ST. JOSEPH COUNTY IN THE WAR
RESPONSE TO THE CALL
REMEMBER BUENA VISTA



    In 1860, when some of the Southern leaders threatened a dissolution of the Union in the event of the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency, there were very few men in the North who believed they were in earnest. In consequence of the division in the Democratic party, the election of Lincoln was an easy matter. In pursuance of their threat, one after another of the Southern States to the number of twelve passed acts of secession, and organized an independent government under the name of the "Confederate States of America."
    Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office as President of the United States on the 4th of March, 1861, and immediately took steps to strengthen the Government. Already the rebels were making preparations for the capture of Fort Sumter, then occupied by the gallant Major Anderson and a handful of men. On the 12th day of April, after first demanding its surrender, the rebels opened fire upon the fort. The first shot sent an electric thrill through every loyal heart in the North, and immediately the cry went up for vengeance. The news of the fall of Sumter was received on Sunday morning, April 14. On that day the loyal people of the United States abandoned the field of argument and ceased to discuss measures and plans for the peaceable restoration of the national authority in the revolted States, and with singular unanimity and determination accepted the issue of war as the only means left to save and perpetuate the National existence and the priceless liberties so long enjoyed
.

    On the morning of the 15th the telegraph bore the following message from
Governor Morton to President Lincoln at Washington :

Executive Department of Indiana,
Indianapolis, April 15,1861.
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United, States:
On behalf of the State of Indiana I tender to you, for the defense of the Nation,
and to uphold the authority of the Government, ten thousand men.

    The same day the President issued his proclamation calling for the militia of the several States of the Union, to the number of seventy five thousand, in order to suppress the Rebellion and cause the laws to be duly executed. The quota of Indiana was subsequently fixed by the Secretary of War at six regiments of infantry, or riflemen, comprising, in officers and men, 4,683, to serve for a period of three months unless sooner discharged. Instructions were issued in general orders by the Adjutant General of the State, for the formation of companies; the several military departments were speedily organized for business, and all available measures taken to fill the quota with the least possible delay.    In the meantime, every class of the community manifested the wildest enthusiasm and most intense excitement.    Public meetings to facilitate the formation of companies, and  to give expression to the sentiments of the people touching their duty in the pending crisis, were held in every city, town and neighborhood, and an ardent and unquenchable military spirit was at once aroused that bid fair to embrace in its sweep every able bodied man in the State. The day after the call was made five hundred men were in camp, and the Governor, apprehensive (as was the whole country at the time) that an effort would be made by the rebels to take possession of the Federal capital, proposed to send forward half a regiment if required, although unable to furnish the necessary arms and equipment. Receiving no reply to this offer from the War Department, it was renewed the day following, and the number increased to one thousand men. By the 19th, three days after the call, there were 2,400 men in camp, and arrivals continued by every train. So rapidly did volunteering proceed, in less than seven days more than 12,000 men, or nearly three times the quota required, had been tendered. Contests to secure the acceptance of companies were earnest and frequent. The question was not "Who will go?" but, "Who will be allowed to go?" In many cases companies came forward without orders, or rather in defiance of orders, in the hope that they could be received, or that a second call would at once be made, and frequently their enlistment rolls contained twice, and even thrice, the number of names required. Hundreds who were "unable