Genealogy Trails

Sullivan County, Indiana
Biographies


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    Moses H. Gregg, well known in farming circles of Haddon township, Sullivan county, is a native of this township, where he was born September 20, 1839, three miles south of Carlisle, Indiana, a son of Elijah and Nancy (Pell) Gregg.  The father was born in North Carolina in 1800, and died in 1876. The mother was born in Virginia and married in that state.  They drove overland to Wayne county, Indiana, where they located for a while, but later removed to Sullivan county, locating south of Carlisle, where they remained until their death.  Elijah Gregg was a Republican and a public-spirited citizen, who always tilled the soil for his livelihood.  He owned one hundred and eight acres at the time of his death.  The children born to him were as follows:  Eveline, deceased; William, residing in Montana; Henry, of Haddon township; Lott B., deceased; Galvin, of Montana; Oliver P., of Montana; Moses H., of this notice; Elijah, of Montana; Milton, residing in the west.
    Moses H., the seventh child in the family of Elijah and Nancy (Pell) Gregg, farmed with his father until thirty-five years of age, and then began to farm independently, continuing until the present time.  He has chosen to live the life of a bachelor and farms his forty-acre farm.  Politically, he is a believer in the principles of the Republican party.  He is thoroughgoing and methodical in all he undertakes, as can be observed by an inspection of his well cultivated fields.

    Frank B. Ridgway, farmer and stock raiser, whose excellent farm property is situated in Haddon township, Sullivan county, is a native of Widner township, Knox county, Indiana, where he was born February 12, 1862.  He is the son of John H. and Rachel (Watson) Ridgway.  The father was born in Kentucky and the mother in Sullivan county, Indiana, where they were united in marriage.  They resided in Knox county for a long term of years, then removed to a section south of Carlisle, where they spent the remainder of their lives.  The father was a successful farmer.  Politically, he favored the Democratic party, and he held the office of assessor for one year.  The children born to John H. Ridgway and wife were as follows:  Frank B., Hester, Benjamin (deceased), William and Minnie (twins); William is deceased and Minnie is the wife of Harry Shaver, of Kansas, Illinois; Bert (deceased), and two who died in infancy.
    Frank B. Ridgway was reared on his father’s farm and began working for himself at the age of twenty-one years at farm labor and has been engaged in such work ever since.  His farming operations have always been carried on within Haddon township, where he now owns a well improved farm of one hundred and twenty acres, upon which he lives.  This place is situated four miles to the south of Carlisle.  Both grain and stock raising are methodically carried on here by Mr. Ridgway, and he raises and feeds from four to six carloads of stock per annum.  His farm gives evidence in every part of being one conducted by a man who thoroughly understands his business.  Politically he affiliates with the Democratic party.
    February 22, 1883, Mr. Ridgway was married to Anna (Wortman) Pearce, who was born in Haddon township, a daughter of Philip G. Wortman, a farmer of this section.  Mrs. Ridgway’s father was born in Wayne county, Indiana, and his wife, Nancy Gregg, was born in Patrick county, Virginia, September 16, 1822.  She came with her parents to Hendricks county, Indiana, when young.  Philip Wortman came to Haddon township with his mother, his father being dead at that time.  Philip always followed farming pursuits, in which he was very successful.  He served as a private soldier at the time of the Civil war, in Company D, Twenty-first Indiana Regiment.
    Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Frank B. Ridgway, as follows:  Mabel, born December, 1883, wife of Henry Hale, of Haddon townhip; Rush W., unmarried and at home; one who died in infancy; Rachel, deceased; and Ivin.  Rush was graduated from Carlisle high school with the class of 1906, after which he returned to the farm, being thoroughly equipped for a better understanding of agriculture or any other vocation he may later select.

    David C. Wortman, one of Haddon township’s worthy and enterprising citizens, follows farming, and is also connected with the sawmilling business, as well as threshing.  He was born February 20, 1845, in Gill township, Sullivan county, Indiana, a son of John C. and Alvira (Gregg) Wortman.  The father was a native of Ohio, born July 1, 1813, and died January 16, 1899, in Haddon township.  The mother was a native of Virginia.  This worthy couple were numbered among the pioneers of Sullivan county.  Their children were as follows:  John P., deceased; Mary C., deceased; Nancy, wife of James O’Haver, residing in Haddon township; David C., of this sketch; Julia A., wife of Alonzo Colton, of Haddon township; William C., deceased; James Martin, residing with his brother David C.; Emeline, deceased; Elizabeth, of Oaktown, Knox county, Indiana.
    Reared on the farm and receiving his primary education at the district schools, David C. Wortman continued to reside at home until he reached manhood.  He then started out in life for himself as a farm hand, which occupation he pursued until 1881, when he saw a more independent way of gaining his livelihood, by tilling the soil on his own account.  He purchased forty acres of land, in 1876, where his farm buildings now stand, but did not remove to the place until 1881.  He now owns a splendid farm, consisting of an even one hundred acres of choice land.  Late in the nineties he retired from the activities of his farm life, but still resides there.  In 1888 Mr. Wortman was engaged in the livery business at Oaktown, but at the same time he conducted his farm.  In 1892 he engaged in the saw-mill and grain-threshing business, he superintending the operation of this combined business.  The saw-mill was sold in 1905, at the same time that his threshing machine was sold.  Mr. Wortman has always led the life of a bachelor, his brother James and family having lived with him for the last twenty-seven years.  Politically he affiliates with the Republican party.

    John A. Lisman, who is well known as the farmer of Haddon township who pays especial attention to raising horses, is a native of Scottsville, Haddon township, Sullivan county, Indiana.  He was born January 28, 1864, a son of John Wesley and Margaret (Lovelace) Lisman.  The mother was a native of Kentucky and came to Sullivan county when young.  The father was born near Carlisle.  The grandfather, Andrew Lisman, was born in Germany and came to this country when but a child.  He located near Carlisle and was a well-to-do farmer and reared a large family.  John Wesley Lisman, the father of John A., of this notice, was a carpenter, but worked at farming in his later years.  He performed much work at his trade in New Orleans and Natchez and other southern cities.  He was noted for his integrity and strict honesty of purpose.  Politically he affiliated with the Republican party and had the honor of voting for Abraham Lincoln in his first presidential campaign, in 1860.  John W. Lisman’s father and three of his brothers, were at the battle of Tippecanoe.  The children of John Wesley and Margaret (Lovelace) Lisman were eight in number.  The mother was of the Campbellite religious faith.
    John A. Lisman was born and reared on a farm and had the advantages of a common school education.  His parents died when he was quite young, and he was reared by Simeon Yocum, near Carlisle, with whom he remained from the time he was ten years of age until he was thirty-one.  After reaching his majority Mr. Lisman farmed for Mr. Yocum and subsequently farmed on his brother’s place – Dr. Lisman’s.  He engaged in the horse business, and was the owner of “Old Frank,” “Hambletonian,” which valuable animal died.  He now owns “George,” a grandson of “Sun Rise Prince.”
    Mr. Lisman’s sister, Maggie, kept house for him on his brother’s farm for about five years, after which he returned to the old Lisman homestead, where he has since lived.  In 1905 he replaced the old house with a new and more comfortable cottage and he now owns seventy-seven acres and makes a specialty of raising horses.  Politically Mr. Lisman affiliates with the Republican party.  He was united in marriage November 6, 1899, to Lillie E. Edwards, born in Illinois, and reared in Lawrence county, Indiana.  The date of her birth was March 13, 1875, and her parents were William H. and Rachel (Johnson) Edwards, both of whom are now deceased, dying when she was a small girl.  Mrs. Lisman is a member of the Christian church in Georgetown, Indiana.

    Tilman B. Wolfe, of Haddon township, who was born and reared to agricultural pursuits, is a native of this township, born February 10, 1881, a son of George F. and Margaret (Pifer) Wolfe.  Both of Mr. Wolfe’s parents were natives of the same township in which the son was born.  The father was born May 17, 1856, and is engaged in the hardware business at Oaktown, Knox county, Indiana, and the mother was born in 1859, in the same township as her husband.  The grandfather, Uriah Wolfe, was among the early pioneer band who first effected settlement in Sullivan county.  George F., the father, always followed farming for a living, until February, 1899, when he engaged in the hardware trade at Oaktown, the firm being known as Snapp, Latshaw & Co.  In his political views Mr. Wolfe is a Democrat.  He is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America and Maccabees order.  Both he and his wife are consistent members of the Christian church.  The three children born to them are:  Charles M., residing in Haddon township; Tilman B., of this biographical review; Della B., wife of Melvin Sproatt, residing in Knox county, Indiana.  George F. Wolfe was married a second time to Ollie Heddon, a native of Illinois, who died a few years after their marriage.  Four children were born of this union, and all are deceased except Paul, who is now with his father at Oaktown.  For his third wife Mr. Wolfe married Amanda Owens, a native of Turman township, Sullivan county, who is now his companion at Oaktown.
    Tilman B. Wolfe, son of George F. Wolfe by his first marriage, was reared on his father’s farm and attended the district schools of Haddon township.  He continued to reside at home until about twenty-one years of age, when he began farming for himself and has continued to the present time.  He inherited one hundred acres of land where he lives now, about five years ago, in 1903.  Here he carries on an extensive farm and stockraising business.  Like every true American, Mr. Wolfe has his decided opinions concerning political parties and their platforms.  He supports the Democratic party.
    He was married February 17, 1901, to Maude Kite, born in Honey Creek township, Vigo county, Indiana, August 27, 1880, a daughter of Edwin and Rettie (Pickens) Kite; the latter is deceased.  They moved to Sullivan county about 1895, locating in Haddon township.  The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Wolfe are:  Hershel, Robertine and Russell.

    George Washington Hale – One of the industrious agriculturists of Haddon township, Sullivan county, Indiana, is George W. Hale, who was born July 29, 1843, in Jefferson township, a son of Stephen C. and Ann (Howard) Hale.  The father was born in Virginia in 1810, dying in Jefferson township, this county, in 1885, and the mother was born in Kentucky and died in Jefferson township May 2, 1862.  Both paternal and maternal grandparents were numbered among the first settlers of Jefferson township.  The father and mother of George W. were united in marriage in Jefferson township.  The father always followed farm pursuits and owned one hundred and ninety acres of land at the time of his death.  He was politically a Democrat.  Both he and his good wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal church.  Fourteen children were born of this union, nine of who are still living, as follows:  Mary Ann, widow of Robert Crawford, a resident of Sullivan; George W., of this biography; Rebecca, widow of Michael Goodwin, of Greene county; Martin, of Pleasantville, a merchant; William, residing in Nebraska; Mildred, widow of Simeon Yocum, residing in Carlisle; Amanda, wife of Louis Wilson, of Carlisle; Eliza, wife of Frank Wells, of Jefferson township; S.M., of the same township.
    George W. Hale, of this notice, was reared to farm labor and attended the district schools in common with other boys of the day.  At the age of nineteen years, in the month of August, 1862, he enlisted in Company I, of the Ninety-seventh Indiana Infantry, as a private soldier, serving until June, 1865, when he was honorably discharged at Indianapolis.  He was engaged at the retaking of Jackson, Mississippi, and other battles in the never-to-be-forgotten Civil war.  He was in General Sherman’s command and followed him through the Georgia campaign, and back to Washington, District of Columbia, thence home.  Mr. Hale saw much hardship and exposure, but was fortunate in never receiving a wound.  For his term in the Union army, in common with his comrades-at-arms, he is receiving a small pension from the government.  He is honored with a membership in the Grand Army of the Republic.  After the war had ended he returned to pursue the peaceful vocation of a farmer in Jefferson township, where he continued one year, removing then to Cass township, Sullivan county, where he remained until 1890, at which time he sold his farm, consisting of one hundred and ninety-six acres, and purchased a quarter section of land, upon which he now resides, in Haddon township.  Here he carries on farming and stockraising.  In his political views Mr. Hale is a supporter of the principles of the Democratic party.
    He has been married three times, first on March 27, 1867, to Jane Parks, born in Cass township, Sullivan county, in 1846, and died in 1869.  One daughter was born of this union, Flora, now the wife of W.W. Young, residing in Michigan.  For his second marriage, he chose, about 1870, Sarah Clayton, born in Cass township, Sullivan county, who also died there.  Four children were born of this union:  John T., of Gill township; Charles, of Haddon township; Anna, wife of Frank Shepherd, residing in Jefferson township; Hattie, wife of George Unger.  After the death of his second wife Mr. Hale married, in February, 1883, Cassie Ann (Evans) Parks, who was born in Grant county, Indiana.  One son is the issue by the last union, Henry, born March 6, 1886, married Mabel Ridgway, and lives with his parents.  He was educated at the district schools, after which he was a fireman one year on the Vandalia Railroad and then went to California for a six months’ stay.  He and his father operate the home place together.  Henry Hale is a member of the Masonic Lodge, No. 3, which is the third oldest Masonic lodge in Indiana.

    Owen Jackson Ridgway, whose fine farm house is situated near the thriving town of Carlisle, in Sullivan county, Indiana, was born February 20, 1868, in Haddon township, on Shaker Prairie, a son of Benjamin Wiginton and Mary H. (Hoghland) Ridgway.  The father was born in Kentucky and the mother in the vicinity of Indianapolis.  The grandfather, Jacob Hoghland, and wife, were both born in Ohio.  The grandfather of Mr. Ridgway, Wiginton Ridgway, was born in Kentucky, and became one of the early settlers of Shaker Prairie.  Benjamin Wiginton, the father, was always a farmer.  In politics he voted the Democratic ticket.  Both he and his wife were members of the Christian church.  Their two children were:  Owen Jackson, of this notice, and James T., residing in Haddon township, on Shaker Prairie.  Mr. Ridgway’s mother married twice, her second husband being Samuel Lillie, a native of Gill township, and they are both now deceased.  To this union three children were born:  John W., living in Texas, where he is engaged in farming, and is by trade a blacksmith; Charles, residing in Gill township; Jacob W., now attending college at Purdue.
    His father dying when he was but four years of age, Owen J. Ridgway lived with his mother and stepfather until about twenty years old, when he began farming in Haddon township.  He rotated back and forth between Gill and Haddon townships until September, 1891, when he moved onto the place he now occupies, a mile and a quarter north of Carlisle.  Here he carried on general farming and stockraising.  Mr. Ridgway is the owner of “Duke of Scotland, No. 1140,” a registered Clydesdale stallion, and a fine Spanish jack, called “Teddy.”  He feeds from one to two carloads of hogs annually, mostly of the Poland China breed, and also owns some Black Poll-Angus cattle.  In his political affiliations he votes with the Democratic party.  He carries a membership in the Modern Woodmen of America, belonging to the Carlisle Camp, No. 3332, of this order.
    Mr. Ridgway was married September 4, 1887, to Alfretta King, born in Illinois, and reared in Haddon township.  She is a member of the Christian church and an exemplary Christian.  Six children have come to bless this home circle:  Mary Elizabeth, wife of Charles Seever, has two little daughters, Geneva Lucille and Lois; Fred W., in the seventh grade of Carlisle public school; Lillie May, also in the seventh grade; Mildred Marie, in the forth grade; and Alpha, the youngest, in the second grade.

    William Warren Bailey, the owner of more than a half section of fertile farming land within Haddon township, all in one body, is an extensive stock raiser and farmer.  He is a native of Sullivan county, Indiana, born near Carlisle, February 2, 1850, a son of Salathial Jackson and Mary (Gobin) Bailey.  The father was born in Georgetown, Kentucky, about 1818, and died in Haddon township, Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1863.  The mother was born near Carlisle.  The maternal grandfather, William Gobin, was a native of Kentucky, and among the early settlers of Haddon township, this county.  He always followed farming and also operated a tan-yard at Carlisle.  He was a very successful business man and highly respected in his community, and had a family, including two sons.  Politically he was a Democrat of the old type.  Salathiel Bailey, the father of William W., of this notice, came to Haddon township when fifteen years of age, and later married and began farming.  He owned a farm of eighty acres at the date of his death.  He, too, was a supporter of the Democratic party, and in church connection, both he and his wife were members of the Christian church.  Their children were as follows:  Frances, deceased; Finley, deceased; Ardillia, deceased; Margaret, wife of John Nesbit, of Haddon township, Sullivan county; William Warren, of this biography; Hammett, deceased.
    William W. Bailey was reared on a farm and began to work for himself independently at the age of seventeen years of age he farmed for himself in Haddon township upon a ten-acre tract, to which he had fallen heir.  He has continued in agricultural pursuits to the present time.  In 1894 he purchased his present farm, consisting of three hundred and forty acres of choice land, upon which he carries on both grain and stock farming.  He raises about two carloads of hogs annually, besides some cattle.  He has been a stock drover for over thirty years, and has shipped from all along the line, including Oaktown, in Knox county, and Carlisle, Sullivan, Dugger, Riverton, etc., buying and shipping both hogs and cattle.  He is a large stockholder in the Peoples State Bank of Sullivan and is a thoroughly up-to-date agriculturist and competent business man.
    Mr. Bailey has been married thrice, first in 18711, to Elizabeth Snyder, born in Sullivan county, Cass township, and who died in 1877.  The issue by this union was:  Frenchie Eugene, deceased; one who died in infancy; and Grace, wife of Harry Mason, residing in Gill township.  For his second wife Mr. Bailey married Jennie Creager, also a native of Sullivan county, who died a few years subsequent to her marriage to Mr. Bailey, leaving two children:  Oma, who was born June, 1889, a graduate of Carlisle high school with the class of 1908; Dessie E., born July 3, 1891, now in the high school.  For his third wife Mr. Bailey married Emma Walker, a native of Haddon township, Sullivan county.  The issue by this marriage is one daughter, Helen Pauline.  Mr. Bailey’s daughters are members of the Christian church and his present wife belongs to the Baptist church.

