Whitley County, Indiana
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HON. JOSEPH WILSON ADAIR. No profession develops with so much accuracy and vigor man's native intellectual powers as that of the law. While it opens a vast field for profound philosophic inquiry and research it at the same time imperiously demands an acute and close observation of the daily workings and practical experiences of nearly every phase of life. In its record and principles it reaches back into the mist of ages long since historic, yet in the application of those principles to daily use the possessor must keep his mind constantly fixed upon the stupendous progress of modern improvements as well as upon the far more extended and complicated machinery of modern society. A moment's reflection will serve to show that, aside from the patient and laborious task necessary to accomplish successfully a work of such vast proportions, he who would rise to eminence in this most arduous and far-reaching of callings must possess a sound mind, keen discernment, and clear discrimination and practical judgment. He must be capable of extracting great principles of jurisprudence from amid the rubbish of ages, and stiff, stern and inflexible though they prove, they must in his hands be made sufficiently malleable to be applied to the rapidly changing necessities of a progressive and gradually developing state of society. The mere disclaimer and sentimental dreamer will find in this profession no field suited to his talents or exertions. The lofty aims of a practical wisdom, of a far- reaching and sagacious philosophy can alone be tolerated in an arena which more perhaps than any other demonstrates the law of the survival of the fittest, and it is but natural that those who have thus attained merited distinction should possess a charm and force which commend them to the favorable consideration of every sound thinker. There is a growing interest in tracing the record of one who, by sheer force of will and the powers of a native genius, has reached an elevated position in public confidence and wielded a wide and wholesome influence for the general good. Who, living truth and integrity for their own sakes, has undeviatingly followed his dictates, regardless of personal consequences, and risen to a commanding place at a bar long distinguished for the ability and high standing of its legal talent. Of this class of lawyers the Hon. Joseph Wilson Adair, judge of the thirty-third judicial circuit court, and for a number of years one of the leading practitioners of the northern Indiana bar, affords an illustrious example. Like the majority of those who have attained eminence in legal circles, his success, both in the practice and on the bench, has come to him as the reward of profound research, energetic action and honorable endeavor, and with a laudable ambition to dignify his calling and make it what it has ever purported to be— a potential, as well as an active agency for the administration of justice among men, he has steadily advanced along the line of distinguished service until now, in the prime of his physical and mental powers, and the largest development of his professional ability, he stands a conspicuous type of the successful, self-made man of to-day. Judge Adair is a native of Noble county, Indiana, where his birth occurred on November 29, 1843. His father, Joseph E. Adair, was born in Ireland and came to America in early childhood, settling with his family on a farm near New London, Ohio, where he grew to maturity, familiar with all the duties that usually fall to the lot of those reared in close touch with nature, amid the active scenes of rural life. When a young man Joseph E. Adair married Miss Elizabeth Winders, of Maryland, and subsequently, in 1837, removed to the new and sparsely settled county of Noble, Indiana, locating on January 1st of that year in what is now Washington township, of which they were among the earliest pioneers. Here Mr. Adair entered four hundred acres of land, which was very heavily timbered, but, nothing daunted by the discouraging prospect, he at once erected a diminutive log cabin, with clap-boards, daubed with mud and furnished with a rough puncheon floor, which afforded a fairly comfortable shelter for the family until replaced by a more commodious and substantial structure  after years. This frontier cabin commanded a beautiful site on the banks of the Tippecanoe and for several years was frequently visited by the Indians, between whom and the inmates a spirit of amity and good will seems to have obtained. The country at that time was largely as nature had created it, the few small clearings of the settlers being mere niches in the dense forests, in the midst of which various kinds of wild animals roamed in large numbers, some of them, like the wolf and bear, ferocious and during certain seasons destructive to live stock, and not infrequently proving dangerous enemies to man himself. Game of all kinds was plentiful and easily procured and as Mr. Adair was fond of hunting and an exceedingly accurate marksman, many deer, wild turkeys, geese, ducks, squirrels, etc., fell before his unerring rifle, in this way the table being supplied with the choicest of meats during the greater part of the year. Immediately after providing a shelter for his family Mr. Adair addressed himself to the more formidable task of clearing his land and preparing the soil for cultivation, to accomplish which required hard and continuous toil, such as the present generation can illy conceive, much less realize and appreciate. By persevering industry, however, he gradually succeeded in removing the forest growth and in the course of a few years had a goodly number of acres under cultivation. By gradually extending the area of tillable land his efforts were in due time rewarded, as he finally developed an excellent farm on which were made some of the finest and most substantial improvements in the county, and in time he substantial improvements in the county, and in time he became one of the prosperous and well-to-do men of his community. In connection with agriculture he dealt quite extensively in live stock, which he purchased throughout a large area of his own and neighboring- counties and drove to Cincinnati, Columbus and other shipping points, where he disposed of his animals at handsome profits. So encouraging was his success in this line of business that he continued it as long as he lived and it was while on his way with a herd of cattle to Cincinnati that he was stricken with cholera and died at Wilshire. Ohio, October 9, 1849. Joseph and Elizabeth Adair were the parents of a large family, thirteen children in all, of whom five are still living, Mrs. Mary Correll, Mrs. Elizabeth Burke, Joseph W., subject of this review, and Dr. Thomas E. Adair, who is practicing medicine in the town of Moline, Kansas. Some years after the death of Mr. Adair the widow became the wife of C. B. Wood, but both have passed from the scenes of their earthly struggles and trials to the land of silence. Reverting to the personal history of Judge Adair. it is learned that as a youth and during the earlier years of his boyhood he was subject to those wholesome family influences which give the proper direction to moral character; and to parental precept and example may doubtless be traced, in a large measure, the germs of the honorable and manly ambition which now distinguishes him as a public man. He was reared on the old family homestead, early bore his share of the labor required to clear the fields and cultivate the same and grew up to the full  stature of vigorous young manhood, with the conviction that labor is honorable and that success in any line of endeavor must be the result of patient, energetic individual effort. While still a mere lad he entered the district schools, where he pursued his studies until the age of seventeen, when by reason of his advancement he engaged in teaching, which profession he continued during the winter seasons for several years, meeting with success as an able and painstaking instructor. During this period he manifested a decided taste for books and such was his desire to add to his store of knowledge that he eagerly read every book and periodical to which he could lay his hands, and in this way not only laid broad and deep the foundation of his subsequent career as student and lawyer, but also became widely informed in general literature and the leading questions of the times. His early and strong manifestation for learning induced him at the close of his first term as teacher to strive for still higher intellectual attainments. Accordingly. he entered a college in the city of Fort Wayne, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church, where he remained one year, and subsequently prosecuted his studies for two years in Wabash College, Crawfordsville, the meanwhile devoting the winter months to the work of teaching. Having a decided preference for the law, which early attracted him, he decided to make the profession his life work and in due time he entered the office of Hon. H. D. Wilson, of Columbia City, subsequently judge of the thirty-fourth judicial district, under whose instructions he continued until his admission to the Whitley county bar in 1869. Judge Adair