(Transcribed from the Biographical and Genealogy History
of Wayne, Fayette, Union and Franklin Counties Indiana 1899)


    General Ambrose Everett Burnside was born in Liberty, Indiana, May 23, 1824, and died in Bristol, Rhode Island, September 3, 1881. The Burnside family are of Scottish origin. Having followed the fortunes of Charles Edward, the pretender, until his final defeat at Culloden, in 1746, the founders of the American branch emigrated to South Carolina. The revolt of the American colonies against Britain divided them, some joining the patriots, others remaining loyal to the crown. Among the latter was James, grandfather of Ambrose, who was a captain in one of the regiments of South Carolina royalists. When it became certain that the revolution would be successful he, in company with others whose estates were confiscated, escaped to Jamaica, but eventually obtained amnesty from the young republic and returned to South Carolina. After his death his widow and her four sons migrated to Indiana, manumitting their slaves, from conscientious motives. Edghill, the third of these sons, settled in the new town of Liberty, and in 1814 married Pamelia Brown, another emigrant from South Carolina. He taught school for a time, and, having some legal knowledge, was, in 1815, elected associate judge of the county court, and subsequently clerk of court, which office he held until 1850. Ambrose, the fourth of nine children, was born in a rude log cabin at the edge of the wilderness. The village schools were exceptionally good for a frontier town, and at seventeen he had acquired a better education than most boys of his age, but his father could not afford to give him a professional training, and he was indentured to a merchant tailor. After learning the trade he returned to Liberty and began business as a partner under the style of Myers & Burnside, merchant tailors. Conversation with veterans of the second war with Great Britain interested him in military affairs, and he read all the histories and other books bearing on the subject that he could procure. In 1847 he was appointed a cadet at the West Point Military Academy, where there were more than a score of future generals, including McClellan, Hancock and "Stonewall" Jackson. The war with Mexico was nearly over when Burnside was graduated, but he accompanied one of the last detachment of recruits to the conquered capital, and remained there as second lieutenant of the Third Artillery during the military occupation of the place. Then followed years of life in garrison and on the frontier, including some Indian fighting.
    In 1852 he married Mary Richmond, daughter of Nathanial Bishop, of Providence, Rhode Island, and in November of the same year resigned his commission, having invented a breech loading rifle, the manufacture of which he wished to superintend. In August, 1857, a board of army officers reported favorably upon the Burnside breech-loader; but the inventor would not pay his way among the underlings of the war department, and was forced to go into bankruptcy. He devoted all his personal property to the liquidation of his debts, sought employment, found it at Chicago, under George B. McClellan, then vice president of the Illinois Central Railroad, and, by practicing strict economy, he eventually paid every obligation. In June, i860, he became treasurer of the Illinois Central Railroad, his office being in New York city. In the autumn of that year he visited New Orleans on business, and gained an insight into the movement for secession that shook his lifelong faith in the Democratic party. So confidently did he anticipate war that he set his business affairs in order, and was ready to start at once when, on April 15, 1861, Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, telegraphed for him to take command of the First Regiment of detached militia. On April 20 the regiment left Providence by sea, and marched, with the other battalions that had been hurried forward, from Annapolis to Washington, reaching the capital on the 26th of April. The preliminary operations about Washington soon culminated, owing mainly to popular outcry and political pressure at the north, in the premature advance of the federal army and to the battle of Manassas or Bull Run on the 21st of July. Colonel Burnside commanded a brigade on the extreme light of Hunter's division, which was detached from the main army early in the morning and sent across an upper ford to turn the Confederate left. The movement was anticipated by the enemy, and a sharp engagement took place, at the beginning of which General Hunter was wounded, leaving Burnside in command. The Confederates were forced back, losing heavily, until nearly noon, when they were reinforced by General Johnston's advance brigade under Jackson, who stemmed the tide of fugitives and there won his name of " Stonewall."  By this time Burnside's ammunition was exhausted, and his command had to fall back. It made no further aggressive movement, but retained its organization after the rout of the army and on the retreat toward Washington. A period of comparative inactivity followed, during which Colonel Burnside's regiment was mustered out, on the expiration of its term of service. On August 6, 1861, he was commissioned a brigadier general of volunteers, and given a command of the three year regiments then assembling at Washington. On the 23d of October General Burnside was directed to organize a " coast division," with headquarters at Annapolis. This force was largely composed of regiments recruited on the New England coasts, and was intended for operations along the lower Potomac and Chesapeake bay. The plan was changed, however, the expeditionary force was largely increased, and on January 12, 1862, a corps of twelve thousand men, on a fleet of forty six transports, sailed from Hampton Roads with sealed orders directing them to rendezvous in Pamlico sound by way of Hatteras inlet. Within twenty four hours a heavy gale arose, which lasted nearly two weeks, scattered the fleet and imperiled its safety. On the 25th of January, however, all the vessels had passed through Hatteras inlet and were safe in the sound. On the 5th of February the fleet, with an escort of gunboats, moved toward Roanoke island, a fortified post of the Confederates, and engaged the gunboats and batteries. Within a few hours a landing was effected, and on the 8th of February the Confederate position near the middle of the island was carried and the garrison captured, numbering two thousand five hundred men. The possession of Roanoke island gave command of the extensive land-locked waters of Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, and was one of the earliest substantial successes of the national arms. Newbern, North Carolina, was occupied, after a sharp struggle, on the 14th of March. The surrender of Forts Macon and Beaufort soon followed, and when General Burnside visited the north on a short leave of absence he found himself welcomed as the most uniformly successful of the federal leaders.
    During the campaign in the Carolinas and the early summer following, the Army of the Potomac, under McClellan, had been defeated before Richmond, and had in turn repelled the Confederates at Malvern Hill. Burnside Relinquished the command of the department of North Carolina, and, with his old division reorganized as the Ninth Corps, was transferred to the Army of the Potomac, which held the north shore of Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg. The chief command was offered to Burnside, but he absolutely declined it, frankly declaring that he did not consider himself competent. On the 27th of June the order was issued relieving McClellan and placing Pope in command. The fortunes of the Confederacy now seemed so distinctly in the ascendant that it was determined at Richmond to assume the offensive. The preparations for the movement were at once known in Washington, and the administration urged General Pope to create a diversion along the line of the Rappahannock. This he attempted, but was foiled almost at all points, and the Army of Virginia, as it was temporarily designated, fell back sullen and demoralized after a second defeat at Manassas, upon the defenses of Washington, where Burnside was again asked to take command, but again declined. In its extremity, the administration again called upon McClellan, who, in a remarkably short time, brought order out of chaos and re inspired the army with a degree of confidence. By this time Lee's advance had crossed the Potomac near Sharpsburg, and Burnside was sent to meet him with the First and Ninth Corps. On the 3d of September he left Washington. On the 12th of September he met the enemy's pickets at Frederick City, and on the 14th encountered the Confederates in force at South Mountain, and very handsomely dislodged them from a strong position. The energy of this movement was probably not anticipated by General Lee. He retreated to Antietam creek, threw up entrenchment's and awaited attack. To Burnside's Ninth Corps, on the morning of the battle of Antietam (September 17th), was assigned the task of capturing and holding a stone bridge. This was done at a terrible sacrifice of life; but it was the key to the position, and, according to a high Confederate authority (Edward A. Pollard, the historian), if the bridge could have been recaptured the result of the battle of Antietam would have been decisive. The army remained in the neighborhood of Sharpsburg until early in November, when McClellan was relieved, and on the 10th of November Burnside reluctantly assumed command. At this time the Confederate army was divided, Longstreet and Jackson commanding, respectively, its right and left wings, being separated by at least two days' march. McClellan and Burnside were always warm personal friends, and the former gave his successor in command the benefit of his projected plans.
    A month passed in reorganizing the army in three grand divisions, under Generals Sumner, Franklin and Hooker, with the Eleventh Corps under Sigel as a reserve. The plan was to cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, and, if possible, crush the separated wings of the Confederate army in detail. The movement began on the 15th of November, and four days later the army occupied the heights opposite Fredericksburg, but with the river intervening and no pontoon train ready. The responsibility for this failure has never been charged to General Burnside, nor has it ever been definitely fixed upon any one, save a vague and impersonal "department;" but it necessitated a fatal delay, for Lee had moved nearly as rapidly as Burnside, and promptly occupied and fortified the heights south of the river. During the period of enforced inaction that followed, General  Burnside went  to Washington and expressed his doubts as to the policy of crossing the river, in view of the failure of the attempt to divide Lee's forces. But he was urged to push a winter campaign against Richmond, and, returning to the front, gave orders to place the bridges. This was gallantly effected in the face of a sharp resistance, Fredericksburg was cleared of the enemy, and on the 13th of December, the whole national army had crossed, and was in position south of the Rappa-hannock. The situation in brief was this: South and in the rear of Fredericksburg is a range of hills irregularly parallel to the course of the river; the space between is a plateau well adapted for the movement of troops. This was occupied by the national army in the three grand divisions specified,— Sumner holding the right, Hooker the center, and Franklin the left. The Confederates occupied the naturally strong position along the crest of the hills, and were well entrenched, with batteries in position. Longstreet commanded the right wing, and Jackson the left. The weak point of the Confederate line was at its right, owing to a depression of the hills, and here it was at first intended to make a determined assault; but, for some reason, orders were sent to Franklin, at the last moment, merely to make a demonstration, while Sumner attempted to carry Marye's hill, which, naturally a strong position, was rendered nearly impregnable by a sunken road, bordered by a stone wall along its base. The best battalions in the army were sent against this position, but the fire of artillery and infantry was so severe that nothing was gained, although the struggle was kept up till nightfall, General Hooker's division being the last to attack, only to be repelled as its predecessors had been. Burnside would have renewed the attack on the next day, but Sumner dissuaded him at the last moment, and that night the whole army re-crossed the river, having lost, in killed and wounded and missing, more than twelve thousand men. Some of these, however, afterward returned to their regiments. The Confederate loss was five thousand three hundred and nine. Insubordination was soon developed among the corps and division commanders, and Burnside issued an order, subject to the president's approval, summarily dismissing several of them from the service, and relieving others from duty. The order, which sweepingly included Hooker, Franklin, Newton, and Brooks, was not approved, and General Burnside was superseded by Major General Hooker.
    Transferred to the Department of the Ohio, with headquarters at Cincinnati, Burnside found himself forced to take stringent measures in regard to the proceedings of southern sympathizers on both sides of the river. On April 13, 1863, he issued his famous general order defining certain treasonable offenses, and announcing that they would not be tolerated. Numerous arrests followed, including that of Clement L. Vallandigham, who was tried   by military   commission   for making a treasonable speech,  was found guilty, and sentenced to imprisonment during the remainder of the war. This sentence the president commuted to banishment, and Vallan-digham was sent within the lines of the Confederacy. The Democrats of Ohio thereupon nominated him for governor, but he was defeated by a majority of more than one hundred thousand. In August, 1863, Burnside crossed the Cumberland mountains at the head of eighteen thousand men, marching two hundred and fifty miles in fourteen days, causing the Confederates, who had their headquarters at Knoxville, to make a hasty retreat. He pushed forward, and Cumberland Gap was captured, with its garrison and stores. Attacked by Longstreet, with a superior force. General Burn-side retreated in good order, fighting all the way to Knoxville, where he was fortified and provisioned for a siege by the time Longstreet was ready to invest the place. This movement, according to General Burnside's biographer, was made on his own responsibility to draw Longstreet away from Grant's front, and thus facilitate the defeat of General Bragg, which soon followed. The siege of Knoxville was prosecuted with great vigor for a month, when the approach of General Sherman compelled Longstreet to raise the siege. Immediately afterward General Burnside was relieved, and devoted himself to recruiting and reorganizing the Ninth Corps. In April, 1864, he resumed command at Annapolis, with the corps nearly twenty thousand strong. Attached once more to the Army of the Potomac, this time under General Grant, he led his corps through the battles of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor, and the operations against Petersburg. In these latter engagements the corps suffered very heavily, and General Meade preferred charges of disobedience against Burnside, and ordered a court martial for his trial. This course was not approved of by General Grant, and, at Burnside's request, a court of inquiry was ordered, which eventually found him "answerable for the want of success." He had always held that the failure was due to interference with his plan of assault, and before a congressional committee of investigation much testimony was adduced to show that this was really the case.
    General Burnside resigned from the army on the 15th of April, 1865, with a military record that does him high honor as a patriotic, brave and able officer, to whom that bane of army life, professional jealousy, was unknown. He always frankly admitted his own unfitness for the command of a large army and accepted such commands only under stress of circumstances. Returning to civil life he became at once identified with railroad construction and management. He was elected governor of Rhode Island in April, 1866, and re-elected in 1867 and 1868. Declining a fourth nomination he devoted himself successfully to the great railroad interests with which he was identified.     He went to Europe on business during the height of the Franco-Prussian war, and, as a soldier, naturally wished to witness some of the siege operations before Paris. Visiting the Prussian headquarters at Versailles simply in a private capacity, he found himself called upon to act as an envoy between the hostile forces, which he did, passing back and forth under a flag of truce, endeavoring to further negotiations for peace. In Paris, and among the German besiegers, he was looked upon with the greatest curiosity, and, although his efforts at peace-making were unsuccessful, he secured the lasting respect and confidence of both sides. In January, 1875, after his return to this country, he was elected United States senator from Rhode Island and in 1880 was re-elected. He took a leading- position in the senate, was chairman on the committee of foreign affairs and sustained his lifelong character as a fair minded and patriotic citizen. His death, which was very sudden, from neuralgia of the heart, occurred at his home in Bristol, Rhode Island. The funeral ceremonies assumed an almost national character, for his valuable services as a soldier and as a statesman had secured general recognition, and in his own state he was the most conspicuous man of his time. Burnside was a tall and handsome man, of soldierly bearing, with charming manners, which won for him troops of friends and admirers. He outlived his wife and died childless.