    Ernest M. Deputy, M.D. – A man of high mental attainments, cultured and talented, Ernest M. Deputy, M.D., of Dugger, Cass township, is successfully engaged in the practice of his profession as a physician and surgeon of skill, being widely known and having a fine patronage.  A native of Indiana, he was born August 5, 1877, in Paris, Jennings county.  His father, Sylvester Deputy, was born January 3, 1834, in Woods county, Virginia, which was likewise the birthplace of his father, Andrew Deputy.  A well-established tradition says that the first known ancestor of the Deputy family was a babe left at the door of a deputy sheriff in France.  The deputy sheriff and his wife being childless, gladly welcomed the foundling, took it in, and as it was found on the door sill christened it Sylvester, and gave it the surname of Deputy.
    The Doctor’s great-grandfather and two of his brothers came from Virginia to Indiana via the Ohio river, landing at the present site of Madison.  One of the brothers subsequently entered government land on the bank of the Muscatucket river, where he cleared and improved a farm.  He afterwards sold that property and removed to Jennings county, settling in Montgomery township, where he resided until his death.
    But a child when he was brought by his parents to Jefferson county, Sylvester Deputy was here reared to agricultural pursuits.  He was very energetic, enterprising and ambitious, and soon after attaining his majority bought a tract of timbered land in Montgomery township, Jennings county, where he built up an extensive business.  In addition to clearing the land and carrying on farming, he operated a shingle mill and manufactured molasses from sorghum which he raised, making a large quantity each fall.  Improving a valuable farm, he erected a substantial set of buildings and was there prosperously engaged in his chosen labors until his death in 1895.  His wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Hudson, was born in Jennings county, Indiana, in August, 1836, and is now living near the old homestead.  Her father, Boyd Hudson, was born, it is thought, in New York state, and was a pioneer of Jennings county.  He was a tanner by trade, and established a tannery in Jennings county, it being one of the first in the state, and in it carried on an extensive business.  He bought large tracts of timber land, taking especial pains to get that containing mostly oak trees, as he needed oak bark for use in his tannery.  He employed a large force of men in his work, and the locality in which he lived was known as Boydtown.  He cleared large tracts of land, and in addition to operating his tannery was prosperously engaged in general farming until his death.  His wife, whose maiden name was Frances Shepherd, survived him and married for her second husband William Johnson.
    Sylvester and Sarah (Hudson) Deputy reared five children, as follows:  Velmore, Alban S., Emerson J., Frank (deceased), Ernest M.  Educated in the public schools of Montgomery township, and at Lancaster, Velmore Deputy began his career as a teacher at the age of eighteen years, being first employed in the public schools of Kansas.  Returning to Indiana he was principal of the high school at Vernon until his death, at the age of twenty-two years.  Alban S. Deputy took a normal course at the Blinn Academy, and in addition to teaching and farming, was superintendent of a canning factory.  He died August 20, 1909, and was interred in the Jennings county family cemetery.  Emerson J. Deputy is a contractor for the building of public highways.
    After his graduation from high school Ernest M. Deputy studied for a year at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana, after which he taught school for four years, in the meantime reading medicine.  Entering then the medical department of Kentucky University he took a course of four years, and was graduated from that institution in July, 1903, receiving the degree of M.D.  Locating in Duggar, Sullivan county, in the following month, Dr. Deputy has since built up an extensive and lucrative practice, obtaining an assured position among the leading physicians of this part of the county.  Deeply interested in his professional work, he makes a close study of all newer methods employed in detecting and treating diseases, keeping abreast of the times in regard to medicine and surgery.  He is a member of the Sullivan County Medical Society and is president for 1909, and is also a member of the Indiana State Medical Society and the American Medical Association.  Fraternally he is a member of the Elks Lodge, No. 866, at Linton, Indiana, and examining physician for the Modern Woodmen of America.
    On December 11, 1904, Dr. Deputy married Fletie Staples.  She was born in Jennings county, Indiana, in Marion township, a daughter of Thomas Jefferson and Belle (Rogers) Staples.  The Doctor and Mrs. Deputy have two children, Sherrill S. and Mary C.

    Samuel O. Carty – Among the many intelligent and enterprising men who are devoting their time and attention to the tilling of the soil is Samuel O. Carty, of Cass township, who is meeting with as much success in using agricultural implements as he formerly did with his mining tools.  A native of Virginia, he was born January 14, 1857, in Russell county, which was likewise the birthplace of his father, James L. Carty.  His paternal grandparents were, as far as known, life-long residents of the Old Dominion state.
    Reared on a farm, James L. Carty continued a resident of Virginia until 1848.  In search then of a more favorable location for securing a living for himself and family, he moved to Kentucky, purchased a farm in Carter county, and was there a resident for ten years.  In 1868, pushing still nearer to the frontier line, he came to Sullivan county, Indiana, settling in Hamilton township, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, in 1906.  He married Rachel Dickerson, who was born in the same county of Virginia that he was, a daughter of Organ and Nancy Dickerson.  She died in 1872, leaving five children, namely:  Robert, Samuel O., Thomas, Mary and Lucy.
    But eleven years old when he came with his parents to Indiana, Samuel O. Carty completed his early education in the school of Hamilton township, Sullivan county, and obtained a license to teach school.  Deciding, however, not to adopt teaching as a profession, he began life for himself as a miner, and for a number of years followed that vocation.  In the meantime, having accumulated some money, Mr. Carty wisely invested in land, purchasing the farm where he now resides, and on which he has been successfully employed in general farming since 1894.  Showing excellent judgment and much skill in his operations, he is meeting with good success as a tiller of the soil, reaping satisfactory harvests each season.
    In 1876 Mr. Carty married Mrs. Lucy (Blevins) Timmons, who was born in Kentucky, a daughter of James Blevins.  She married first Harvey Timmons, who died in early life, leaving her with one child, William Timmons.  Mr. and Mrs. Carty have reared four children, namely:  Bertha, George, James and Harry.  Bertha, wife of Marion F. Walters, has children:  Marie, Marion, Mabel, Margaret and Evelyn Verle Walters.  George married Nellie Smith, and they have three children, Cecil, Earl and Bertha L.  James married Emma Goodman, and they are the parents of three children, Ruby, William and Rupert.  Harry married Chloe Shipman, and they have two children, Geneva and Pauline.  Politically Mr. Carty is identified with the Republican party, and religiously both he and his wife are members of the Baptist church.

    Joseph A. Crawford – Among the enterprising and successful agriculturists of Cass township, Sullivan county, may be named Joseph A. Crawford, whose skill and energy in the direction and prosecution of his chosen industry have given to his work a value and significance of which few have deemed it capable.  A son of the late Hugh Crawford, he was born in this township, and has here spent his entire life, his birth having occurred March 24, 1862.
    Born in 1808, in Ohio, Hugh Crawford was there reared and married.  With his young wife he came to Indiana in search of a home, and for a while lived in Grant county.  Coming from there to Sullivan county, he resided first in Cass township and then moved to Hamilton township, where he bought two hundred acres of land.  A commodious hewed log house and a few acres cleared constituted the improvements on the place at the time of purchase.  By dint of energy and persistent toil he cleared the greater part of the land, placing it under cultivation, and was there actively engaged in farming until his death, August 11, 1873.  His wife, whose maiden name was Marion McCormick, was born in Ohio, a daughter of William McCormick, and died in Sullivan county, Indiana, August 19, 1892.  She reared eight children, namely:  John W., Robert, David O., Lewis L., George W., Thomas W., Susanna and Joseph A.
    Beginning when young to assist on the farm Joseph A. Crawford received his education in the usual manner, gleaning his early knowledge of books in the district schools.  Leaving his mother’s home after his marriage, he began life for himself on rented land, and continued thus to make his living until 1892, when he bought the farm which he now owns and occupies.  This is pleasantly located in Cass township, about four miles from the village of Sullivan, and contains one hundred and thirty acres of rich and productive land.  Here Mr. Crawford is profitably engaged in general farming and stockraising, in both branches of his work meeting with satisfactory results.
    On April 17, 1884, Mr. Crawford married Lydia E. Brodie.  She was born on March 20, 1862, in Cass township, Sullivan county, Indiana, a daughter of William A. and Mary J. (Maxwell) Brodie.  Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Crawford six children have been born, namely:  Maude, Mary Ann, Clio, Hugh (deceased), Lester and Russell Homer.  Politically Mr. Crawford is a stanch Republican.

    Captain Josiah Standley – In the annals of Sullivan county we find no more worthy of recording in a work of this character than that of Captain Josiah Standley, who has the distinction not only of being a pioneer settler and a hero of two wars, but of being descended from a Revolutionary soldier, of being the son of a soldier of the war of 1812, and of representing two honored pioneer families of Indiana.  He is a native of Indiana, his birth having occurred November 18, 1827, in Washington county, near Pekin, making him one of the oldest native-born citizens of this state.  His father, Joseph Standley, was born in Guilford county, North Carolina, a son of Thomas Standley.  Thomas Standley was born, it is thought, in England, and on coming to this country lived for a number of years in North Carolina, from there coming to Washington county, Indiana, where he spent the remainder of his life.
    Reared and married in his native state, Joseph Standley kept pace with the moving tide of emigration, and in his early life journeyed by teams to Ohio, where he lived a few years.  Then, still pushing his way westward, he came across the country to Indiana, locating at first in Martin county.  He subsequently lived for a time in Washington county, from there going to Putnam county, and afterwards settling near Bowling Green, Clay county, being one of the earlier pioneers of that locality.  Subsequently taking up his residence in Sullivan county, he pre-empted a tract of government land in section nine, Cass township, and lived on it without securing a title to it until his death.  He was a man of patriotic spirit, and served for a year in the war of 1812.  He married Mary Barham, who was born in Guilford county, North Carolina, a daughter of Hartwell Barham.  Mr. Barham was born and bred in England, from there coming to America in colonial days, and taking an active part in the great struggle for independence, serving in the Revolutionary army for seven years.  He spent the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge with Washington, and he handed down to his descendants the pass word there used, it being “Suffer Liberty or Death.”  Returning to Guilford county, North Carolina, after the war, he subsequently spent the remainder of his life in that place.  Mrs. Joseph Standley survived her husband a number of years.  Of the children born to her twelve grew to years of maturity.
    About eight years old when his parents moved to Clay county, Josiah Standley spent all of his early life on the frontier, his parents moving from time to time to a newer country, taking advantage of every opening made.  Inheriting in a marked degree the patriotism that characterized his ancestors, he enlisted at the breaking out of the Mexican war in Company H, Fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, went with his command to Mexico, and there fought until peace was declared.  He then marched with his comrades from the interior to Vera Cruz, and from there sailing by way of the gulf and rivers to Madison, Indiana, where he was honorably discharged from service.  Returning home, Mr. Standley received a land warrant for his services, and with that secured the land that his father had previously pre-empted.  There he was afterwards engaged in farming until the tocsin of war again rung through the land.  Then, in 1861, he enlisted in Company E, Forty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, was appointed second lieutenant of his company, and went with his command to Missouri, where he took part in the battle of New Madrid.  Early in 1862 he was taken ill, and on March 29 of that year resigned and returned home to recuperate.  Recovering his health, he enlisted during the same year in Company I, Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was made second lieutenant of that company.  He was afterwards promoted to first lieutenant, and later received his commission as captain of his company.  While in service Captain Standley participated in more than forty different engagements, including those at Jackson, Mississippi, where he was wounded; at Vicksburg, Kenesaw Mountain, Dalton, Resaca and the siege and capture of Atlanta, where for a time he commanded a regiment.  The Captain was with his command on the memorable march to the sea, thence through South Carolina to North Carolina.  There, at Lynch Creek, while in command of a mounted squad in detached duty, he was captured and taken to Andersonville.  His experience there, however, was brief, as he was transferred to Libby prison, and there confined until the close of the war, when he joined his regiment at Alexandria, Virginia, where he was honorably discharged.  Returning home, Captain Standley was for several years actively engaged in farming, and at one time had title to over four hundred acres of land.  Much of this he has since deeded to his children, although he has now one hundred and twenty-five acres in his possession.
    Captain Standley has been three times married.  He married first, at the age of twenty-two years, Margaret Hinkle, who was born in Illinois, a daughter of Samuel Hinkle.  Her grandfather, Nathan Hinkle, came from Germany, his native land, to America in colonial times, and fought with the colonists in their struggle for liberty, serving as a soldier in the Continental army for seven years.  Subsequently coming to Indiana, he was a pioneer settler of Sullivan county, and at his death his body was laid to rest in Hymera, where his friends have erected a monument to his memory.  Mrs. Margaret Standley died about two years after her marriage, a year later Captain Standley married her sister, Mahala Hinkle, also deceased.  In 1905 Captain Standley married Mrs. Nancy J. Ooley.  By his first marriage he had one son, Hartwell Barham Standley, M.D., a successful physician and surgeon of California.  By his second marriage he had the following children:  Elihu E., James H., William H., Josiah S., Emma, Nettie, Asenath R., and Fannie.  Fraternally the Captain was made a Mason at Sullivan, Indiana, when young, and he was formerly a member of Fletcher Freeman Post, G.A.R., located at Cass, Indiana.

    George A. Exline – Especially worthy of more than mere mention in this biographical volume is George A. Exline, a venerable and respected resident of Cass township, a veteran agriculturist, and one who fought for his country during the Civil war.  For more than half a century he has lived upon his home farm, and in the meantime has greatly enhanced the value of the property by his many excellent improvements, rendering it one of the most attractive and desirable estates in this part of the county.  A son of Adam Exline, he was born June 25, 1829, in Coshocton county, Ohio, near Dresden.  His grandfather, Bernard Exline, migrated from Pennsylvania to Ohio, becoming a pioneer of Muskingum county, where he spent the remainder of his life.
    Born in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, Adam Exline became one of the very early settlers of Coshocton county, Ohio, locating there in 1818.  Purchasing a tract of wild land in Washington township, he erected a log house, which was the dwelling place for his family until 1844, his older children being born in the cabin.  With his wife and six children he came in that year to Indiana, making the removal with teams, and bringing all of his worldly goods.  Settling in Wright township, Greene county, he bought a tract of timbered land, and at once built a log house, splitting the boards to cover the roof, and making a split puncheon floor.  There were then no railways in the state, and Terre Haute, thirty-five miles away, was the nearest market and milling point.  While he was busy clearing the land his wife, with true domestic thrift, was equally busy carding, spinning and weaving the material with which she clothed her family.  On the homestead which they improved both he and his wife spent their remaining years, his death occurring at the age of seventy-two years, and hers at the age of eighty-two years.  Her maiden name was Jane Saucerman.  She was born in Belmont county, Ohio, a daughter of George and Catherine Saucerman, the former of whom spent his last years in that county, while his widow, Mrs. Saucerman, came to Indiana after his death and died in Greene county.
    One of a family of nine children, George A. Exline was fifteen years old when he came with his parents to Greene county, Indiana.  Beginning the battle of life for himself in 1851, he came to Sullivan county, and here found employment on a farm, working for two years for eight dollars a month, afterwards farming on shares until his marriage.  Money came slowly, but surely, and he was prudent in his savings and wise in his expenditures, he accumulated a sufficient sum within a few years to buy a strip of canal land, paying two dollars and fifty cents an acre, and later buying another tract at five dollars per acre.  Both tracts are now included in his home farm in Cass township.  At the time of his marriage Mr. Exline built a three-room house, and then began the improvement of a farm.  In August, 1862, responding to his country’s call, he enlisted in Company H, Eighty-fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was with his regiment until the close of the war, being at the front until February, 1865, when he was disabled, and did not join his regiment until after the war was closed.  He took an active part in many important engagements, including the battle of Thompson’s Station, Dalton, Resaca, the siege and capture of Atlanta, where he witnessed the surrender of that city by the mayor, and the battle of Nashville, one of the most strenuous of the entire conflict.  Being honorably discharged with his regiment in June, 1865, Mr. Exline returned home.  During his absence his house had been burned.  He immediately built another, and in 1883 erected the spacious brick dwelling now occupied by the family.  He has been very successful in his agricultural labors, accumulating a competency, and now, although he has assisted his children to establish homes of their own, he has nearly two hundred acres of finely improved land in his valuable and attractive farm.
    On February 25, 1858, Mr. Exline married Nancy J. Crager.  She was born in Hamilton township, Sullivan county, Indiana, where her parents, Thomas J. and Barbara Crager, were pioneer settlers.  Five children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Exline, namely:  Marshall, Samuel Winfield, Thomas C., Isabelle, John L., and Stella T.  Marshall married Katie Bryant, and they have two children, Orval and Harold.  Samuel W. married Dora McClellan, and they have six children, Russell, Lillie, Eunice, Edith, Mabel Clare and Lloyd L.  Thomas C. married May Buck, and they have five children, Fay E., Fern, Cora, Hazel and Mary.  Isabelle, wife of George French, has one child, George A.  Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Exline are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal church.  Politically Mr. Exline has always supported the principles of the Democratic party.  Socially he was a member of Fletcher Freeman Post, G.A.R., which was located in Cass, Indiana.

    William Zaayer – Numbered among the industrious and prosperous agriculturists of Sullivan county is William Zaayer, who is actively engaged in his pleasant and independent calling in Cass township, having the management of the parental homestead, which is one of the best and most desirable pieces of property in the neighborhood.  A native of Sullivan county, he was born in Haddon township, where his father, Rufus Zaayer, was a pioneer settler.  He is the descendant of a soldier of the Revolutionary war, and comes from German ancestry, his great-grandfather, Thomas Zaayer, having emigrated from Germany, his native land, to America in colonial days, afterwards serving under General Washington in the great struggle for American independence.  He subsequently lived for a while in Pennsylvania, but from there moved to Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his eighty-one years of earthly life, residing in either Fairfield or Pickaway counties.  He reared two sons and one daughter.  The daughter married Mr. Dumm; his son Jacob never left Pennsylvania; his son Joseph was the grandfather of William.
    A native of Berks county, Pennsylvania, Joseph Zaayer migrated to Ohio when young, settling in Pickaway county.  He had previously learned the tailor’s trade, but after his marriage he located on a tract of timbered land given him by his father in Adams township, that county, and thereafter devoted his energies to clearing and improving a homestead.  In common with the other pioneers of the place, he raised flax, kept sheep, and labored with earnest toil to clear the land and cultivate the soil, while his good wife, skilled in the domestic arts, carded, spun and wove the homespun in which she clothed the family.  He erected a comfortable set of log buildings, and was there a resident until his death, at the age of sixty-eight years.  He married Maria Dunkle, a native of Berks county, Pennsylvania, whose father was born on the ocean while his parents were on their way from Germany to this country.  She survived her husband, dying on the home farm in Adams township, Ohio, at the age of eighty-one years.  She reared thirteen children, as follows:  Levi, Colton, William, Leah, John, Seth, Samuel, Rufus, Benjamin, Joseph, Enos, Mary and Daniel.
    Rufus Zaayer was born April 15, 1830, in Adams township, Pickaway county, Ohio, and was there bred and educated, attending the primitive schools of his day, and assisting in the pioneer labor of clearing a homestead.  At the age of seventeen years he went to live with Solomon Teagarden in Adams township, and for five years assisted him in the care of the farm, receiving for his labor a share of the crops.  Ambitious then to become a land owner he came in the fall of 1854 to Indiana, making the removal with teams, and entered a tract of canal land in Gill township, Sullivan county, and also bought a five-acre tract, upon which was a log house and an orchard.  The land was partly timber and partly prairie, and he at once began its improvement, residing there four years.  Exchanging it then for a farm in the same township, he remained there two years, and then traded that property for a farm in Hamilton township.  Ten years later he sold out there and bought the farm which he now owns and occupies.  It contains one hundred and twenty acres of rich land, and is advantageously located about three and one-half miles east of the village of Sullivan.  The land is well cultivated and improved, and has a substantial set of buildings, well adapted for the use of an up-to-date farmer.
    On August 23, 1854, Rufus Zaayer married Mary Alspach, who was born January 5, 1837, in Bloom township, Fairfield county, Ohio, which is likewise the birthplace of her father, Daniel Alspach.  Her grandfather, John Alspach, was born in Pennsylvania, of German parentage, and was a pioneer of Fairfield county, Ohio, where he spent his declining years.  A life-long resident of Ohio, Daniel Alspach there married Leah Hummel, who was born in Pennsylvania, of German ancestors, and they became the parents of nine children, namely:  Mary, Caroline, John, Julia, Ann, Eliza, Sophia, Nancy, Carol and Margaret.
     Of the union of Rufus and Mary (Alspach) Zaayer, seven children have been born, five of whom have passed to the higher life, Benjamin having died at the age of seventeen years; Leah Maria at the age of thirty years; John at the age of fourteen years; Daniel at the age of thirty-four years; and Emma when but fourteen years old.  Allen Zaayer, the youngest child, married Hallie Richie, and they have two children, Claude Mathers and Herbert.  William Zaayer, the second son and third child in succession of birth, has been a life-long resident of Sullivan county and remains at home, the solace, comfort and mainstay of his parents.  Having charge of the home farm, he is carrying on general farming and stock-raising after the most approved modern methods, and in his work is meeting with genuine success.