brought to his chosen calling a mind well disciplined by intellectual and professional training and it was not long until his abilities were duly recognized, as is attested by his rapid rise at the Columbia City bar. He practiced alone until 1873, when he became associated with Judge James S. Collins, the partnership thus formed lasting until 1883, during which time it achieved marked success in the courts of Whitley and other counties, the two gentlemen being retained as counsel in the majority of important cases adjudicated in this section of the state. Discontinuing the firm at the expiration of the period indicated, Mr. Adair has since been alone and before his elevation to the bench it is not too much to assert that he easily stood at the head of the bar to which the major part of his practice was confined, and for a number of years there was seldom a case of any import in which he did not appear either for plaintiff or defense. Perhaps one of the most noted cases in which he was engaged was the trial of Doctor Gotwald, of Springfield, Ohio, for teaching and preaching doctrines contrary to the accepted creed of his church and for which he was called upon to face a charge of heresy. Judge Adair appeared for the defendant and it was through his efforts mainly that the accused was acquitted, but not until after a most interesting and in not a few respects sensational trial. As already indicated, Judge Adair stands in the front rank of his profession in his native state and his record as a practitioner is not only brilliant, but is above the suspicion of anything savoring of dishonor. In the commencement of his legal studies lie made a thorough elementary preparation and having a retentive and disciplined memory, combined with remarkable quickness or readiness of manner, he is enabled instantly to render available all his learning and experience. It is in a great measure owing to these and other equally fortunate circumstances that he was enabled so soon to attain a commanding position in the profession and to win a reputation such as few achieve in a much longer and more varied period of practice. His highest ambition has been to excel in the line of his calling, to attain a thorough mastery of the legal science, and to this end he has with singleness of purpose directed the untiring industry and energy of a lifetime. Shrewd, keen, ever on the lookout to detect the weak points in an adversary's position, his ready exposure of the weakness frequently gives force and influence favorable to his cause beyond the power of the severest logic or closest reasoning. Careful and judicious in the preparation of legal papers, painstaking and thorough in their presentation to the court. he leaves nothing undone in matters confided to his charge and frequently secures verdicts at the hands of juries by skillful and elaborate arguments, presented with power and great magnetic force. Another marked feature in his professional career is his faithfulness and untiring devotion to the interests of his client, no matter ho\v trifling the amount or how uncertain the prospect of remuneration for his services, he works just as hard and with the same zeal as though the case involved large interests and abundant rewards. In addition to the position the Judge he now holds and so faithfully fills he has at different times been chosen to other stations of honor and trust, having been elected superintendent of the Whitley county schools in 1880 for one intendent of the Whitley county schools in 1880 for one term, and in 1889 was made mayor of Columbia City, filling both offices with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of the public. In the latter year he was appointed judge of the district composed of the counties of Whitley and Kosciusko, and in 1890 was elected judge of the thirty-third judicial circuit, which position he has held by successive re-elections to the present time, his record since entering upon the discharge of his judicial functions, fully sustaining his erstwhile reputation as an able and brilliant lawyer and justifying the people in the wisdom of their choice. Judge Adair came to the bench eminently qualified for its many high and arduous duties and he has admirably tried to prove worthy of the important trust reposed in him and meet the wants of the people of the circuit in all matters of law, justice, and equity. Methodical in the disposition of business, fair and essentially impartial in his rulings, clear and unequivocal in the enunciation of his decisions, and withal gentlemanly and courteous to members of the bar and to all having business in court, he has deported himself with such becoming grace and dignity as to adorn the high station to which called and earned an honorable reputation among the most distinguished jurists of Indiana. It would indeed be anomalous if, with such an intellect as Judge Adair possesses, he did not with the varied subjects that have engaged his attention, deeply study and carefully weigh the claims of revealed religion. This he has done with the happy result of strengthening and every day making brighter and surer his faith in an all-wise Father who doeth everything well and in his son. Jesus Christ, through the atoning merits of whose sacrifice he expects ultimately to enjoy in a far greater degree the consolation and solace which have been such potent factors, in molding his character and shaping his destiny, not only for the life that now is, but for the far more abundant life beyond death's mystic stream. For many years he has been a firm believer in the Christian faith and as a faithful and zealous member of the Lutheran church has made his influence felt in every laudable activity for the moral and spiritual advancement of his fellowmen. For thirty-two years he has had charge of the same class in Sunday school and during this time has never been absent from his place nor reached the school after the exercises had begun. Upon the minds of the young he has left an influence for good which time will never erase and by his consistent Christian life and upright course of conduct, as well as by honorable professional and official career, he has won and retained the warm and abiding friendship of all classes and conditions of people with whom he has been brought in contact. Amid the multifarious and exacting duties of the bench the Judge finds pleasure and recreation in agricultural pursuit?, owning a half section of fine tillable land, on which he has made many valuable improvements. He takes great interest in the cultivation of this place and in the raising of fine breeds of stock and in all that pertains to advanced agricultural methods he is justly considered an authority. On July 27, 1867. Judge Adair was united in marriage with Miss Amelia M. Young, of Wolf Lake, Noble county, daughter of John and Sarah Young, the union being blessed with two children, Jessie, the wife of E. K. Strong, and Josephine, now Mrs. Clyde Kein. of Kendallville, Indiana, The home of the Judge and his estimable wife has long been noted for its free-handed, open-hearted hospitality and their children, as well as themselves, occupy prominent positions in the best social circles of their respective places of residence. Judge Adair is essentially a man of the people, with their interests ever at heart, and proud of his distinction as a citizen of a country for whose laws and institutions he has the most profound admiration and respect, while his strong mentality, ripe judgment and unimpeachable integrity demonstrates to the satisfaction of all his ability to fill honorably important official station and to discharge worthily high trusts. In the larger sense of the term he is a politician and gives his allegiance to the Democratic party, but at no time has he been a partisan or resorted to the questionable methods of those who make politics their chief aim in life. Like many truly great men, he shrinks from, rather than courts, notoriety, his becoming modesty and desire to keep as much as possible from the public gaze being among his most pleasing characteristics. He has long been a prominent member and active worker in the Masonic fraternity, in which he has risen to high standing, being past master of the lodge to which he belongs, besides holding for a period of thirteen years the position of high priest of the chapter, and is also a Knight Templar and a member of the Indianapolis consistory, S. P. R. S. Thus, in a brief and cursory manner have been set forth the leading facts and characteristics  in the career of one of Indiana's eminent jurists and distinguished men of affairs who, by a life of integrity, laborious study, energy, activity, and devotion to duty, has been honored by his fellow citizens and who occupies to-day a first place in their affection and regard. Beloved with a fervent warmth of attachment by all who know him personally and respected by men of all parties he now, in the prime of life and the vigor of his mental powers, stands at the head of his profession at the northern part of the state and an acknowledged leader in matters of public import. In the future, should he see fit, there are no honors to which he may aspire and no place which he would not fill with dignity and honor to himself and credit to his state and country.