More than a quarter of a century has this respected citizen of Liberty been engaged in the banking business, and for about eleven year of that period he has been the president of the Citizens' Bank of this place, which well known institution he was influential in organizing. He is deserving of great credit for the success he has achieved in his business career, for he started out in life a poor boy, and was obliged to hew out his own pathway. Added to the circumstances of poverty and lack of influential friends, he was not a strong youth, and had to battle against delicate health for several years. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, he persevered in his undertakings, and by force of will and steady application rose to prominence in the busy world.
The parents of James P. Kennedy were of Scotch-Irish stock, and both were natives of Ireland. They came to the United States in 1801. and for some years resided in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. The mother died in 1827, and the father remarried some three years later. He died at the age of eighty-four years, in Decatur county, Indiana, and was survived by his second wife but a short time.
Born May 20, 1826, James P. Kennedy is the youngest of eleven children, ten of whom were boys, and he is now one of the three surviving members of the once large family circle. Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, was the place of his birth, and death deprived him of his mother when he was an infant about a year old.     In the common schools he obtained a fair
education, and at sixteen he began teaching school, as the hard work of the farm was not suited to his never rugged constitution. Soon after he came to Indiana, in the winter of 1841-2, he worked at splitting rails. With a comrade's help, two thousand rails were prepared, and when the payment agreed upon, two bushels of corn for every one hundred rails, was handed over to the young men, half of the corn was disposed of at the rate of ten cents per bushel. This amount the friend took as his share, and Mr. Kennedy could do no better than to trade his corn for a sow and nine pigs. He drove them home, where his father immediate!}" assumed the ownership of the animals. For a period of ten years, perhaps, he attended high school at intervals and taught during the remainder of the time. He then embarked in merchandising, but with a very limited capital, and continued in this enterprise until 1871. In company with other parties he then organized the First National Bank of Liberty, and served as cashier of the same until the institution went into voluntary liquidation, in 1882. The following year Mr. Kennedy became interested in the establishment of the Citizen's Bank at Hope, Indiana, and for five years he acted as cashier of the same. Then, severing his connection with that bank, he opened the Citizens' Bank in Liberty, under the firm name of J. P. Kennedy & Company. This is a private banking concern, and he has stood at the head of the enterprise ever since it opened its doors to the public, in 1889. To his sagacity and foresight and his genius as a financier may be laid the prosperous condition of the bank, which safely weathered the financial depression of recent years, and is constantly gaining in importance.
Though reared in the principles of the Democratic party, Mr. Kennedy aided in the formation of the Republican party and was an earnest advocate of the same until 1884, when he became independent, and he has used his ballot of late years in favor of the man or principle that he deemed worthy of support, regardless of party lines. In 1876 he was elected on the Republican ticket to the Indiana house of representatives, and served his constituents well. In his religious opinion he is liberal, disbelieving in creeds and the dogmas of the churches, and pinning his faith in practical Christianity, which consists in purity and uprightness of purpose and deed, and loving helpfulness toward one's brother man. Fraternally, he belongs to Oxford Lodge, No. 58, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and was made a Mason in 1850 in Fairfield Lodge, Fairfield, Indiana. A strange accident, on November 12, 1898, has resulted in an invalid condition for Mr. Kennedy since that date. While crossing the platform of a passenger train, which was standing on the highway, the sudden starting of the train threw him with violence to the ground and injured his left hip in such a manner that he has not apparently gained in health  from the day of the accident,  suffers much
pain and is forced to the constant use of crutches. The injury baffled the medical fraternity to name or mitigate.
Prior to his marriage, September 1, 1857. Mr. Kennedy went to the west and spent one summer in Kansas, and returning, was seized with typhoid fever at Cincinnati, Ohio. He was very ill for many weeks, and when partially convalescent his marriage to Miss Livonia W. Dunbar was solemnized. Their friendship had begun in their youth, in Union county, and, upon learning of Mr. Kennedy's dangerous illness Miss Dunbar went to visit him, and to nurse him back to strength, if possible. Her father, Andrew Dunbar. was then a resident of Decatur county, having removed thither from his old home in Union county. Two sons and four daughters bless the union of Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy, namely: Lorin M., William P., Ginevra, Allevia. Adelaide and Emmazetta.
Lorin M. Kennedy is a merchant tailor in Liberty, Indiana; William P. and Allevia are connected with their father in the Citizens' Bank. William came to Liberty from Hope, Indiana, where he had been cashier for sixteen years, on the occasion of the injury to his father caused by his fall on November 12, 1898, and became the vice-president. Ginevra, who is a member of Cooper Institute, New York city, and Emmazetta have been in New York city for the past eight years engaged in musical studies, and have attained prominence, the younger especially. She is connected with the New York Philharmonic Society, sings in one of the leading Catholic Churches, St. Anthony's church, of Brooklyn, also in one of the prominent Jewish synagogues in New York, and is one of the leading members of Castle Square Theater's opera company. Adelaide has been in New York city for three years and a half, engaged in the study of music and kindred subjects, returning home, however, to  be her father's nurse and companion during his
A native of "Logan county, Ohio, born June 10, 1820, a son of Samuel and Ann (Walker) Ballinger, the subject of this article is now approaching four-score years, and is living retired in the town of Liberty, where he is an honored citizen. His father was born in Burlington county, New Jersey, and after his marriage removed to Ohio, about 180S, and lived and died on his old homestead in Logan county, his death occurring when he was nearly seventy-five. His father, Samuel Ballinger, Sr.. a member of the Society of Friends, came from Birmingham, England, V.o America prior to the Revolutionary war. The family originated in France, whence it was banished at the time of the persecution of the Huguenots. Rev. Thomas Ballinger, a brother of Isaac, was a very popular minister of the Universalist church and was a public speaker of high repute. At various times he held public debates, chaining the attention of his hearers and causing them to believe that few could equal him. He died in his eightieth year, in June, 1898, in Oskaloosa, Iowa, where he had made his home for years.
When he was nineteen years old Isaac Ballinger left home and for two years or more worked in Preble county, Ohio. Then, coming to Union county, he engaged in threshing grain, using a machine which had a capacity of seventy-five to one hundred bushels a day, was a one-horse power and had an endless chain attached to the cylinder. The winnowing had to be done separately by hand. Having gained a start in a financial way Mr. Ballinger began farming in Harrison township, in Union county, Indiana, on the home¬stead now owned by his son: coming thither in 1841 on attaining his majority, he resided there until twenty years ago, when he retired. He has since dealt in real estate to a limited extent. The farm was formerly the property of Robert Bennett, a native of Virginia, and father of the lady whom Mr. Ballinger married. Mr. Bennett, however, had been accidentally killed before the marriage of Mr. Ballinger, and the latter bought the farm of the heirs, and added land later, making it a fine place of two hundred and forty .acres.     Both farms are now owned and carried on by his sons.
On the 15th of August, 1844, Isaac Ballinger wedded Orinda C. Bennett, daughter of Robert and Sarah (Welden) Bennett. She was born on the old homestead in Harrison township, and was an orphan at the time she became acquainted with her future husband. Her father was killed by a runaway team some years before her mother died in 185 1. Her brother, Hon. William H. Bennett, was a representative in the Indiana legislature from Union county for several years, as a Whig. He owned a large estate in Harrison township, but had no family to inherit it. Another brother of Mrs. Ballinger, Prof. Hampton Bennett, was born February 2, 1832, and died at Carlisle, Ohio, June 6, 1898. He graduated at Antioch College, and was a member of the signal corps (of the Union army o" the civil war), for four years was a famous teacher, and for twenty-nine years was superintendent of the Franklin (Ohio) schools and occupied similar positions at other towns. John F. Bennett, a third brother, was the father of General Thomas Bennett, whose sketch is printed elsewhere in this work. A sister, Maria A.,. is the widow of the late Daniel Maxwell, of Liberty.
The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Ballinger were as follows: Samuel H. (see his sketch); Amanda Ellen, wife of William Moss, of Harrison township; Thomas Corwin, a commercial traveler, of Burlington, Kansas, who has served in the Kansas state legislature for two terms and was treasurer of Coffey county for two terms; Albert Allison, who owns one of the farms above mentioned; William Bennett, who died July 31, 1887, aged thirty-two years; Inez, wife of Jackson Stivers, of Fairmont, Indiana; Mary Idella, who is at home; and two who died in infancy. William B. had been engaged in merchandising for four years in Franklin, Ohio, and for some years prior to his death was in business with his brother, Samuel H. His widow, Mrs. Laura (Young) Ballinger, is now living in Oxford, Ohio.
In his boyhood Isaac Ballinger was reared in the doctrines of the Quakers, but, as he trained with the militia and refused to acknowledge sorrow for so doing he was turned out of the society. For many years he has been a faithful member of the Christian church, and for two-score years has held the office of deacon. He is an ardent Republican, and once a candidate for county treasurer, and has voted for every president from W. H. Harrison down,, with one exception.
This gentleman is one of the leading citizens of the older class, and is a man of excellent character. The Peak family was originally of Irish stock. The grandfather of our subject, Joseph Peak, came from Ireland
and settled in New Jersey, not far from Philadelphia. His children were Joseph, John, and several daughters whose names are not now obtainable. Mr. Peak was a farmer by occupation, and he died in New Jersey.

John Peak, his son, was the father of Morris, whose name appears above. He was born in New Jersey, September 13, 1796, received a common-school education, became a farmer and blacksmith, and when still a young man moved to Cincinnati, where he followed his trade. Cincinnati at that time was but a village. After a time Mr. Peak moved to Union county, Indiana, and married there Miss Bernice DuBois. She was born January 1, 1799. Her father, of French stock, was a pioneer farmer of Union county, where he continued to reside until his death. His children were Benjamin, Abijah, Richard, Allen, Smith and Mary.

John Peak continued to reside in Union county after his marriage, bought land and improved it and occupied it for some years. Selling it, he resumed his trade as a blacksmith, in Fairfield, Franklin county, Indiana. After a time he returned to Union county, where he continued at his trade. In 1855 he came to Tippecanoe county and lived with his children until his death, which had occurred when he had attained the age of eighty-six years. He was married twice. By his first wife his children were: Joseph, born January 20, 1820; William, March 5, 1822; John, May 27, 1823; Granville, February 25, 1826; Hannah, July 5, 1828; Morris, February 18, 1831; Smith, August 21, 1833; Mary Ann, April 20, 1836; and Samuel, October 1 6, 1841, all born in Union county. By his second marriage John Peak was wedded to Rachel McCrady, and they had three children, all of whom died when very young. In religion, Mr. Peak was liberal, and in politics a Democrat until the great war of the Rebellion, when he became a Republican. He was a hard-working, upright man, respected by all who knew him.

Morris Peak, whose name heads this article, was born February 18, 1831, in Union county, this state, received a common-school education and learned the blacksmith's trade of his father and brother Granville. After following his trade for four years at Billingsville, in Union county, he came to Tippecanoe county in 1854, being twenty-three years of age at this time, and for the first year here lived with E. W. Cole, in Lauramie township. In that township, May 7, 1857, he married Miss Eliza Ann Ellis, who was born August 9, 1834, in this township, on the farm adjoining that on which our subject now resides. She was a daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Stoner) Ellis. Thomas Ellis was born in Maryland, a son of Rowland Ellis, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Going to Ohio when a young man he there married Elizabeth Stoner, a daughter of Isaac and Barbara Stoner, and of sturdy Pennsylvania Dutch stock. After living for a time on a farm in the Buckeye state, Mr. Ellis moved to Indiana, locating in Tippecanoe county, in Lauramie township. The family records are as follows: Thomas Ellis, son of Rowland and Frances Ellis, was born February 19, 1792, and died July 30, 1861. His wife, Elizabeth, nee Stoner, was born March 13, 1796, and died March 4, 1874. They were married January 22, 1818. Their children were: John, born July 18, 1819; Mahala, born August 4, 1820, married Joseph Fowler August 23, 1838, and her death occurred July 13, 1862; Joseph, born December 16, 1821; Hannah, born March 9, 1823, married Elisha F. O'Neal June 7, 1840; Mary Magdalena, born August 11, 1824, married Richard Gladden October 31, 1841; Frances, born September 25, 1826, married Richard Gladden November 8, 1846; Sarah, born August 14, 1828, was married to Solomon B. Russell March 25, 1847, and he died April 21, 1847, after which, on July 9, 1848, she became the wife of Thomas H. O'Neal; James, born December 20, 1830, died June 8, 1859; Barbara Ann, born September 13, 1832; Eliza Ann, born April 2, 1837; Elizabeth, born July 5, 1838, died March 9, 1862.