    Stephen R. Brown, one of the representative farmers of Jackson township, is numbered among its native sons, born May 9, 1862, a son of Stephen and Ann (Johnson) Brown and a grandson of Samuel and Nancy Brown.  The grandparents were born in Ireland, where they were farming people, and coming to America they located first in Pennsylvania, from whence they later moved to Davis county, Indiana, and later to Sullivan county, where they spent the remainder of their lives.
    Stephen Brown, a son of Samuel and Nancy Brown, was born in Pennsylvania, about 1819, and was but a child when he came with his parents to Davis county, and some time in his thirties he came with them to Sullivan county.  He was married in Jackson township in 1856 to Ann Johnson, who was born near Jamestown, Ohio, March 11, 1832, a daughter of George and Epharatia Johnson, both now deceased, and they too were farming people.  Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Brown, and the first two, George W. and Samuel B., were twins, the former now living in Mandan, North Dakota, and the latter in Youngstown, Ohio; William E. resides in Minneapolis, Minnesota; Stephen is mentioned later; Charles died in infancy; Nancy A. died at the age of sixteen years; and Mary E. Wilcox resides in Bricelyn, Minnesota.  Stephen Brown, the father, was a lifelong agriculturist, and at one time owned an estate of three hundred and thirty-five acres, being both a grain and stock farmer.  In politics he voted with both the Whigs and Republicans, and both he and his wife were earnest members of the Presbyterian church.
    Stephen R. Brown assisted his father with the farm work until the summer before his marriage, when he began farming for himself.  He wedded, November 29, 1885, Anna A. Wambaugh, who was born on the 20th of December, 1864, a daughter of Ebenezer and Rosena Wambaugh, the former of whom was born in 1830 and died April 20, 1896, while the latter was born in 1828 and died April 10, 1896.  Both were natives of Germany, the father coming from Prussia and the mother from Baden before their marriage, and from Ohio they moved to Greensburg, Indiana, and later, about 1873, came to Jackson township, Sullivan county, where they spent the remainder of their lives.  The union of Mr. and Mrs. Brown was blessed by the birth of five children.  The eldest, Herbert A., born July 5, 1887, received a common school education with one term in Brown’s Business College, and he is now in the regular army and stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri.  He enlisted on the 18th of March, 1908.  William E., born February 13, 1888, completed the common school course and one year’s high school training, and is now working at the mine.  Ernest A., born October 7, 1889, passed from the common schools to the high school, where he studied for two years, and was for one year a student at the normal college at Danville, Indiana.  He is now teaching his first school.  Leslie R., born August 1, 1892, has completed the common school course and is now assisting his father on the farm.  Mildred A., born May 6, 1897, is attending the common school.
    Just after his marriage Mr. Brown bought the forty acres of land on which his home is now located, and his farm contains one hundred and twenty-seven acres of land, while in addition to this he also farms the three hundred and thirty-five acres belonging to his mother.  He raises both grain and stock, and has been very successful in his chosen field of endeavor.  He is a stockholder in the Citizens’ State Bank of Farmersburg, and is a Republican in his political affiliations.  Both he and his wife are members of the United Brethren church. 

David M. Bedwell – Distinguished not only for the honored pioneer ancestry from which he is sprung, but for his services as a volunteer soldier during the late Civil war, and as an excellent representative of the successful agriculturists of Cass township, David M. Bedwell is eminently deserving of special mention in this work.  A native of Sullivan county, Indiana, he was born February 24, 1845, a son of Robert Bedwell, and a grandson of Thomas Bedwell, both Indiana pioneers.  Born, bred and married in Kentucky, Thomas Bedwell came from there to Indiana in early days, settling in Jefferson township, Sullivan county, where both he and his wife, whose maiden name was Polly Holston, spent their remaining days.
    One of a family of seven children, Robert Bedwell was born in Kentucky, and was a small child when he came with his parents across the country to Sullivan county, oftentimes finding the way by means of blazed trees.  Growing to manhood, he entered government land in Jefferson township, and having cleared an opening in the dense timber built the log cabin in which his son David was born, riving by hand the boards that covered the roof.  There were then neither railways nor canals, and Vincennes was the nearest market and milling point.  For a number of years thereafter deer, wolves, panthers and other wild beasts roamed at will in this vicinity and the energetic women of the household were accustomed to card, spin and weave and make all the clothing worn by the members thereof.  After clearing a portion of the land he sold out and removed to Cass township, purchasing the land now owned and occupied by his son David M.  A few acres of the land had been cleared and a log cabin, with a frame addition, containing one room, had been erected.  Continuing his agricultural labors, he resided here until his death, September 3, 1878, in his seventy-third year.  He married Rebecca Pitts, who was born in Virginia, and came to Indiana with her parents, Macey and Barbara Pitts, pioneer settlers of Sullivan county.  She survived her husband, passing away September 25, 1892, in the eighty-fourth year of her age.  Of the fourteen children born of their union, thirteen grew to years of maturity, namely:  Elizabeth, Sarah, James, Polly Ann, George, Thomas, Rebecca, Robert, David M., Stephen, Alexander, John W. and Eliza.
    Obtaining a practical education in the old log schoolhouse, with its home-made furniture, David M. Bedwell began as a boy to assist his father on the farm, continuing thus employed until ready to establish a home of his own.  Beginning then to farm for himself, he rented land and was busily employed in its cultivation until the early part of 1864.  In February of that year he enlisted in Company C, Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and went south with his regiment, being with his comrades in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama.  Being taken ill at Huntsville, Alabama, he was taken first to the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, and after his discharge from that institution was granted a furlough of thirty days.  Going then to Indianapolis to join his regiment, he was sent to New York city, thence by boat to Morehead City, North Carolina, and from there to Raleigh, North Carolina, where he joined his command.  Marching then with the “boys” to Washington, he took part in the Grand Review, and was subsequently honorably discharged with his regiment.  Returning home Mr. Bedwell resumed his agricultural labors, and on the death of his father succeeded to the ownership of the parental homestead, a part of which he had previously purchased.  Here he has since carried on general farming with ability and success, and his added improvements have been of the best.
    Mr. Bedwell married in October, 1863, Emma Shepherd, who was born in Sullivan county, Indiana, a daughter of Eli and Lucy Shepherd, pioneers of Hamilton township.  Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Bedwell, namely:  Carl, Burt, Ollie and Freddie.  Carl married Alice Birch, and they have three children, Willie, Gladys and Jesse.  Burt married Sarah Borders, and they are the parents of four children, Evert, Nora, Hazel and Theresa.  Ollie, wife of Joseph Vaughn, has three children, Clarence, Alta and Harold.  Politically Mr. Bedwell is a stanch supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and religiously both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church.

    Martin M. Pope – Recognized as one of the most intelligent men and thoroughgoing farmers of Sullivan county, Martin M. Pope, of Cass township, is successfully engaged in tilling the soil on as comfortable and well-kept a homestead as can be found in this part of the state.  During his long and busy life he has pursued the even tenor of his way as an honest man and a good citizen, being engaged in either the mercantile or agricultural pursuits, and is now reaping the reward of his many years of persistent toil.  A native of Indiana, he was born October 9, 1838, in Morrill township, Shelby county, a son of Henry L. Pope.  His grandfather, Samuel Pope, a native of Virginia, followed the march of civilization westward, settling first as a pioneer in Ohio, and a few years later coming from there to Indiana and locating near Indianapolis, where he passed his remaining years.
    Born in Ohio, Henry L. Pope came with his parents to Indiana.  He lived for a number of years with, or near, his parents, but after his second marriage he located in Shelby county, where he lived until 1867.  He subsequently spent a few years in Sullivan county, and then moved to Greene county, where he resided until his death, at the age of eighty-three years.  The maiden name of his second wife, mother of Martin M., was Charity Martin.  She was born, it is thought, in Shelby county, Indiana, where her father, George Martin, a native of North Carolina, was a pioneer settler.  He was a basket maker and a farmer, and spent his last years in Edgar county, Illinois.  He married a Miss Hoop.  Of the union of Henry L. and Charity (Martin) Pope, eight children were born, namely:  William, Martin M., Isabelle, Sarah, Mary, Aaron, Phebe and John.  The mother of these children died at the age of fifty-six years.
    Brought up in pioneer days Martin M. Pope learned to read and write in the old log schoolhouse, sitting on a slab seat which had wooden pegs for legs, while a slab placed against one side of the cabin served the children for a writing desk.  The room was lighted with just the amount of light that could push its way through a strip of greased paper in an opening where one log was left out, and was heated by a fire built of logs in the huge fireplace.  He was about nine years old when he made his first visit to Indianapolis, going there with his father to take a load of poultry.  It was then quite a flourishing town, with less than ten thousand inhabitants, and but two railroads.  Beginning life for himself at the age of twenty-two years, Mr. Pope rented a farm in Shelby county, taking at first a lease for four years.  Coming to Sullivan county in 1866, he rented land for a few years, after which he bought a farm in Cass township.  Subsequently selling that property, Mr. Pope was for fourteen years engaged in mercantile business in the village of Cass, having a substantial trade in general merchandise.  In 1887 he bought the farm which he now owns and occupies, it having formerly belonged to his father-in-law, Greene L. Vernon, and has since been here profitably employed in agricultural pursuits.
    Mr. Pope married in 1860, Mary Matilda Vernon, who was born in Morrill township, Shelby county, Indiana, a daughter of Greene L. and Delitia (Vernon) Vernon.  A native of North Carolina, Greene L. Vernon came from there to Indiana with teams, bringing with him his wife and two children.  Entering government land in Morrill township, he first erected a log cabin, and then began the improvement of a farm, subsequently residing there until 1867, when he bought a farm in Cass township, and here lived until his death the following year, passing away in 1868.
    Mr. and Mrs. Pope are the parents of seven children, namely:  Sarah E., Janie, Cordelia, Aaron, John, Minnie and Etta.  Sarah E., wife of Frank Usery, has three children, Ferd, Eva P. and Ruth.  Janie married William Miller, and died in 1892, leaving two children, Bert and Gertie.  Cordelia, wife of W. Sanders Pigg, has six children, Herbert, Bessie, Raymond, Arval, Iva and Noal.  Aaron married Florence Keene, and they have seven children, Bert, Zella, Sylvia, Clarence, Roy, Tony and Cleo.  Minnie, wife of Hosea Steele, has two children, Vernie and Frances.  Politically Mr. Pope is an active member of the Democratic party, and has filled various offices of trust and responsibility with ability and fidelity.  While living in Shelby county he was poor superintendent and has served as assessor in Cass township.  He has been deputy assessor for three terms, was justice of the peace for eleven years, and for three years was a county commissioner.  Religiously both Mr. and Mrs. Pope are worthy members of the Methodist Episcopal church.

    John Lammey – Many of the more prosperous and respected citizens of Sullivan county are of foreign birth, and in their native land acquired those habits of industry, thrift and frugality that have been such important factors in winning them wealth and good fortune in this country.  Prominent among this number is John Lammey, who has retired from agricultural pursuits, and is now residing at his pleasant home in the village of Duggar, devoting his time to horticulture and agriculture, finding fully as much pleasure as profit in his congenial work.  A son of John Lammey, Sr., he was born September 25, 1834, in county Tyrone, providence of Ulster, Ireland, coming on the paternal side of French Huguenot ancestry.  His grandparents, William and Ellen (Gallagher) Lammey, were life-long residents of the Emerald Isle.
    John Lammey, Sr., a farmer by occupation, came to America about the time of the Civil war, and for awhile lived in Philadelphia.  Subsequently purchasing a farm near Richmond, Virginia, he was there a resident until his death, at the venerable age of eighty-nine years.  He married Martha McNeil, who was born in county Tyrone, Ireland, of Scotch ancestors, being a daughter of John and Eliza McNeil, who spent their entire lived in Ireland.  She died in Philadelphia.  Of her children, five grew to maturity.  Eliza went to Australia to live, and the others came to America.  Ann is living in Philadelphia; Martha and William have passed to the life beyond; and John is the special subject of this sketch.
    Bred and educated in his native county, John Lammey began as a boy to learn something of the various branches of agriculture, remaining with his parents until his marriage.  He afterwards lived on rented land until 1860.  In March of that year, hoping in this land of fair promise to better his financial condition, he came to the United States, and for two years lived in Philadelphia, and then located in Coshocton county, Ohio.  In August, 1863, Mr. Lammey, loyal to the land of his adoption, enlisted in Company F, Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, went south with his regiment, and remained with it in all of its hard marches, campaigns and battles, and with his comrades was honorably discharged from the service in August, 1865.  Returning to Ohio, Mr. Lammey bought land near Mohawk village, and was there employed in tilling the soil until 1874.  Coming then to Indiana, he settled in Sullivan county, for three years renting land.  In the meantime, Mr. Lammey purchased a tract of wild land, uncultivated land lying in sections twenty-three and twenty-four, Cass township, and in the log house which he erected he and his family lived for many years, and it is still standing.  Clearing and improving the land, he subsequently built a good frame barn, and was there successfully employed in agricultural pursuits until 1904.  Renting the farm at that time, he has since make his home in Duggar, pleasantly passing his time in caring for his fruit trees, flowers and bees, making a special study of these, and finding enjoyment in their cultivation.
    Mr. Lammey married, October 3, 1854, Mary Graham, who was born in county Tyrone, Ireland, where her parents, Andrew and Jane (McMains) Graham, both of Scotch ancestry, spent their lives.  The union of Mr. and Mrs. Lammey has been blessed by the birth of eight children, namely:  Jane, William, John, Martha, Robert A., Charles, Lewis C. and Margaret E.  Jane, wife of Frank Shrivers, has six children, Wilmer, Minnie, James, Frank, Lizzie and John.  William married Rachel McBride, and they have three children, John, Frank and Ruth.  John married Susan Magill, and has four children, Myrtle, Mary, Earl and Ray.  Martha, wife of William Exline, has six children, Jane, Joseph, Nora, John, Willie and Vinetta.  Robert A. married Mary E. Lambright.  Charles married Susan Doherty, and they have three children, Culmer, Opher and Cecil.  Lewis C. married Clara Walters, and they have two children, Ethel and Hazel.  Margaret E., wife of William Fry, has two children, Leroy and Willie.  Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Lammey are faithful members of the Methodist Episcopal church.  Politically Mr. Lammey is a strong Republican.  While in the army he cast his first presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln, and soon afterwards was granted his naturalization papers.

    Eli Clayton – An enterprising and well-to-do agriculturist, Eli Clayton is prosperously engaged in his free and independent vocation on one of the pleasantest and most desirable homesteads in Cass township.  It has a fine location in section sixteen, and with its fertile land and comfortable and convenient set of buildings invariably attracts the attention of the passer-by, and indicates to what good purpose the proprietor has employed his time and means.  Coming from pioneer stock, he was born August 31, 1866, in Cass township, a son of William Clayton.
    Francis Clayton, grandfather of Eli, was born in Bradford, Yorkshire, England.  Acquiring a practical education in the public schools he is company with his brother George subsequently embarked in the coal business, and for several years operated a number of mines.  Visiting America in 1842, he looked about for a favorable business location, and spent a short time in Sullivan county.  Going back to his native land in 1843, he remained there a year, and in 1844 returned to this country with his wife and five children, being eight weeks and three days in sailing across the ocean to New Orleans.  From that city he came by steamer up the river to Evansville, Indiana, from there journeying with two four-horse teams to Greene county, bringing with him his household goods and provisions enough to last his family a year.  At first he found shelter with friends, but ere long he bought a tract of land in Jefferson township.  Several acres of the tract had been cleared, an orchard had been set out, and a two-roomed frame house and a log house had been erected.  He soon built a mil, which he operated by horse power, and there ground both wheat and corn, the bolt being operated by hand.  Selling that place in 1851, he purchased land on Burrow creek, in the north part of Cass township, and having improved the water power, built a grist mill in the place now known as Caledonia.  There he lived as a farmer and miller until his death in December, 1853.  He was twice married.  His first wife, the grandmother of Eli Clayton, was a lifelong resident of England, and at her death she left three children:  William (father of Eli), Eli and Jeremiah.  By his second marriage he had two children:  Frances, now Mrs. Snow, and John.  All of his children were born in England.
    Born in Bradford, Yorkshire, England, William Clayton attended school when young, and afterwards assisted his father in the mines.  Soon after coming with the family to Indiana, he married Ann Lunn, who was born in England, and came to Greene county, Indiana, with her parents, Thomas and Christina (Dolby) Lunn, who there improved a farm on which they spent their remaining years.  He then settled on land that is now included in the home property of his son Eli, who was born in the cabin made of round logs that he then built.  Laboring with unceasing toil, he cleared a large part of the wild land, placed under cultivation, and later erected a set of frame buildings, and here resided until his death.  To him and his wife eleven children were born, namely:  Mary, Sarah, Christiana, Thomas, Francis, Rachel, Martha, Fanny, Emma, Eli and William.
    Reared on the home farm, Eli Clayton gleaned his early education during the short terms of the district school, and as soon as practicable was initiated into the mysteries of farming.  At the time of his marriage he bought forty acres of land in Jefferson township, but a few years later sold out and purchased the parental homestead, where he has since been busily employed in general farming, his labors being substantially rewarded by the abundant crops that he raises each season.
    Mr. Clayton married, April 23, 1890, Mabel Shepherd.  She was born July 30, 1870, in Haddon township, Sullivan county, which was also the birthplace of her father, Francis M. Shepherd, and the place in which her grandfather, William Shepherd, settled as a pioneer.  Receiving excellent educational advantages, Francis M. Shepherd taught school when a young man, and afterwards turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, for a number of years being one of the leading farmers of Jefferson township, where his death occurred November 14, 1889.  The maiden name of his wife was Sarah Willis.  She was born in Haddon township, a daughter of John A. Willis, who was born in 1800 in Virginia, but was reared and married in Kentucky.  Coming from there to Indiana about 1830, he entered one hundred and sixty acres of government land in Haddon township, and from the wilderness hewed out a farm.  He built first a cabin of hickory logs, riving the boards to cover the roof, and putting in a stick and clay chimney.  He had no stove for many years, his wife cooking by the open fireplace.  He raised sheep and flax, and his wife carded, spun and wove the cloth used in making garments for the family.  In 1859, having succeeded well in improving his land, Mr. Willis built a substantial house from oak logs, with a good brick chimney and a porch.  He subsequently bought the brick school house which had been erected on his land, and converted it into a good dwelling house, in which he resided until his death, at the age of eighty-six years.  He was twice married.  His second wife, Mrs. Clayton’s maternal grandmother, was Sarah Boatman.  She was born in 1812, in Jessamine county, Kentucky, and died aged eighty-three years.  By this marriage Mr. Willis reared ten children:  Ann E., Mary, William, Sarah, Marion F., Tilghman H., Margaret, James A., Ruah L. and Laure.  By his first marriage he had two children:  John and Richard.  He joined the Methodist church after coming to Indiana, and became a licensed exhorter, and his wife and all of his children belonged to the same church.  Mrs. Sarah (Willis) Shepherd is still a resident of Jefferson township.  Mr. and Mrs. Clayton are the parents of three children, namely:  Iva, Hazel and William Russell.  Politically, Mr. Clayton is a loyal supporter of the principles of the Democratic party, and religiously both he and his wife are adherents of the Christian church, and the wife is a devoted member of that denomination.