MATTHIAS SLESMAN The family of this name, long well known in Whitley county, is of German origin and natives of Baden, a grand duchy ' of the empire. The father dying at the old" home, left his widow in straitened circumstances, and she decided to try her fortunes in the new world, so in 1840. set sail for New York. The passage was long and tedious, but the plucky woman finally reached her port of destination and immediately made preparations to travel to the West in search of a home. At that time Ohio was a kind of Mecca for incoming emigrants and hither the new arrival made her way. Reaching Seneca county after a tedious trip, she took up her abode there, but after a' residence of four years concluded to travel still further westward, this trip ended at Columbia City in September. 1844 - 445 and from that time until the present the descendants and from that time until the present the descendants of this German woman have been identified with the growth and development of the county. She brought with her as her principal assets four sons, whose names were Michael, Jacob, John and Matthias. The first mentioned worked at the wagon maker's trade until his death in 1878 and became widely known as a skilled mechanic. John enlisted, when quite young, as a soldier in the Mexican war. afterward became a blacksmith in Columbia City and was killed by lightning while engaged in building the pike from Fort Wayne to Lima. Jacob, now a man of advanced years, is still living in Columbia City. The mother died many years ago, after reaching the age of seventy. Matthias Slesman, youngest of this family, was born in Baden, October 6, 1833, and hence was but seven years old when his mother crossed the ocean. He learned the carpenter's trade, but in addition to this was engaged in farming and teaming. He has prospered and at present owns a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, five and one- half miles north of Columbia City, in Thorncreek township, which he has improved until it has become a valuable piece of property. Aside from his business, he has been active in various lines, including politics, and at one time was deputy sheriff for a term and also served as marshal of the city. In 1870. he built a comfortable residence on North Line street and has lived in the same for over forty years. His political affiliations have always been Democratic and he has represented his party as delegate to various conventions. In 1864, when thirty-one years old, he married Elizabeth Sipe, who was born in Ohio in 1842 and come here with her parents, who settled on a farm in Columbia township. Mr. and Mrs. Slesman have had eight children, of whom six reached maturity. Adam died at the age of thirty- six : William is a resident of Columbia City ; Margaret, wife of Charles Battles, who lives in Chicago; Franklin is a street car conductor in Chicago ; Harmon is now operating the farm in Thorncreek township, but was for a while a street car conductor in Chicago ; Charles is a railroad clerk in a Chicago transfer office.


BURDETTE F. McNEAR One of the live business establishments in Columbia City is the harness store conducted by Trembley & McNear, which started March i, 1898, on a small investment. They at first handled buggies only, but other lines were added until now they carry a full assortment of harness, trunks, robes, suit-cases and other articles, with annual sales of from twenty thousand to twenty-two thousand dollars, employing three assistants, occupying a building twenty-five by one hundred and fifty feet, the location being most desirable. Some years before the Civil war, Josiah F. McNear came to Whitley county with his father, Philip, who engaged in farming. The son was here married to Antoinette Tucker and taught school for several years. He then went to Kansas, where he spent five years in agriculture, when lie returned to Whitley county, and was variously engaged. About 1880 he came to Columbia City, and was engaged in the hardware business for ten or twelve years. He is now a carrier on the rural mail delivery service of the county. He is a veteran of the Civil war, having served throughout that struggle as a member of the Seventy-fourth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, becoming lieutenant of his company. Burdette F. McNear, son of Josiah F., was born at Douglas. Kansas, January 7, 1872. His mother died when he was thee and a half years old and for a while he was entrusted to the care of his grandfather. For six years he was in the family of George Dice, west of Churubusco, and attended school at the latter place for two years, during which time he lived with an uncle. Subsequently he attended school at Columbia City, took a course in a business college and was for a while in the commercial department of the Valparaiso Normal. At intervals he clerked in a hardware store, acted as reporter for the "Mail" and made himself useful in whatever his hands could find to do. For a year he was a commercial traveler, selling hardware over Indiana for a Fort Wayne firm, and eventually entered into the partnership above described, a line of trade to which he seems peculiarly well adapted. October 31, 1900, Mr. McNear married Miss Edith, daughter of Alfred Ale, a cabinetmaker. Mrs. McNear, who is a native of Kosciusko county, is a popular lady, taking active part in the Coterie Literary Club.


FRANKLIN PIERCE BRIDGE The Bridge family has been identified with Washington township for more than half a century . and different members of it have made their influence felt in connection with farming interests. It was in 1845 that Levi and Rebecca (Hines) Bridge arrived in Whitley county, coming from Cleveland. Ohio. Five years later they bought a farm in Washington township near the present village of Laud, and their remaining years were devoted to the active work of improving the property. The father died at the age of sixty-two, while his wife survived until her seventy-seventh year. Of their nine children to reach maturity, three sons and two daughters are living in 1907. Franklin Pierce Bridge, now deceased, was born at Cleveland, Ohio, January 1 1853. When about corning of age he learned the carpenter's trade, but after working at the bench several years took charge of his mother's farm and managed it until her death, nearly eight years later. Upon the settlement of the estate he bought out the other heirs. He made expensive improvements, including an open ditch through the place, beside laying a great deal of tile, thus making it one of the most productive farms in the township. He died May 7. 1899. as the result of a kick from a horse received twenty-seven hours previously. In politics he was an ultra Republican and was also an active member of the Knights of the Maccabees, whose impressive burial sentice was used in paying the last sad rites to one highly respected by all. - May 20. 1880, Mr. Bridge married Miss Elsie Lenwell, whose parents were pioneer settlers of Kosciusko county, and who later settled in Washington township. She was born in 1856, was seventeen years old upon coming to this county, and twenty-four at marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Bridge had four sons: Arthur, who married Rosa Rupert, manages the old sons: Arthur, who married Rosa Rupert, manages the old homestead ; Salathiel Castle is bookkeeper in the First National Bank at Columbia City; Emmet, having finished the high school course at Columbia City, is a teacher in the old home school ; Clemmet, twin brother of the last mentioned, is a student in the freshman class at Wabash College.