On arrival here in Tippecanoe county Mr. Ellis located in the wild forest, erected a log cabin and cleared and cultivated his land. At first he entered only a small tract, but by economical industry he added to this by entering and purchasing other tracts until he had about four hundred acres altogether of fine farm land, and he became a citizen well-to-do and prominent. He fully developed his farm and reared his children here in good style. He was a member of no church, but a man of high moral character. In religious belief he was brought up a Quaker, while his wife was attached to the religion of the "Dunkards, " which was the faith of her forefathers, but here, like her husband, she was a member of no church.

By steady industry they prospered, and no man in this county stood higher in the sincere esteem of the people than Thomas Ellis. He was particularly a kindhearted man, and the Ellis family were among the most respected of the pioneers.

Morris Peak and wife resided on the Thomas Ellis farm after marriage about nine years, renting the large place of four hundred acres. In 1 867 he moved to his present homestead, buying one hundred and forty-five acres of improved land and a good residence, which had been built by William Cornell. By his industry and economy Mr. Peak prospered, and he now owns a fine farm of one hundred and sixty-nine acres. He is a substantial citizen, and he and his faithful wife are numbered among the best members of the community. Their reputation is widely and thoroughly established, and the people who know them are proud to enjoy their acquaintance. Their children are: Evangeline, born March 4, 1858; Annie, September 16, 1869, and Porter E., July 2, 1871.

Biographical History of Tippecanoe, White, Jasper, Newton, Benton, Warren and Pulaski Counties, Indiana Published by , 1899

John O. Austin is a native of Montgomery Co., Md., born March 29, 1807, a son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Offord) Austin. His parents moved to the District of Columbia when he was quite young, and kept a hotel in Georgetown. When he was ten years of age they moved to the Shenandoah Valley, where he grew to manhood. They afterward moved to Hamilton County,Ohio, where the father died in 1829. Of ten children, John O. and a sister living in Union Co., Ind., are the only ones living. John O. Austin learned the shoemaker's trade when a young man, at which he worked over forty years. I n 1830 he moved to Richmond, remaining there till 1834. In 1832 he subscribed for the Palladium. While in Richmond he clerked in the dry-goods store of Theo. Sittle. In 1835 he went to Liberty, Union County, and soon after married Amy Rose, a native of Indiana, born in 1814, and a daughter of Abraham Rose. He located in Liberty, working at his trade in connection with farming. In the fall of 1871 he came to Wayne County, and bought the farm known as the Jacob Brooks farm, consisting of 105 acres of fine land with good farm bnildings. At present he lives rather a retired life, renting his farm to his sons. Mr. and Mrs. Austin are members of the Congregational church.
Their children are five in number, Warren B., John R., Catherine (wife of P. S. Sutton), Brushrod W., and Garrie D., the latter deceased.
History Of  Wayne County, Indiana Vol 1, 1884 Contributed by  Brenda Wiesner


The pioneers of a country, the founders of a business, the originators of any undertaking that will promote the material welfare or advance the educational, social and moral influence of a community, deserve the gratitude of humanity. One of the most important factors in the upbuilding of Richmond is the Hoosier Drill Works, an extensive enterprise that has brought success not alone to the stockholders, but has also added to the general prosperity by furnishing employment to many workmen and thus promoting commercial activity. The man who stands at the head of this concern, John M. Westcott, is also connected with other leading enterprises of Richmond, and at all times is a public-spirited, progressive citizen whose support is never withheld from measures that tend to advance the public good.

Mr. Westcott is a native of Indiana, his birth having occurred in Union county in 1834. His parents were Henry and Sarah (Dyche) Westcott, the former a native of New Jersey, of English descent, and the latter a native of Kentucky, of German descent. Their marriage was celebrated in Warren county, Ohio, and in 1832 they became residents of Union county, Indiana. Their family numbered four children, Ruth E. , George H., John M. and Jennie M.

At his parental home the subject of this review was reared to manhood and in the public schools near his home he acquired his education. His early experiences were those common to frontier settlements, and with the progress and development of Indiana he has long been actively identified. In the early part of his business career he was engaged in the dry-goods trade, and on abandoning merchandising he dealt in grain and feed, his capable management and well directed energies bringing him desirable success. In 1862 Mr. Westcott removed to Richmond, where he engaged in the grain and feed trade until he became identified with the industrial interests of the city in 1872. In that year he became a stockholder in the Hoosier Drill Works, then located in Milton, Indiana, and for some time thereafter devoted his entire attention to that business. Believing that it could be made a very paying investment, he secured a controlling interest by purchasing the stock of Isaac Kinsey, and since that time, by his business and executive ability, his keen discrimination and unflagging industry, he has made the Hoosier Drill Works a most paying enterprise. In the spring of 1878 the company purchased the ground on which the present works are located and erected the buildings the following summer. About the time Mr. Westcott became the heaviest stockholder of the concern, Omar Hollingsworth also became a partner, and since that time J. A. Carr and F. A. Wilke, his other sons-in-law, have become partners, and the entire business is now in control of the family, with John M. Westcott as its president; Omar Hollingsworth, treasurer; James A. Carr, vice-president, and Burton J. Westcott, secretary. They have the largest plant in the world manufacturing exclusively seeding machines, and the annual output is worth one million dollars. The seeders are sold all over the world, and in the works four hundred men are employed.

John M. Westcott is a man of resourceful ability, whose energies have by no means been confined to one line. In the spring of 1883 he purchased forty feet of ground on Main street, between Seventh and Eighth streets, and erected thereon a four-story brick business block, with a stone front. It is finished in modern style, heated with steam and supplied with all accessories and conveniences that are found in first-class business houses. He is the chief owner of the Westcott Hotel, of Richmond, which was projected in 1892 by the Commercial Club, of which J. M. Westcott was then president, and in whose honor it was named. To his public spirit, enterprise and liberality is due the fact that Richmond now has the finest hotel in the state. The amount originally subscribed was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, of which one hundred and ten thousand was subscribed by Mr. Westcott. He is at all times most liberal in support of any movement which will benefit the city, and with most generous hand gives of his means for the promotion of a worthy cause. He is the owner of some valuable real estate, including a fine stock farm of five thousand acres in Dickinson county, Kansas, the greater part of the land being under a high method of cultivation. His farm of two hundred and twenty-five acres, located in Center township, Wayne county, is devoted to the raising of fine-bred horses and imported Shetland ponies.

In 1855 Mr. Westcott was united in marriage to Miss Carrie Mitchell, a native of Warren county, Ohio, and at that time a resident of Wayne county, Indiana. They are now the parents of seven children: Alice C, wife of Omar Hollingsworth; Lucilla B., wife of J. A. Carr; Jennie M., wife of F. A. Wilke; Charles G., Burton J., Harry M. and Maude Evelyn. In 1880 Mr. Westcott purchased an entire block, bounded by Main, South A, Fourteenth and Sixteenth streets, which had already been laid out with walks and drives, and immediately began the improvement of the property. The second year he erected a large brick residence, and since then three other residences have been added, one for each son-in-law. The grounds are spacious and well kept, adorned with shrubs and flowering plants and shaded by beautiful trees. Hospitality characterizes the Westcott home, and the household is the center of a cultured society circle.

Socially, Mr. Westcott is connected with Whitewater Lodge, No. 41, I. O. O. F. Since 1849 he has held membership relations with the Methodist Episcopal church, and to all moral, educational and social interests he is a liberal contributor, doing all in his power to benefit and elevate humanity He feels a personal interest in the men in his employ and in times of sickness or trouble they find in him a faithful friend. His business career has been crowned with. a well merited success. He has made good use of his opportunities and has prospered from year to year, conducting all business matters carefully and systematically, and in all his acts displaying an aptitude for successful management. He has not permitted the accumulation of a fortune to affect in any way his actions toward those less fortunate than he, and has always a cheerful word and a pleasant smile for those with whom he comes in contact.


According to well authenticated family traditions the Tests are of Flemish extraction, but were residents of England fully two hundred and fifty years ago. They espoused the faith of the Society of Friends and three of them are said to have accompanied William Penn to America, settling in the eastern part of " Penn's Woods," or Pennsylvania. Thence some of them drifted to Salem, Salem county, New Jersey, and there Samuel Test, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born, January 8, 1774. He was a hatter by trade, but made farming and milling his chief business after his removal to Indiana. On the way west he stayed for a short period at Waynesville and Cincinnati, Ohio, and in 18 16 arrived in Union county, this state, where he lived many years. Finally he came to Richmond and died here, in 1856. He was a strong anti-slavery man and a Whig, and was very active in the Society of Friends, of which he was a life-long and a useful member. He married Sarah Maxwell, also a native of New Jersey, and to them were born ten children.

The parents of Dr. Zaccheus Test were Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Jones) Test. The father was the second child of Samuel and Sarah (Maxwell) Test, and was born in Salem, New Jersey, August 6, 1798. He accompanied the family on its removal to this state, and in the spring of 1835 he came to the vicinity of Richmond and embarked in the manufacture of woolen goods, near the well known " Test Mills." He departed this life in 1849, respected and beloved by all who knew him. He, too, was a devout and faithful Friend and aided materially in the work of the church. Of his seven sons, the Doctor is the second. The eldest, Josiah, died in 1864; William, Rufus and Oliver, all reside at present near the Test Mills; Erastus is professor of mathematics in Purdue University, at Lafayette; and Lindley M. is engaged in the insurance and real-estate business in Peru, Indiana.

Dr. Zaccheus Test was born in the village now called Quakertown, Union county, Indiana, September 13, 1828. After irregular attendance at the common schools he entered "Friends' Boarding School" (now Earlham College), at its opening, in 1847, and after a two-years course went to Haverford College, at Haverford, Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1851. A year later he took up the study of medicine, being a student of Dr. William B. Smith, of Richmond, and graduated in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, in the spring of 1855. Poor health compelled him later to give up the profession. Having assisted in the organization of the institution, he became, in 1859, a member of the faculty of Earlham College, where for several years he was in charge of the classical department. In 1866 he accepted a position in Howland School, Union Springs, New York, where he remained till 1879.

During all these years the Doctor was closely occupied in study, especially in the line of the history and systems of philosophy. In 1861 or 1S62, Franklin and Marshall College, Pennsylvania, conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. In 1874-5 it was his privilege to spend a year abroad, mostly at the University of Tubingen, southern Germany, occupying the vacations more or less in European travel. Returning by way of England, he was appointed, in 1879, supervisor of German in the public schools of Richmond and served in that capacity up to the close of 1898. As an educator he has met with encouraging success. His heart and mind have been wholly in the great work, and he seems especially gifted by nature and training to lead and develop the mental faculties of the young.

In 1879 Dr. Test became a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church, and a year later was ordained a deacon. In 1883 he was admitted to the priesthood and for three years was the rector of the Connersville church. For fourteen years he has been the honorary assistant of St. Paul's parish in Richmond. Into religious work, as into everything else which he undertakes, he puts his whole soul and talents, and by the strength of his noble personality wields an influence for good that cannot be estimated.

In 1857 Dr. Test married Miss Elizabeth M. Pray, of Dublin, Wayne county, who died in 1870. Their two living children are Alice T. and Mrs. W. W. Gilford. Miss Alice is a graduate of the State University and of the State Normal School, and for several years has been a successful teacher in the schools of Richmond. In 1876 the Doctor married Miss Sarah Anthony, of Union Springs, New York, his present wife, a cousin of Miss Susan B. Anthony.


Fayette county's well-known and popular county recorder, Jacob Ridge, is a veteran of the civil war and bears an honorable record for brave service in the cause of freedom and union, and in the paths of peace he has also won an enviable reputation through the sterling qualities which go to the making of a good citizen and trustworthy official.

Mr. Ridge was born February 27, 1838, near London, in county Kent, England, and is a son of John and Jane (Clark) Ridge, also natives of the same place, who emigrated with their family of three children to the United States in 1839 and first located in Ripley county, Indiana. In 1852 they came to Fayette county and settled on a farm southeast of Connersville, where they remained two years. During the following five years the father followed his chosen occupation of farming on a place two miles south of the city, and for the same length of time cultivated another farm five miles southwest of Connersville. He then purchased a farm in Union county, upon which he made his home until called from this life in 1886, at the age of eighty-five years. He came to this country in limited circumstances, and at first engaged in farming upon rented land, but, being an industrious, enterprising and economical manager, he at length became the possessor of a good place of his own. He was well posted on the leading questions and issues of the day, took an active interest in political affairs, and voted first with the Whig and later with the Republican party. In religious faith he was a Baptist, having united with the church of that denomination in England, as did also the mother of our subject. She died m Ripley county, Indiana, in 1846.

Being brought to this country during his infancy Jacob Ridge spent the first fifteen years of his life in Ripley county, and then came with the family to Fayette county. In 1862, in response to the president's call for more troops, he enlisted in Company G, Eighty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, for three years or until the close of the war. His regiment was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland, and with his command he participated in twenty-three battles. He was all through the Atlanta campaign, during which time he was under fire for one hundred days. From his first engagement at Chickamauga, June 1, 1863, until hostilities ceased, he was always found at his post of duty, never losing a day, as he fortunately escaped wounds and sickness. He was a brave and fearless soldier, and when the war ended and his services were no longer needed he was honorably discharged June 14, 1865.