    Levi Gambill – Holding a good position among the successful farmers of Cass township, Sullivan county, is Levi Gambill, who is emphatically a self-made man, as he started in life with no other capital than brains, a willingness to labor and the necessary muscle, and by his industry and excellent judgment and management has acquired a fair share of this world’s goods.  A son of Morgan Gambill, he was born in this township January 2, 1839, and is an excellent representative of the native-born citizens of this part of the state.  His grandfather, Martin Gambill, came from Tennessee to Indiana at an early day, making the journey on horseback, and bringing with him his family and all of his household effects.  On the farm which he improved in Wright township, Greene county, he spent his remaining days.
    Born in Tennessee, Morgan Gambill was but a child when he came with the family to Greene county, Indiana.  An apt scholar in his youthful days, he was well educated for his times, and in early manhood began his career as a teacher, having charge of the first school established in Cass township.  The round-log cabin in which he taught was rudely constructed and equipped, having a stick and clay chimney, a roof made of boards rived and held in place by poles, which the seats were made of slabs and the floor of puncheon.  A strip of greased paper covering the narrow opening made by leaving out a round log admitted light to the room, which has heated by a fire in the fireplace.  This part of Indiana was then a wilderness, and the comparatively few inhabitants lived in a very primitive manner, the farmers raising flax and sheep, and their hard-working wives carding, spinning and weaving the cloth in which she dressed her entire family.  During his boyhood all grain was cut with a sickle, and the plows were made with wooden moldboards, on which were narrowed points of iron.  The wagons were home-made, the wheels being sawed from a log, and no iron used at all in their construction.  Wild game, deer, wolves and bears were plentiful, and oftentimes damaged the growing crops unless they were carefully watched and guarded.
    When a young man, Morgan Gambill entered government land in section one, Cass township, and having cleared a space erected from round logs the cabin in which his son Levi was born.  With characteristic energy and enterprise he began the improvement of a homestead, and a few years later erected a commodious hewed log house, which was then considered a fine residence, and subsequently built on his place the first frame barn erected in the township, a barn that is still in use.  Clearing the greater part of his land, he resided there until his death in 1852, when but forty-one years old.  He married Ellen McGrew, who was born near Salem, Daviess county, Indiana, a daughter of John McGrew, a pioneer of Daviess and Greene counties, who improved a farm near Linton.  She survived him, marrying subsequently for her second husband William Cone, and now, a bright and hearty woman of ninety-five years, is living with one of her sons.  By her first marriage she reared seven children:  John, Hannah, Lucinda, Levi, Wiley, Morgan and Mary Ann.  By her second marriage she had two children:  Eleanor and William.
    Having received his early education in the district schools, Levi Gambill obtained on the home farm a practical experience in the are and science of agriculture, remaining with his mother until eighteen years old.  Beginning life for himself then even with the world, he secured work on a neighboring farm, receiving nine dollars a month wages, which was then considered a good compensation.  Prudent and economical, he accumulated enough money before many years to buy forty acres of the land that is now included in his present homestead.  He built a hewed log house for his first home, and there began housekeeping with his bride.  Enlisting in his country’s defense in March, 1865, Mr. Gambill became a member of Company A, Fifty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, joined his regiment at Indianapolis, and with it went by way of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey to New York City, from there going by steamer to Wilmington, North Carolina, and after a short stop at that port returning by boat as far north as Alexandria, Virginia.  A few weeks later he marched with his comrades to Washington, where he took part in the Grand Review.  Going from there to Pennsylvania, and thence to Kentucky, he was there honorably discharged from the service in the fall of 1865.  Returning home, Mr. Gambill resumed the care of his land, and has since enlarged his farm by purchase of adjoining land, having now eighty-five acres in his homestead.  He has placed his land in a fine state of cultivation, erected a substantial set of frame buildings, and set out fruit and shade trees, each year adding to the beauty and value of the property.
    On February 7, 1860, Mr. Gambill married Elizabeth Moore.  She was born in Cass township, a daughter of James Moore, and granddaughter of Robert Moore.  Her grandfather, an early settler of Sullivan county, improved a farm in the west half of the northeast quarter of section fourteen, Cass township, and in addition to being a successful farmer was one of the noted hunters of his day.  James Moore cleared and improved a homestead in section fourteen, Cass township, and was there employed in tilling the soil until his death, at the age of forty-four years.  His widow, whose maiden name was Sarah Graves, married for her second husband Joseph Linn, and died at the age of seventy-two years.  She reared four children by her first marriage:  William, Elias, Elizabeth (now Mrs. Gambill) and John.  Her father, Elias Graves, was also a pioneer of Cass township, and from the wilderness redeemed in the south half of section one a farm of one hundred and sixty acres.
    Mr. and Mrs. Gambill have three children, namely:  John S., Sarah E. and William M.  John married Amanda Gabard, and they have five children:  Homer, Cornie, Osal, Bessie and Kittie.  Sarah E., wife of John Marshall Buck, has six children:  Chloe, Dessie, Alma, Dora, Pearl and Estie.  William M. married Elizabeth Kelley, and they have two children:  Nona and Everett.  Chloe Buck married Otis Pitcher, and they have two children:  Louis and Pansy.  Dessie Buck married Albert Boyd, and has one child, Theresa.  Bessie Gambill, wife of Ira Sisk, has two children:  Esther and Iva.  Politically, Mr. Gambill votes for the best men and measures, regardless of party restrictions, and religiously, both Mr. and Mrs. Gambill are members of the Christian church.  Fraternally, he is a Mason of Sullivan.

    Daniel H. Halberstadt was born on the 7th of January, 1850, about three-fourths of a mile north of where he now resides, and is a son of one of the most honored pioneer families of Sullivan county, Harrison and Elizabeth (Manwarring) Halberstadt.  They were born in Franklin county, Indiana, and came to Jackson township in Sullivan county as early as 1837, and here they both spent the remainder of their lives and died.  Mr. Halberstadt, the father, was quite a prominent stock raiser, and owned over two hundred acres of good land.  The Republican party received his stanch support and co-operation, and both he and his wife were earnest member of the Methodist church.  They reared five children to years of maturity, namely:  George M., whose home is in Jackson township; Charlotte, deceased; Thomas J. and Elijah T., who also reside in Jackson township; and Daniel H., who is mentioned more at length below.
    Daniel H. Halberstadt remained at home and assisted his father in clearing and improving his land until his marriage, which occurred on the 27th of November, 1873, to Samantha Ridgeway, who was born in Jackson township, September 26, 1852, a daughter of Jacob W. and Julia A. Ridgeway, both of whom were born in Kentucky, but they were married in Sullivan county, Indiana.  Mr. Ridgeway was a lifelong tiller of the soil, and he owned an estate of four hundred and eighty acres.  Of the five children born to Mr. and Mrs. Halberstadt, three are deceased, two dying in infancy, and Bettie Lillian at the age of nineteen years.  The two living are Nellie G. and Goldie May.  The elder is the wife of John A. Harding, of Jackson township, and the younger is at home with her parents.
    After his marriage Mr. Halberstadt erected a pleasant home on his farm, and here the family have ever since lived, the homestead farm consisting of eighty acres.  He is a carpenter as well as a farmer, and has been very successful in his business operations.  His politics are Republican, and both he and his wife are members of the Methodist church.

    Katherine (Grant) Wallace, a member of one of the most prominent families of Sullivan county, was born in Muskingum county, Ohio, September 14, 1836, a daughter of Peter and Anna (Neff) Grant.  The father was born in Glasgow, Scotland, but was only a boy of nineteen when he came to this country, and he spent three months in crossing the ocean.  He taught school both before and after coming to the United States, and was one of the highly educated men of his day, being able to speak five different languages, and his professional career covered the long period of fifty or sixty years.  During that time he taught in Baltimore and in many of the higher educational institutions of learning, but finally he came to Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1855, and spent the remainder of his life here, his later years having been passed on his farm in Jackson township.  From the Whigs he transferred his political allegiance to the Democracy, and both he and his wife were members of the Presbyterian church, in which he served as an elder for many years.  Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Grant, namely:  Katherine Wallace; Mary Forester, deceased; Elizabeth Squire, also deceased; Anna Wallace, whose home is in Curry township; William and Charles, who have both passed away; Caroline Baker, whose husband is a minister at Lyons; and Morgan, who died in infancy.
    The daughter Katherine received her educational training in the public schools and under the able instruction of her father, and she also taught school during about four years before her marriage.  This occurred on the 7th of August, 1859, when she wedded Henry R. Wallace, Sr., who was born February 7, 1824, in Pennsylvania, and was a lad of sixteen when he came with his parents to Indiana.  Immediately following their marriage the young couple moved to the farm where the widow yet resides and which had been entered from the government by his father.  Mr. Wallace cleared and improved this place, and made it his home until his death on the 7th of August, 1887, and he was buried in Littleflock cemetery, near Shelburn.  At his death he left a valuable estate of four hundred acres, and during his lifetime he had been prominently engaged in the raising of grain and stock.  His politics were Democratic, and he was prominently before the people for many years as a squire, as a trustee and as a county commissioner.  He was at the same time an earnest Christian gentleman, a member of the Presbyterian denomination, and for many years he served his church as deacon.
    The union of Mr. and Mrs. Wallace was blessed by the birth of five children, namely:  Elizabeth Giles, of Jackson township; Frank, who married Joanna Giles, by whom he has two children, Katharine and Henry, and the family home is in Curry township; Edward P., at home with his mother; Harry S., who has been twice married, first to Leona Wagner, deceased, and secondly to Sarah Ross, and he is now practicing law in Terre Haute; and Peter J., who died at the age of seven years.  Mrs. Wallace and her son reside on her estate of eighty acres in Jackson township, and she is a prominent member and an earnest worker in the Presbyterian church.
   
    Jacob Cumson, whose home for many years has been on a farm in Jackson township, was born in Harrison county, Ohio, June 20, 1848, a son of James and Nancy (Early) Cumson, natives respectively of Greene county, Pennsylvania, and of Scotland.  When twenty years of age, in 1807, James Cumson went to Ohio and became a farmer and cabinetmaker there, and his life’s labors were ended in death in about 1878, surviving his wife for about ten years, and they both lie buried in Ohio.
    Jacob Cumson attended school in Harrison county, Ohio, during his boyhood days, and he has practically cared for himself since the early age of sixteen years.  At this time, about 1864, he obtained a government position in the quartermaster’s department, where he remained for about eighteen months, and he then worked for others until 1867, after which he farmed on rented land in Guernsey county for one year.  At the close of that period he bought a little twenty acre farm in Ohio, and lived and labored there until he sold the land and came to Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1883, here buying forty acres, where he now lives.  He has sold the coal which underlies this tract, and he also owns eighty acres of land about half a mile northeast and thirty-six acres in Cass township, renting about twenty-five acres of these tracts, while on the remainder he is engaged in general farming and stock raising.  He is a Republican in politics, and is now serving as a justice of the peace, and to his honor it may be said that he was elected to this office without his knowledge.
    On the 13th of October, 1868, Mr. Cumson married Sarah E. Lambright, who was born in Harrison county, Ohio, a daughter of Henry and Mary Jane (Shivers) Lambright, natives respectively of Germany and of Ohio.  They came to Sullivan county in 1882 and bought a farm in Cass township, where the father died in 1904 and the mother about fourteen years previously.  Mrs. Cumson has also passed away, dying on the 30th of April, 1907, after becoming the mother of three children, but only Mary Elizabeth, the youngest, is now living, the two others having died in infancy.  Mr. Cumson is a member of the Methodist church.

    Robert J. Denton, one of the thrifty agriculturists of Jackson township, Sullivan county, is a native of Vigo county, Indiana, born April 23, 1839, son of Joseph W. and Anna (Miller) Denton, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Tennessee.  The father came to Terre Haute, Indiana, when it was yet a small place.  He located on lands near Terre Haute, where he resided with his parents, and they both died near Lewis, Indiana.  Mr. Denton remained at home until twenty-one years of age, when he married and moved to a farm in Honey Creek township, where he followed farm life until 1862.  He then removed to Lancaster, Owen county, where he stayed one year, then went to the old home place.  During this term of years by frugal and industrious habits he had succeeded in accumulating over one thousand acres of land in Vigo, Clay and Owen counties.  At the time of his death he resided near Lewis, having sold the old place and purchased another farm about three miles from the old one.  He died about 1878, his father having survived until 1880.  Mr. Denton’s mother died in 1860, and his grandmother in 1877.
    Robert J. Denton remained under the paternal roof until twenty years of age, when his father gave him eighty acres of land.  He then located on his own farm in Pierson township.  On October 10, 1864, he enlisted in the Twenty-first Heavy Artillery, in which service he was faithful to every known duty for twelve months.  He was a member of Company C.  Upon his return home he engaged in farming on the place where he now lives, which land he had purchased prior to going into the army.  At one time this place contained four hundred and forty acres, but has been sold off until he now has but seventy acres.  He bought and sold stock for about twenty years and carried on general farming in connection with his extensive stock business.  Of late years he has lived more of a retired life and enjoys the fruits of his long and strenuous life.
    Mr. Denton is a member of the Masonic fraternity at Hymera.  The family attend the Methodist Episcopal church, of which Mrs. Denton is a member.  Politically he is a believer in the principles of the Republican party, and cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln for president.
    He was married, October 4, 1860, to Martha Lovett, born in Ohio June 10, 1857, daughter of Jonas Lovett.  Martha Lovett came to Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1859, her sister having resided her some years before.  She taught school in Indiana from the time she was sixteen years of age until her marriage.  To Mr. and Mrs. Denton have been born six children, as follows:  Charles A., married and resides on a farm near his father; Joseph Ellsworth, married and lives near the father; Mary Etta, deceased; Arthur, deceased; William, married and lives in Oklahoma City; and Rhoda, wife of Charles Liston.

    Caroline (Mahan) Branson – Mrs. Caroline Mahan Branson was born in Kentucky January 13, 1832, a daughter of Jeremiah and Jemima (Browning) Mahan, both of whom were also born in Kentucky.  Coming to Jackson township in Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1834, they entered land here at that early day, and the father was both a cooper and farmer, having operated a shop both before and after coming to this county.  During the years of his residence in Sullivan county he also cleared his farm of two hundred acres and operated a saw and grist mill, becoming one of the best known men throughout the entire county, loved and honored for his many sterling characteristics, and he was known as “Uncle Jerry” by his many friends and acquaintances.  His parents, John and Sarah Mahan, were both natives of Kentucky, but they also came to Indiana and entered land near Hymera, where they became prominent agriculturists.
    Mrs. Branson is one of the four children born to Jeremiah and Jemima Mahan, namely:  William, deceased; James, whose home is in Jackson township; Mrs. Branson; and John J., deceased.  The father was a second time married, wedding Nancy Cochran, and their ten children are Jane, George, Emma, Charles, Thomas J., Ann, Mary, Elizabeth, Jeremiah and an infant.
    On the 1st of July, 1852, Caroline Mahan gave her hand in marriage to Isaiah Branson, the only child of Asa and Nancy (Allen) Branson, who were born respectively September 17, 1798, and October 18, 1801, in Pittsylvania county, Virginia.  Asa was a son of Michael and Mary Branson.  Mr. and Mrs. Branson have resided on their present homestead since their marriage, and their union has been blessed by the birth of eleven children, as follows:  Nancy, deceased; Noten N., who married Sarah J. Miller and resides in Jackson township; Josephine Williams, of Jackson township; Lucy Flowers, whose home is in Oklahoma; Isaiah J., who resides in Hymera; John, of Jackson township; Charles, who died at the age of five years; Emma, also deceased; Stella Swift, of Clay county, Indiana, and two, the fourth and fifth born, who died in infancy.

    John Wambaugh, who is a well known grain and stock farmer residing on his one hundred and twenty acre farm in Jackson township, Sullivan county, is a native of Decatur county, Indiana, born August 9, 1862, a son of Ebenezer and Rosena E. (Freedman) Wambaugh.  His father was born in Berlin, Germany, in October, 1829, and came to this country in 1858.  He was married after arriving in America, and first located in Decatur county, Indiana, where he purchased the sixty acres of land upon which he lived until 1873, and in the following November bought the farm upon which John, his son, now resides.  He bought one hundred and twenty acres at first, but later added to it, making in all three hundred and seventy-five acres.  Here he became an extensive cattle and hog raiser.  He was an enterprising man, and had the confidence and esteem of a large circle of friends.  Politically he voted the Democratic ticket, and in church faith was a Roman Catholic.  His wife was born about 1824, in Berlin, Germany, along the river Rhine.  She accompanied some of her brothers and sisters to America.  The date of her death was April 10, 1896, and that of her husband was April 20, 1896.  Their children were as follows:  Lynia, Mrs. Rossfield, residing in Louisville, Kentucky; Tressa, Mrs. Lansing, of Aurora, Indiana; Mary, Mrs. Miller, of Indianapolis; John, of this notice; Anna, Mrs. Brown, residing in Jackson township, Sullivan county; Rose, Mrs. Burton, of Jackson township, and Joseph, of Coalmont, Indiana.
    John Wambaugh received his education at the common schools and was reared to farm pursuits.  After farming on his father’s land a few seasons he bought thirty-five acres east of his present place, which he subsequently sold, as well as the other land that he owned.  He next purchased the farm on which he now lives in Jackson township, consisting of one hundred and twenty acres, which has come to be a well improved place and which he devotes to both grain and stock raising.
    Politically Mr. Wambaugh is a supporter of the Democratic party, but prefers others to fill the local offices of his township and county.  Both he and his wife are faithful members of the Presbyterian church.  He was united in marriage November 23, 1886, to Ellen Forbes, born June 12, 1866, in Linton township, Vigo county, Indiana, a daughter of Calvin and Harriet (Fitzwater) Forbes.  Her father is now living with his daughter in Sullivan, the mother being deceased.  Mr. and Mrs. Wambaugh are the parents of four children:  Noble William, born November 1, 1887; he has completed his common school studies and is now assisting his father on the farm; Almeda, born June 15, 1890, graduated from the common school and then entered the Normal school but owing to her failing health she is now at home; Iva G., born November 1, 1893, is attending school, and Irma May, born March 3, 1903, is also in school.  Mr. Wambaugh is a member of the United Mine Workers of America, District No. 11.

    Mrs. Nancy Ann (Taylor) Railsback, widow of John S. Railsback, who was a prosperous farmer of Jackson township up to the time of his death, which occurred in this township August 22, 1906, was born March 16, 1854, in Monroe county, Indiana, the daughter of John C. and Mary E. (Bennett) Taylor.  The father was born in 1832 in Davis county, Indiana, and died in 1871.  He was buried in the Liberty cemetery north of Shelburn.  Mrs. Railsback is the oldest of twelve children in her parents’ family, born in the following order:  Nancy Ann; Samuel, residing in Curry township; Robert, residing in Sullivan; Richard, living in Curry township; Sarah J. (Mrs. Wood), residing in Curry township; Molly (Mrs. Martin), resides in Sugar Creek township, Vigo county, Indiana, and Dora, residing with her mother in Curry township.  The remaining five children of this family are now deceased.
    Nancy Ann Taylor was united in marriage to John S. Railsback January 17, 1875.  He was born November 8, 1849, in Kentucky, and within Nelson county.  He was the son of Lewis D. and Delithia J. (Reynolds) Railsback, both of whom were natives of Kentucky and both now deceased.  They were energetic farmers throughout their active lives.  John S. Railsback came to Sullivan county with his parents in 1853, and they located in Curry township.  After the marriage of John S. to Miss Taylor they leased a farm in Curry township and continued as renters until 1880, when they purchased a farm containing forty acres, where Mrs. Railsback now resides, the same being three miles north of Hymera.  Her sons now carry on the farming operations there for her.  Her husband was a staunch Democrat in his political affiliations, and served his township as assessor one term and was deputy assessor several terms, and was supervisor of roads.  The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Railsback were twelve in number, of whom nine are still living:  Ira B., born in the autumn of 1875, died in January, 1903, leaving a wife but no issue; Ola Etta, born in 1877, married Elvis Earl Maratta, residing in Jackson township, and they are the parents of three children – Logan E., Chester A. and Wayne B.; Dora, born December 23, 1880, wedded Otto Miller, a resident of Vigo county; Lottie V., born August 8, 1881, is unmarried and teaching school; Charles R., born December 14, 1882, married Miss Stella Ridgeway and has the farm mines coal.  He is the owner of seventy-one acres of land; John C., born May 14, 1884, is still at home; Dolpha, born June 12, 1887, is at  Terre Haute; Lessie A., born November 20, 1888, is attending high school at Hymera; Molly B., born November 28, 1890, died April, 1897; Lona F., born December 5, 1894, now attends the public school.  One also died in infancy.  Mrs. Railsback is a consistent member of the Christian church. 