ROSANNA CRIDER Indiana was still a young state when Francis Tulley was married in Ross county, Ohio, to Mary E. Nickey, of Augusta county, Virginia, and came with his bride to Whitley county. This was in 1834, and previous to that time, friends had already settled in the same vicinity, Samuel Smith had built the first cabin in the township, subsequently named after him, and this rude structure was occupied by the Tulleys during the owner's temporary absence. Francis Tulley built the second cabin in Smith township, and here he made his home for over forty years, meantime accumulating four hundred acres of land most of which he distributed among his children. In 1872, he removed to Columbia City, where he lived in retirement until his death, twenty-four years later, in 1896, surviving his life companion one year. The children of this pioneer couple were four in number: Rosanna; William A., proprietor of a repair shop in Columbia City : Cyrus B., lawyer and member of the legislature, who died at his home in Columbia City, aged fifty-five ; and Wesley C. who lives on the old homestead in Smith township. Rosanna Tulley, eldest of these, was born in Smith township, September 15, 1834, this being the same year in which her parents came. Neighbors were few and far between, wolves were plentiful and made the lonesome night still more dreary by their dismal howling, it being the custom of the settlers to fire guns to frighten them away. Indians were also numerous, though not hostile and often called at the Tulley cabin for food or out of idle curiosity. If Rosanna's birth was romantic, her youth and girlhood were none the less so, though they did not differ materially from those of other pioneer children in the western wilderness. She had to "pitch in" to help clear the farm and many a sturdy blow she struck with ax or. mattock, to say nothing of holding the plow, feeding the stock, and attending to the household drudgery. The first school she attended was kept in the kitchen of her parents, and was taught by an Eastern man named Wisner. Her father had to work out to secure food for the family, and often put in three days of hard work for one bushel of corn meal. He had brought with him from Ohio a team and cow and had to cut a road through the woods to his land. She and her mother spent many weary hours spinning and weaving cloth with which to make wearing apparel for the household. November 1 1855, when she was twenty-one years of age, there was a pioneer wedding at this rude cabin in the woods, the contracting parties being John Crider and herself. The groom, who was but two months older, had come into Smith township with his parents when about fifteen years of age, and as a wedding present his father gave him a horse and cow. The bride's dowry consisted of two horses, two cows, a sheep and forty acres of wild land. They went to housekeeping in a small frame structure, and with the sturdy courage characteristic of those times, faced resolutely toward the future. Before marriage Mr. Crider had taught school at intervals and he kept at this occupation intermittently for some time after. He was, however, of an ambitious turn of mind, and aspired to something higher than grubbing and township teaching. In 1872, he removed to Columbia City, was elected township assessor and during spare hours devoted himself to the study of the law. Forming a partnership with his brother-in-law, Cyrus B. Tulley, he entered actively into practice until 1882, meantime running a hardware store. His death occurred at Churubusco November 6, 1903. Mr. and Mrs. John Crider had three children : Noah W., the oldest, taught school and dealt in musical instruments, books and sewing machines and died unmarried at the residence of his mother after two years' illness of consumption, aged twenty-six years. Rosa May died in infancy and Bertie Wilson died in 1885, when eleven years old. just two months after his older brother had passed away. Since 1874, Mrs. Crider. the bereaved mother and widow, has lived in her residence on North Line street, and devoted her life to works of charity and religion. A lifelong member of the United Brethren church, none have done more than she to forward the interests of this denomination. The structure in which the services are held is situated on the corner of Chauncey and Market streets facing the courthouse square and bears the name of Tulley-Crider Memorial church, being, as the name would, indicate, a building put up in honor of the family, and erected largely through the efforts of Mrs. Crider. During all these years she has continued to support the church liberally, not only by generous contribution of funds but by individual effort and all her personal influence.


COL ISAIAH A. MCDONALD Born of a martial family whose members showed in the time of its imminent peril that they were ardently devoted to the Union, three of them laying down their lives on the altar of their country in the Civil war, Col. Isaiah B. McDonald, of Whitley county, bore well and bravely his part in that awful struggle between the sections of our then unhappy country, and made a military record of which any man might well be proud, sustaining the honor of his family, his state and his county, and making for the credit of the whole body of American manhood. The Colonel is a native of Culpeper, Virginia, where he was born on September 18, 1826, and is a son of Carter and Mary Elizabeth (Carder) McDonald, who were born in Scotland and came to the United States iii their childhood. They obtained their education in the common schools of Virginia, and after leaving school the father became a blacksmith, a craft which he followed industriously to the end of his life. In 1835 the family moved from Virginia to Wooster, Ohio, and seven years later they became residents of this county, in which they passed the remainder of their lives, the father dying in 1872 in the house in which the Colonel lives, and the mother passing away in 1883. They were earnest and devout members of the Baptist church and lived acceptably in accordance with its teachings. In politics the father was an anti- slavery Democrat. They were the parents of thirteen children: Melzer, who was a farmer in Ohio and Indiana, and died in Noble county of the latter state at the age of seventy-nine years; Isaiah B., the immediate and interesting subject of this memoir; Malachi, who was a farmer, served through the Civil war, and died in California in 1892, aged sixty-eight years; David, who was a farmer in Indiana, and who w:as killed on the railroad at the age of fifty-eight years; Samuel B., who was a farmer, and a soldier in Company G, Fifteenth Indiana Infantry, serving more than four years in the Army of the Cumberland and the subsequent organization in which it was merged. He died as the result of army service at Columbus Grove, Ohio, in 1903, in his fifty-fifth year; Joseph G., who died in early life; Silas B., who was a farmer and died in the Indian Territory in 1901; James G., who was a soldier and served in Company B, Seventy-fourth Indiana Infantry. He was wounded at the battle of Chickamauga and deserted by his company on the battlefield, where he was taken, prisoner, and after suffering all the horrors of Andersonville prison he there starved to death and his remains were buried in a trench without a mark; Mary Jane, who was the wife of William B. Benton, of Noble county, Indiana, and died in 1906, leaving five children; Sarah Jane, wife of Alfred Peyton, of Allen county, this state, deceased; William, a farmer who is now tax commissioner of Whitley county; and Andrew Jackson, a farmer and a soldier in the Union army, serving in Company I, Thirtieth Indiana Infantry. He was wounded at the battle of Stone River and died soon afterward in a hospital at Louisville, Kentucky. Eliza married Daniel Hollycress, and both died in Whitley county. Col. Isaiah B. McDonald attended the public schools in Ohio until his parents moved to Indiana. In February, 1844, he returned to Ohio, and there worked as a farm hand for a time, going to school in the winter season. In 1845 he began to learn the carpenter trade, working out an apprenticeship of two years and during the greater part of this period devoting his evenings and all other time when he was not at work to a systematic course of reading. He then taught school in Ohio for three years, after which he followed the same occupation at Christiansburg, Kentucky, for two years. He read law under the instruction of John McSweeney, of Wooster, Ohio, and Martin D. McHenry. of Shelbyville, Kentucky, and on his return to Indiana in June, 1852, he was elected prosecuting attorney for Noble and Whitley counties. In November of the same year he was appointed school examiner for Whitley county. He filled both offices acceptably until November 19. 