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This county was named, at the request of the early settlers, after the county in North Carolina, from which they emigrated. The surface of the county is nearly level, and portions of it are, at times, wet and marshy, so that it would seem to be low, though, in reality, it is about as high as any land in the State, for in or near Randolph county the head waters of the Big Miami, Whitewater, Blue river, White river, the Mississinewa, the Solamonie, Wabash, and St. Mary's, all running in different directions, take their rise." There are no " barrens," and but few prairies (all of which are wet), in the county. The timber is of an average quality, the soil well adapted to wheat and corn, oats, etc. Winchester, the county seat, is located in the centre of the county. It is the largest town, and is quite prosperous, having fair public improvements, good schools, churches, etc. Union city is located on the eastern border of the county, and is bisected by the State line dividing Indiana and Ohio. Both of these towns have good railroad facilities, and increasing commercial interests.
The first white settlers in what became Randolph County were Thomas W. and Anne Parker and their family, Quakers from Carolina, who arrived in 1814. The Indiana General Assembly authorized the formation of Randolph County in 1818, naming it for the North Carolina, home of many of the area’s Quaker settlers. The county’s government was organized in August 1818 in the cabin of Benjamin Cox, a prominent Quaker who was a native of Randolph County, North Carolina. Five early settlers donated land for a county seat in 1818. Winchester, almost certainly named for Winchester, Virginia, was platted upon the site the same year and has remained the county seat for nearly two centuries. The Indiana General Assembly authorized the formation of Randolph County from Wayne County in January 1818 to take effect in August 1818.
Winchester is the County Seat. First settled in 1819, by 1849 it contained 151 houses, of which 11 were brick, with a population of about 750.
Randolph County is divided into 11 Civil Townships as follows: Franklin, Green, Greensfork, Jackson, Monroe, Stoney Creek, Union, Ward, Washington, Wayne, and White River; Nettle Creek and West River Townships were combined to form Union Township.
Did you know that Delaware County was created 26 January 1827 from Randolph County.
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