    Samuel F. Badders – Although long and prominently identified with the agricultural and business interests of Sullivan county, Samuel F. Badders, was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, January 5, 1827, a son of James and Christena (Frey) Badders, both of whom were born in York county, Pennsylvania.  They went to Ohio just after the war of 1812, but in 1829 returned to Pennsylvania, where they spent the remainder of their lives on a farm in Beaver county, the husband preceding his wife in death several years.  Their estate in Beaver county consisted of three hundred and eighty-two acres of land.
    Samuel F. Badders secured his educational training in the district schools of Pennsylvania, and in 1845 he started out in life for himself in connection with a wholesale and retail grocery house in Wellsville, Ohio.  After he had been there two years the house purchased a steamboat and Mr. Badders was given the choice of staying in the store or going on the boat.  He had studied steamboat bookkeeping at Duff’s Commercial College at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and choosing the latter, he was to receive thirty-five dollars for the first year and fifty dollars for the second year, and he was just one dollar in debt at the close of his two years’ service.  For several years he was employed on different boats, and during the latter part of his service on the water he received as high as one hundred and twenty-five dollars a month.  He continued boating until 1853, and after the death of his wife he resumed the occupation, and was in Florida and other points in the South for one year.  In 1857 he came to Sullivan county and bought four hundred acres of canal land, which was almost entirely covered with timber.  He at once began the arduous task of clearing and preparing his land for cultivation, and he has resided on this farm ever since, it now containing four hundred and twenty acres of rich and highly improved land, richly underlaid with coal, but he has sold the coal from three hundred and five acres of the tract.  He is engaged in general farming and stock raising, and aside from being one of the representative farmers of Jackson township is perhaps the oldest living member of the bar of Sullivan county.  The exact time of his admittance is not known, as no records were kept by the clerk at that time, and in all walks of life he is honored among the people with whom he has so long made his home.
    On the 5th of January, 1854, Mr. Badders was united in marriage to Miss Harriet Todd, a daughter of Joshua and Rachel (Wiley) Todd, both of whom died in Columbiana county, Ohio.  Mrs. Badders has joined them in the home beyond, dying in 1856, and her two children, Emma Luella and Tascala Adella, are also deceased.  On the 8th of June, Mr. Badders wedded Miss Mary Snowden, who was born in Ireland to Orr and Nancy (Martin) Snowden, her natal day being the 16th of March, 1832, and in 1852 she came with her parents to the United States and to Sullivan county, Indiana, locating near the home of her future husband.  The parents spent the remainder of their lives here.  Ten children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Badders, namely:  Indiana, the wife of E.H. Irwin, of Cleburne county, Arkansas; Harry M., who is married and also resides in that county; Martin E., at home; John Charles, who married, but his wife is deceased, and he lives near the father’s farm; Marietta, the wife of William M. Case; Samuel Burton, deceased; Clinton S., at home; Lewti, the deceased wife of Charles Shivers; Nina, now Mrs. Gordon; and William Webster, who married Leona Allen, deceased, and he resides in Hebron, Arkansas.  Mr. Badders is a Socialist in politics.  He has been a Mason since 1872, at Lewis, Indiana.

    George M. Halberstadt, for many years identified with the agricultural interests of Sullivan county, was born in Franklin county, Indiana, January 26, 1837, a son of William Harrison and Elizabeth (Manwarring) Halberstadt.  It was in 1837 that the father, William H. Halberstadt, established his home in Jackson township, Sullivan county, where he entered land from the government and at one time was the owner of a fine estate of three hundred acres.  He spent the remainder of his life on this homestead, and was engaged in farming throughout his entire business career.  Both he and his wife were members of the Methodist church, and he was a prominent and active worker in its cause.  His life in Sullivan county covered the span of fifty-five years, and he became one of its best known and most honored residents.
    Mr. Halberstadt was first married in 1833 to Elizabeth Manwarring, who died in 1883, after becoming the mother of five children:  Charlotte, deceased; John T., whose home is in Jackson township; George M., the subject of this review; and Elijah T. and Daniel H., both of whom reside in Jackson township.  For his second wife Mr. Halberstadt wedded Elizabeth Register, who died in 1905, but there was no issue by the second union.
    During the period of the Civil war, in October, 1864, George M. Halberstadt enlisted in Company G, Eighty-fifth Indiana Infantry, and served until the close of the conflict, and he now receives a pension of fifteen dollars a month in compensation for his services.  He remained at home with his parents until his marriage, and after that event he came to the farm where he now lives, a valuable homestead of one hundred and fifty-eight acres.  He has been a successful farmer throughout the years of his business life, and his political affiliations are with the Republican party.
    On the 28th of November, 1877, he was united in marriage to Mary E. Mahan, who died in April of 1908.  They had three children:  Ethel Romine, of Vigo county, Indiana; George, who is married and living with his father; and Stella Forbes, also of Jackson township.  Mr. Halberstadt has been three times married, first wedding Margaret J. Mahan, a sister of his present wife, and she died without issue.  His second wife was Mary E. Phillips, who left three children at her death, namely:  William H., a minister of Robinson, Illinois; Louetta Bennett, of Farmersburg; and Maria Romine, of Jackson township.  Mr. Halberstadt is a member of the Methodist church.

    William W. Barcus was born in the house in which he now resides on the 14th of December, 1869, and this place has even since been his home and the scene of his operations.  Thus far in life he has followed the tilling of the soil for a livelihood, and after his marriage he continued to live with his parents and operate the farm, his present estate consisting of one hundred and twenty acres of rich and fertile land, where he follows both grain and stock farming.  He is a member of the Farmersburg Mutual Telephone Company, is a stockholder in the Citizens’ State Bank at Hymera and is quite prominent and active in the local councils of the Republican party.
    Mr. Barcus is a son of Thomas G. and Amanda S. (Goodwin) Barcus.  The father was born on the 12th of June, 1830, and died on the 25th of March, 1902, and lies buried in Nye’s Chapel cemetery.  His life work was farming, becoming very successful in the vocation, and at one time he owned two hundred and forty acres of land.  He was also a broom maker, working at that occupation in the winter months when not employed on the farm, and he also raised his own broom corn.  In politics he was a stanch Republican, and was a member of the United Brethren church, as is also his wife.  She was born on the 21st of April, 1838, and is now living with her son William.  Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Barcus, namely:  Sarah E., who was born on the 28th of May, 1857, and died on the 8th of July, 1876; Delphia, born August 28, 1858, and died October 2, 1859; George R., born August 9, 1860, died February 13, 1864; Samuel J., born November 10, 1861, resides in Alberta, Canada; Rosa B., born July 15, 1864, died June 7, 1894; Tilla J., born July 23, 1866, married Samuel Patton and resides in Hymera; William W., whose name introduces this review; Anna M., born May 2, 1871, is the wife of Harvey Patton, of Hymera; Luella, born November 19, 1873, is deceased, and Thomas E., born May 11, 1876, died February 1, 1877.
    On the 16th of January, 1891, William W. Barcus was united in marriage to Louisa B. Harvey, who was born in Jackson township November 16, 1872, a daughter of William and Matilda (McCammon) Harvey, born respectively on the 4th of November, 1839, in Franklin county, Indiana, and on the 22d of March, 1851, in Jackson township, Sullivan county.  Their home is now one mile north of Hymera on a farm of sixty acres.  Mr. Harvey served four years in the Civil war as a member of Company B, Thirty-seventh Regiment of Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as a private, and he has been engaged in farming ever since his return from the war.  Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Barcus, namely:  Helen H, born August 7, 1901; George W., October 20, 1902; Hazel E., July 12, 1904; and Alice M., May 27, 1906.  Mrs. Barcus is a member of the Methodist church.

    William M. Case is numbered among the prominent farmers and stock raisers of Jackson township, where he owns a pleasant and attractive homestead farm.  He was born one mile north of Sullivan October 28, 1864, a son of William F. and Jane C. (Boone) Case.  When he had reached the age of eighteen years he started out in life for himself, working as a farm hand for one year, and then going to Sumner county, Kansas, he spent one year there, after which he returned to his home and attended school during one winter and superintended his father’s farm until he was twenty-two.  He was married at that time and rented a farm in Greene county for one season, after which he returned to Sullivan county and farmed rented land until he purchased eighty acres where he now lives in 1895.  He has since been engaged in general farming, and has also added to his original purchase until he now owns about one hundred and eighty-five acres of rich and fertile land, while in addition to this he has also become the owner of a dwelling house and a business building in Hymera and valuable residence property in Martinsville, Illinois.  His stock is of a high grade, consisting of Shropshire sheep, of which he has about eighty-two head, and horses and cattle, usually raising from four to ten head of horses and about twenty head of cattle.  Jackson township numbers him among her leading agriculturists.
    On the 28th of October, 1886, Mr. Case was united in marriage to Marietta, a daughter of Samuel F. and Mary (Snowden) Badders, and they have become the parents of four children, but the first born died in infancy, and Clarence, the second, is also deceased.  Cecile and Floyd are both at home and attending school.  Mr. Case is independent in his political affiliations.

    Dorcy C. Gard – During many years Dorcy C. Gard has been residing in Sullivan county, and he has become prominent in its business life.  He was born in Greenfield, Hancock county, Indiana, June 9, 1860, a son of George and Nancy (Smith) Gard.  The mother was also born in Greenfield, and she died in May of 1903.  There her son Dorcy attended school in his youth, but his educational advantages were limited, and he was with his maternal grandparents from the time he was six weeks old until the age of seventeen.  He then began work in a brickyard in Indianapolis, but after some years there he came back to Sullivan county and worked as a farm hand until his marriage. Since that time he has been more or less identified with mining, but still continues the work of his farm when the mines are not in operation, being both a grain and stock raiser.
    On the 23d of May, 1886, Mr. Gard was married to Harriette Bell French, a daughter of William and Ruth (Mattingly) French, both of whom were born in Mason county, Kentucky, and they were the married in March, 1862.  In September of the same year they came to Sullivan county, Indiana.  Mr. French’s father had previously visited this community and entered a homestead, and William French built a home on his father’s land, and there he died when his daughter Harriette was but fifteen months old.  The widow continued to reside on the farm with his father for about seventeen years, and he then deeded her sixty acres of the land.  In 1893 she sold her farm to the Coal Company and bought eighty acres where Mr. and Mrs. Gard now reside.  In 1903 they built one of the neat and modest country residences in the township, located three-quarters of a mile west of Hymera, and there they expect to spend the remainder of their lives.  In the French family there were three children:  Maggie, born March 6, 1863, married George Browning, and died on the 4th of December, 1892, after becoming the mother of a child which died in infancy.  Mr. Browning now resides in Starr City, Sullivan county.  Harriette B. became the wife of Mr. Gard.  Mary Maria, born September 11, 1867, became the wife of Frank Hess and died October 6, 1893.  Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Gard.  The eldest, Myrtle, born March 15, 1887, is the wife of Austin Shipley, a carpenter and miner in Hymera, and their two children are Lucille, who was born May 24, 1906, and Dorcy, a little son; Hattie Ethel, born April 18, 1889, died October 2, 1901; Ruth Ann, born May 24, 1894, is at home, as is also Stella Marie, born March 5, 1896; Fannie I., born May 31, 1901, died December 11, 1903.
    Mr. Gard has membership relations with the Masonic order, the Home Defenders and the Eastern Star.  He is a self-made man in the truest sense of the word, and deserves much praise for the success he has achieved in life.  His politics are Democratic, and he is a member of the Methodist church.

    Lorenzo D. Sink, who is farming in Jackson township, was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, November 11, 1842, a son of John and Sarah (Klenk) Sink, both of whom were born in Pennsylvania.  Moving to Ohio in an early day Mr. Sink became a carpenter and cabinet maker, and followed those trades for many years or until he engaged in farming.  He was twice married, and by his first wife he had eight children, while by the second union, of whom Lorenzo was the eighth born, he had thirteen children, of whom four are now living, namely:  Lorenzo D., Zachary T., whose home is near his brother Lorenzo; Eva Ann Williams, of Patricksburg; and Eliza, the oldest of the living children, is now Mrs. Shoup and a resident of northern Indiana.
    Lorenzo D. Sink attended school first in Ohio, and then moving with his parents to Indiana he was a student in a school near Steubenville in Owen county, but his educational advantages in his early youth were limited, as his father was old and the care of the farm fell upon him.  He was obliged to leave school at the age of eighteen years, and up to that time he had never seen a school book with the exception of an arithmetic, in which he had reached the division of fractions.  But seven years after leaving school at the earnest request of the citizens he was engaged as teacher in the school or his neighborhood.  He at once purchased some books and spent some time studying at home and also studied under the instructions of a friend for twenty-three days.  At the county examination he was obliged to make an average of sixty per cent and not fall below forty per cent in any one study, and in spite of adverse circumstances he obtained his license and taught a term of seven months on a six months’ license, but before the expiration of this license he obtained the position of a teacher for the following term.  He then obtained a two years’ license and taught for four years without further examination.  He taught in all about ten years, and seven years of that time were spent in the school which he had formerly attended as a scholar.
    Mr. Sink continued at home with his father until he was twenty-two years of age, and he then farmed the home place on shared for his mother four several years.  Finally he and his brother bought the mother’s interest in the homestead, and he continued to reside there until the spring of 1880, when he sold his land, and coming to Jackson township purchased the eighty acres where he now lives.  He makes a specialty of the raising of corn, and at the present time is the only man in the township who is able to sell that commodity.  During the Civil war Mr. Sink served as a private in the Thirty-third Indiana Infantry for four months or until the war was closed.  He enlisted in the service in March of 1865.
    In February of 1865 he was united in marriage to Hannah A., a daughter of Harrison and Louisa (Bloss) Kelly, both of whom were born in Jackson county, Indiana, and both are now deceased.  The union of Mr. and Mrs. Sink has been blessed by the birth of the following children:  Sarah, the wife of William Miller, a railroad man at Mattoon, Illinois; Charles A., employed in the broom corn warehouse at Mattoon; William Grant, a plumber in Fort Wayne, Indiana; Lillie, the wife of Henry Conrad, a heater in a rolling mill in St. Louis, Missouri; Marietta, the wife of George Hankey, who resides near her father; Bessie G., wife of Cecil Scott, a miner in this township; Cora, at home; and Clarence, deceased.  Mr. Sink is a Republican in politics, and he attends the services of the Methodist Episcopal church.

    Josiah Worth – Never can greater honor be paid than to those who aided in holding high the principles of liberty during the period of the Civil war, and among those who were called upon to lay down their lives on the altar of their country during that conflict in numbered Josiah Worth, one of the early agriculturists of Sullivan county.  He was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, March 19, 1830, a son of James and Elizabeth (Romig) Worth, who were also born in that county.  Coming to Indiana about 1858, they located in Jackson township, Sullivan county, and after several years they moved to a farm near by the one on which they had first located.  But after five years they returned to the first homestead, and there they subsequently died, the mother in 1874 and the father in 1888.
    Shortly after coming with his parents to Sullivan county Josiah Worth married, but continued to live on his father’s farm until he enlisted for the war, entering the Eighty-fifth Indiana Regiment in 1862, and his death occurred at Lexington from sickness contracted in the army.  His widow continued on the senior Mr. Worth’s farm for about two years longer, and then bought twenty acres where she now lives, but has added to this little tract from time to time until she now owns sixty-two acres, and here she expects to spend the remainder of her life.  She bore the maiden name of Mary Tennis, and was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, October 9, 1835, a daughter of John and Nancy (Rose) Tennis, both of whom were also born in that county.  In 1853 they came to Sullivan county and located on the farm on which Mrs. Worth now resides, and at that time the farm was densely covered with timber.  The father at once began clearing and preparing his land for cultivation, and he died on the old homestead there in June of 1873, his widow surviving until the 6th of November, 1888.  Four children were born to the union of Mr. and Mrs. Worth, namely:  James, who married Martha Nicholson, a native of Sullivan county, and they reside on the one home farm with his mother.  Their ten children are: Mollie, deceased; Effie May, wife of Herton Griffith, of Jackson township; Anna Elizabeth, wife of Earl Griffith, of Clay county; Emma Viola, with her parents; Melissa Elvie, at home; James Harrison, Charles Joseph and Herbert Alfred, also at home; and two who died in infancy.  John, the second child of Mr. and Mrs. Worth, is deceased; Elizabeth is the wife of Joseph Gordon, of Clay counry, and their four children are James Sylvester, Herbert Alfred, Ethel and Stella.  Anna, deceased, was the wife of John B. Nicholson, of Jackson township, and their two children are Mary Josephine and Charles Edward.
    James Worth, the eldest of the children, has always remained with his mother, looking after her estate as well as his own.  In 1874 he bought eighteen acres of land in Jackson township, but he has since added forty acres more to this tract, and is engaged in general farming and stock raising.  He is a Republican politically, and a member of the Masonic order in Hymera and of the Christian church.  The politics of Mr. Worth, the father, was also Republican, and he too was a valued and earnest church member.

    James W. Brown – In an account of the events which form the history of Sullivan county the name of this family appears frequently on its pages.  Samuel Brown, the paternal great-grandfather of James W., was a native of Scotland, but during his early life he came to the United States and in time became a resident of Ohio, where with the assistance of his son Samuel he opened a farm.
    Samuel, the son, was also a native of Scotland, and coming with his father to America eventually became a resident of Washington county, Indiana, but after a residence there of about sixteen or eighteen years he came to Sullivan county and died here in 1859.  He became very prominent in the public life of this community, and at one time represented Sullivan county in the legislature.  His politics were Democratic until the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, when he joined the Republicans.  Samuel Brown married Nancy Duff, of Irish descent, and they became the parents of five children:  Stephen, John K., Mary, James and William, all now deceased.
    John K. Brown was born in Washington county, Indiana, in 1819, and he was but a lad of eleven when he came with his parents to Sullivan county and was reared and educated here.  He entered land here in 1854, and became the owner of an estate of three hundred acres, being a lifelong and successful farmer.  After the Civil was he joined the Republican party, and both he and his wife were members of the old-school Presbyterian church.  He married Mary McClary, who was born in Tennessee, and came with her parents to Terre Haute, Indiana.  Her father, John McClary, was a native of Virginia.  Seven children were born to John K. and Mary Brown, as follows:  Margaret E., deceased; Samuel U., of Farmersburg; John C., of Jackson township; Mary J. Burton, who home is in Farmersburg; Nancy E. Ford, also of that place; James W., the subject of this review; and William H., of Jackson township.  Mr. Brown, the father, died in 1895, but his widow yet survives and is living with her son James.  She was born on the 16th of April, 1829.
    James W. Brown remained at home with his parents until his marriage, and his father then gave him one hundred and fifty-four acres, the nucleus of his present homestead, which lies four and a half miles east of Farmersburg and contains one hundred and sixty-six acres.  Mr. Brown is both a grain and stock farmer, and in 1905 he erected a feed mill and threshing machine.  He is also a director and the treasurer of the Delora Oil and Gas Company, and is a prominent factor in the business life of Sullivan county.
    On the 30th of October, 1894, he was married to Mary M. Caton, who was born in Owen county, Indiana, February 29, 1876, a daughter of Hugh B. and Toliver (Candace) Caton, both of whom were also born in Owen county.  They subsequently came to Sullivan county and located at Hymera, where Mr. Caton followed the blacksmith’s trade.  His wife died in 1904, and in 1907 he went to Texas, where he now follows farming and blacksmithing.  Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Brown:  John B., born January 25, 1896; Roy S., March 2, 1897; Nellie M., April 16, 1899; and Daisy M., October 28, 1903.  The three eldest children are attending school.  Mr. Brown gives his political allegiance to the Republican party.  As a member of the well known Bartlett Quartet he toured Indiana and Illinois for four years and won fame and prominence in musical circles.  Both he and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church.