1855. when he was qualified as clerk of Whitley circuit court, an office he held four years. He then served again as school examiner until April, 1861, when he enlisted in defense of the Union as a private soldier of Company E, Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, of which he was soon afterward elected second lieutenant, and commissioned as such by Governor Morton. On July 20, 1861, he was made senior aide-de-camp and acting assistant adjutant general on the staff of Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds, serving in West Virginia. General Reynolds resigned in 1862 and Lieutenant McDonald was transferred to the staff of Gen. Robert H. Milroy, then at Huttonville, West Virginia. In April of that year he was appointed captain of commissary of subsistence by President Lincoln, and continued on the staff of General Milroy until June, 1863, when driven from Winchester. Virginia, by General Lee. During all these years he took an active part at the front under Generals Reynolds, Milroy, Siegel, Kelly and others, at Elkwater, Cheat Mountain, Green Brier River. Camp Allegheny, McDowell, Strasburg, Cross Keys, Cedar Mountain. Waterloo Bridge, in the second Bull Run fight, and in many other" engagements in which the contest was war to the knife and the knife to the hilt on both sides. On August 22, 1862, he had his hardest fight to save the army trains of Milroy's command and other divisions, at Catlett's station, Virginia. General Pope's headquarters and trains were captured, sacked and burned by Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, and Colonel McDonald had only ninety- four men with whom to fight off Rosser's and Lee's commands during a terribly stormy night. In June. 1863, he took an active part in the battle of Winchester, from which he was driven into Pennsylvania, and in the ensuing month of July was placed in charge of military matters at Hagerstown, Maryland, where he remained until December following, when he was ordered to report to Gen. B. F. Kelly at Cumberland, Maryland. In April, 1864, he was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the Sixth West Virginia Veteran Cavalry. He passed two months in reorganizing this regiment, but at the end of that period, owing to the state of his health, he declined to muster as lieutenant colonel, but returned to his home. Governor Morton afterward offered him the command of the One Hundred and Fifty- second Indiana Infantry, but he was obliged to decline the proffered honor on account of the state of his health. Colonel McDonald was slightly wounded twice, but was not disabled .from service an hour. During the whole of his long and active service he was never under arrest or reprimanded. Entering the army as a private soldier, for meritorious conduct and excellent service he received promotions from Governor Morton of Indiana, Gen. J. J. Reynolds of the army, President Lincoln and Governor Boreman, of West Virginia. After his return from the army he once more entered public life in the service of the people, being school examiner of Whitley county from November. 1864, to December 25, 1870, and on the date last given became a member of the lower house of the state legislature, receiving a majority of seven hundred and thirty-one votes, the largest ever received by any candidate in the county. In 1886, he was elected to the senate from Allen and Whitley counties. Up to this time there had never been passed by the legislature any bill originating from a Whitley county member. But this record was gloriously reversed by the activity and influence of Colonel McDonald. He was chairman of the military committee in the senate, and as such put through the bill providing for the erection of the Soldiers' Monument and carrying an appropriation of two hundred thousand dollars for the purpose of starting the monument. This bill he succeeded in getting every senator to vote for, and as the monument finally cost over six hundred thousand dollars, the importance of so good a start for the project may easily be realized. He afterward secured by a unanimous vote from the Indiana department of the Grand Army of the Republic an appropriation of nineteen thousand dollars for the foundation of this monument. Other legislation of great importance of which he may properly be styled the father, was the law locating the school for feeble minded children at Fort Wayne, which he secured the passage of after a stubborn fight, and the reorganization of the Knightstown Soldiers' Orphans' School. In this behalf he got the titles to the real estate perfected and an appropriation of fifty-four thousand dollars for putting the school in good condition. Colonel McDonald has been connected with the public press since 1859, and is still in the harness. He established the Columbia City News, now the Post, has been the owner of the Huntington Democrat and the Fort Wayne Daily and Weekly Journal, and is now part owner of the Ligonier Banner. Colonel McDonald was first married on the day of the presidential election in 1852, when he was united with Miss Agnes S. Kollar, of Wayne county, Ohio, who lived only eleven months after her marriage. On November 28, 1854, the Colonel married as his second wife Miss Catherine Brenneman, of this county, who died nineteen years ago. Four children were born of this union. two of whom are living: James Eli, who has been state senator for DeKalb and Noble counties, and has served on the state board of agriculture for more than twenty years. He is part owner and the managing editor of the Ligonier Banner. He is an active Democrat, fifty-one years old, and has three children. Charles Emmett McDonald was for some years engaged in teaching, but he is now the managing editor of the Auburn Daily and Weekly Courier. He is a fluent and forceful writer, lives at Auburn and has three children. The third child, Abraham C, died at Ligonier in 1866, aged twenty- three years. He was a graduate of the Columbia City high school and an excellent printer; and the fourth child, also a son, Frank Warren McDonald, a printer and telegraph operator, died of hip disease at the age of twenty-two. The Colonel married his third wife June 9, 1889. She was Miss Clemenza Bechtel, daughter of Martin Bechtel, of this county. He was widely known and highly esteemed as a "grand old man." Mrs. McDonald is an active member of the First Baptist church of Columbia City and a devoted worker in the Woman's Relief Corps. Colonel McDonald is also a zealous member of the Baptist church, and one of the trustees. Out of his earnings in the clerk's office he built the first church for this denomination in the city and has continued a liberal supporter. He was an Odd Fellow from 1858 to 1888. He was made a Free Mason in 1863 and is now a Knight Templar. Ever since its organization, he has belonged to the Grand Army of the Republic and in this organization he has filled every office but that of department commander. In 1872, the first effort was begun toward the making of a new up-to-date residence town of Columbia City. Colonel McDonald was the first to begin a system of sewerage, in company with Eli W. Brown, Theodore Reed and Cyrus B. Tulley. The matter was contended in the courts, but soon other progressive men adopted the idea and it; was not long before the town began to assume more desirable conditions. He has ever stood for better conditions and never hesitated to engage in battle, either in the newspaper columns or in courts. Always a Democrat, he has always been active in the party. In 1860, he was a delegate to the Charleston convention that was adjourned to Baltimore. He was active as a campaign speaker and has probably made more speeches than most men in Indiana. In 1876, he was a Tilden elector, receiving over six thousand majority in his district. In later campaigns he was a Bryan man, and keeps in touch with the modern tenets of his party.