After spending one year upon his father's farm in Union county, Mr. Ridge came to Fayette county, and during the following year was engaged in farming in Jennings township. In 1873 he removed to a farm in the eastern part of the county, on which he continued to reside until taking charge of the poor asylum March 10, 1875. For four years he held that position and then removed to Connersville, where he has since made his home, doing various things for a living. He was a member of the police force of the city for four years, and in 1894 was elected county recorder of Fayette county, the duties of which office he assumed in October of 1896. So creditably did he fill the position that he was re-elected in 1898 for another four-years term and is the present incumbent. He is a stanch Republican in politics and when first nominated there were seven candidates in the field, but he was renominated without opposition, a fact which plainly testifies to his popularity and efficient service.

In 1873 Mr. Ridge wedded Miss Mary A. Hensley, of Connersville, and to them has been born one son, Albert C. , who is now connected with the Connersville Furniture Company. Mr. Ridge is an earnest and consistent Christian gentleman, a member of the Baptist church prior to the civil war, but is now a Methodist. Socially, he is a member of Connersville Post, No. 126, G. A. R. Although he received but eighteen months' schooling, he is a remarkably well-informed man, being a great reader and close observer of men and events. He also possessed a wonderfully retentive memory and has given special attention to the study of history, not only of this country but also of foreign lands. His parents, too, had good memories. Wherever known Mr. Ridge is held in high regard, and those who know him best are numbered among his warmest friends.



The La Fuze family, of which the subject of. this sketch is a representative, is one of the oldest and largest families in Union county, Indiana. Danford La Fuze is a son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Immel) La Fuze. Samuel La Fuze was born in Uniontown, Fayette county, Pennsylvania, January 5, 1805, son of Samuel and Eleanor (Harper) La Fuze, the former of English and the latter of Scotch-Irish descent, both born in Pennsylvania. The fathers of both Samuel La Fuze, Sr. , and Eleanor Harper came with their families from Pennsylvania to Indiana in the year 1814, before Indiana had attained the dignity of statehood, and settled in Center township, Union county, a mile and a half northeast of Liberty. The senior Samuel La Fuze was a weaver by trade, but after coming to Indiana devoted his energies to agricultural pursuits. Samuel, Jr., was a carpenter and spent some years at that work in Union county. At the time of his marriage he bought a farm and settled on it, and carried on farming the rest of his life. March 26, 1840, he married Elizabeth Immel, daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Smith) Immel, the Immel family having come to Union county, Indiana, from Fayette county, Pennsylvania, about the year 1 830, and settled in Brownsville township. Mr. Immel had passed the seventieth mile-post at the time of death, and his wife was over ninety when she died. The Immel homestead has since passed into other hands, and now only one of their children, Catherine, wife of B. F. Coddington, lives in Brownsville township.

When he started out in life for himself Samuel La Fuze, the father of the subject of this sketch, had only a small amount of means, but he was a man of pluck and energy, and he soon showed that he could both make and save money. He acquired a fine farm, four hundred acres in extent, which was the homestead, and besides it he owned other property, frequently buying and selling. His political views were those advocated by the Republican party, and he was always active in promoting the best interests of his part}-, though never seeking official honors for himself. His death occurred December 13, 1887, and up to within six years of that time he had a strong and vigorous constitution. He managed his own affairs to the last, at different times assisting his children, and he arranged his affairs in such a manner that all was settled quietly and without any litigation. He was a member of the Christian church, and throughout his life was a Christian in deed as well as name. His widow still survives him and is now seventy-eight years of age, clear in mind and vigorous in strength for one of her age. Their children, in order of birth, are as follows: Mary, wife of S. A. Martin, of Liberty, Indiana; Ellen, wife of Alexander Creek, died at the age of thirty-five years; Samuel Monroe, a farmer of Harrison township, Union county; William Henry, a farmer of the same township; Leonidas Homer, also of that township; Lucy, wife of T. J. Bennett, Harrison township; Danford, whose name forms the heading of this sketch; Oliver P., Liberty, Indiana; and George E., on the old home farm.

Danford La Fuze was born on his father's farm in Brownsville township. Union county, Indiana, December 19, 1860, and remained a member of the home circle until the time of his marriage, which event occurred June 13, 1888, the lady of his choice being Miss Myrtle Kitchel, daughter of John and Susannah (Patterson) Kitchel, of Harrison township, Union county, where she was born February 11, 1869.

Since his marriage Mr. La Fuze has occupied his present farm. He received eighty acres as his part of his father's estate and he has since added to it by the purchase of another eighty-acre tract, paying therefor ninetythree dollars and seventy-five cents per acre. He has carried forward the work of improvement and has developed his land into a first-class farm in every respect. He utilizes each year about fifty acres in the cultivation of corn and fall wheat and keeps a high grade of stock, his herd of fine cattle numbering about twenty-five head. He has also for several years taken a pride in his poultry, keeping thoroughbred Plymouth Rock chickens, which he finds a profitable breed. An important feature of his place is its water system, a windmill furnishing the power by which the water is taken to places where used. In short, everything about the farm shows thrift and prosperity.

Mr. and Mrs. La Fuze have four children, namely: Hattie Belle, Herbert Earl, Frank Ernest and Goldie Mabel.

Like his honored father, Mr. La Fuze harmonizes with the Republican party and the principles advocated by it. His wife is a member of the Christian church.


Thomas Davis Evans, a prominent attorney of Liberty, Indiana, and well known throughout the state, was ushered into life in Decatur, Newton county, Mississippi, August 17, 1840, and there spent the early years of his childhood. When he was seven years old his mother died, leaving three little children. His father, Dr. Thomas E. Evans, was born and reared in Bath, England ; was educated at Oxford ; came to America when a young man and at Philadelphia won great honors as a physician. From there he went south, where he met and married Miss Sarah Yerby, a native of Alabama and a representative of a historic family of that state. After her death he married again and moved to Vicksburg, and in 1853 went to New Orleans. On account of the great cholera epidemic that year he sent his family north, himself remaining in New Orleans and caring for the sick in the hospitals. After several months spent in hospital work he started to join his family, who were at Gallatin, Tennessee, but at Vicksburg was stricken with the dread disease and died there July 31, 1853. He was buried with the honors of Freemasonry. While he had a large practice and was untiring in his efforts to relieve the sick and afflicted, he was liberal and generous to a fault and he died a poor man, the heritage of a good name being all the fortune he left to his family.

Thomas Davis Evans, when a youth, secured a position as clerk in a store and in that way provided for his own support and that of the two younger children, his stepmother meantime having married. After clerking in several stores, he learned the printer's trade in the office of the Gallatin Examiner. In the meantime, June 7, i860, he married, at Gallatin, Miss Mollie Johnson, daughter of James S. Johnson, mayor of that place.

Mr. Evans had for a neighbor in Gallatin Joseph S. Fowler, later United States senator, then president of Howard Female Institute, in which Mrs. Evans was educated. It was largely due to the influence of this gentleman that Mr. Evans when he became a voter espoused the cause of the Republican party. The majority of his friends and neighbors, however, were rebels, and at the outbreak of the civil war he took sides with the Union. At the beginning of hostilities he took his family and went into the mountains of east Tennessee, where he remained until Gallatin became a military post, commanded by Brigadier-General E. A. 'Payne, when he returned and subsequently secured a position in the United States quartermaster department as military storekeeper, an important position, which he held until the close of the war, sometimes having in his charge millions of dollars' worth of stores. This position gave him a wide acquaintance among military men.

While acting as storekeeper Mr. Evans took up the study of law, and at the close of the war was examined and admitted to the bar at Lebanon, Tennessee, and immediately afterward commenced the practice of his profession at Alexandria, same state. He soon built up a large practice which extended, during the years immediately following the war, throughout Sumner, Wilson, Davidson and Smith counties, and in connection with his legal work he was active in political campaigns, stumping for the Republican party.

In 1870 Mr. Evans came north, locating first at Mansfield, Ohio, and shortly afterward came over into Indiana, settling in Albion, Noble county. In 1879 he removed from the latter place to Liberty, Indiana, all the while continuing the practice of his profession. At Liberty he soon became prominent at the bar, and has been connected with many important litigations, his practice reaching into the higher courts of the state. For ten years he was county attorney of Union county, and it was during his incumbency of that office that the court-house and poor-house were built. His activity in political lines has taken him into every county in the state, where he has addressed Republican gatherings. He is still conducting a large and lucrative practice.

August 31, 1863, Mr. Evans' first wife died, and a few years later he married again. His second wife died previous to his removal to Liberty, and he wedded his present companion. Miss Lucretia Julien, at Tiffin, Ohio. His first wife left one child, Mollie, now the wife of James A. Murphy, of Richmond, Indiana; and the children of his second wife, three in number, are: Thomas D., a hotel-keeper of Berlin, Wisconsin; Carrie, widow of James F. Copeland, who died in 1898; and Carl R. , an attorney with Crawford & Crawford, Dallas, Texas. He has no children by his present wife.


This name is one known throughout Union county, for here Mr. Burt has passed his whole life, and here his parents lived for many decades. He is now serving his fifth year in the responsible office of county commissioner, having been twice elected to this position by his Republican friends. He has been active in the councils of the party and generally attends the meetings of the county central committee. At various times he has occupied more or less important township offices and has always acquitted himself with credit. There are sixty-seven miles of graded roads in the county to be looked after, and many other quite as important public matters that require his supervision as commissioner.

The father of our subject was Zenas Burt, whose birth occurred in Fayette county Pennsylvania, July i, 1794. He was a son of Zephaniah Burt, two of whose brothers were soldiers in the Revolutionary war. For his wife Zenas Burt chose Miss Phcebe Ratcliff, who was born May 12, 1799, and soon after their marriage, March 6, 18 17, the young people started for their new home on the frontier, proceeding down the Ohio river in company with Mrs. Burt's brother, Samuel Ratcliff, and his family. Some years later this brother went to New Orleans on a fiat-boat and was never heard from again. Zephaniah Burt had made the trip to Union county about 18 14 and took up some land here. A few years later he located in Henry county, where he died. Zenas Burt settled on seventy-one acres of the Union county property selected by his father, and this land has never left the family and is now owned by James Morris, a son of our subject. In time Zenas Burt became well-to-do, owned four farms, and for years was a justice of the peace. He was an old-line Whig and very active in his party. Religiously he was a strict Presbyterian, concerned about the observance of family prayers and other forms of the church. He was one of the zealous members of the Silver Creek church, which he assisted in founding and later was influential in the organization of the Presbyterian church at Liberty. In 1850 he bought the present farm of A. F. Burt, and dwelt here until his death in 1866. His widow survived him several years. He had a brother Daniel, who lived in Union and Henry counties, and they had three sisters, one of whom, Eunice, married John Bradway, of Henry county. In the days of his early settlement here Zenas Burt was obliged to haul his grain to Cincinnati, a four-days trip, and would return with provisions and supplies for his household, enough to last for many months.

Of the children born to Zenas and Phcebe Burt, Laban R. was the eldest. He was born December 28, 1817, and was a farmer of Kosciusko county, Indiana, for several years prior to his death, which event took place when he was in his sixty-sixth year. John Milton, the second son, was born March 5, 1820, and died in Franklin county, this state, where he had been engaged in merchandising. Amzi Elmer, born March 9, 1822, died at the old homestead in this county when a 5'oung man, in 1853. Isaiah Grable, born May 23, 1824, died in Coles county, Illinois, where he owned a farm. Hannah Main died at the age of nine years. Rebecca Rittenhouse, born August 15, 1829, never married and died when about thirty-five years of age. Phoebe Caroline, born September 15. 183 1, never married, and died when about sixty-five years of age. Joseph Hayward, born September 17, 1833, served under General Lew Wallace in the Eleventh Indiana Regiment during the civil war, and died while at home on a furlough. Silas Everts, born December 15, 1835, was a farmer of Union county until four years ago, when he removed to Taylor county, Wisconsin.

Aretus F. Burt, born October 15, 1840, is the youngest of his parents' large family, and the labors of the farm devolved upon him and his brother Silas when they were quite young, as their father was getting well along in years. Our subject remained on the homestead after his father's death, and when his mother died he became the owner of the place, which comprises eighty acres. He has since added another tract of similar extent, adjoining the old farm on the north; and besides this he cultivates sixty-three acres of the Whitzel farm (next to his own), thirty acres at the school-house and fifty acres in another tract not far from his home. He is very enterprising and progressive in his methods, raises from fifty to one hundred acres of wheat and seventy-five acres of corn each year. He keeps a good grade of live stock, feeding from sixty to eighty hogs a year, thirty head of cattle and about forty sheep. He is a member of the Union County Agricultural and Historical Society and for fifteen years has been connected with the Odd Fellows order. He and the members of his household are identified with the Methodist Episcopal church.

The marriage of Mr. Burt and Miss Juliana Waddell, of this county, was celebrated November 29, 1866. Their eldest child, Josie A., is the wife of Henry Martin, of Center township; James Morris is a farmer; Carrie Alma is the wife of Lewis Harold, of Liberty; Mary Pearl is the wife of Oscar Martin, a hardware merchant of Liberty; and Emma Lucinda, Royden Hays, Frank and Grace are still living with their parents.


Mr. Gordon is a member of the firm of Barnes & Gordon, publishers of the Item, of Richmond, and is the able and efficient editor of that bright and newsy journal. He is undoubtedly the youngest editor in the state, and has been familiar with newspaper work for many years.