    Harrison Barnhart – The business life of Sullivan county finds a worthy representative in Harrison Barnhart, who has been an agriculturist throughout his industrial career, and during the past four years he has also conducted a wholesale butcher business and enjoys a large and remunerative trade.  During the past seven years he has also bought and shipped stock quite extensively.  When he started out in life for himself after his marriage he owned a little tract of five acres where he now lives, and his present estate consists of eighty-seven acres of rich and fertile land.
    Mr. Barnhart is a representative of one of the oldest families of Sullivan county.  His father, Chauncey C. Barnhart, who was born in Pennsylvania January 29, 1824, came with his mother, his father having previously died, to this county during his early manhood, and they bought forty acres of land in Jackson township, but in 1874 they sold that land and went to Champaign county, Illinois, where they farmed on rented land until Mr. Barnhart was too old to carry on active work for himself.  He then bought property in Tolono, where he yet resides.  His mother, Lydia Barnhart, lived to the age of ninety-three years.  Harrison Barnhart is the only child by his father’s second marriage, he having been four times married, and his second wife bore the maiden name of Charlotte Harlberstadt.  She was born in Jackson township about 1834, and died when her only son and child was a babe of fourteen months.  She was a daughter of Harrison and Elizabeth (Manwarring) Halberstadt, who were farming people.
    After the death of his mother Harrison Barnhart lived with his maternal grandparents until he was twenty-three years of age, when he was married to Hannah Peterson, who was born in Curry township, Sullivan county, March 27, 1863, a daughter of John and Deliah Peterson, the former of whom is now deceased and the latter is living in Jackson township.  Mr. and Mrs. Barnhart have become the parents of five children:  Lillian, who was born July 10, 1882, is the wife of Lou McCrocklin and lives in Curry township; Flora, born October 29, 1883, has completed the course in the public schools; Arthur, born May 20, 1884, is working with his father; Edna, born April 10, 1899, is in school; and Odetta, born October 29, 1904.  Mr. Barnhart is a Republican in his political affiliations.  Mrs. Barnhart is a member of the Methodist church.

    George Gordon, many years of whose life were spent in Sullivan county and who has but lately passed to his final reward, was born in Pennsylvania July 26, 1821, a son on James Gordon.  George Gordon learned blacksmithing in his early life, and coming to Indiana about 1857 he located in Clay county and followed his trade until feeble health caused him to abandon it and then he farmed in a small way until his busy and useful life was ended, dying on the 4th of August, 1906.  His politics were Democratic, and he served his community many years as a constable.  His religious affiliations were with the Methodist church.
        In October of 1875 Mr. Gordon was united in marriage to Miss Rebecca McCray, and this was his third marriage.  The only child of his first union is deceased, and by the second marriage he had the following children:  Joseph, whose home is in Clay county; Jane Agnes, now Mrs. Joseph Copeland; James A., of Clay county; Wilfred, Frank and Charles, all deceased; John A., whose home is in Clay county; George Thomas of Linton, Indiana; and William L., a farmer near Hymera.  Mrs. Gordon, his third wife, is a daughter of Daniel and Sarah (McKay) McCray, who were born in Ireland and emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1834, two years before the birth of their daughter Rebecca.  The father farmed in Beaver county, that state, until his death in May, 1864, and some years afterward his family came to Greene county, Indiana, and bought the farm on which the widow spent the remainder of her life, dying about 1873.  Mrs. Gordon is now living in Sullivan county.
    William Gordon married, on the 13th of September, 1900, Nina Badders, who was born in Jackson township on the 12th of October, 1872, a daughter of Samuel F. and Mary (Snowden) Badders, natives respectively of Pennsylvania and of Ireland.  They are now living in Jackson township, Sullivan county, where the father during his active business life conducted his farm of nearly four hundred acres.  Mr. and Mrs. Gordon have four children, - Ralph, Gladys, Walter and Claud.  Mr. Gordon has fraternal relations with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.  He was formerly a miner, but during the past few years has carried on the work of the eighty acre farm on which the family now reside, although he expects soon to return to his former occupation of mining.

    Solomon Wyman, who is farming in Jackson township, was born in Owen county, this state, March 20, 1857, the fifth of the seven children born to Jacob and Sarah (Saddler) Wyman, natives respectively of Germany and of Tuscarawas county, Ohio.  The mother is still living, her home being near Sullivan, and she has now reached the advanced age of eighty-four year, her birth occurring in 1824.  Jacob Wyman, who was born in 1821, was twenty-one years of age when he came to the United States, and after working in a carriage factory in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, for two or three years, he went to Ohio and followed the same trade there.  He was married and lived there until about 1854, when he came to Owen county, and three years later to Sullivan county, where he bought a farm where Jackson Hill is now located.  He built a shop on his farm and continued the manufacture of wagons and general repair work until 1873, when he sold his shop and went to Hamilton township, still following his trade until about five years before his death, which occurred on the 17th of September, 1905.  He was a Lutheran in his religious views, and his wife was a Dunkard.
    In his boyhood days Solomon Wyman attended school in the old log houses then in use in Jackson and Hamilton townships, and he began farming for himself when twenty years of age, remaining on his father’s farm for five years, after which he married and moved to another part of the home estate, until finally in 1884 he came to his present homestead, which has been the birthplace of all of his children.  He owns eighty acres of land, when he expects to return in the near future, for he has been living for a short time at Jackson Hill.  He is a miner as well as a farmer and stock raiser, mining during the winter months when not busy on his farm.  He is a member of the United Mine Workers of America, and is democrat politically.  During four years he served as the assessor of Hamilton township, having been elected to the office in 1882.  His religious views are in harmony with the teachings of the Missionary Baptist church, and his wife is a member of that denomination.
    On the 21st of July, 1883, Mr. Wyman was married to Miss Mary L. Wright, who was born in Coshocton county, Ohio, April 16, 1862, a daughter of William and Mary (Gordon) Wright, who came from their native state of Ohio to Coles county, Illinois, and thence four years later in 1869 to Sullivan county, Indiana, and located on Farmers prairie in Hamilton township.  After a residence there of twenty years they moved to Posey county in this state, where the father died two years later, and the mother now resides with a daughter in East St. Louis, Illinois, aged seventy-four years.  Mr. and Mrs. Wyman have had seven children, but the first four died in infancy; Pearl is the wife of Oscar Keen, of Jackson township, and their three children are Paul, Harold and Lester; and William R., Bertha, Clarence, Leota, Mary and Ruby, who are at home with their parents.

    John Tennis – The life work of John Tennis was crowned with a well merited degree of success, and in Sullivan county, where he so long lived and labored, he endeared himself to many friends, and his memory is cherished by those who knew him.  Born in northern Pennsylvania on the 28th of April, 1842, he was a son of John J. and Nancy Ann (Rose) Tennis, who were also from that state and were married there.  Coming to Sullivan county in their early life they located on a densely wooded form in Jackson township, buying canal land, and here the father toiled early and late until his death about 1876 to bring his farm under cultivation.  After a few years the mother sold the farm, and thereafter made her home with her children until her death in 1893.
    John Tennis, their son, attended the Badder school in Jackson township in his boyhood, and when he had attained the age of seventeen he began working as a farm hand in Jackson township, but after his marriage, at the age of twenty-one, he lived on his father-in-law’s farm until his death, December 17, 1899.  Some years before his demise her father had deeded this farm to Mrs. Tennis, and since her husband’s death she has carried forward the work of the old homestead with the aid of her sons, and is one of the brave and honored pioneer women of the county.
    Mrs. Tennis bore the maiden name of Diana Worth, and was married on the 11th of October, 1863.  Her parents, James and Elizabeth (Romig) Worth, were born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, but in 1858 they came to Sullivan county, Indiana, and located on a farm in Cass township, where their deaths subsequently occurred.  Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Tennis, namely:  James William, deceased; Charles Martin, who is a farmer in South Dakota; Mary Elizabeth, deceased; Jacob Henry, who resides with his mother and has charge of the home farm; John Harrison, a farmer in Greene county; Martha Ann, wife of W.O. Mattox, a miner in Jackson township; Ida Jane, wife of John J. Brewer, who is farming in northwestern Canada; Alfred Alonzo, who is also with his mother; and Roscoe Scott, who is with his sister, Mrs. Mattox.  The oldest son of the family is a member of the fraternal order of Woodmen, while the youngest is a member of the Miners’ Union.  Mr. Tennis, the father, voted with the Democracy, and he was a true and earnest adherent of the Methodist church.

    Andrew Jackson Steele is a man who can lay many claims to prominence in Sullivan county.  He is a member of one of its oldest and most prominent pioneer families, and to him and his brother-in-law, William A. Lambright, is given the credit of the discovery of coal in this vicinity, which has added much to the wealth of the county.  In lieu of this discovery they were given the option on several hundred acres of land, but much time elapsed before a road could be built to the land.
    During many years Mr. Steele has been engaged in general farming and stock raising in Jackson township.  When he reached the age of twenty-two he left his parents’ home and rented land in Ohio until he came to Indiana, where during a couple of winters he was engaged in coal mining and also did contract work for a company engaged in coal mining and also did contract work for a company engaged in bridge and road building.  After coming to Sullivan county he bought twenty-five acres, the nucleus of his present estate, which contains one hundred and twenty acres, and in addition his wife also owns a small farm near by.  He is a shareholder in the Hymera State Bank at Hymera.  In 1896 he was a candidate for the office of representative to the state legislature, and throughout the years of his maturity he has been prominent in public affairs, voting independently.  He is a member of the United Mine Workers, and was a Knight of Labor.
    The Steele family came originally from Scotland, which was the birthplace of James Steele, the great-grandfather of Andrew J., and he was a younger brother of Lord Steele of that country.  During the colonial period he came to America and located in Virginia.  His son Basil, the grandfather of Andrew, was born in North Carolina June 26, 1775, but from there moved to Virginia and later to Ohio, where he died on July 3, 1857.  His wife, nee Rachael Sparling, was born June 30, 1777, in Virginia, and her death occurred in Ohio December 30, 1874, aged ninety-seven years and six months.  Among their children was David Steele, who was a farmer and stock raiser throughout his entire business career, and his death occurred in 1900, surviving his wife, Elizabeth Vermillion, for some years.
    Andrew J. Steele, a son of David and Elizabeth (Vermillion) Steele, was born in Harrison county, Ohio, September 1, 1847, and received his education in district school No. 4 of Washington township, that county.  On the 13th of November, 1869, he was united in marriage to Eliza Jane Lambright, a daughter of Henry and Mary Jane (Shivers) Lambright, both of whom were born in Ohio, near Urichville.  The paternal family were early resident there, and the old home which belonged to her grandfather is still in the Lambright name and the heirs are endeavoring to hand the estate from one generation to another.  Her parents came to Sullivan county, Indiana, in 1883, locating in Cass township, where both spent the remainder of their lives.  Ten children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Steele, namely:  Ernest O., who is married and resides on a farm near Hymera; Claudius Wilbert, at home; Nina Florence, the wife of Harry Badder, of Arkansas; Mary Elizabeth, deceased; Joseph Victor, of Illinois; Henry David, deceased; Oliver, at home; Ella Frances, the wife of Porter Campbell, of Jacksonville; and Lutie May and Ona Eva, both at home.  Mr. Steele is independent in his political affiliations.  Mr. and Mrs. Steele have in their possession two of the old parchment deeds – one executed under the hand and seal of President John Tyler and bears the date of Aug. 1, 1844, and the other by President Martin Van Buren and dated Aug. 1, 1839.  These deeds are valuable souvenirs in old Sullivan county.

    Nathan J. Sills – Among the business men of prominence in Jackson township is numbered Nathan J. Sills, who follows both farming and mining.  He is also numbered among the native sons of Jackson township, born on the 26th of February, 1864, to David and Elizabeth (Bogard) Sills, both of whom claimed Kentucky as the commonwealth of their nativity.  They came with their parents in an early day to Indiana, the Bogards locating in Vigo county and the Sills in Jackson township, Sullivan county.  After attaining to mature years David Sills began farming for himself, and continued in the occupation until stricken with paralysis in about 1874, his death occurring four years later in 1878.  The last four years of his life were spent on the farm on which his son Nathan now lives.  His widow is now residing near Lewis in this township, having reached the advanced age of eighty-six years.
    The educational training of Nathan J. Sills was received in school No. 1 of Jackson township, and when but fifteen years of age he was obliged to begin the battle of life for himself, for his father was an invalid and much of the support of the family fell upon his young shoulders.  He remained at home until he was twenty-one, after which he rented a farm in Clay county for one season, and then returning to the home farm worked in the mine as well as superintending the work of the farm.  In 1892 he bought thirty-seven and a half acres of the old home place, to which he later added twenty acres adjoining, and he still continues to work in the mine and look after his farming interests.
    On the 26th of March, 1885, Mr. Sills was united in marriage to Miss Ella Willie, who was born in Owen county, Indiana, June 20, 1864, a daughter of John E. and Magdalena Everhart Willie, the father a native of Germany and the mother of Switzerland, and both are now deceased.  They came to Sullivan county, Indiana, about 1868, where the father’s death occurred in 1900 and the mother’s many years previously, in 1887.  Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Sills, namely:  Winnie Myrtle, the wife of Frank Fulfard, a miner at Bicknell, Knox county, and they have two children, Alsie Lucile and Carl Francis; George Francis, who is with his parents; Flora Ethel, the wife of Harry Keenan, a miner and electrician at Jackson Hill; and Ernest Burton, deceased.  Oscar Willie, a son of Mrs. Sills by a former marriage, also resides in this home.  Mr. Sills is a member of the United Mine Workers of America, and both he and his wife are members of the Baptist church.

    James B. Gaskill, who is farming in Jackson township, was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, June 1, 1841, a son of Andrew and Susanna (Lacey) Gaskill, natives respectively of England and of Carroll county, Ohio.  The father came to America about 1836, first locating in New Comerstown, Ohio, where he taught school for several years, and was there married in 1839.  After a residence there of fourteen years he sold his possessions intending to come to Indiana, having a public sale for his stock, etc., but on the evening of that day, which was a rainy one, he became suddenly ill and died nine days later.  His widow remained on the place for one year longer, and then joining a party of emigrants bound for Indiana made the overland journey to this state, first stopping in Greene county.  She was accompanied on the trip by her six children, of whom James B. was the eldest, and in Greene county she bought a farm for twelve hundred dollars and a team and wagon, which left her a surplus in money of only one hundred dollars.  But thirty days after the purchase she was informed that the place was mortgaged for five hundred dollars, and to add to the misfortune one of her horses and a cow died.  She was compelled to leave the place in 1856, and coming to Sullivan rented a house and worked for other in order to support her family.  After one year she moved to the O.M. Patton place in Jackson township, which continued as her home until 1861.
    About this time James B. Gaskill went to work for Samuel Badders and took his mother with him, receiving twenty cents a day in wages and he remained there for seven years.  During the following years he farmed rented land in Cass township, but six years after Mr. Gaskill’s marriage his wife died and his mother then returned and was with him for three years.  For several years thereafter his home was at Jackson Hill, and there his mother died about 1888.
    Mr. Gaskill has been four times married, wedding first Polly Ann Hart, by whom he had three children:  Alice, the deceased wife of Tom Murratta; Etta, deceased, became the wife of James Johnson, of Jackson township; and John, also deceased, was an engineer at the mines.  He married secondly Margaret Stanley, who died eleven months later, leaving one son, Edward M., who is married and resides on a farm adjoining his father’s home.  Mary Jane Neal, a widow, became his third wife, and they had nine children, namely:  William, of Jackson township; Sylvia, the wife of Galen Burritt, a carpenter at Gilmore; Elmer, deceased; Flora and Stella, both at home; Delphia, Charley and Oscar, all deceased; and Eva, at home.  In 1899 Mr. Gaskill wedded Martha Setty, a widow, and their two children are Gladys and Madge, but the younger is deceased.  Gladys resides with her mother at Gilmore.
    Mr. Gaskill owns a valuable estate of two hundred and sixty acres in Jackson township, where he is engaged in general farming and stock raising, making a specialty of the raising of Southdown and Shropshire sheep and of mules.  His farm is richly underlaid with coal.  He is a member of the order of Odd Fellows, lodge No. 603, at Hymera.
   
    Samuel R. Cole, one of the leading farmers and stock raisers of Jackson township, was born in Bloomfield, Indiana, August 23, 1845, a son of John and Rachel (Bradford) Cole, natives respectively of Kentucky and Virginia.  John Cole came with his parents to Indiana in the early twenties and located near Bloomington, and his mother died there, her husband surviving her until about 1858 and dying at the home of his son.  In an early day John Cole located in Bloomfield, Indiana, and for many years served as a deputy in the court house there.  In 1858 he joined a party from Indian bound for the gold fields of California, and spent about two years in that state and in the overland journeys there and back, and on his return to Bloomfield he engaged in farming.
    In November of 1861 John Cole and his son Samuel enlisted in Company D, Fifty-ninth Regiment of Indiana Infantry, for service in the Civil war, and the father served about eight months, while the son continued as a soldier for three years and seven months, both participating in the battles of Island No. 10, Benton and Cornith, while the son continued on through the battles of Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and Atlanta, serving on the Mississippi most of the time until they moved on to Atlanta.  The father was for a time confined in the general hospital at Cornith, and was discharged early in 1862.  The son was mustered out at Indianapolis at the close of the war.
    After his return from the was John Cole continued farming until 1868, and going then to Nebraska spent the following year in that state, while after his return to Indiana he embarked in the mercantile business at Lyons, remaining there until his death of the 1st of May, 1870.  His wife died in about 1879 in Jackson township.
    Samuel R. Cole was a young man of twenty when he returned from the way, and from that time until 1873 he farmed on rented land in Greene county.  In that year he came to Sullivan county and rented a farm in Jackson township, and about 1879 he added thirty-four acres to the forty acres which belonged to his wife and where they now reside, but he has since sold a part of this tract until the farm now contains but sixty-nine acres.  He follows general farming and stock raising, and has been very successful in his operations.
    In November of 1860 Mr. Cole married Mary Harrah, who was also born in Bloomfield, a daughter of James and Kissie Harrah, both now deceased, as is also the daughter, who was born in 1845 and died in February, 1873.  On the 17th of June, 1875, Mr. Cole wedded Teresa Snowden, who was born in Ireland January 27, 1841, a daughter of Orr and Nancy (Martin) Snowden, who came to the United States in 1841 and located in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.  The father preceded the family to this country a short time and engaged in general work, and later he became a miner.   In 1853 he came to Sullivan county, Indiana, and bought canal land in Jackson township, where he died in 1879, a week after the death of Mrs. Cole’s mother.  His wife died on the 26th of January, 1889.  Mr. Cole gives his political support to the Republican party, and is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Grand Army of the Republic.  Both he and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church at Jackson Hill, and he is one of its elders.