to get into companies at home, came singly and in squads to the general rendezvous on their own responsibility, and,  by combining with others in like condition, and with fragments of companies having a surplus, formed new companies  and joined in the clamor  for acceptance. The response was as gratifying as it was  universal, and left no doubt as to the entire and lasting devotion of Indiana to the fortunes of the Union. Like the sun-light the " war fever " permeated every locality. The " Old Flag " at once became sacred and was proudly displayed in every breeze from the highest peaks of churches, school-houses and private dwellings. The presentation of a stand of National colors by patriotic ladies to each company was rarely omitted, and, wherever practicable, brass bands were provided to escort them to the general camp.
    The excitement in South "Bend, Mishawaka, and, in fact, all parts of the county was intense. Says a local writer: "South Carolina has courted the glory of lighting the torch of civil war. Forbear­ance on the part of the Government almost to the extreme of humiliation, has been met with arrogance and insult; until, unable to force the United States into any act of bloodshed and violence which they could make a pretext for their act, they have most wickedly precipitated the Republic into war. They have opened the fire of their murderous batteries upon the flag which Washington loved, and which Jackson, Scott and Taylor illuminated with so many glorious triumphs, a parricidal act as infamous as the ruffian who aims a death-blow at the mother who has borne and nurtured him. They have trampled the Constitution and the laws which they have sworn to support, under their feet, and they avow their purpose to overthrow the Government which they can no longer rule, by the force and power of arms. But the awakened and bounding patriotism of the American people proves that they have reckoned without their host. Henceforth it is evident that all party divisions are to be forgotten. The question whether our Government has a right to exist towers above all others. The only issue is to be between patriots and traitors; and all men must range themselves under the reptile flag of disunion, or the resplendent stars and stripes, every thread of which has been consecrated by the blood of heroes who lived and died under its folds. There can be no neutrals in this struggle. He who is not for the American Union, American Constitution and the American Flag, against treason and rebellion, against perfidy and revolution, against the architects of ruin and the inaugurators of civil war, are in sympathy with the traitors, and will be known as the Cow-Boys of 1861, who, like the Cow-Boys of the Revolution, will be regarded in history as lower than the enemies whom they aided and abetted. While, with all loyal men, the motto, 'God and our country,' will unite them as with one heart and soul, for the stern duties of the impending contest."
    On Monday night, April 15, 1861, on a few hours' notice, the court house at South Bend was crowded with a mass of voters, irrespective of party, who hailed this opportunity of showing their determination to stand by the Government, the Union and the Constitution. John A. Hendricks, president, A. E. Drapier, editor of the Forum, and Judge Robertson, were made vice presidents; E. E. Ames, E. R. Farnum and W. H. Drapier, secretaries. Boyne's Cornet Band played the soul stirring National airs which our fathers loved so well. Speeches were made eliciting the heartiest' applause, by Messrs. Hendricks, Colfax, Drapier, Miller, George, Anderson, Lynch and Revs. Reed and Moore. A Volunteer Aid Association was organized to equip the company, to be formed at once, and to assist in the support of their families while they were absent, and a committee to solicit subscriptions.
    At Mishawaka, the same night, a large and enthusiastic meeting was held, presided over by George Milburn. Patriotic speeches were made by Milburn, Niles, Merrifield, Cowles, Hurlbut, Butter worth, Thomas, Fuller, Judson and Minzie.
    A second meeting was held at South Bend on Friday evening, April 19, at which the following committees were appointed to solicit and collect subscriptions to aid in forming and equipping volunteer companies, and to provide for the families of such volunteers as may need assistance:

Green Township-Jackson Green, Daniel Green, Thomas L. Holloway.
Clay.-T. P. Bulla, G. E. Benton, Jacob Eaton.
German.-J. F. Ullery, Reuben Dunn, A. J. Hatfield.
Olive.-J. H. Service, T. J. Garoutte, John Reynolds.
Warren.-J. E. Mikesell, Goble Brown, William Crann.
Liberty.-G. H. Loring, C W. M. Stevens, Samuel Loring.
Union.-John Jackson, John Moon, C. J. Turner.
Centre.-Edwin Picket!, D. R. Leeper, John Rush.

    The foregoing committees were instructed to report their proceedings to the Disbursing Committee of Portage township, consisting of the following named persons: Isaac Ford, E.V. Clark, Joseph H. Massey, S. L. Cottrell, J. T. Liudsey, J. W. Chess and Caspar Rochstroch.
    On Monday, April 23, a meeting was held at the court-house, presided over by Norman Eddy, which resolved to forthwith form a military organization composed of citizens over the age of forty five years, to arm themselves, and be drilled and held in readiness for duty. In a few minutes upward of 80 names were obtained to the pledge. The company at once elected their officers, as follows: S. L. Cottrell, Captain; Jacob Hardman, First Lieutenant; E. C. Johnson, Second Lieutenant; A. A. Webster, Third Lieutenant. The subordinate officers were then appointed. In the afternoon the company paraded for drill, and marched to the depot, where they saluted the Elkhart Volunteers, who were on the train bound to Indianapolis. This movement was headed by the best men in South Bend, and such was the ardor and enthusiasm manifested, that a number of the most venerable citizens, those who served in the war of 1812 and the various Indian wars, pressed forward with eagerness to join the ranks and tender their services again to their country.
    The first company was soon raised in response to the call of the President and Governor, and left South Bend for the rendezvous at Indianapolis on Friday, April 19, 1861, being the first volunteer company from Northern Indiana to take up its line of march. An immense crowd assembled at the depot, and eloquent and patriotic speeches were made by Rev. J. C. Reed and Schuyler Colfax. Many were the tears shed by fond mothers  and loving wives as they bid farewell to the loved ones whom they might never press to their
hearts again.    But there was not one of all that number who would have had any one of the departing boys turn back.
    For four long years the organization of new companies and enlistment of men for old companies, whose ranks had been decimated by disease and rebel bullets, was carried on. Gray headed men who had almost reached three-score years and ten, and boys not yet out of their teens, went to the camp, and through the most urgent solicitation, were accepted and sworn into the service. Neither age nor youth kept them back, and when rejected from either cause, or from physical inability, would insist on being received, believing themselves as capable of doing a soldier's duty as thousands who had already gone. More than two thousand of as brave men as ever handled a musket or drew a sword went out from this county, many, very many, never to return again. If one goes to the battle-fields of the South, he will see how these fell at Donelson, Shiloh, Mission Ridge, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Atlanta, Vickshurg, and other places, those who were the pride of fond fathers, loving mothers, and unselfish, devoted wives. He will see them dropping off, one by one, and often, without coffin or burial shroud, thrown into the cold ground, there to await the resurrection morn, and the re-union upon the other side of the River of Death. In many a home throughout the county will be found the vacant chair, and where you will see the mournful look of those ever watching for one that cometh not. Upon the streets, day by day, will be met those wearing sleeveless garments, or walking in a way that tells too plainly the sound of the footfall is not made by flesh and blood. Inquire the reason and it will be learned that while charging the enemies' lines at Vicksburg, Skiloh, or elsewhere, a cannon ball deprived them of a limb. But no word of complaint is heard, the only regret expressed being that it was not possible to do more for their country.
    The first company, as already stated, to go from this county to the tented field left South Bend in less than one week after the surrender of Port Sumter. It became part of the 9th Regiment Indiana Volunteers, the muster roll of which will be found elsewhere in this work, accompanied by a historical sketch of the regiment. Among other regiments formed in part of St. Joseph county men were the 15th, 29th, 35th, 48th, 73d, 87th, 99th, 128th, 138th and 155th Infantry, 4th and 12th Cavalry and 21st Battery, historical sketches of which are given where a full company is represented from the county. In the perusal of these sketches it will be seen that one and all bore an honorable part. The honor of Indiana was felt to be at stake by these brave men. The stigma cast upon the State by reason of the course of one of its regiments at the battle of Buena


    In 1860, when some of the Southern leaders threatened a disso­lution of the Union in the event of the election of Abraham Lin­coln to the Presidency, there were very few men in the North who believed they were in earnest. In consequence of the division in the Democratic party, the election of Lincoln was an easy matter. In pursuance of their threat, one after another of the Southern States to the number of twelve passed acts of secession, and organ­ized an independent government under the name of the "Confed­erate States of America."
    Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office as President of the United States on the 4th of March, 1861, and immediately took steps to strengthen the Government. Already the rebels were making preparations for the capture of Fort Sumter, then occupied by the gallant Major Anderson and a handful of men. On the 12th day of April, after first demanding its surrender, the rebels opened fire upon the fort. The first shot sent an electric thrill through every loyal heart in the North, and immediately the cry went up for vengeance. The news of the fall of Sumter was received on Sunday morning, April 14. On that day the loyal people of the United States abandoned the field of argument and ceased to dis­cuss measures and plans for the peaceable restoration of the national authority in the revolted States, and with singular unanimity and determination accepted the issue of war as the only means left to save and perpetuate the National existence and the priceless liber­ties so long enjoyed
.

    On the morning of the 15th the telegraph bore the following message from
Governor Morton to President Lincoln at Wash­ington :

Executive Department of Indiana,
Indianapolis, April 15,1861.
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United, States:
On behalf of the State of Indiana I tender to you, for the defense of the Na­tion,
and to uphold the authority of the Government, ten thousand men.