He is the son of Charles E. and Nancy (Bennett) Gordon, and was born in Dixon township, Preble county, Ohio, April 29, 1876. The family from which he springs is of Scotch-Irish extraction and was founded in this country before the war of the Revolution, locating in Guilford county. North Carolina. Charles Gordon, our subject's grandfather, was born and reared to manhood in that county, and moved with the tide of emigration westward, settling in Union county, Indiana. He married and brought up a large number of children, was a prominent farmer, owning a considerable extent of land in this state, and was known as a thrifty, prosperous man.

Among his children was Charles E. Gordon, the father of our subject, who was born in Union county, Indiana, in 1849. After reaching the state of manhood he engaged in agricultural pursuits in his native county, and was quite prosperous. Later he moved to Preble county, Ohio, where he continued as a farmer until 1883, when he moved to Richmond, in order that his son might receive the benefit of more thorough educational training. In 1864 he enlisted in the Ninth Indiana Cavalry, Company D, and served through the war. In marriage he was united with Miss Nancy Bennett, April 26, 1873, who still survives him and resides in Richmond, at which place he died April 26, 1885. His widow remarried, wedding Arthur Hazelton in 1889.

J. Bennett Gordon was an only child. He entered the district schools at the age of five years and was instructed in them until he was eight years old, when his parents removed to this city and he became a student in the public schools here. He graduated in the high school in the class of 1894, when but eighteen years of age, being one of the four chosen, on account of thought and delivery, to represent his class on graduation day. He gave great promise of literary talent at an early age, and when a student in the high school he was always prominent in every literary task of his class. He was active in the organization of the first debating club in the Richmond high school.

After his graduation he was given the position of city editor in the office of the Richmond Telegram, where he showed that he was a thorough master of the situation, and afforded the publishers of that paper great satisfaction by his able management of that department. In the autumn of 1895 he entered Earlham College and completed the regular literary course in three years, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Literature. While attending to his class work he took a prominent part in the literary work of the college, debates, etc., and was regarded as the best speaker in the class, of which he was president. He twice represented his college in the debate with De Pauw University, being a member and the leader of the team which captured the state championship in forensics. He was also a regular correspondent of the Item.

Immediately after graduating at Earlham he purchased an undivided half interest in the Item, of B. B. Johnson, and took editorial charge July I of that year. The business of the journal is conducted on strictly business methods, and Mr. Gordon, as editor, so well understands the wants of the reading public that he publishes the news in the most intelligible and attractive form, and has met with ready appreciation and extended patronage. The Item is to-day the leading paper in this part of the state. It is a power in the Republican ranks, is bold and fearless in its utterances of the truth, and its influence can hardly be overestimated.

Mr. Gordon is one of the most active and intelligent workers of the Republican party in this state, and is destined to become a leader. He is the president of the Young Men's Republican Club of Richmond, and has been a speaker in the cause for several years. In 1896 he " stumped " the sixth congressional district of Indiana, delivering fifty-six speeches in six weeks during the campaign. Two years later he was under the direction of the state committee and was sent to "stump" the sixth congressional district and southern Indiana. As a speaker he is argumentative and convincing, being known as a "vote-maker." He is in frequent demand as the orator of various public gatherings; and if his career as a public speaker is unchecked he will be widely known in the future as an orator who adorned the rostrum, and a scholar whose literary productions are models that are studied and appreciated. He was a delegate to the state convention of 1898 and was a member of the committee on credentials for his district. He is a prominent member of the Lincoln League in Indiana, being a member of the state committee, representing the sixth congressional district.

Mr. Gordon is a young gentleman of exemplary habits and a member of the First Methodist Episcopal church of Richmond. At present he is engaged with Professor Hodgin, of Earlham College, in compiling a political history of Wayne county, Indiana, together with biographical sketches of the county's most prominent politicians.


Everywhere in our land are found men who have worked their own way from humble and lowly beginnings to places of leadership, renown and high esteem, and it is still one of the proudest boasts of our fair country that suchvictors are accounted of thousandfold more worth and value to the commonwealth than the aristocrat, with his inherited wealth, position and distinguished name. "Through struggles to triumph " appears to be the maxim which holds sway over the majority of our citizens, and though it is undeniably true that many an one falls exhausted by the conflict, a few, by their inherent force of character and strong mentality, rise paramount to environment and all which sought to hinder them. Thus it has been with the eminent member of the bar of Liberty, Indiana, whose name opens this biography, and in whose life history many useful lessons may be gleaned.

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 13, 1848, he was bound out at an early age, and when fifteen he ran away from his employer and enlisted in the Sixty-ninth Otiio Regiment, After serving in Sherman's army for two years in the defense of the Union, the war was brought to a close and he was given an honorable discharge at Camp Dennison, July 26, 1865. The young man then went to California, and on the Pacific coast he was employed at various callings,—spent some time in running sawmills, and had charge of a gang of Chinamen when the Virginia City & Truckee Railway was in process of construction, and also superintended some of the work on the Central Pacific Railroad. On his trip to the west he went by way of the Isthmus of Panama, but on his return he was enabled to come by the recently completed railroad across the country. He arrived in Indiana at the beginning of winter, almost stranded, without home, friends or money. He wandered from Richmond to Liberty, vainly seeking employment of any kind, and when almost despairing he met kind-hearted Frank Coddington, who sent him to Abner C. Beck, a farmer who had been anxious to hire some one to assist in the management of his homestead. After some argument and discussion Mr. Stanford was engaged at a salary of sixteen dollars a month and board, and he continued to reside on the farm until November, 1870.

In the meantime he had greatly surprised Mr. Beck by marrying that gentleman's daughter, Elizabeth J. Late in the autumn of 1870 the young couple took up their residence in Liberty, where their home has since been made, almost uninterruptedly. It had always been a dream of Mr. Stanford's that he might some day enter the legal profession, and, while he was on the farm he had spent many an evening in serious study and preparation. Admitted to the bar on the 2d of January, 1871, he opened an office, and in earnest began the battle for name and position, which for some years appeared to be a hopeless endeavor. By himself he had picked up stenography and in 1873 he took a special course in reportorial work of J. E. Munson, who was the official stenographer of the surrogate court of New York. He found that this was a great benefit to him, while he was getting started in the practice of law. His first legal encounter was in Brownsville, where he tried a case before a justice of the peace, this being prior to the time that he left the farm. Practice came slowly, he was unknown and handicapped in many material ways, but he persevered with wonderful determination. His father-in-law tried to discourage him from continuing in the law and gave Mrs. Stanford ten acres of land, on which was built a small house. Our subject carried on this homestead, working in the early morning and after his return from town studying hard every evening to post himself further in the law. Such pluck and perseverance deserve reward and success at length came to him, though not until after he had been obliged to sell all but two acres of the little farm, and on that remnant there was a mortgage of four hundred dollars.

In 1875 he removed to Lebanon, Indiana, where he spent a year, after which he engaged in court reporting for a similar period at Indianapohs, and after living in Connersville for another year he returned to Liberty. Having won in several cases of considerable note, Mr. Stanford now found the tide of public favor turning in his direction, and from that time forward he prospered. At the present time he is on the top wave of success and is steadily pressing forward to yet greater achievements.

In 1880 Mr. Stanford was elected, on the Democratic ticket, to the responsible office of prosecuting attorney of this county and served in that capacity for two terms, having been re-elected at the expiration of his first term. He gave general satisfaction to all concerned and met the requirements of the office with fidelity and ability. He has always been an ardent supporter of the principles and nominees of the Democratic party, though he is not a politician. Among his property interests are included some seven hundred acres of the best land in Union county.

To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Stanford, a son, Roscoe L., and a daughter, Lillian, were born. The latter is the wife of Robert E. Barnhart, a graduate of the law department of DePauw University, and now in partnership with L. H. Stanford. The domestic life of our subject has been remarkably happy, and in all his reverses and discouragements he has had the loving sympathy and advice of his wife, a lady of true and tested worth


Among the best citizens of Union county, esteemed alike for his sterling worth of character and his activity in the business world, is Thomas C. Burnside, a worthy representative of one of the pioneer families. He was born in the town of Liberty, November 24, 1844, and is a son of Judge Edghill and Jane (Dill) Burnside. His father died when the son was only fifteen years of age, but the mother resided in Liberty until 1874. His boyhood days passed quietly, the usual duties of the home and the school-room occupying his attention throughout his youth. At the age of twenty, however, he entered railroad work, securing a position as brakeman on the Pennsylvania Railroad, with which system he was connected for fifteen years. He served as conductor, first on freight and afterward on passenger trains, and for ten years was a passenger conductor on the Indianapolis & Vincennes, and Indianapolis & Louisville, divisions of this road, between Indianapolis and Louisville. No railroad man in this section of the country was more generally known or had more warm personal friends, for his uniform courtesy, his kindhness and genuine worth won him the high regard of all with whom he came in contact. His relations with the railroad company were also of the most pleasant character and he won high encomiums from both the officials and patrons of the road.

In 1884 Mr. Burnside retired from that life and located on his present farm, two miles south of Liberty. There he has since made his home, devoting his energies to'agricultural pursuits, and his well tilled fields, substantial buildings and modern improvements indicate the supervision of a painstaking, practical and progressive owner.

In 1874 Mr. Burnside married Miss Jennie Kelly, a daughter of Seth Kelly and a representative of one of the oldest families of the county, established here in 1805. At a little later date Willis Kelly came to Indiana from Boston, Massachusetts. He lived in Laurens county, South Carolina, where he formed the acquaintance of Charity Hollingsworth, whom he married in Union county, theirs being the first wedding ceremony performed here. Mrs. Kelly's parents had died in South Carolina, and she had come to Union county with her sisters and her two brothers, David and Jonathan, whose descendants are still living in this locality. The name of Charity Hollingsworth was well known at an early day, and many leading citizens of Union county at the present time are numbered among her relatives. Willis Kelly, whom she married, was a teacher and farmer, -but died in early life. His son, Seth Kelly, father of Mrs. Burnside, married Elizabeth Ann Holliday and resided on his father's farm for a long period, but his last years were spent in Liberty, where he died at the age of sixty-eight. He was one of the most enterprising agriculturists of the community and his well kept farm was widely celebrated. He took an active part in politics as a supporter of the Republican party, was a faithful member of the Presbyterian church and a great temperance worker. One of his sons, Kosciusko Kelly, resides at Liberty, and is clerk and treasurer of the town. The farm now belonging to Mr. Burnside was formerly the property of a sister of Seth Kelly, Mrs. Cynthia Haworth, wife of Richard G. Haworth, who was one of the most extensive breeders of fine stock in Union county. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Burnside have been born three children: Clara, who has engaged in teaching; Margaret, who was a teacher in the graded school at Salem; and Jennie. All are at home.

Mr. Burnside now devotes his energies to general farming. He has two hundred and ten acres in corn and wheat, and also raises hogs and Jersey cattle. He is engaged in the dairy business, and in company with a few others established a successful co-operative creamery. He has long been interested in the Farmers' Institute, has for six or seven years been a member of the institute board, and does all in his power to secure the adoption of improved methods of farming. He is a very active worker in the ranks of the Republican party, attends its conventions and was chairman of the Republican county central committee, for two years and during the Harrison campaign of 1888, but has never been a candidate for office. Belief in the superiority of the principles prompts his advocacy of the party, and not hope of reward in office-holding. He and his family are members of the Presbyterian church, and his wife and daughters take an active interest in church work. Fraternally he is connected with the Masonic order; was the master of Liberty Lodge, No. 59, A. F. & A. M., for six years; has been the high priest of Liberty Chapter, and is probably the only Knight Templar in Liberty, his membership being in Roper Commandery, at Indianapolis. He has also taken the thirty-second degree of the Scottish rite in the Consistory of the Valley of Indianapolis, and is a member of the Knights of Pythias fraternity. He has given his aid in many generous ways to the perpetuation of those forces which conserve the best interests of the community, and the course that he has followed in political, business, social and home circles commends him to the high esteem of all.


The name of Judge Edghill Burnside has been inscribed high on the roll of Union county's honored pioneers and eminent men, and the part which he took in the founding and development of the county well entitles him toprominent mention in this volume. He established the town of Liberty, in which he long made his home, laboring for its promotion and its welfare. His memory is revered by all the old settlers who knew him, and the influence of his life upon the community was most beneficial.

Born in Laurens county. South Carolina, in 1790, he was a son of Captain James Burnside, whose loyalty to the cause of the crown was manifest by his service as an officer in the British army during the war of the Revoluiton. The family were all Royalists, and their estates were confiscated by the colonies, but in return they were given grants of land on the island of Jamaica. Thither they went with Colonel Edgehill, of South Carolina, having small indigo plantations there. In 1786, however. Captain Burnside returned with his family, consisting of three daughters and four sons. In 1808 Mrs. Captain Burnside, then a widow, came with her family of four sons and two daughters to Indiana, locating in what was then Franklin county but is now a part of Union county, their home being in the little town of Washington. Andrew, James and Thomas Burnside, the brothers of our subject, afterward removed from the county, Thomas and James with their mother and sisters returning to South Carolina, while Andrew went to Free port, Illinois.