FERDINAND F. MORSCHES This name has been made familiar in Whitley county by reason of the long residence and prominent business connections of the founder of the family. The latter was William H. Morsches, a native of one of the Rhine provinces of Germany, who after his marriage came to the United States in 1868. Locating in Chicago, he took employment as a baker and brewer and continued in this line for several years. In 1871, he came to Columbia City to accept the position of brew-master of the present Walter Raupfer Brewing Company, and later the Strausser Brewing Company, which he purchased in 1882 and conducted four or five years. After that he opened a bakery on the present site of Eganson's store, and continued in this business for seven or eight years, at which time he retired. He died December 10, 1906, at the advanced age of eighty-six years, leaving a second wife, Gertrude Kempton, as his widow. By his first wife he had two children and eleven by the second union, of whom seven are living. Ferdinand F. Morsches was born in Columbia City, April 14, 1873. As soon as he became old enough to work, he entered the mill-yard of the Peabody Lumber Company as a laborer, and now has been with that company eighteen years. For seven years he has been manager for the three mills of the company, which employ fifty men in the Columbia City plant and about sixty- five in all, besides teamsters, timber cutters and miscellaneous help. Mr. Morsches is a stockholder and vice president of the company, being in direct management of the production of the lumber, the full details of the immense business frequently devolving upon him, especially in the absence of the president of the company. He has a fine business standing, is full of energy and keen discernment as to needs in the mills or yards and has a happy faculty of eliciting hearty co-operation of all employees. He is too busy to indulge in social affairs or politics, but is fond of out-door sports and during vacation seasons enjoys an outing on the lakes with his rod or in the forest with his gun. October 3, 1896, Mr. Morsches was united in marriage with Miss Mabel Foust, a lady of. prominent and influential social connections. She is a niece of Franklin H. Foust and a daughter of Albert Foust, deceased, both well known citizens of Whitley county. Mr. and Mrs. Morsches have two children, who have been christened Elizabeth and Carl F.


EDWARD L. GALLAGHER, Is a contractor, ex-county official and one of the esteemed citizens of Columbia City, is a native of Trumbull county, Ohio, where his birth occurred on April 2, 1860. As the name indicates, he is of Irish descent, his parents, Hugh and Anna (O'Brien) Gallagher, both having been born in the Emerald Isle. By occupation Hugh Gallagher was a stone mason. He came to America in 1851 and after following his trade for a limited period in the city of New York, went to Mahoning county, Ohio, where he became manager of a farm near Youngstown, which position he held until earning sufficient means to purchase property of his own, when, in 1866, he moved to Whitley county, Indiana, locating at Columbia City. Shortly after his arrival here he purchased a lot and in due time erected a house, after which he entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railway Company and still later took contracts for constructing ditches for the county and private citizens. While thus engaged Mr. Gallagher demonstrated marked ability. He died May 5, 1895, just twenty-nine years to a day from the date of his arrival in Columbia City. Mr. and Mrs. Gallagher had eight children, the oldest of whom, James, died in 1872; Patrick is a contractor in the state of Ohio; Thomas G. was an agent for twenty-five years on the Wabash Railroad. Both himself and wife are dead, their five children being kindly cared for by Mr. and Mrs. Edward Gallagher; the fifth in succession is the subject of this sketch; Mary, married Dennis Galvin, of Columbia City; Frank, is train dispatcher at Joliet, Illinois, and Hugh and a twin sister to Edward died in infancy. Of the early years and experience of Edward L. Gallagher the biographer can speak only in a general way, there being nothing of the tragic connected with that period of life. Until his eleventh year his time was largely given to study in the public schools and at about that age he took his first contract, which was the piling of a large amount of staves, which required a month's hard labor, and for which he received the sum of seventy-eight dollars. He has always considered this the most satisfactory contract he ever carried out and recalls it with a greater degree of pleasure than any other experience in his business career. After assisting his father for several years and becoming familiar with every phase of contracting, Mr. Gallagher engaged in the same line of business for himself and, with the exception of the period devoted to his office duties, has followed the same to the present time, meeting with a large measure of success and earning an honorable reputation for faithful and efficient work. Like his father before him, his work has taken a wide range and while doing the major part of the contracting in his line in Whitley county, he has also taken a number of large jobs elsewhere. It is a matter worthy of note that throughout his entire business career as a contractor, he has never worked a day under the direction of a superior, a fact of which he feels deservedly proud, and which it may safely be said is a remarkable exception in the lives of the majority of mechanics and business men. Mr. Gallagher is a Democrat and for a number of years has been an active participant in political affairs. In 1896, he was appointed deputy sheriff of Whitley county, under B. F. Hull, the duties of which position he discharged in such a creditable manner that at the expiration of his four years of service he was elected sheriff, being the only deputy that ever succeeded to the office since the county was organized. He took charge of the office in 1900 and two years later was re- elected for a second term, at the expiration of which, in 1904, he resumed the business which he had temporarily discontinued eight years before. He operates a steam dredge, working night and day, and employing about eight assistants and with which he has constructed at least two hundred miles of drains, not only in Whitley but in many other counties and in other states. The business is conducted under the name of The Raupfer & Briggs Drainage Company, consisting of Benjamin Raupfer, S. O. Briggs, Dennis Galvin and Mr. Gallagher. In his religious belief Mr. Gallagher is a Catholic and an influential member of the church in Columbia City. He belongs to the Catholic Knights of America and the Modern Woodmen, in both of which organizations he has been honored with important official positions. On January 31, 1900, Mr. Gallagher was united in the holy bonds of matrimony with Miss Emma Adang, who was born in Fostoria, Ohio, but since about 1896, has re- resided in Whitley county. Mrs. Gallagher's ancestors were of German blood, her grandfather emigrating to America in an early day and settling in Seneca county, Ohio. Her parents, who were both natives of that state, moved to Indiana in the year indicated above and are now residents of Columbia City. Mr. and Mrs. Gallagher have three children, Mary Ann, Edna L., and Hortense Bernice. Besides these, his brother's five children have found a suitable home with Mr. and Mrs. Gallagher. They are: Edward T., Bernard G., Ida M., Helen and Claudine.


