870; Leonard N. Hollett, 1873; F. G. Campbell, 1874; David Hubbell, 1875; Martin Seeley, 1876; C. P. Warren, 1877; James A. Low, 1878; C. R. Parcel, 1880, appointed ; Robert Lowery, 1880; B. F. Zellers, 1881; George Stump, 1882.

Treasurers.—Peter Quigley, 1839; G. S. Adams, appointed May, 1840; H. P. Rowan, appointed June, 1843, vice G. S. Adams; T. F. Stokes, 1847 ; William C. Barnett, 1847 ; Robert T. Hedges, 1850; H. P. Rowan, 1852; Thomas H. Keys, 1857 ; Daniel A. Farley, 1861; A. D. Perry, 1865; J. B. Agnew, 1867; Jacob Byers, 1871; John S. Thompson, 1875; John R. Conner, 1878 ; John Shill, 1883.

Auditors.— John Pearson, 1839-53; William S. Huddleston, 1853; John Gardner, 1857 ; G. T. Wickersham, 1861 ; Jacob Nickless, 1863 ; C. G. Hartman, 1873; Jacob Nickless, 1877; Jeremiah H. Falvey, appointed April, 1878 ; John R. Conner, 1883.

Recorders.—John Pearson, 1839-53; Joseph B. Agnew, 1853; G. T. Wickersham, 1857; John Nickless, 1860; James R. Dukes, 1865; Sylvester Brucker, 1873; Joseph M. Steis, 1880.

Clerks.—John Pearson, 1839-53 ; J. B. Agnew, 1853 ; G. W. Reddick, 1857 ; W. H, Jacks, 1861; P. J. Falvey, 1871; W. H. Barkalow, 1881; William March, 1882 ; J. H. Kelley, 1883.

Sheriffs.—George P. Terry, appointed by the Legislature 1839, and John C. Waldo his Deputy; David Klinger, October, 1839; H. P. Rowan, 1841; John P. Miller, 1843; Eli Brown, 1847 ; James Boyles, 1849: Thomas H. Keys, 1851; Andrew D. Perry, 1855; Charles G. Cleland, 1859; B. F. Korner, 1863; W. R. Ballinger, 1867; Alonzo Starr, 1871; R. C. Teeters, 1875; Norman Scott, 1877; John Shill, 1877 ; John Kruger, 1880.

School Examiners.—Benjamin Ganson, 1841; James Etnbree, 1844 ; Eli Brown, 1845; Jeremiah Haws, 1847 (some uncertainty here); W. S. Huddleston, 1855; Alonzo Starr, 1856; W. S. Huddleston, 1856; G. T. Wickersham, 1858; W. S. Huddleston, 1861; A. W. Reynolds, 1865; G. T. Wickershara, 1866 ; G. W. Klinger, 1868; Simon Weyand, 1869 ; Charles W. Wickersham, 1875; Robert L. Marshraan, 1876; William E. Netherton, 1879.

Surveyors.—Isaac Olds, 1839; William M. Lemon, 1839; Julius Huff, 1846; Carter D. Hathaway, 1847; A. D. Moore, 1850; R. T. Parkhurst, 1853; J. 0. Parratt, 1854; D. H. Hawes, 1855; Daniel Agnew, 1861; D. H. Hawes, 1863; Russel Allen, 1864 ; J. G. Boyles, 1868 ; J. A. Whipple, 1873; L. J.Noe, 1874; D. H. Hawes, 1874; G. W. Byers, 1875; W. B. Burson, 1877; John G. Boyles, 1878; Jerome T. Bruce, 1880. This is not a perfect list of Surveyors. .

County Assessors.—Michael Munson, 1839; Samuel Burson, 1840; Henry P. Rowan, 1841 ; William Fisher, 1841; William M. Lemon, 1842; Jesse Hodges, 1843; Eli Brown, 1845; John Steiner, 1847 ; A. J. Moore, 1849; Henry Krouse, 1852; Job J. Holmes, 1853. About this time the assessment was made by townships.

County Agents.—John C. Waldo, 1839; Henry P. Rowan, 1842 ; G. P. Terry, 1843; Jeremiah Hawes, 1848; T. F. Stokes, 1851. Soon after this, the office was merged in with that of the Treasurer.

Three Per Cent Commissioners.—Comfort Olds, 1839 ; W. S. Whitson, 1842; David Klinger, 1843; Eli Brown, 1844 (some uncertainty here); J. A. Rowland, 1851. Soon afterward the office was abolished. Coroners.—Moses Holmes, 1839; Moses Cleveland, 1840; Moses Holmes, 1841; Luke Hacket, 1841; William N. Wall, 1843; Hampton W. Hornbeck, 1845; George S. Phillips, 1848; James Gill, 1852; Jacob N. Little, 1864; Asa M. Pearson, 1866; G. W. Thompson, 1874 ;' Thomas B. Hedges, 1878.