Judge Burnside spent the days of his boyhood and youth in the state of his nativity, and when eighteen years of age came with the family to Union county, where his remaining days were passed. In this then wild and unsettled region he labored to establish a home, and as the years passed exerted a wide influence on tiie public life, thought and action of this locality. He was the founder of the town of Liberty, which stands as a monument to his enterprising spirit. Reserved as associate judge of the circuit court and filled the office of county clerk for the long period of twenty-eight years, retiring in 1858. No confidence reposed in him was ever betrayed and his fidelity to to the public trust in the discharge of his official duties was most marked. He gave his political support to the Whig party until its dissolution, when he joined the ranks of the new Republican party, being one of its zealous advocates until his death. He exerted a wide influence in all county affairs, was very popular and highly respected. No man identified with this section of the state during the early period of its development was held in higher estimation.

Judge Burnside was twice married. He first wedded Pamelia Brown, and in December, 1843, he married Jane Dill, a daughter of Joseph Dill, a native of Warren county, Ohio. The children of the first marriage were Henry M., who followed farming at Laurel, Franklin county, and afterward resided in Indianapolis, but died in Shelby county, Indiana, at the age of fifty-eight years; Benjamin F. , a mechanic, who under contract furnished horses and mules to the Army of the Tennessee during the civil war, and died in Indianapolis, at the age of fifty-five; and General Burnside, the famous general in command of the northern forces during the great struggle between the north and the south. The second son was a Democrat in politics, but the others were all stalwart advocates of Republican principles. The only son of the second marriage of Judge Burnside is Thomas C. Burnside, a well known resident of Union county, whose sketch appears next. The father died March 28, 1859, and his second wife, long surviving him, passed away April 13, 1891, at the age of eighty-two years. For a half century Judge Burnside lived and labored to goodly ends among the people of Union county, and left the impress of his individuality upon the public life, the substantial growth and material development of the region. He was a man of true nobility of character, and his death was most deeply deplored by those to whom had come the fullest appreciation of his nature.

In all ages the desire to be remembered after one's brief span of life is finished has been one of the most important factors of human existence, and with many individuals has been the motive of all endeavor and enterprise. To the majority, however, this ambition, laudable in itself, is not the mainspring of conduct, but is more often found in the heart of a devoted friend, who wishes to perpetuate the memory of the one who has departed into the silent land. Monuments and shrines of various kinds are erected and serve their place, but time crumbles even the hardest granite and marble, and the printed page, on which is recounted the life and deeds of loved ones, is the most enduring tribute, especially as this is so easily copied from age to age. We are glad to be able to place before the readers of this work, which records the histories of many of the representative citizens and families of Union county, a few facts which have been gleaned m regard to the life of the subject of this memoir.

Lewis P. Smith was a well known resident of Center township. Union county, and was excelled by only a few in this section of the state as a scientist. The chief delight and aim of his life was to explore yet deeper into the mysteries and secrets of nature, and for years he gave thought to little else. Born April 15, 1858, in Smithfield, Wayne county, Indiana, he attended the common schools until he was seventeen years of age, when, on account of his delicate health, he was forced to abandon his studies for some time. He was, alas! the victim of that dread disease, consumption, but it was. many a year ere his iron will succumbed to its power, and few ever made a braver or more determined fight against the foe. In his youth he went to Tennessee and for three years spent each winter in sawmills, in order to escape the hard northern season of ice and snow. A great part of his future life he passed in this n)anner,—that is, in the south, employed at one thing or another.

October 15, 1885, Mr. Smith married Miss Mary Olive Haworth, daughter of Willis C. and Mary (Rose) Haworth, a lady of fine attainments. Having graduated at the high school in Liberty, she spent the next two years in Oxford College, at Oxford, Ohio, and in Glendale College, at Glendale Ohio. Subsequently she taught in the public schools for some time, and, also being accomplished as a musician, she had pupils in the musical art as well. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Smith was blessed with four children, two of whom, Willis Stanton and Ethel, died at the ages of three and a half years and fourteen months respectively. Harold Haworth is a fine lad of ten years and Lloyd Esteb Haworth is four years old.

For about five years after their marriage the young couple lived on the old homestead belonging to Mr. Smith's father, after which they came to the old Haworth farm near Roseburg, the property now the home of Mrs. Smith. On account of his poor health, which became worse year by year, Mr. Smith was obliged to depend upon others to do the work of the farm, though he tried to exercise judicious supervision over all affairs connected therewith. During the winter seasons he continued to travel in the south, passing most of his time in Tennessee or Florida. His ever active mind required food, and he early took up the study of geology, natural history and the allied sciences, becoming thoroughly informed on these subjects. He took great interest in the collection of Indian and war relics, fossils, shells, etc., and his large, fine cabinets are filled with valuable specimens, carefully labeled and classified. Hundreds of relics of the civil war were picked up on the battlefields by himself, and in his geological cabinet he placed thousands of specimens. Besides, he secured a good collection of old family relics and heirlooms, spinning wheels, spinning jennies, etc. In his political views he was in accord with the Republican platform. His final illness was of short duration and death came to him October 25, 1896. His study of geology and science confirmed his belief in God, the Creator, and he acknowledged His wisdom and omnipotence in all things, but he could not conform to the established church creeds. He was tall and slender in physique, and his face would light up with animation and earnestness when he conversed upon things in which he was deeply interested. Of a social nature, he loved to have his friends with him, and contributed much to their enjoyment by his thoroughly entertaining conversation upon books he had read, places he had visited and affairs of general interest. He had no enemies, for his honest, kindly nature drew everj' one to him and made them his friends.

Mrs. Mary Olive Smith is still managing the old Haworth farm in Liberty and Center townships, two and one-half miles south of the county-seat, formerly owned by her grandparents, Thomas and Olive (Kelly) Haworth, and later by her father, Willis Capron Haworth. The grandfather succeeded his father in the possession of the family estate. He died there at the age of fify-six years, and his wife, Olive, died a few years previously. Their children were: Willis C. ; James Addison, formerly a teacher and the author of an arithmetic, and now a resident of Liberty; Marietta, who married T. J. McAvoy, and died when about forty years of age: she was a teacher and a fine writer, and was the author of a copy-book which was once used in the schools; and Angehne, who died at twenty-three, unmarried. Thomas Haworth lived and died on the old homestead mentioned above, and his nextdoor neighbor was his brother, Richard G. , who owned the adjoining tract of land. About 1855 Thomas Haworth erected the substantially constructed frame house, with its heavy timbers and beams, which still stands, in almost perfect preservation as a monument to his handiwork. He was a member of the Friends' church at Salem, and was a strong Abolitionist and one of the conductors of the "underground railway." After his first wife's death he married Eunice Johnson, a widow, who survived him, and later became the wife of William Shanklin. Willis C. Haworth was born at Roseburg, July 30, 1835, and departed this life January 25, 1877. In 1856 he married Mary Teresa, daughter of Dr. Erasmus Rose, and in 1868 they removed to the farm which had belonged to Thomas Haworth, his father. Dr. Erasmus Rose was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, in 1793, in 1S24 came to Liberty, Indiana, and up to 1845 practiced medicine. His death took place at Van Wert, Ohio. Mrs. Mary T. Haworth, born October 6, 1838, died July 8, 1881. To herself and husband five children were born, namely: Kit Carson, now of Liberty; Alpheus, who died in infancy; Mary Olive (Mrs. Lewis P. Smith); Angeline, who died at twenty-one years; and Thomas Erasmus, who died in childhood.

The Harvey family is one of the oldest in Union county and has been noted from the beginning of this century for the sterling traits that are so characteristic of the subject of this sketch, constituting him a fitting representative of the name. He was born on a farm adjoining the one which he owns and cultivates to-day, the date of the event being June 19, 1846. His whole life has been spent in Brownsville township, and everything tending to advance the best interests of this region has received his earnest support and attention. In all his views he is liberal and broad-minded, striving to settle all difficult questions in an unbiased, logical manner, and weighing in an impartial way for himself all evidence presented. Both he and his estimable wife are members of the Universalist church at Pleasant Hill, and are generous in their contributions to the poor and needy.

The paternal grandfather of our subject was Francis Harvey, who came in early days to dwell in this township, thus being one of the first to permanently locate in this vicinity. His wife bore the maiden name of Elizabeth Snyder, and their son Michael, father of Daniel T. Harvey, was born in this township in 18 19, and died in 1881. He chose for his wife Mary Miller, daughter of Henry Miller, one of the early pioneers of this township, and formerly a Pennsylvanian. Mary Miller had but one sister, Rosanna, and she became the wife of Moses, a brother of Michael Harvey. This couple had no children and both are deceased, but for many years Michael and Moses Harvey lived on adjoining farms, portions of the original Harvey estate. Henry Miller lived to be over eighty years old, and was survived several years by his wife, whose maiden name was Anna Spitzn'agle. The first home of Michael Harvey and wife after their marriage was situated west of Brownsville, and later they purchased a tract of two hundred acres near Liberty. Their last homestead was a beautiful farm of three hundred acres, finely improved, and about one and a half miles west of Liberty on the Brownsville road. Mr. Harvey did a large business for years in cattle and live stock, and was a very successful financier. His widow survived his death about a dozen years. He was a Democrat and was not desirous of obtaining public office, preferring to attend strictly to his own affairs. All of his children attaining majority are living (1899) and are named respectively' James Monroe, Daniel T.. George H., Lavina A. and Ida May.

Daniel T. Harvey has always been an agriculturist from his youth up and has made a success of his enterprises in this line. He remained on the old homestead until he arrived at his majority when he concluded that he would start in independent life. In time he was enabled to purchase his grandfathers farm of one hundred and twenty-eight acres, and later he also bought the eighty-acre place where he now makes his home. About seven years ago he built his present commodious, modern house, near the Chfton pike, and has otherwise greatly- improved his place. A few years ago he sold the old farm which his grandfather had owned and invested the proceeds in various enterprises, chiefly, however, in making changes upon his home place. In his political creed he adheres to the tenets of his father, voting for Democratic nominees.

November 4, 1869, Mr. Harvey married Miss Lovis Adney, daughter of Daniel and Susan Adney of English origin. Her father has passed to his reward, but her mother is still living, now in her eighty-seventh year, her home being with her daughter, Mrs. Harvey. The Adney family was one of the first to make a permanent settlement near the town of Liberty. Though Mr. and Mrs. Harvey have not been blessed with children of their own, they have reared a boy from his early childhood and now have living with them a niece, Emma Simms, fifteen years old. she having been a member of the family for the past three years. Both he and his wife have hosts of sincere friends and well-wishers in this neighborhood, and with one accord they speak in the highest terms of the Harvey household.

This successful farmer and respected citizen, Daniel Eikenberry, of Center township, Union county, Indiana, Cottage Grove his postoffice address, was born on a farm adjoining the one on which he now lives, April 8, 1840, and is a son of Henry and Elizabeth (Kingery) Eikenberry. His parents were both natives of the Old Dominion, who came west in early life, settling with their parents in Preble county, Ohio. The paternal grandfather of our subject was Peter Eikenberry. Mrs. Eikenberry was a girl of eight years when her family, the Kingerys, moved to Ohio. In Preble county the parents of Daniel passed from childhood to manhood and womanhood, respectively, and there they were married. Later they came over to Indiana and settled on a farm of one hundred and seventy acres in Union county. The father was born August i, 1792, and died December 27, 1870. The mother, born May 12, 1795, died January 6, 1885, and the date of their marriage was September 30, 1814. In their family were thirteen children, of whom four died when young, and of the others all except one reared families. Abraham was killed in the battle of Chickamauga while serving as a private m an Iowa regiment. John and Daniel are the only ones now living. The former is a stock dealer residing at Russiaville, Howard county, Indiana. Martin and Peter spent their lives and died near the old home. Henry owned and occupied what is now known as the Henry Witter farm. Of the daughters, Lydia married Martin Witter and was the mother of Joseph Witter. Mary married George Keeler, of Cottage Grove.

Daniel Eikenberry remained at the parental home until he was twentythree years of age, when he married and settled on a rented farm. Some time later he moved to the farm he has since owned and occupied, eighty acres of fine land, which by his industry and good management has been brought under a high state of-cultivation. The buildings, all substantial and convenient, have been erected by him. He has devoted his energies to general farming and stock-raising and makes a practice of feeding his own grain.

Mr. Eikenberry was married February 25, 1864, to Miss Isabel Toler, daughter of Bird and Elizabeth Toler, who was born on the farm where her brother, Elijah Toler, now lives, in Union county. After almost thirty years of married life their happy union was severed by her death, which occurred January 15, 1894. To them were born eleven children, namely: William, who died at the age of five years; Henry, residing on the home farm; Lizzie, who died at the age of two years; Mary, who died in infancy; Emma, wife of George Ball; May, wife of Robert Hass; Riley, on the home farm; Addie, at home; and Anna, Laura and Orie, also at hoflne.

Mr. Eikenberry and his family are identified with the German Baptist church, being a member of the Four-Mile congregation.


One of the old and honored citizens of College Corner, Union county, is the gentleman whose name stands at the beginning of this brief tribute to his sterling worth and ability. Born in the house which he now occupies as the proprietor, July 21, 1833, he is a son of Samuel and Barbara (Miller) Ridenonr. The old home is situated about half a mile from the village, in Union township, not far from the state line, and the fine, substantial brick house is considered a veritable landmark, as it was erected over three-score and ten years ago. The Ridenour family has long been one of the most prominent in this region, the ancestors of the present generation having been among the founders of this commonwealth, and active and influential in all of its early affairs and enterprises. From the pioneer days down to the present time, those bearing the name have been noted for traits of character which call forth the admiratioa and esteem of their associates and neighbors.