    Charles C. Schlichter, a general farmer, residing in Gill township, Sullivan county, Indiana, is numbered among the citizens who are making good progress in the pursuit of agriculture within this section of the state.  He is a native of Dresden, Muskingum county, Ohio, born December 25, 1839, a son of Jacob F. and Susan (Miller) Schlichter, both of whom were natives of Germany.  The father was born in 1807 and came to America in 1826.  He lived in New York a short time, being employed in a paint and soap factory, where he was seriously injured by falling into a paint vat.  He was united in marriage in New York and moved to Dresden, Ohio, where he purchased a farm on the Muskingum river and there resided until 1841.  He then bought a farm in Pike county where he lived about twelve years, and then removed to Perry county, remaining there a short time, when he retraced his steps to Pike county, where he bought the farm on which he died about 1855, his wife having passed away in 1841.  The grandfather of Charles G. was mayor of the city in which he lived in Germany for many years.  At one time he sent his son Jacob F., five thousand dollars in gold as a gift.  From the foregoing and other information it appears that the Schlichter family were from the better classes of the great German empire.
    Though he had only about three months’ actual schooling, Charles C. Schlichter, who is now sixty-nine years of age, by persistent study, has become a well informed man.  The greater part of his study was while serving in the army.  When seventeen years of age he was bound to a farmer in Ohio and remained with him until about twenty years of age, when he went to Portsmouth, Ohio, where he was employed at a hundred and fifty dollars a year, working in a nursery most of the time.  A part of his time he assisted his employer in a shoe store.  Mr. Schlichter remained here until the Civil war broke out, when he enlisted as a member of Company C, Fifty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving four years, five months and twenty-five days.  He enlisted November 16, 1861, and was discharged February 1, 1865, and was honorably discharged April 25, 1866.  During his exceedingly long service in the army of his country, he participated in ten battles and was wounded in his right hand and also in the right shin.  He acted as commissary sergeant a year and a half, but was not promoted.  He was engaged in the following battles:  Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 6 and 7, 1862; Siege of Corinth, Mississippi, May, 1862; in 1863 at Port Gibson, May 1, Champion Hills, May 16, Siege of Vicksburg, June and July, Jackson, July 12 to 15, all in Mississippi, and Carrion Crow Bayou, Louisiana, November 23; during 1864, at Sabine Cross Roads, April 8, Monett’s Ferry, April 23, and Snaggs’ Point, May 5, these three battles being in Louisiana.
    After his return from the war he went back to Portsmouth, Ohio, and was employed in a rolling-mill about one year, after which he went to Des Moines, Iowa, and on to Dallas county of the same state, and there had charge of a farm belonging to a doctor, a resident of Des Moines.  This place contained an even thousand acres of land, and here he remained for two yeas; then returned to Portsmouth, Ohio, where he was employed with a large coal company for the next two years.  The succeeding years he was in a rolling-mill, which business failed on account of a panic in money matters.  Mr. Schlichter then purchased a dairy, which he operated five years, having two hundred and seventy-two customers.  His health failing, he bought a farm of one hundred and forty acres, situated seven miles distant, and there he remained for eleven years.  He traded this place for four houses in Portsmouth, but later disposed of all his property in Ohio, and came to Gill township, Sullivan county, Indiana, his present home.  His daughter had already come here two years before.  He settled here at the time of the McKinley flood.  Mr. Schlichter purchased one hundred and ten acres of land, upon which he resided until recently, when he sold his place for $8,175 and now lives retired.  When he came to this section he bought good corn at fifteen cents a bushel.  He did general farming and raised some swine, his large experience peculiarly fitting him for intelligent work as an agriculturist of the up-to-date type.
    It is not the lot of all men, indeed of few, to escape through so long a term of years without being duped or caused to part with a part of their hard earned money, and Mr. Schlichter did not escape.  He engaged in the coal business in Ohio, in partnership with a man named Draper.  They had $2,500 in the bank and about two months later his partner drew the same out and gambled it all away.  Politically Mr. Schlichter is an avowed Republican.  While a resident of Ohio, he served as trustee for eight years and was also on the school board in that state.  At one time he held membership with the Odd Fellows order and held various official positions in his lodge, but has not been connected with the fraternity for several years.
    While on furlough he was happily united in marriage, June 15, 1864, to Mary Elizabeth Hauck, who was born in Meigs county, Ohio, March 25, 1840, a daughter of Charles J. and Mary A. (Holstetter) Hauck.  The father was a native of Germany, as was the mother, who was born March 15, 1810; Charles Hauck was born about the same time as his wife and he came to America in 1831, going to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he mastered the trade of shoemaking, serving three years.  He married and remained there five years, and then moved to Chester, Ohio, where he followed his trade and purchased a small farm.  There he made his home for many years, but later removed to a farm of one hundred and eighty acres, which he bought within a few miles of Pomeroy.  Here he spent the balance of his days, dying in 1877, while his wife survived twelve years longer.  Mr. and Mrs. Schlichter are the parents of the following children:  Mary Anna, wife of William D. Prose, residing near her parents and the mother of six children; Valentine George, married Almira Andrea and they live on his father’s farm and have six children; Caroline Susan, wife of Alexander Prose, who lives near the parents’ farm, and they have three children.

    Leonard Marshall, an agriculturist of Jackson township, Sullivan county, was born in Washington county, Indiana, December 22, 1832, a son of Ambrose and Cynthia (Roby) Marshall, natives respectively of Kentucky and Washington county, Indiana.  The father was a soldier in the war of 1812, and in an early day in its history he came to Indiana and took up his abode in Washington county, where he followed farming and to some extent coopering until his death, both he and his wife dying in that county.  Their religious views were in harmony with the principles of the United Brethren church.
    When he reached the age of twenty-one years Leonard Marshall left his boyhood’s home and moved to a farm which he purchased in Washington county, residing there until about 1868.  He had previously bought eighty acres of land where he now lives, buying it about 1860, and in 1872 he located thereon, but at that time the tract was covered with timber.  He cleared the land and added to its boundaries until he now has about one hundred and forty acres, all in one body but lying in three townships, Cass, Hamilton and Jackson, and he also owns the coal which underlies this tract.
    Mr. Marshall married, April 1, 1853, Lucy Jane Montgomery, who was born in Virginia on the 25th of July, 1835, but when she was but eight years of age her parents moved from that state to Missouri, crossing the Mississippi river on foot on the ice.  After a residence of eight months in Missouri the father died, and the mother with her family then moved to Washington county, Indiana.  Her family consisted of nine children, two sons then living in Washington county, and she resided with one of these sons a short time, but her residence in that county covered a period of ten years.  She died at the home of Mr. Marshall in 1866.  Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, namely:  William Franklin, a farmer near Chappel Church in Cass township; Henry A., deceased; John W., who has charge of the home farm and resides with his parents; and George D., who resides in Cass township and is farming a part of his father’s farm.  Mr. Marshall is a Democrat in politics, and fraternally is a member of the Masonic order.

    Albert J. Zink, one of the leading business men and farmers of Hymera, was born and has spent his entire life in Sullivan, his birth occurring in Jackson township of the 27th of October, 1855, a son of Michael and Clarissa (Hubanks) Zink, natives respectively of Washington county, Indiana, and of Maysville, Kentucky.  The father, who was a life-long farmer, came to Jackson township with his father when only thirteen years old, and at the time of his death in 1888 he owned a beautiful estate of two hundred and eighty acres, the accumulation of his own personal efforts and industry.  The mother died in the year of 1892.
    Albert J. Zink received his educational training in the district schools of Jackson township, and at the age of twenty he began his life work as a renter, renting of his father and also conducting his estate until the latter’s death.  His first purchase of land was a tract of forty acres in 1882, and by adding to this from time to time he became the owner of one hundred and twenty acres, but in 1908 he sold this farm to the coal company and a short time afterwards bought eighty acres which he now conducts.  He also owns a fine business block in the town of Hymera, and is connected with the leading general store and meat market there, in which they carry a seven thousand dollar stock.  Some years ago Mr. Zink made a specialty of the raising of wheat, and is now also quite extensively engaged in small farming and hay growing, which he uses as feed for his horses.  His interests are extensive and varied, and his efforts are being substantially rewarded.
    The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Zink occurred in March of 1876, and she bore the maiden name of Mary B. Hughes and was born in Virginia, as also her parents, Henry M. and Harriett (Thayer) Hughes.  They came to Sullivan county during the war and located near Shelburn, where he followed blacksmithing for many years, but later bought and operated a farm for a few years, and then selling his land here returned to Virginia.  But in a few years he came again to Sullivan county, where he died at Hymera in 1898 and the mother one year later.  The daughter received her education in the schools of Shelburn.  Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Zink, namely:  Clara, the wife of J.J. Branson, of Hymera; Blanch, deceased; Maud, the wife of J.L. Pipher, also of Hymera; and Herbert, Herschel, Cora Castella and Gladys, at home.  Mr. Zink is a Democrat in politics, and is a member of the Methodist church.

    Singleton Marshall has spent many years of his long and useful career in Sullivan county, prominently identified with its business interests.  He was born in Washington county, Indiana, June 1, 1828, a son of Ambrose and Cynthia (Robie) Marshall.  The mother was reared from a mere child near Albany, Indiana, and she was of Scotch-Irish descent.  Ambrose Marshall, a native of Kentucky, was of English descent, and came with his parents to Indiana when about ten years of age, the family locating in Washington county, where his father was a blacksmith and an exceptionally fine workman in his line.  Ambrose Marshall followed farming all his life, and both he and his father died in Washington county.
    Singleton Marshall continued to reside with his parents until he was twenty-one, and during the following three years worked for his father.  After his marriage he bought a farm in Washington county, but after six years sold the land and then rented land for three years.  Purchasing then one hundred and sixty acres near where he now lives, he lived there until about 1890, when he went west in search of a better location, but finding nothing which surpassed the land of this section of Indiana he returned and lived on a rented farm for a short time.  He then purchased a tract of land near Hymera, but afterward on account of ill health he went to Arkansas and bought two hundred and forty-seven acres in that state, two hundred acres of which he yet owns.  He spent the winters there for several years, and he now makes his home with a daughter-in-law in Jackson.
    In August, 1850, Mr. Marshall was united in marriage to Mary Ann Allen, whose parents were farming people in Washington county, Indiana, and both are now deceased, the mother, Christena (Lee) Allen, dying in 1883.  Eleven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, namely:  Robert Cornelius, deceased; Martha Caroline, also deceased; Alfred Franklin, a physician of Jacksonville, Indiana; Mary Jane, the wife of William Lucas, of Denver, Colorado; Emma, wife of Douglas Marshall, of Jackson township; Julian, a farmer of Hamilton township; Laura, the wife of John Nead, of Hymera; Onie, wife of Charles Rusher, of Jackson township; Oliver, who was killed by a train at Hymera in 1901; Eva, who died at the age of twenty years; and Edward, also deceased.  Mr. Marshall is independent in his political affiliations, and he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.

    Francis Marion Dorothy – Among the early day business men of Indiana was numbered Francis M. Dorothy, who during many years of his active life was identified with the mercantile business.   He was born in Vigo county, this state, August 24, 1834, a son of Harrison and Lucinda (Sweeney) Dorothy, who were natives of Kentucky and of Irish descent.  In his youth the son Francis located in the village of Old York in Clark county, Illinois, where he worked as a mechanic until 1852, and for some time afterward was a mercantile salesman there.  In the fall of 1881(1861) he enlisted as a Civil was soldier, becoming a member of Company F, Fifth Illinois Cavalry, entering the ranks as a lieutenant.  He took part in several hard-fought skirmishes, and on one occasion was wounded in the left knee, the ball remaining embedded in the wound until his death.  Returning home after his discharge from the army he was engaged in business in Robison for four years, from that time until the summer of 1879 was identified with the business interests of Bellair, Illinois, and miving thence to Clay City, Indiana, he was a prominent and successful merchant until his death on the 12th of December, 1888.  He was a member of the time honored order of Masons, and an earnest and active Republican.
    On the 18th of December, 1871, Mr. Dorothy was united in marriage to Miss Notolean Peters, who was born in Queen Ann county, Maryland, December 30, 1841, a daughter of John Wesley and Martha (Wallace) Peters, of English descent and natives respectively of Maryland and Delaware.  They were farming people, and both are now deceased.  When their daughter Notolean was fourteen years of age she came to Park (Clark) county, Illinois, to live with an uncle, who was a miller, and she was a member of his home from 1856 until her marriage.  After the death of her husband she continued the business and remained in Clay county until 1896, when she sold the store and came to Hymera to engage in the mercantile business here.  She was the proprietor of one of the town’s leading mercantile establishments, carrying a stock valued at three thousand dollars, and met with the success she so well merited.  Mrs. Dorothy is the mother of four children:  Francis Otto, the first born, married Ethel Beckett, by whom he had one child, Hester, and he died on the 30th of September, 1901.  Charles is a miner and resides at home, as does also the younger son, Dick, who had charge of the store.  May is the wife of Charles Zenor and resides in Hymera.  They have two children, Donald and Dorothy.

    Charles Barnhart – From the age of twenty-four years to the present time Charles Barnhart has been prominently identified with the business interests of Sullivan county.  At that age he started to work for himself, but for some years following this he conducted his father’s farm, and then buying out the heirs to the home estate resided thereon until the year of 1887.  Selling the land then he bought another farm of ninety-two acres where the village of Hymera now stands, but he has since sold this entire tract in town lots with the exception of one and a half acres.  During about six years of this time he was engaged in the furniture business, was also in the livery business for about four years, and during the past twenty-one years he has been the proprietor of a well known and popular hotel.  He has thus contributed much to the public life and interests of Hymera and vicinity, and the community numbers him among her foremost business men and citizens.
    Mr. Barnhart was born in Owen county, Indiana, February 28, 1851, and is of German parentage.  His father, Henry Barnhart, came to America when about twenty-two years of age and located in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, where he was employed on public works for some years and then bought a farm in that county.  After a residence there of several years, however, he sold the land and moved to Owen county, Indiana, where he bought a farm and resided there until selling the land in 1885 he came to Jackson township, Sullivan county, buying a farm a half a mile south of Hymera.  He resided on this homestead until his death in the year of 1877, when he had reached the age of sixty-eight years.  His wife, Margaret, was born near his old home in Germany, and coming to America about the same time they were married in Ohio.  The wife died about ten years after the death of her husband, aged seventy-seven years.  The two children of Mr. and Mrs. Barnhart are Bert, a pharmacist, and engaged in the drug business in Indianapolis, and Ralph, who is with his parents and attending school.  Mr. Barnhart is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Methodist church, and in politics he upholds the principles of the Democratic party.  The original spelling of this name was Barnhardt, but it has since been changed to its present form.

    John A. Spear – The life’s labors of John A. Spear were ended on the 17th of August, 1899, when death took from Sullivan county one of its truest and best citizens.  He was born in Coshocton county, Ohio, April 9, 1835, and starting in life for himself at about the age of eighteen he continued to work for his father for one year, and after his marriage his father deeded him forty acres of land in Owen county, in the Spear settlement.  During the period of the Civil war he served as a private in Company A, Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry for three and a half years, and he was in service for six months before being mustered in.  During the most of the time of his army service he was a teamster on an ammunition wagon.  Previous to entering the army Mr. Spear had sold the land which his father had given him and on which he had farmed for six years; and after returning from the war he bought a tract of eighty acres near Hymera, and there he lived and labored until his busy and useful life was ended.
    Mr. Spear was a son of David Spear, who was a native of Virginia, as was also his wife, Jane Vance, and very early in its history he moved to Ohio and enrolled his name among its pioneers.  He continued to farm in that state until his removal to Owen county, Indiana, in about 1850, where he bought a farm and resided until his death in about 1890.  His wife survived him for eight years, dying in 1898.  He was a Republican politically, but never desired the honors of office.
    On the 14th of September, 1856, Mr. Spear married Lydia A. Criss, who was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, near New Lisbon, November 6, 1835, a daughter of Isaac D. and Susana (France) Criss, both of whom were also born in Ohio, the mother in Old Philadelphia and the father in Carl county.  He was a farmer, and coming to Owen county, Indiana, near Spencer, about 1843, he entered a homestead there and continued his residence thereon until his death in 1878.  The mother survived until 1890.  They were members of the Baptist church, and were highly respected in the community in which they so long resided.  Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Spear, namely:  James Isaac, who died at the age of eight years and four months; Sulesta, the wife of O.H. Gagan of Hymera; Louisa, who married Perry Bear and resides in Knox county, Indiana; David V., a miner and farmer in Hymera; Oliver M., a prospector and miner in Colorado; Anna, the widow of Perry Botts and who resides with her mother; Jennie F., the wife of I.N. Botts, of Hymera; William H., who died at the age of thirty-three years, in 1906; and Levi Hale, who died in infancy.
    Mrs. Spear continued to reside on the homestead farm until about two years after the death of her husband, when at the request of her son she moved to the village of Hymera and now resides in one of its most spacious homes.  She yet owns the old farm property.  Since the age of fourteen years she has been an earnest and consistent member of the Christian church, and her husband was also affiliated with that denomination.

    Francis M. Nead, a member of one of the most prominent of Sullivan county’s early families, was born in Jackson township on the 16th of October, 1858, a son of John and Nancy A. (Tipton) Nead and a grandson of George Nead, who died on the 6th of February, 1856, aged about sixty-seven years.  His grandparents were natives of Switzerland, but emigrated when young to Pennsylvania and thence to Carroll county, Ohio, where they spent the remainder of their lives and were there buried.  George Nead was both a farmer and cooper, and in early life he married Sarah Mizer, who was born in Carroll county, Ohio, and died June 13, 1888, aged more that eighty-eight years.
    John Nead also claimed Carroll county as the place of his nativity, born November 4, 1830, but three years later his parents moved to Coshocton county, that state, where the senior Mr. Nead became a prominent farmer.  In 1854 the son came to Sullivan county, Indiana, and bought eighty acres of land in Jackson township, where he followed general farming until his enlistment, on the 26th of August, 1862, as a private in the Ninety-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Company I, in which he served a little over a year and died on the 31st of August, 1863, from sickness contracted in the army.  He was buried with military honors at Camp Sherman, Mississippi, on the Big Black river, but with those of other soldiers his remains were afterward taken to the burial ground of the National Cemetery at Vicksburg, and his grave was marked by a stone bearing the initials of J.N.  Mrs. Nead, his wife, was born March 5, 1831, in Coshocton county, Ohio, a daughter of William and Patience S. (Pugh) Tipton, the former of whom was born in Virginia August 20, 1798, and the latter in Berkeley county, West Virginia, November 18, 1794.  Moving to Ohio when a boy William Tipton spent his early youth on the Maumee river, where he was married in 1818, and many years afterward, in 1847, they came to Owen county, Indiana, and farmed there until the death of the husband and father, May 29, 1854.  The mother had moved with her parents to Ohio when a young girl, and after the death of her husband, in 1854, she came to Jackson township in Sullivan county, and resided here until her death, March 1, 1868.
    Francis M. was the eldest of the three children born to John and Nancy A. Nead, and he was but a little lad of five years at the time of the death of his father.  His mother kept him in school until he was about eighteen, attending the graded schools of Hymers, Sullivan and Farmersburg, and for fifteen years after the completion of his education, beginning in 1879, he was engaged in teaching.  During that time he had become the owner of the paternal homestead, and at about the close of his professional career he was elected the assessor of Jackson township and continued to reside on the farm until October of 1907.  Previous to this time he had bought the site for the splendidly equipped home which he built at that time, and he still owns the old farm and about fifteen acres adjoining.
    On the 22d of August, 1883, Mr. Nead was married to Adaline Payne, who was born in Jackson township August 22, 1858, a daughter of Hosea and Sarah A. (Asbury) Payne, the father a native of North Carolina, born on the 25th of December, 1815, and his wife was some years his junior.  He came with his parents to Lawrence county, this state, about 1830, and from there to Sullivan county, where he bought a farm in Jackson township, married, and continued to reside here until his death in 1900.  His wife died four years later, in 1904.  Mr. and Mrs. Nead have four children:  Conza C., born October 6, 1884, married in 1904 Evan G. Moreland and resides on the old homestead in Jackson township; Garland H., born October 30, 1887, taught school some years, and is now with her parents; Wendell Holmes, born December 27, 1894, is in school, as is also Mary Esther, born September 13, 1901.  Mr. Nead’s politics are Democratic, and for five years, from 1895 to 1900, he served as an assessor, and he is now serving his fourth year as trustee, having been re-elected as the trustee of the township of Jackson November 3, 1908.  He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Hymera Lodge No. 603, in which he has filled all of the offices and is one of the present trustees, and has also represented the orger in the Grand Lodge.  This lodge was instituted here on the 6th of October, 1883.  He is a prominent and worthy member of the Methodist church.