Representatives.—John B. Wilson, 1839; William Coon, 1841; Ira Brown, 1842: Samuel Decker, John M. Cowan, Felix B. Thomas, 1852; John Reese (only a partial list can be given), John P. Barnett; George Burson, 1876; George W. Peters, 1883.

State Senators.—Harper Hunt, 1841; Thomas Lyon, 1842 ; George W. Baker, of Cass, 1849-52; W. C. Barnett, of Pulaski, 1852-56; Charles D. Murray, of Howard, 1856-60 ; Richard P. De Hart, of Cass, 1860-62; John Davis, of Cass, 1862-64; N. P. Richmond, of Howard,' 1864—68. (Only a partial list can be given.)

Circuit Judges.—Isaac Naylor, 1840; Samuel C. Sample, 1841; John W. Wright, 1842; Horace P. Biddle, 1847 ; Robert H. Milroy,' 1852; Thomas S. Stanfield, 1853; A. G. Deavitt, 1856; Elisha Egbert 1857; Andrew L. Osborne, 1858; Thomas S. Stanfield, 1871; Edwin P. Hammond, 1873; Bernard B. Dailey, 1875; John H. Gould, 1876 ; Dudley H. Chase, 1877 ; Elisha T. Field, 1881.

Associate Judges.—Andrew Keys and Elijah T. Oliver, 1839; Samuel Ward and Ephraim Dukes, 1846. In 1853, the office was abolished.

Probate Judges.—Benjamin T. Ballinger, 1839; Daniel G. Hathaway, 1846; Ira Brown. 1850. In 1853, the office was abolished, the Judge of the Common Pleas Court assuming jurisdiction of probate matters.

Common Pleas Judges.—The office was created in 1853, and Hugh Miller became the first Judge; Carter D. Hathaway, 1857; William C. Talcott, 1861; Hiram A. Gillett, 1869; D. P. Baldwin, 1871; John Mitchell, 1873. In 1873, the office was abolished.

Politics.—The political features of the county may be summed up in few words. It has been stated frequently, and is so understood and maintained in the county, that at no time in the past has the opposition to the Democracy succeeded in carrying an election; but when the tally sheets, which are yet in existence, though yellow and faded by the passage of time, are examined, a different tale is told. That the county, even from its organization, in 1839, when out in full strength, may have been Democratic, does not alter the fact that at two general elections the Democratic candidates have been retired by small majorities. On the other hand, it is not known that the full Democratic strength was not out. Still, owing to the small majorities which the successful candidates received, there are serious doubts whether the Whigs, in view of superior numerical strength, were justly entitled to their victories. Reference is made here to the general ticket, and not to exceptional candidates who have been elevated by friendly Democratic votes. At the gubernatorial election in August, 1840, when the polls were opened in but two townships' in the county, and when the enthusiasm of the Whigs over the approaching Presidential campaign was deep and universal, the county went Whig by the following small majority :

Notwithstanding the fact that the polls were opened in but two of the four townships, nearly the full strength of the county was out, the citizens of White Post and Tippecanoe voting in Beavjer and Monroe. In November, 1840, the Democratic majority was nine, though a lighter vote was polled than in August. In 1841, the Democratic majority ran from six to fourteen, and in 1842, to still higher figures. But in 1843, at the August election, there came a change.

The growth of anti-slavery sentiment in Pulaski County was slow, though there were a few who had taken the position of a limitation of slave territory from the start, and who had been joined by others as the years went by until the question of the annexation of Texas became the leading political topic. These scattered individuals had not sufficient numerical strength to place a ticket in the field, and were obliged to content themselves with occasional love feasts over the moral status of the slavery question. The extraordinary scenes that were transpiring in Congress were not unknown to the citizens of the county, and when at last the Wilmot Proviso was introduced to forever prohibit slavery in any of the territory acquired from Mexico, a warm sentiment was kindled in the county which led to various public meetings and the rapid growth of anti-slavery opinion. At last the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, in 1850, sowed the seed from which grew the Republican party. There was intense feeling in the county during the war of 1861—65, but the Democrats easily gained every victory. The National Republican movement swept the county in 1872 by a large majority. The " Greenback " movement is the only other one of note. This party owed its origin to the hard times growing out of the depreciation of values from the close of the war until the resumption of specie payments in 1879. Some 241 votes have been polled for this party. The following continuous exhibit shows the vote by townships at every Presidential election since the organization of the county:


Counties of White and Pulaski, Indiana: Historical and biographical By Weston Arthur Goodspeed, F.A. Battey & Co



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