The paternal grandparents of the subject of this sketch were Peter and Margaret Dorcas Ridenour, who lived in Maryland prior to the year that they set out to found a new home in the wilds of the then far west. They settled in Preble county, Ohio, and there the father of Tobias M. married Barbara, daughter of Tobias and Sarah Miller and sister of William Miller, of South Bend, Indiana, whose son, Hon. John F. Miller, was United States senator from California a few years ago. A year or so after their marriage the young couple removed to the farm now owned by their son, Tobias M., the date of their settlement here probably before 1825. Mr. Ridenour built the large brick house mentioned above, and became very well-to-do. He died, at the age of fifty-six years, in 1850. His widow survived until 1882, dying in her eighty-third year. She was a woman of remarkably ability and force of character, and reared her children to lives of usefulness. At the death of the father she was left with thirteen children, eight of whom were under age. Two of the number died in infancy, and in 1898 five of the brothers were still living, namely: Peter and Samuel, who are members of the wholesale grocery house of the Ridenour-Baker Company of Kansas City, Missouri; T. M. Irving Monroe, of Richmond, Indiana; and Elisha, of Liberal, Missouri. The mother outlived all of her five daughters, and when she died there were but seven of her children living. The eldest, Jonathan M., died in Indianapolis. He was president of the Cincinnati & Indianapolis Junction Railroad for years, and was a wealthy and influential man in the world of business. His father was connected with the first survey for this raih"oad, but the son, J. M., was the one to whom the line owes its completion. He was a wide-awake, energetic business man, and carried to a successful finish almost everything which he ever undertook. Charles Perry, another son, a banker and prosperous business man of Kingston, New York, died in that city, and his family still make their home there. The Ridenours owned several farms in this vicinity at various periods. They had one whole section, divided into four farms, and cultivated by them, and besides owned two farms in Butler county, Ohio, and one in Preble county, that state. When he located here, in the almost unbroken forest, Samuel Ridenour was obliged to borrow the money to make the first payment upon his land, but his energy and well-directed business talent soon overcame all obstacles and placed him on the road to wealth.

Tobias M. Ridenour remained on the old homestead, and, as he was the eldest son at home then, the responsibilities of managing the place fell largely to his share after the death of his father. On the loth of May, 187I, he married Miss Maria J. Beard, daughter of Thomas and Eliza Beard, the former deceased, but the latter still living in Liberty. To Mr. and Mrs. Ridenour one son and one daughter were born, namely: Louie, who is at home, and Charles M., who graduated in June. 1899, in the high school at College Corner.

For about six years Mr. Ridenour owned and carried on a general store, and dealt also in grain. This store, situated at College Corner, was purchased by him of the former owner, his brother, Jonathan M. Of late years he has devoted himself exclusively to agriculture, and has met with success, as he deserves. He has been a lifelong member of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which denomination his parents were also worthy members. The Ridenour family were active assistants in the building of three churches in College Corner, and have been very liberal in their donations to the cause of Christianity. Mr. Tobias M. Ridenour has been a trustee of the church for many years, has served on the building committee, and has occupied other official positions in the congregation. His parents were members of the original "class" organized in early days here. Politically he is affiliated with the Republican party.


Seventy-two years ago this much respected citizen of Liberty township. Union coupty, was born on the identical homestead where he is to be found to-day, the date being October 4, 1826. With the exception of a few months, perhaps, he has passed his entire life here, engaged in agriculture, and prosperity has blessed him in the majority of his undertakings. During a period of over forty years he has been an active and valued worker in the First Christian church of Silver Creek, and has occupied various offices of trust in the same. He has attended conventions of his church organization, has been liberal in his contributions to the spread of primitive Christianity, the simple faith of love toward God and man, and in all the manifold relations of life he has earnestly striven to do his whole duty.

James Owen Johnson comes of an old Virginia family: in fact, his ancestors on both sides of the house were residents of Bedford county, that state. In 1819 the parents of our subject. Garland and Elizabeth (Hensley) Johnson, came to Indiana with their three children and settled on land east of the town of Liberty, but scarcely two years later they removed to the homestead which is now owned and cultivated by James Owen Johnson. This property was given, in part, to Garland Johnson, and partly sold to him, by his father, Nicholas, who had come to this township in 1820 and had purchased a whole section of land here. He also gave farms to his sons, Jesse, Pleasant, Miner and Griffin, all of whom lived near and reared their children in this community. Later, Miner went to Illinois and Pleasant to Dublin, Wayne county, Indiana. Jesse died at the age of thirty years, and both of his children are deceased. Griffin died, leaving two sons: John, now of Center township, and Madison, of Marion, Indiana. Of the daughters, Nancy married James Cuney and resided in Dublin, this state; Sarah H. (Mrs. William Horton) lived here until well along in years and died at Knightstown, Indiana; Mary married Reuben Chapell and both are deceased; Betsy died unmarried; Josanna was another daughter; and Matilda died when about ten years old. Two daughters died in infancy, in Virginia. Of the large family of Nicholas Johnson it is a singular fact that but two of his descendants, John and James Owen Johnson, are now residents of this county, where he originally took up such an extensive tract of land and believed that this would be the permanent home of many of those bearing his name. He died at the age of seventy-seven years, and was survived by his second wife, whose maiden name had been Catherine Dobbins and whom he married in Virginia.

The commodious old house in which James O. Johnson, of this sketch, resides was erected by his father in 1843, and he assisted in its construction. The father's death took place under its hospitable roof some years later, in 1853, when he was in his sixty-fourth year. His original farm had comprised eighty acres, and he added another tract, thus making his place one one hundred and thirty-three acres. His wife and mother, Elizabeth Johnson, survived her husband many years, her death occurring February 4, 1869, when she attained her seventy-third year. Several of their children died in their early prime. They were named as follows: Samuel H., a physician, died in 1842, when twenty-nine years of age; Jordan, a minister of the first Christian church in this community, died in 1861, aged forty-five years; Martha died in infancy; Margaret deid in 1845, in her twenty-seventh year; Abner died in 1844, when in his twenty-third year; Ephraim died in 1854, aged thirty years; James Owen is the next in order of birth; Elizabeth died in her eighteenth year, in 1846; William G. died in his sixtieth year, December 16, 1893; and Eunice died in 1871, in her thirty-fifth year. William G. was educated for the medical profession, but on account of failing health he abandoned it and for several years was the proprietor'of Johnson's Commercial College, of Cincinnati. At the time of his death he was living in Covington, Kentucky.

Of the once large and happy family circle which used to gather around the fire-place of Garland Johnson, only one, the subject of this sketch, remains He was next to the youngest son, and when his father's health declined the young man shouldered the burdens of the farm management. After the death of the elder Mr. Johnson, James O. purchased mainly all the interests of the other heirs in the old homestead and has since given his whole time to supervising its cultivation. Years ago he used his ballot in favor of the Democratic party platform and nominees, but for a long period he has faithfully rendered allegiance to the principles of the Republican party.

May 5, 1874, Mr. Johnson married Miss Lydia A. Van Meter, since he had evidently become tired of keeping bachelor's hall, as he had done for the five years succeeding his mother's death. Mrs. Johnson is a native of Franklin county, her birth having occurred in the vicinity of Colter's Corners. Her parents are William and Rachel Van Meter, who were worthy citizens of Franklin county.


For three-fourths of this century the Smelser family has occupied a distinctive place in the affairs of Wayne and Union counties. From a wilderness this section has been gradually transformed to a fertile farming country, dotted with happy homes, and in this glorious labor the Smelsers have been active and zealous, leaving to their children and to posterity the records of useful, well spent lives.

Jacob Smelser, the grandfather of our subject, was a native of Maryland, in which state and in Kentucky he naturally imbibed the old southern ideas in regard to slavery,—at least to a large e.xtent. He married Elizabeth Smith in the Blue Grass state, and about 1824 they removed to Boston township, Wayne county, Indiana, where they settled upon a farm and there continued to dwell until death summoned them to their reward, he dying at the advanced age of ninety-two and she at seventy-five years. The old homestead is still in the possession of the family, being now owned by James Hart, a nephew by marriage.

In the early days Jacob Smelser owned a distillery, the products of which he would occasionally load upon a flatboat and convey to New Orleans by the river route, then walking back the entire distance. He freed his slaves when he came to Indiana, but several of them accompanied him, nevertheless, and one of the number, " Old Ben," to whom he had not given his freedom, but had hired out for eleven years, afterward joined the family in this state.

The parents of our subject, Solomon and Lucinda (Stevens) Smelser, were married in Union county. Mrs. Smelser was a daughter of William and sister of Steven C. Stevens, and was born and reared in Harrison township, this county. Her last years were passed at her birthplace, both she and her husband attaining their seventy-sixth year. He was a very successful farmer and business man and during the war of the Rebellion he raised mules which he sold to the government. In his various financial enterprises he usually prospered, and at the time of his death he owned about nine hundred acres of land. In his political views he was a Republican, and in his religious opinions he was a strong Universalist.

Ten children were born to Solomon Smelser and wife, and all but two survive. Their names are as follows: Harriet, wife of Bennett Depenbrock, of Salem, Illinois; Jacob, a traveling salesman, whose home is in Liberty; William, a life-insurance agent in Emporia, Kansas; Sarah, who married L. H. Price, and died when about thirty years of age, leaving three children; Emeline, who died at ten years of age; Nicholas; Kate, who became the second wife of L. H. Price and now lives in New Decatur, Alabama; Elizabeth, Mrs. Charles Coughlin, of Harrison township; Martha, wife of William Billings, of New Decatur, Alabama; and Alice, wife of Joseph H. Bradbury, of Abington, Wayne county, Indiana.

Nicholas Smelser was born December 14, 1849, on the old Stevens homestead, where he now resides and where his father lived for forty years. When he reached his majority he went to Salem, Illinois, near which place his father had purchased land, and there he remained for seven years, engaged in farming. In the meantime, November 14, 1872, he had married Miss Sarah Slane, of Alma, Illinois, of which town her father was a merchant. They became the parents of three children, of whom the only daughter. Mattie, is the wife of James Driffill and has two children,—Clyde, six years old, and Mildred, one year old. The two sons of our subject and wife, John Lyman and Solomon Garfield, are still at home.

In 1875 Mr. Smelser returned to Indiana, and his venerable father was so desirous for him to remain here permanently that the younger man decided to do so, and purchased from his parents the farm he now owns, one adjoining the old Stevens' place, which latter, also, later came into his possession, thus making his homestead one of one hundred and sixty acres. In addition to this, he owns a farm near Centerville, which property his sons cultivate.

In June, 1897, soon after the death of Albert Mitchell, Mr. Smelser was appointed to succeed the deceased in the office of county commissioner, and as such he is still acting. He is very popular with all who know him, is a man of wide influence in this, his native township, and he is now, by election, serving a term in the office he has so abundantly proved himself capable of filling.—that of county commissioner, in which his term expires in December. 1900.


Occupying a charming country home in Liberty township. Union county Indiana, his post-office address being Dunlapsville, we find this well known and highly respected citizen, Robert Armstrong Cunningham. The history of his life is of importance in a work of this character, and is as follows:

Robert A. Cunningham was born ! in Brownsville township. Union county, Indiana, April 7, 1819, son of James and Susannah (Clark) Cunningham, the former a native of Washington county, Virginia, born October 12, 1779; the latter, born in Tennessee, in 1787, their marriage occurring in Virginia. In the year 181 5, the year before Indiana was admitted into the union of states, James Cunningham and wife came west and took up their abode in Eastern Indiana, on what was known as the Henston J. Robinson farm, in Union county. Three years later, in 18 18, he entered a tract of land lying just north of Clifton, where he improved a farm and where he spent the rest of his life, his death occurring there in 1853. His wife survived him a few years, and passed away in 1864. She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and both were people whose sterling qualities of mind and heart endeared them to a large circle of friends, for they were well known by the early pioneers of this locality. The children born to them were, in order of birth, as follows: John, Rebecca, William, James, Samuel, Robert, Mary, Sarah, George W. and Enoch. At this writing (1899) only two of this number are living,—Sarah, widow of Archibald Dunn, of Fayette county, Indiana; and Robert A., whose name introduces this sketch.

Robert A. Cunningham was reared on his father's farm, above referred to, and April 24, 1841, married Miss Mary, daughter of Francis and Elizabeth (Snyder) Harvey. She was born October 18, 1822, near Clifton, Indiana. After his marriage our subject lived for five years on the old homestead, in the same house in which he was born, and in that house three of their children were born. He then moved to the Moses Harvey farm, southwest of Clifton, where he lived until 1852, when he came to his present farm, five miles southwest of Liberty, in Liberty township. Here he owns three hundred and seventy acres of land, all lying in a compact body, along the Whitewater river, about half of it being bottom land, the rest extending into the uplands, where his handsome residence is situated. His home, occupying as it does the highest point along the river in this vicinity, commands a magnificent view of his broad acres, and indeed of the surrounding country for miles in every direction.

While Mr. Cunningham has carried on general farming all these years, he has made a specialty of stock-raising, his land being specially adapted for stock purposes, and he has given special attention to the raising of hogs. For the past twenty years or thereabouts he has rented the greater part of his land, chiefly to his son-in-law, Samuel B. Bond.