    Robert G. Jackson, who is numbered among the business men of Jackson township and Hymera, was born in Pleasantville, Jefferson township, Sullivan county, March 4, 1869, a son of J.H. and Nancy C. (McClung) Jackson, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Indiana.  J.H. Jackson came with his parents to Indiana when ten years of age, in 1842, the family locating on a farm in Jefferson township, Sullivan county, where the parents spent the remainder of their lives.  The son has continued his residence on a farm near by the one selected by his parents.  During the Civil war he served as a soldier in an Indiana regiment, but in a short time after enlisting he was wounded and crippled in a railroad wreck and was discharged from the service.  Mrs. Jackson, his wife, was born in 1848.
    Robert G. Jackson remained on the home farm with his father until the age of twenty-one, when he purchased land in Jefferson township, but after one year there he sold that land and bought another farm.  There he resided for ten years, and then selling that farm he bought another in Jackson township, which he yet owns in connection with a tract of forty acres four miles north of Hymera.  He also has valuable property interests in Hymera, and during the past seven years he has been engaged in plastering there.
    On the 4th of December, 1891, Mr. Jackson was united in marriage to Minnie V. Steele, a daughter of Samuel and Anna J. (Murdock) Steele, the mother a native of Ireland and the father of Dearborn county, Indiana.  During many years he was a blacksmith in Sullivan, and he died in the years of 1874.  His widow was a resident of Youngstown, this state, and died on March 11, 1909.  Mr. and Mrs. Jackson have four children, - Lomie L., Vanessa L., Vida B. and Lowell G.  Mr. Jackson is a member of the Masonic order at Hymera, is a Republican politically, and both his and his wife’s religious affiliations are with the Methodist church.

    Thomas W. Hamilton – During a period of twenty years Thomas W. Hamilton has resided on his present estate in Jackson township, prominently identified with its agricultural and stock raising interests.  His farm contains sixty acres of rich and fertile land, and he is extensively engaged in the breeding of Hereford cattle, and some years ago he sold an animal which was the pride of the stockmen of the vicinity, it weighing twenty-four hundred and eighty-seven pounds.  During two years Mr. Hamilton served as the assessor of the township, elected by the Republican party, and he proved an efficient officer.
    Mr. Hamilton is one of a large family of children born to William Hamilton, his natal day being the 11th of June, 1845, and his father was a native of Kentucky, but came to Indiana during an early epoch in its history, and both he and his wife have long since passed away.  Their children were:  Mary Jane, the deceased wife of Benjamin Maratta, of Sullivan; Elizabeth, the deceased wife of M.H. Plew, also of Sullivan; Nancy Jane, who has been blind from infancy, and she resides with a brother James in Jackson township; James, also of this township; and William, who has not been heard from in ten years, and he was then in New Mexico.
    In 1875 Mr. Hamilton was united in marriage to Sarah E. Gillmore, and they have four children, - Orin, Bert, Leland and Caroline, aged respectively twenty-nine, twenty-seven, twenty-one and seventeen years.  Mr. Hamilton is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.

    Kenneth W. Self, who has been an industrious tiller of the soil of Sullivan county since 1869, is a native of Montgomery county, Kentucky, born December 21, 1823, a son of Presley and Helen (Wilson) Self.  The father was born July 7, 1787, and died in August, 1864, in Coles county, Illinois, and was buried at Greensburg, Indiana.  He was a native of Culpepper county, Virginia.  Kenneth W. Self’s mother was born in Greensborough county, West Virginia, August 11, 1787, and died in Greensburg.
    Presley Self was the son of John and Milly (Harden) Self, both natives of Virginia.  They emigrated from there to Kentucky and were among the pioneer settlers of that region.  Helen (Wilson) Self was the daughter of Newton Wilson, a native of Scotland who came to this country after his marriage and served in the Revolution in the cause of American independence.  By trade he was a weaver, and first located in Virginia, but later moved to Kentucky, where he spent the remainder of his days.  The subject’s grandfather Self was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was captured at Dudley’s defeat, and was never afterward heard of.  Presley, the father (of) Kenneth W. Self, was married about 1809 in Kentucky, and resided there until 1824, and then moved to Decatur county, Indiana.  He retained his land, however, in Kentucky until about 1855, when he sold and retired from farming, which had been his calling and in which he was very successful.  Up to 1840 he was a Jacksonian Democrat, but after that date voted with the Whig party, later espousing the cause advocated by the Republicans, and his last vote was cast for President Lincoln.  He was a member of the Christian church, a devoted Christian in word and deed.  He was the father of six children:  John, born in 1810, was killed by a horse in 1836, in Indianapolis; Joseph, born about 1811, died in 1844; Ruth, born about 1813, died in 1844; Harden, born in 1817, died in 1892; Randolph, born in 1819, died in 1862; and Kenneth W.
    Kenneth W. was educated at the old fashioned subscription schools and at a select school for a short time.  When seventeen years of age he taught school fifteen months, after which he attended college at what is now the State University.  He then resumed teaching school and followed that profession until 1850.  During that year he was married in Decatur county, Indiana, and taught school and farmed there until 1863, then moved to Coles county, Illinois, where he continued teaching and farming until 1869, when he went to Jackson township, Sullivan county, Indiana, where he now resides.  After coming to this county he also taught school up to 1885.  When he first settled in Sullivan county he purchased eighty acres of land, and added thereto until he owned a finely improved farm of one hundred acres, but sold a portion of the tract he had at one time to his son, this leaving him sixty acres.  Mr. Self was married July 19, 1850, to a Miss Wood, who was born in 1825, in Mason City, Kentucky, and she died in 1900, on December 28th.  She was the daughter of Genoa and Comfort Wood, born of whom were natives of Kentucky.  By this union were born seven children, as follows:  Viola (Stock), born 1852 and now resides in Lewis, Indiana; Samuel O., born June 11, 1855, resides in Sullivan; Laura (Brown), born June 22, 1858, resides in Youngstown, Ohio; Joseph L., born December 19, 1860, resides in Farmersburg; Presley M., born February 27, 1863, resides in Farmersburg; William L., born September 17, 1865, is now at home on the old homestead, and Claborn O., born September 15, 1871, resides in Terre Haute.
    In his political choice Mr. Self is a pronounced Republican, formerly being a member of the old-line Whig party, which was merged into the new party in 1856.  He has served as a justice of the peace in Decatur county for a period of four years.  He is of the Presbyterian church faith and a member of that denomination.

    Simpson Edwards, a prominent farmer and stock raiser, whose methods have brought success to his efforts, is a tiller of the fertile soil of Gill township.  He was born in Lawrence county, Indiana, June 30, 1852, son of Henderson and Cynthia (Cox) Edwards.  The father was born in the same county, as was the mother, the former in 1820, and the latter in 1831.  Henderson Edwards was a farmer throughout his entire lifetime.  When about twenty-one years of age he entered land in Vincennes district, which he cleared up and used for agricultural purposes.  Here he resided and labored until 1885, then sold out and purchased the farm where his son now lives, at first purchasing eighty acres.  His wife died in 1901 and he now resides with his son Simpson.  The children born to Henderson and Cynthia (Cox) Edwards were five in number, as follows:  Simpson, of whom further mention is made; Geneal Edwards, deceased; Clementine, deceased; Jane, wife of William Cox, of Haddon township; Margaret, wife of A.W. Engle of Gill township.
    Like many a youth of his time, Simpson Edwards had but a limited opportunity for gaining an education.  He attended the common schools of Lawrence county, and one term at the high school of Mitchell.  At the age of seventeen years, he commenced working for others, continuing four years.  He then purchased a farm in Lawrence county, which he owned for two years, but to which he never moved.  After he sold this he continued to reside with his father, and managed his place for him.  He next bought land in Sullivan county.  This was an eighty acre tract, which he purchased in 1885.  Subsequently, he added another “eighty,” which with an acre piece more recently bought makes him the present owner of one hundred and sixty-one acres of land, where he carried on general farming and makes a specialty of stock-raising.  Besides raising many hogs and cattle, he also deals in this variety of stock to quite an extent.  His farm has been well improved by his systematic methods and today is one of much beauty and great value, as compared to the date which he purchased the several tracts composing the whole.
    Mr. Edwards, being of a progressing turn of mind, has identified himself with the Masonic fraternity, belonging to both the blue lodge and Eastern Star degrees.  In his church relations, he is a communicant of the Baptist church.  Politically, Mr. Edwards believes in the general principles advocated by the Republican party.  He has never sought public favor in way of local office, but has served as supervisor and held minor township offices.
    He was married in October, 1894, to Mary E. Price, born near Terre Haute, the daughter of John W. Price, a prominent farmer of Vigo county.  Mrs. Edwards’ parents are now both deceased.
   
    Walter P. Sparks, the efficient and truly obliging postmaster at Merom, Sullivan county, was born in Montgomery county, Indiana, March 29, 1842, son of Thomas and Jennie (Harwood) Sparks.  Thomas Sparks was born in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, and his wife in Ohio.  Thomas came to Sullivan county at a very early day and purchased a farm upon which he continued to reside until his death, his wife dying before he passed away.
    Walter P. Sparks was left an orphan at the tender age of seven years.  He attended the Montgomery county public schools, thus gaining a fair common school education.  He worked here and there for various persons, up to the time he was sixteen years of age, when he commenced to learn the carpenter’s trade in his native county, and followed this for his livelihood until about the date of the Harrison Presidential election, when he was appointed mail messenger from Merom to Merom Stanion, which position he filled until the end of a five year period.  He was then appointed postmaster at Merom and is the present incumbent, having held the office continuously ever since, except four years during Cleveland’s administration.  Mr. Sparks by prudence has been able to accumulate considerable property, including two dwellings in Merom, as well as six choice town lots.
    He was among the men who braved the exposure and dangers of camp and field, during the Civil war period in this country.  He enlisted in the month of September, 1861 – first year of the war – as a member of Company B, Tenth Indiana Regiment, under Colonel Manson, and served three years, being mustered out of service September 18, 1864, at Indianapolis.  He was in the battles of Mills Springs (Kentucky), Shiloh, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta.  His only wound was a bruise caused by a spent ball which shattered the stock of his gun.  He was also at Perryville, in which engagement his company lost eight men.
    Politically, Mr. Sparks is a firm defender of the Republican principles.  Aside from being postmaster, he has held the office of member of the school board and other minor positions.  In church relations, he is of the Methodist Episcopal creed.  He is an honored member of the Masonic fraternity and stands for all that is good and true in the county and state in which he resides.
    He was united in marriage, first in 1864, to Martha J. Lisman, born at Merom, Indiana, in 1847, daughter of David Lisman, an early settler who located near Carlisle, now deceased.  To this union, two children were born:  David L., born December 12, 1866, residing at Robinson, Illinois, a tailor by trade, and Thomas, born January 8, 1868, now living near Merom on a farm.  Mrs. Sparks died in 1870.  For his second wife, Mr. Sparks married Rebecca I. Curl, a native of Ohio, born March 13, 1858, daughter of David Curl and wife.  The father, a farmer, moved from Ohio to Illinois in 1865 and settled on a farm east from Palestine, where they resided many years, but subsequently removed to Texas, where a son was living.  There the father died about 1898, the mother having died several years before.  By Mr. Sparks’ second marriage the issue is:  Helen May, married Dr. Boone, and died in September, 1904, leaving an only child, Helen, aged three years; Clara, wife of Elmer Pinkston, a hotel keeper and farmer of Merom; Guy, married Ora Ellis, and resides in Merom, where he is engaged in painting and paper-handing; Lula, wife of Walter Mahan, a painter and paper-hanger, residing at Merom.

    John Emery Brewer, well known in Sullivan county both as a successful business man and farmer, was born at Graysville, Indiana, January 12, 1854, a son of Samuel S. and Cynthia Ann (Dodd) Brewer.  The father was also born near Graysville on a farm April 20, 1830.  He was the son of John Brewer, Sr., a native of Mercer county, Kentucky, born in 1796, and who moved with his parents to Butler county, Ohio, when eleven years of age.  When he was twenty-four years old, he walked from that county to Sullivan county, Indiana, carrying with him an ax, which was his only article of defense.  He entered one hundred and sixty acres of land, the same now being owned by the Davis heirs, in Turman township.  When cutting down his first tree, which was a very large one, he discovered a she bear and cubs.  As the tree fell, the dogs entertained the bear, which animal would have killed the dogs, had he not rushed to their rescue and killed her.  After having cleared up four acres, he erected a small cabin and remained there in the wild forest land about one year, then returned to Ohio and brought his wife and one child back to Sullivan county.  The child mentioned was James Brewer, who later settled in Fairbanks township, one mile north of Fairbanks, where he lived and died, having amassed a goodly fortune.
    John Brewer, Sr., reared a family of nineteen children, twelve of whom reached maturity, and all of them took up their abode within Sullivan county and cleared up farms.  He possessed about seventeen hundred acres himself, in Turman township, which he gave to his sons and daughters.  After disposing of his large land holdings, he engaged in mercantile business with his son, Samuel S.  They purchased a stock of goods belonging to Lafayette Stewart, at Graysville, he being the pioneer merchant of that place.  This transaction was in 1853, on the first day of June, and the business was conducted until the junior member, Samuel S. Brewer, died, in the month of August, 1860, and the following year the business of the firm was closed up.  John, Sr., remained at Graysville for four years, after which he was associated with his son-in-law, Thomas Burton, in the mercantile business, under the name of Brewer & Burton, which relationship existed until 1876, when by mutual consent it was dissolved and William Brewer, a son of John Brewer, Sr., took the business and located at Sullivan and engaged in the hardware trade.  John Brewer, Sr., died at Graysville in 1880 and was buried at the Mann cemetery.  He was the first man to drive a team of horses with check lines within Sullivan county.  His son, of this memoir, has in his possession the journal and ledger used by the old firm of Brewer & Son, which has the names of nearly all of the old pioneers of that township.  Its pages show it to have been one of the most perfect and neatly kept set of books in the county, not excepting those of the present day business houses.
    Cynthia Ann (Dodd) Brewer, the mother of John Emery, was born in August, 1836, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Osborne) Dodd.  The Dodd family originally lived in Kentucky, the father of John being commonly called Dickey Dodd, and he was the first sheriff of Sullivan county, Indiana.  Elizabeth Osborne was the daughter of Isaiah Osborne, also a pioneer of Kentucky, who settled in Sullivan county, when all was yet a wilderness.
    John Emery Brewer attended the schools at Ascension Seminary, under the tutorship of Major Crawford, whose sketch appears elsewhere within this work.  Mr. Brewer entered that excellent educational institution without much preparation at the age of eighteen years.  He was a well posted farmer, but knew little else of the great, teeming world, with its various activities, but had an ambition to learn.  He attended this seminary also at Sullivan and the Commercial College at Terre Haute, from which he was graduated in 1875.  It should be recalled that Mr. Brewer’s father died when the son was but six years of age, at a time when a boy most needs the tender watch-care of a father.  He was “hired out” by his mother to one Thomas Pogue, with whom he remained for five years, then was employed by various farmers, near Graysville, until he was eighteen years of age, at which time young Brewer decided to obtain a good education, which he did in the manner stated above, beginning with a three years’ course under Professor Crawford, whose school was then at Farmersburg.  After graduation from the Terre Haute Business College, he engaged with the firm of Sherman & Davis, as a clerk, at Graysville, Indiana, where he was soon made manager of the business there and continued two years, when the stock was removed to Sullivan.  Subsequently, Mr. Brewer engaged in business at Graysville on his own account, continuing until 1881, when he sold to Robert Carruthers.  Mr. Brewer then purchased a farm of one hundred and twenty acres, near the village of New Lebanon, where he has ever since resided.  Here he carries on a general farming business and raises stock.  He has made decided improvements upon the farm since buying it.  This place is known, far and near, as the William Gill place, and the township was named in honor of its former owner.  Mr. Brewer is the eldest of a family of three children born to his parents.  One brother was Theodore Frelingheisen, born in 1856, and died at the age of twenty-one years; he was also educated at Farmersburg under Major Crawford.  This brother was a most thorough scholar and a faithful, hardworking student, whose career was suddenly cut short at the threshold of young manhood, when all looked fair for a successful life’s voyage.  As a musician, he ranked among the best of his years, and was among the attractive, bright stars which seemed destined to sink prematurely.  Mr. Brewer’s sister was Flora, born in 1860, at Graysville.  She married William T. Ingersoll in 1880 and died the year after her marriage, at Graysville.  Mr. Brewer’s mother remained a widow for eight years, then married J.W. Warner, and now resides with him, one mile north of Graysville.  She is seventy-three years old.
    In religious faith, Mr. Brewer and also wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, he having united with this denomination in 1864, at Graysville.  He has held the office of steward.  Politically, he affiliates with the Republican party, and was postmaster at Graysville for six years, but aside from that has never aspired or held local positions of honor or trust.
    Concerning his domestic relations, it may be said that he was married September 11, 1877, to Jennie Cornelius, a native of Sullivan, born August 10, 1859, daughter of Rev. W.H. and Sarah Ann (Robbins) Cornelius.  The father was born at Maysville, Kentucky, April 4, 1810, and the mother was born October 22, 1819, at Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania.  W.H. Cornelius was a ship-carpenter by trade, apprenticed when fourteen years of age, at Louisville, Kentucky.  He moved to Cincinnati, where he was united in marriage, and where he engaged in ship-carpentering for a short time.  He then went to Louisville, and there engaged at the same work until he entered the Indiana Methodist Conference in 1841.  He was a regular traveling minister until his death, July 31, 1882, at Linton, Indiana, where he was buried.  His wife, who died May 4, 1863, was buried at Corydon, Harrison county, Indiana.
    In the Cornelius family there were ten children, seven of whom reached mature years.  They are as follows:  Mary Ann, wife of Marion Hise, both deceased; Celestine, wife of G.W. Lane, of Danville, Illinois, and she is now deceased; William F., of Linton, Indiana, engaged in the insurance and real estate business; Daniel B., of Linton, an architect; Margaret Elizabeth, wife of Capt. Edward Estes Laymon, an attorney of Santiago, California, and a man of much wealth, whose other home is at Des Moines, Iowa; Sarah Emily, wife of Ransom Bedwell, of Springfield, Missouri, a farmer by occupation; Jennie, wife of Mr. Brewer, of this memoir.
    John E. Brewer and wife are the parents of the following children:  Walter Cornelius, born at Graysville, Indiana, September 6, 1878, unmarried and at home; Samuel Scott, born at Graysville, December 5, 1880, unmarried, and is an attorney, practicing law at Indianapolis, a graduate of the Indianapolis Law School, being admitted to practice in all of the courts within the United States, the date of final admission being June 7, 1907; Nellie, born at New Lebanon, Indiana, July 4, 1886, now at home; John Thaddeus, born at New Lebanon, August 26, 1888, also at home.
    It is said that of all the members of the Brewer family none have ever been brought before the law; all are Republicans and members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and the same may be said of the Cornelius family in detain.  Mr. and Mrs. Brewer have in their possession two of the old deeds, one executed August 9, 1823, the oldest found in Sullivan county so far and given under the hand of President James Monroe, and the other deed executed November 24, 1828, is by President John Q. Adams.
 
 
        
          All Biographies On The Page Transcribed and Contributed by Katherine Haggerty
A History of Sullivan County Indiana Thomas J. Wolfe Volume 1 1909

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