    The same day the President issued his proclamation calling for the militia of the several States of the Union, to the number of seventy-five thousand, in order to suppress the Rebellion and cause the laws to be duly executed.The quota of Indiana was subse­quently fixed by the Secretary of War at six regiments of infantry, or riflemen, comprising, in officers and men, 4,683, to serve for a period of three months unless sooner discharged. Instructions were issued in general orders by the Adjutant-General of the State, for the formation of companies; the several military departments were speedily organized for business, and all available measures taken to fill the quota with the least possible delay.    In the mean­time, every class of «ithe community manifested the wildest enthu­siasm and most intense excitement.    Public meetings to facilitate the formation of companies, and  to give expression to the senti­ments of the people touching their duty in the pending crisis, were held in every city, town and neighborhood, and an ardent and un­quenchable military spirit was at once aroused that bid fair to embrace in its sweep every able-bodied man in the State.The day after the call was made five hundred men were in camp, and the Governor, apprehensive (as was the whole country at the time) that an effort would be made by the rebels to take possession of the Fed­eral capital, proposed to send forward half a regiment if required, although unable to furnish the necessary arms and equipments. Receiving no reply to this offer from the War Department, it was renewed the day following, and the number increased to one thou­sand men. By the 19th—three days after the call—there were 2,400 men in camp, and arrivals continued by every train. So rapidly did volunteering proceed, in less than seven days more than 12,000 men, or nearly three times the quota required, had been tendered. Contests to secure the acceptance of companies were earnest and frequent. The question was not "Who will go?" but, "Who will be allowed to go?" In many cases companies came forward with­out orders, or rather in defiance of orders, in the hope that they could be received, or that a second call would at once be made, and frequently their enlistment rolls contained twice, and even thrice, the number of names required. Hundreds who were "unable to get into companies at home, came singly and in squads to the general rendezvous on their own responsibility, and,  by combining with others in like condition, and with fragments of companies having a surplus, formed new companies  and joined in the clamor  for acceptance. The response was as gratifying as it was  universal, and left no doubt as to the entire and lasting devotion of Indiana to the fortunes of the Union. Like the sun-light the " war fever " permeated every locality. The " Old Flag " at once became sacred and was proudly displayed in every breeze from the highest peaks of churches, school-houses and private dwellings. The presenta­tion of a stand of National colors by patriotic ladies to each com­pany was rarely omitted, and, wherever practicable, brass bands were provided to escort them to the general camp.
    The excitement in South "Bend, Mishawaka, and, in fact, all parts of the county was intense. Says a local writer: "South Carolina has courted the glory of lighting the torch of civil war. Forbear­ance on the part of the Government almost to the extreme of hu­miliation, has been met with arrogance and insult; until, unable to force the United States into any act of bloodshed and violence which they could make a pretext for their act, they have most wickedly precipitated the Republic into war. They have opened the fire of their murderous batteries upon the flag which Washing­ton loved, and which Jackson, Scott and Taylor illuminated with so many glorious trium—a parricidal act as infamous as the ruffian who aims a death-blow at the mother who has borne and nurtured him. They have trampled the Constitution and the laws which they have sworn to support, under their feet, and they avow their purpose to overthrow the Government which they can no longer rule, by the force and power of arms. But the awakened and bounding patriotism of the American people proves that they have reckoned without their host. Henceforth it is evident that all party divisions are to be forgotten. The question whether our Gov­ernment has a right to exist towers above all others. The only issue is to be between patriots and traitors; and all men must range themselves under the reptile flag of disunion, or the resplendent stars and stripes, every thread of which has been consecrated by the blood of heroes who lived and died under its folds. There can be no neutrals in this struggle. He who is not for the American Union, American Constitution and the American Flag, against treason and rebellion, against perfidy and revolution, against the architects of ruin and the inaugurators of civil war, are in sym­pathy with the traitors, and will be known as the Cow-Boys of 1861, who, like the Cow-Boys of the Revolution, will be regarded in his­tory as lower than the enemies whom they aided and abetted. While, with all loyal men, the motto, 'God and our country,' will unite them as with one heart and soul, for the stern duties of the impending contest."