WHITNEY & LUCKENBILL The above named firm of funeral directors entered into business at Columbia City in November, 1904, as successors to Maine & Whitney, Mr. Luckenbill buying the former's interest. They occupy commodious quarters in the Adair building and keep a full supply of everything appropriate to this line of business. Rev. Lewis A. Luckenbill, the junior member, was born in Miami county, Indiana, May 30, 1867. His father was a native of the Keystone state and served nearly four years during the civil war as a member of the Ninety-third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. Shortly after the close of hostilities, he removed to Miami county and located at Denver. Lewis A. spent his boyhood on the farm and when of age began teaching in the common schools, which occupation he followed for eight years. When thirty years old he came to Columbia City, to take charge of the Oak Grove and Evergreen congregations of the Church of God. For two years he served the Blue River circuit besides the two above mentioned. He is now serving his second term as pastor of the home Church of God, in connection with Oak Grove and Evergreen. They have prospered under his care and have a fine membership. The local church is out of debt, was recently re-decorated and now enjoys the luxury of electric lights and other improvements. Mr. Luckenbill is quite active and influential in connection with the general business features of his church organization. What is known as the general eldership consists of about one hundred and forty members elected as delegates from each of the subordinate elderships and it meets every four years. The general eldership elects an executive board of five members, which meets each year for a week at the commencement of the college of the church, at Findlay, Ohio. This board has charge of all business of the general eldership and is of great importance in the affairs of this religious organization. Mr. Luckenbill was twice elected as a delegate to the general eldership and in June, 1905, was chosen as a member of the executive board, and was made secretary by that body. He has also for eight years been financial secretary of the eldership composed of Indiana and part of Michigan. The executive board is in control of the editorial staff of the church paper published at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and in fact has supervision of all the church work. Mr. Luckenbill is secretary and treasurer of the Inter-state Assembly of the Church of God and it is hardly necessary to add that he is one of the busiest men in Columbia City, as well as one of the most useful. August 18, 1889, Mr. Luckenbill was married to Miss Laura Alspach, of Miami county, and they have had five children. Charles G., Ulysses S., Jennie Lind, Lewis A., who died when two years old, and Argel Rudyard. Charles G. Whitney, the senior member of the firm, was born in Washington county, New York, July 28, 1861, being a son of E. G. Whitney, a teacher at the Fort Edward Institute. He spent his boyhood on a farm in Franklin county until his father's death, and then attended school at the Franklin Academy. At the age of nineteen he began to teach and spent four years in this occupation, two in New York and two in Vermont, being subsequently engaged for twelve years as a contractor and builder. In 1894, he entered into the undertaking business, preparing himself with a course in embalming. He was for two years at Noblesville, Indiana, and in 1902, came to Columbia City. He was in partnership with J. M. Maine until 1904, when the retirement of the latter brought about the firm of Whitney & Lukenbill. Mr. Whitney was married in 1886 to Miss Grace H. Barnard, who died ten years later, aged twenty- eight. By this union there were four daughters, Ethel E., a teacher, in Whitley county, Mary E., a pupil in high school, Grace A., and Gladys. In December, 1896, Mr. Whitney married Miss Bertha A. Hudson.


OTIS W. STAIR The railroad agent at an important shipping point is a man of many responsibilities, as well as a target for criticism and it takes both tact and judgment to gain and retain the good will of those interested. Few men have better filled this role and achieved those results than the present agent of the Vandalia at Columbia City. Taking charge of the station at South Whitley in 1896, and coming to the county seat in 1902, he has achieved an excellent standing with his company and the people. The Stair family in Indiana came from Virginia and settled in Tippecanoe county, where the father entered and occupied a farm near Lafayette. To this pioneer was born a son named Charles W. Stair, who after reaching manhood, married Savanna Frances Reed, also a native of Tippecanoe county. He passed his whole life on this farm up to the time of his death in 1879, and his widow still resides on the old place. Otis, son of Charles W. Stair, was born on this farm in Tippecanoe county, August 10, 1872. At the age of seventeen he entered a business college at Lafayette and after graduating, attended the school at St. Louis conducted by the Wabash Railroad. In 1891 he began what has proved to be fifteen years of continuous railroad work, as night operator at Fairmount. Illinois, and after working for short periods at various places, he took a position at Newton, Indiana. Later he was in the office of the superintendent of the Wabash at Detroit, and in the despatcher's office at Peru. In 1893-4 he took a course in civil engineering at Purdue University, but was soon in the railway harness again as agent at South Whitley. He came to Columbia City, November 7, 1902, being placed in charge of the station. In 1904. the depot was remodeled, and now Mr. Stair has three assistants. He has a clean and creditable record, and stands well with the company, because he procures business, and with the people, because he accommodates them in every possible way. During the great demand for cars in which to ship the immense onion crop of 1906, Mr. Stair managed it so that his supply of cars never failed, thus affording greater satisfaction to shippers. Mr. Stair owns his home in Columbia City, and a part of the old homestead near Lafayette. He is a member of the Masonic order, of the Knights of Pythias and Modern Woodmen. In 1894, Mr. Stair was married to Miss Minnie Maud Baer, of Buck Creek, Indiana, and they have five children, Lucille, Otis W., Carlyle, Nina Bell and George Kenneth.


GIDEON WRIGHT WILCOX. May 6, 1831, Gideon Wright Wilcox. now deceased, son of Gideon and Amanda Wilcox, was born at Worthington, Franklin county, Ohio. At eighteen he made the overland trip to California. May 29, 1861, he married Nettie Black and came to Whitley county, where some years before her. parents had settled. His wife's untimely death, August 13, 1862, temporarily interrupted his plans. March 6, 1866, he was married at Columbus, Ohio, to Mary Aston, a native of that city, whose father, William Aston, was brought from Ireland in infancy and became a soap and candle-maker. Mr. Wilcox then brought his wife to the house he had previously built but had not as yet occupied. During the civil war he and his brother-in-law, David Weaver, worked for a time as blacksmiths for the government at Little Rock, Arkansas, having put substitutes in the field to exempt them from military service. His life was unostentatious and devoted to the cultivation of his farm. He voted the Republican ticket though not active in politics. His only lodge connection was with the Odd Fellows. He died July 12, 1891, in the sixty-first year of his age. But two of three children lived to maturity. Clinton is the county treasurer of Whitley county, and Lucy is a stenographer in the office of Gates & Whiteleather, attorneys, at Columbia City. In 1893, Mrs. Wilcox came to Columbia City for a permanent home and resides in a pleasant dwelling on North Chauncey street, where she enjoys the company of old friends. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.