Mr. Cunningham has always affiliated with the Democratic party and taken an active interest in political affairs. For ten years he has served as township trustee. Twice he has been the candidate of his party for the office of county commissioner, but with his ticket was defeated each time, polling, however, on one occasion one hundred votes more than his party ticket. Since the division in the Democratic ranks he is on the silver side. He is a great convention worker, always active in promoting what he believes to be for the good of the party.

Religiously, Mr. Cunningham is a member of the Christian church. For fifty years he has been identified with the church at Liberty, and for a number of years served as one of its trustees.

Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have had six children, namely: Michael J., of Dunlapsville, Indiana; Eva A., wife of William R. Beck, of Liberty, Indiana; Sarah J., wife of Samuel B. Bond, who, as above stated, has charge of Mr. Cunningham's farm; Elizabeth S., who died at the age of twenty-one years; Franklin P., who died at the age of fifteen years; and Albert R., who died at the age of eighteen.

In speaking of his career as a farmer, Mr. Cunningham states that his most prosperous years were between 1853 and 1860. While, as already stated, he has carried on diversified farming, he has made a specialty of the stock business and has depended chiefly on hogs. Besides his fine home farm he owns real estate in other localities. He has assisted each of his children to get a good farm, and he has been more than generous to his friends. Indeed, he has often had too great confidence in human nature, and his loyalty to his friends has frequently caused him to trust them too far and has been the means of his having security money to pay. He is generous to a fault. His genial, jovial nature, and his honorable and upright life and Christian character have endeared him to a host of friends.


This honored veteran of the civil war, now three-score and ten years old, is the postmaster of Liberty, county seat of Union county. He was first appointed to this position when President Harrison was in power and served acceptably to the people, and in May, 1898, he was again honored with this office by President McKinley. Always faithful to the welfare and best interests of the Republican party, a true patriot and devoted citizen in times both of peace and war, he merits the high regard which is universally bestowed upon him.

The Captain is one of the native sons of Liberty, his birth having occurred here September 20, 182S. His father, William Byram, came to this locality from New Jersey as early as 18 17, and in company with his brother Joseph engaged in the business of manufacturing brick, following this trade until 1834, when he settled ort a farm adjoining the village on the south. His brother removed to Illinois about 1836. William Byram continued to dwell upon his farm here until his death in the Centennial year, when he was seventy-six years of age. For eight years he served in the capacity of county treasurer of Union county, during the '40s, and was zealous as an old-line Whig and Republican. A strong temperance man from principle, he always refused to have anything to do with liquor, and that at a time when its use was common. He was one of the most valued members of the Presbyterian church of Libert)', being one of the founders of the same in 1827, and was influential in the building of the house of worship in 1852. For forty years, or until his death, he was one of the elders of the congregation and set an example of Christian piety well worthy of being followed by all. His wife was a Miss Abbie D. Miller at the time of their marriage and her death occurred some years prior to his own. Of their three sons and two daughters, John Christopher, who served in the Thirty-sixth Indiana Regiment in the civil war, died in California; and Ellis is at present a resident of Glendale, California. The founder of the Byram family in America was Nicholas Byram, of county Kent, Ireland, who was forced to be sold or bound out for seven years' service upon his arrival here, to pay for his passage. He subsequently married, and his grandson wedded a granddaughter of Priscilla Alden, who, in turn, was a child of the famed John Alden, the New England Puritan.

The most important event in the early manhood of Captain Silas D. Byram was when he enlisted in the Sixteenth Illinois Infantry as a private in Company F, his own state quota being filled at the time. After the battle of Bull Run he was assigned to the signal corps, on detached duty, and served in that department from August, 1861, to May, 1862. He was mustered out as a second lieutenant and afterward raised a company, known as the Burnside Guards, for the One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Regiment, of Indiana, called the State Legion. He was actively engaged during the battle of Laurenceburg, where nine of his men were killed, chased Kirby Smith, and Morgan in his raid into this state, and was otherwise effectively employed against the encroachments of the enemy. His army record is one of which he may be justly proud, for it is the record of a brave soldier, faithful to the least as well as to the greatest of his duties, prompt, reliable and self-sacrificing. When peace had been restored he quietly took up the ordinary duties of life and for ten years was engaged in running a grocery. He then embarked in another line of business and was for eighteen years proprietor of the well known Central Hotel of this city, now Corrington House. He made a popular " mine host " and numbers many warm friends among the traveling public. Since he was made postmaster he has dropped his former business and attends strictly to the affairs of the ofBce. Forty years ago he became affiliated with the Masonic order and is still an active member of Liberty Lodge, No. 58, F. &A. M.

Captain Byram was first married, in 1851, to Elizabeth Goodwin, who died in 1854, leaving two children. Flora (who married John B. Russell, resides in Marysville, Kansas, and has two children, Charley and Lloyd) and Charlie (deceased). In 1863 Mr. Byram married Miss Lancetta Harris, whom he had met and admired while he was a soldier in Maryland, of which state she was a resident. Their eldest daughter, Addie J., has received excellent advantages in art and music in European schools and is now the wife of Henry Sharp, superintendent of the Cincinnati Ohio Art School; Lizzie died at the age of eleven years; Mary Harris is a clerk in the postoffice here at Liberty; Margaret is deputy postmaster; Louise is a musician of ability and has enjoyed five years of training in vocal music in Europe; and Morris, the only son, is a telegraph operator.


Half a century of self-denying labor in the service of suffering humanity, —this, in brief, is the summing-up of the life of this beloved and venerable physician of College Corner, Union county. But who can fully comprehend what it means, and how many of the present generation, especially, realize what it meant to be a pioneer physician, riding, here and there, far and near, in ail kinds of weather, without regard to self,—to his own health or wishes, —his sole thought being for others ? In these days of splendid pikes and well kept roads, who recalls the dreadful, muddy pitfalls and pathways that served the pioneers as highways.' Yet, surely, no one has more occasion to remember them than the "doctor of the old school," who, on his patient, plodding horse, traversed them on many a dark, starless, stormy night, courageously bearing comfort and cheer to the distant patient.

Dr. Hawley was born in Warren county, Ohio, July 23, 1823, a son of Joel and Mary (Dill) Hawley. The father was a native of Connecticut, and was an early settler in Ohio, where he was married, his wife having removed to that state from New York, her birthplace. In 1837 the family removed to Clermont county, Ohio, and our subject continued to live at home until he arrived at his majority. In 1844 he took up the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. Albert Hawley, of Preble county, Ohio, and in 1847 pursued a course of lectures in the Ohio Medical College, at Cincinnati, being graduated in the class of 1848. When he had completed his college course, he had but twelve dollars, and little knew how he could make a start in his chosen work. He bravely set out on the search for a good point at which to locate, and, having traveled on horseback as far as Braffetsville, he stopped for the night, and it so happened that he found his first patient there. He concluded to stay for a short time, and it was fully two years ere he finally withdrew from the large patronage which had grown up in that vicinity. In 1851 became to College Corner, having purchased the practice of the late Dr. Huston, a lifelong and highly esteemed practitioner here, who was about to retire. At that time there were three other doctors here, and sometimes there have been six or seven here since, but none of them have stayed more than ten years, and Dr. Hawley has been the one permanent, reliable, ever ready family physician. The cholera epidemic of 1849 severely taxed the young man, for he had more than double duty. He was then eight miles from Eaton, where his brother and uncle "were practicing, and when both of them were laid low with the dread disease he not only attended. them, but took care of their patients. For one whole week he had no sleep whatever, and was in the saddle much of the time, riding from one patient to the next one, and keeping three horses, for less would have been unequal to the tasks imposed upon them. Within half an hour after being smitten with the cholera the patients would be in almost deathly collapse, and often, when the Doctor had succeeded in placing them on the road to recovery, the news of the death of a relative or dear one would undo his work and so unnerve them that death would finally triumph. The village of New Boston, a place of about one hundred persons, was completely wiped out by the pestilence. During the civil war the Doctor not only aided materially in the raising of funds for keeping the quota of this county filled, but gave his services free to many of the families of soldiers who were away fighting for the country.

Nearly thirty years ago Drs. Hawley, Trmiley (of Brownsville), Morris (of Liberty), Porter, Sanders and Hill (of Oxford) met in the little office of our subject and organized the Ohio District Medical Association, which has since grown to wonderful proportions, and now numbers over one hundred members, of whom no one is more honored than Dr. Hawley, who has retained his connection with it all these years. He is a Republican, and was an old-line Whig, but has never cared to take a very active part in politics. Though reared under Methodist influences, he joined the United Presbyterian church, about 1851, and has since been a valued member.

The marriage of Dr. Hawley and Miss Phoebe A. Webster was solemnized in 1851, in Richmond, Indiana. Mrs. Hawley, whose birth occurred in Pennsylvania, is still living, and has been a most faithful helpmate to her husband. Two of their four manly, noble sons have entered the silent land. Marcellus M., the eldest born, a farmer of this county, died when in his twenty-ninth year. Laurence, a traveling salesman, died of tuberculosis, at the age of twenty-five years. Charles Franklin is engaged in farming in Preble county, Ohio; and William H., a graduate of the Indiana University, at Bloomington, and of the Miami Medical College, in Cincinnati, has succeeded his father in practice, and is making a great success of his chosen profession. With regard to his sons our subject displayed great wisdom, for when they were growing to maturity he bought some farm land and had them become familiar with the various departments of agriculture. He then allowed each one to choose whether he would be a farmer and settle on the homestead, which he would give him, or, instead, pursue a college course and enter a profession. The record of a noble life is a man's best monument, and no words of eulogy can add luster to the name of Andrew D. Hawley.


One of the prominent old pioneer families of Union county is that of the Snyders,well represented in Brownsville township ever since the opening decade of this century. They have ever borne their part in the upbuilding and development of this region, and have invariably been exponents of progress and liberal ideas upon all subjects.

Michael Snyder, the founder of the family in this portion of Indiana, died when well along in years, and it is a remarkable fact that all of his seven children lived to pass the eightieth anniversary of their birth. \\'hen he came to this township he entered a quarter-section of land, and as he prospered he kept investing in more land until he was the possessor of a large and valuable estate. He assisted each of his children to make a good start in life by giving them farms and other aid, and his own old homestead is still retained by his descendants, belonging to the subject of this sketch and now managed by the latter's eldest son, Walter Michael. The eldest son o£ Michael Snyder was Michael, Jr. (father of U. F. Snyder, of Liberty), who was a resident of this township until his death; the next son, David, lived for years in Dakota and died there; Moses went to Minnesota when past seventy years and died there about ten years later; Isaac always lived on the farm which his father purchased for him; Esther married George Witt, a cousin, and died at her home in Richland, Indiana; and Betsy became the wife of Mr. Harvey and is deceased.

Simon, one of the sons of Michael Snyder and the father of the subject of this notice, was a native of Virginia, but came to this state in 1812, and, having received a share of his father's property, built a substantial brick house in 1835, the bricks therefor being manufactured and burned on the farm. There he continued to dwell as long as he lived, and, following his father's example, he provided liberally for each one of his children, helping them to buy farms. When he was about twenty-five years old he married Sally Witt, whose death occurred several years prior to his own. He was an active member of the Richland Christian church, and when it declined materially he transferred his membership to the church at Liberty, and was a trustee and officer of the same for many years. All local enterprises were supported by him, and he it was who donated the money for the erection of the pretty chapel at Richland cemetery. Moreover, he personally looked after the fences and repairs of the same surrounding the cemetery, and thus, in varied ways, he manifested his active interest in whatever was calculated to benefit the community. In politics he was a Democrat of the old Jackson school.

Joshua Michael Snyder, whose name heads this sketch, was born in the old brick house above mentioned, March 27, 1841, and with his seven brothers and sisters passed many happy years under its sheltering roof. The four older ones are deceased, namely: John, who removed to Illinois and died at the age of sixty years; Jemima, whose death occurred when she was about eighteen; Mary, who is survived by her late husband, Spencer Stevens, of Liberty; and Martha, who was the wife of S. C. Stevens. Isaac is a resident of Clifton, Benjamin of Brownsville township, and Andrew is now in Liberty.

When he reached his majority J. M. Snyder married Miss Rachel Patterson and settled upon the farm which he has since owned and operated in Brownsville township. The place comprises one hundred acres, devoted to the raising of a general line of crops commonly grown in this section. The place is fertile and productive and is considered one of the most valuable farms in the county, the owner taking just pride in keeping everything in fine order and good repair about the premises. Like his father, he votes the Democratic ticket, but, in the main, keeps out of politics. He has four manly, enterprising sons, namely: Walter Michael, previously alluded to; Simon, of Clifton; Paul, whose home is in the old brick house which is such a landmark in the township; and Clifford is at home and gives valuable assistance to his father in the management of the farm.

Hiram Powers Huddleston

HUDDLESTON, Hiram Powers, dentist; born Liberty, Ind., Aug. 30, 1856; French and English descent; son of Silas and Emily Ann (Dubois) Huddleston; father’s occupation farmer; paternal grandparents David and Elizabeth (Powers) Huddleston; maternal grandparents Alexander and Hannah (Dubois) Dubois; educated at Dublin, Ind.; in early life was a farmer; married Elizabeth A. Stanley April 9, 1879; Republican; member of Presbyterian church.
Source: Who’s Who in Tennessee, Memphis: Paul & Douglass Co., Publishers, 1911; transcribed by Kim Mohler