    On Monday night, April 15, 1861, on a few hours' notice, the court house at South Bend was crowded with a mass of voters, irrespective of party, who hailed this opportunity of showing their determination to stand by the Government, the Union and the Con­stitution. John A. Hendricks, president, A. E. Drapier, editor of the Forum, and Judge Robertson, were made vice-presidents; E. E. Ames, E. R. Farnum and W. H. Drapier, secretaries. Boyne's Cornet Band played the soul-stirring National airs which our fathers loved so well. Speeches were made eliciting the heartiest' applause, by Messrs. Hendricks, Colfax, Drapier, Miller, George, Anderson, Lynch and Revs. Reed and Moore. A Volunteer Aid Association was organized to equip the company, to be formed at once, and to assist in the support of their families while they were absent, and a committee to solicit subscriptions.
    At Mishawaka, the same night, a large and enthusiastic meeting was held, presided over by George Milburn. Patriotic speeches were made by Milburn, Niles, Merrifield, Cowles, Hurlbut, But-terworth, Thomas, Fuller, Judson and Minzie.
    A second meeting was held at South Bend on Friday evening, April 19, at which the following committees were appointed to solicit and collect subscriptions to aid in forming and equipping volunteer companies, and to provide for the families of such volunteers as may need assistance:
Green Township.—Jackson G-reeu, Daniel Green, Thomas L. Holloway.
Clay.—T. P. Bulla, G. E. Benton, Jacob Eaton.
German.—J. F. Ullery, Reuben Dunn, A. J. Hatfield.
Olive.—J. H. Service, T. J. Garoutte, John Reynolds.
Warren.—J. E. Mikesell, Goble Brown, William Crann.
Liberty.—G. H. Loring, C W. M. Stevens, Samuel Loring.
Union.—John Jackson, John Moon, C. J. Turner.
Centre.—Edwin Picket!, D. R. Leeper, John Rush.
    The foregoing committees were instructed to report their proceedings to the Disbursing Committee of Portage township, con­sisting of the following named persons: Isaac Ford, E.V.Clark, Joseph H. Massey, S. L. Cottrell, J. T. Liudsey, J. W. Chess and Caspar Rochstroch.
    On Monday, April 23, a meeting was held at the court-house, presided over by Norman Eddy, which resolved to forthwith form a military organization composed of citizens over the age of forty-five years, to arm themselves, and be drilled and held in readiness for duty. In a few minutes upward of 80 names were obtained to the pledge. The company at once elected their officers, as follows: S. L. Cottrell, Captain; Jacob Hardman, First Lieutenant; E. C. Johnson, Second Lieutenant; A. A. Webster, Third Lieutenant. The subordinate officers were then appointed. In the afternoon the company paraded for drill, and marched to the depot, where they saluted the Elkhart Volunteers, who were on the train bound to Indiauapolis. This movement was headed by the best men in South Bend, and such was the ardor and enthusiasm manifested, that a number.of the most venerable citizens, those who served in the war of 1812 and the various Indian wars, pressed forward with eager­ness to join the ranks and tender their services again to their country.
    The first company was soon raised in response to the call of the President and Governor, and left South Bend for the rendezvous at Indianapolis on Friday, April 19, 1861, being the first volunteer company from Northern Indiana to take up its line of march. An immense crowd assembled at the depot, and eloquent and patriotic speeches were made by Rev. J. C. Reed and Schuyler Colfax. Many were the tears shed by fond mothers  and loving wives as they bid farewell to the loved ones whom they might never press to their
hearts again.    But there was not one of all that number who would have had any one of the departing boys turn back.
    For four long years the organization of new companies and enlistment of men for old companies, whose ranks had been deci­mated by disease and rebel bullets, was carried on. G-ray-headed men who had almost reached three-score years and ten, and boys not yet out of their teens, went to the camp, and through the most urgent solicitation, were accepted and sworn into the service. Neither age nor youth kept them back, and when rejected from either cause, or from physical inability, would insist on being received, believing themselves as capable of doing a soldier's duty as thousands who had already gone. More than two thousand of as brave men as ever handled a musket or drew a sword went out from this county, many, very many, never to return again. If one goes to the battle-fields of the South, he will see how these fell at Donelson, Shiloh, Mission Ridge, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Atlanta, Yickshurg, and other places, those who were the pride of fond fathers, loving mothers, and unselfish, devoted wives. He will see them dropping off, one by one, and often, without coffin or burial shroud, thrown into the cold ground, there to await the resurrection morn, and the re-union upon the other side of the River of Death. In many a home throughout the county will be found the vacant chair, and where you will see the mourn­ful look of those ever watching for one that cometh not. Upon the streets, day by day, will be met those wearing sleeveless garments, or walking in a way that tells too plainly the sound of the footfall is not made by flesh and blood. Inquire the reason and it will be learned that while charging the enemies' lines at Vicksburg, Skiloh, or elsewhere, a cannon ball deprived them of a limb. But no word of complaint is heard, the only regret expressed being that it was not possible to do more for their country.
    The first company, as already stated, to go from this county to the tented field left South Bend in less than one week after the surrender of Port Sumter. It became part of the 9th Regiment Indiana Volunteers, the muster roll of which will be found else­where in this work, accompanied by a historical sketch of the regi­ment. Among other regiments formed in part of St. Joseph county men were the 15th, 29th, 35th, 48th, 73d, 87th, 99th, 128th, 138th and 155th Infantry, 4th and 12th Cavalry and 21st Battery, historical sketches of which are given where a full company is represented from the county. In the perusal of these sketches it will be seen that one and all bore an honorable part. The honor of Indiana was felt to be at stake by these brave men. The stigma cast upon the State by reason of the course of one of its regiments at the battle of Buena Vista was to he wiped out in blood. In one of the battles, a Captain in the 10th Indiana Regiment placed himself at the head of his company and said, "Remember Buena Vista, boys. There's a stain upon our battle shield that must be wiped out to-day."   This incident was taken as a theme for a poem by Lieutenant A. B. Miller, of the 21st Battery, which reads as follows:
Remember Buena Vista!
Aye, Captain, that we will; The world shall know there's brave men left
In Indiana still. The world shall know there's willing hearts,
And willing hands also,    To wipe from off our battle shield
The stain of Mexico.
Remember Buena Vista!
Yes, Captain, lead us on, Into the thickest of the fight:
We'll show what can be done. Although the foemen double us,
Yet we will let them know That Hoosier boys have not forgot
The stain of Mexico.
We were thinking of it, Captain
(It was only yesterday), That a little skirmish now and then
Would not wash that stain away; But there must be a victory,
Glorious and grand, you know, To wash from off our battle shield
The stain of Mexico.
Now, Captain, lead us on,
And see what manly stuff There is in our rough natures—
We're Hoosiers, that's enough. We're Hoosiers, that's enough for us,
As all the world will know; When they see how tiger like we fight,
They'll not think of Mexico.
Well, the fight is over, Captain,'
And we have not fought in vain; Many a rebel over there
Will not see home again. My " Enfield " did her "duty well,
Laid many a foemen low, For I had not forgotten
The stain of Mexico.
I drew the bead on many forms
That I had known of old, And saw them drop down in their tracks
All bloody, stark and cold. It brought the tears into my eyes
To see them falling so, But somehow I could not forget
The stain of Mexico.
And, Captain, when you led us up
Before the rebel rank, Each soldier singled out his man
And fired his shot, point-blank. The rebels fell beneath our fire,
In a way that wasn't slow; With rebel blood we washed away
That stain of Mexico.
There are many hearts down yonder,
In sunny Southern homes, Will mourn the loss of loved ones,
With bitter tears and groans. But it'll be the same up North,
For here lies friend as well as foe. Thank God! we've washed away at last
That stain of Mexico.

"While the brave boys in the field were doing their whole duty, the patriotic men and women at home were not idle. Each and every one not only felt it a duty, but a blessed privilege, to render all the aid in their power to the families of the soldiers. During the four years of the war but little actual suffering was experienced by any at home on account of the absence of their natural protectors, who .were serving their country. Fairs and festivals were held for the purpose of obtaining sanitary supplies for those in the field, and Soldiers' Aid Societies were continually investigating and relieving the wants of the needy at home
:

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