JACOB A. RUCH. Jacob A. Ruch, retired business man of Columbia City, and one of the community's well known and greatly esteemed citizens, was born March 2, 1851, in Smith township, Whitley county, being one of the thirteen children that constituted the family of Charles and Sarah A. (Fertig) Ruch. His paternal grandparents, Jacob and Hannah Ruch, were natives of Pennsylvania, and it was in Northumberland county, in which his father was born, November 1, 1808, and reared. In 1838, Charles Ruch married Sarah Ann Fertig, born July 7, 1819, and in 1845, moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he worked at his trade as cabinetmaker until 1849, when he came to Whitley county, settling in Smith township. Six years later he moved to Columbia City, where he followed painting in connection with the livery business, and later became a merchant. Charles Ruch was a public- spirited man and a leader in the local Democracy, serving as postmaster of Columbia City, during the administration of Pierce. He died April 8, 1895; his wife died February 8, 1902. Of the large family that gathered once beneath his roof, six only are living. Jacob Ruch was three years old when brought to Columbia City, and he assisted his father as soon as his services could be utilized and at intervals attended the public schools. He soon became a painter, in connection with which he helped in the livery, devoting his attention to these lines until the organization of the city fire department, when he was placed in charge of the same, as well as the construction of water-works and all other city utilities. Mr. Ruch continued at the head of the department at intervals for ten or twelve years, proving a faithful and efficient fireman. He became deputy county treasurer under Joshua P. Chamberlain, upon whose death, while in office, he was appointed by the board of commissioners to fill out the unexpired term. When John Gross was elected custodian of the county funds, Mr. Ruch was again made deputy and continued as such until the expiration of that term, serving eight years in all and gaining the confidence of the public. Mr. Ruch was then, in 1892, the Democratic nominee for county treasurer, but with the rest of the candidates, suffered defeat in the general Republican landslide of that year. Mr. Ruch organized the Whitley County Telephone Company, in which he was associated with Messrs. Peabody, Pontius, Adams and Magley, the construction of the line falling to him. On the completion of the enterprise he took a contract to operate the same, and fitting up an office in his own business block, he continued in full control for six years, during which time he also superintended the extension of the line and brought it to a high state of efficiency, making it meet the expectation of the promoters and the public and fully answer the purpose for which intended. In 1892 he resigned his position and, disposing of his interest in the company, retired from business, being induced to take the step on account of failing health. October 26, 1875, Mr. Ruch was united in the bonds of wedlock to Miss Edith A. Rhodes, daughter of John and Ann (Whitney) Rhodes, natives of Maryland and Ohio respectively. As already stated, Mr. Ruch has been an active politician and for many years a leader and influential adviser of the local Democracy, besides taking a prominent part in a number of state and national campaigns. The Presbyterian church represents his religious creed, he having long been a valued member of the home congregation, and a liberal contributor to the support of the gospel at home and elsewhere. His wife also belongs to the same church and like himself is deeply interested in its success and progress. Mr. Ruch is an enthusiastic Mason, and as a Knight Templar has attended among others the triennial conclaves in California, Denver and Louisville. He and his wife have traveled extensively throughout the United States, visiting all the leading points of interest, east, west, north and south, thus becoming familiar with the magnitude of their country and the greatness of its people and institutions. John Rhodes, Mrs. Ruch's father, was born at Hagerstown, Maryland, November 9, 1814, his father having been a soldier in the war of 1812. He was a millwright by trade and in 1841 moved to Columbia City, and purchasing a lot at the corner of Chauncey and Van Buren streets, started a general store. He was an active and prosperous business man and did much to promote the material growth of the city, erecting a number of buildings, among which is the large Rhodes' brick block, containing three store rooms on the ground floor with several apartments above, which was put up in the year 1890. This property is in the central part of the city and is one of the most valuable pieces of realty within the corporation. Mr. Rhodes will long be remembered as one of the leading men of his day and generation in Columbia City, having been liberal in the expenditure of his means to advance the interest of the municipality and public-spirited to the extent of assisting all enterprises for the general welfare of his fellow citizens. He died March 11, 1904. Of the four children of John and Ann Rhodes, but one, Mrs. Ruch, survives. Two daughters, Sarah E. and Alpharitta, died young, and a son, Francis, who died March 25, 1898, aged fifty-six. Mrs. Rhodes, whose maiden name was Ann Whitney, was born February 29, 1812, died November 22, 1874. She is well remembered as the landlady of the Rhodes' Hotel, and her reputation as such made her house one of the most popular stopping places in northern Indiana.


JOHN T. CLAPHAM. William and Lydia (Reish) Clapham,. natives of Pennsylvania, came to Columbia City in 1885. He had been foreman, superintendent and owner of woolen mills, and when he came to Whitley county became superintendent of the Eel River mills at Columbia City. He died in 1886, at the age of forty-nine, while the widow still resides in Columbia City. They have seven surviving children, three of whom live in Whitley county. John T. Clapham was born in Mifflinburg, Pennsylvania, July 25, 1865, and at nine years of age began to work in the woolen-mills. Upon arrival at this place he was given charge of the weaving department. He continued in this position until 1890, after which he worked for several seasons in the mills at Rochester and in Lagrange county, Indiana. In 1892, he helped pack the machinery of the mill owned by Evanson & Hunt, going with it to Seattle, Washington, where he assisted in installing it and had charge of the weaving department until the mill closed down in 1893. He was then employed as foreman of the weaving department in the mills at Zanesville, Ohio. In December of 1894, he became deputy under Sheriff Thomas Hughes and so served until the expiration of the term. In 1898, he went to Cuba with the home company, under Colonel Harrison, and served until mustered out after twelve months' service. July 15, 1899, Mr. Clapham enlisted at Denver, in Company F, Thirty-fourth Regiment Infantry United States Volunteers, going with the regiment to the Philippines a few months later. He was one of the two chosen from his company to assist in policing Manila. His command was then four hundred miles north of Manila, on the island of Luzon, and he was mustered out in order to accept the place at Manila. Ill health, due to the depressing nature of the climate, compelled him to resign June 1, 1902, the return voyage being in July. The campaign to the north of Luzon was one of the hardest ever participated in by federal troops, men suffering much from tropical fever, he being disabled from service for months on its account. During the session of 1903, Mr. Clapham held a clerical position in the Indiana state senate and in January, 1905, was appointed deputy under Sheriff Logan Staples, in which position he has since served, giving personal attention to the office demands, including attendance at the courts. Mr. Clapham is an ardent Republican. He was president of the Young Men's Republican > Club in 1888 and has been secretary of the Republican county central committee, be«- sides being delegate to congressional and state conventions. He is a member of the United Workmen and of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.


CLEON H. FOUST Alfred L. Foust was born in Delaware county, Ohio, January 26, 1839. He was engaged in farming in his native county until 1886, when he became a resident of Indiana. He married Loretta Smith, by whom he had the following children: Archibald, deceased; Maud, wife of Ferdinand F. Morsches, of Columbia City; Claude, who died in boyhood; and Cleon H. Alfred was foreman and overseer for the large farming interest of Foust & Wolf, until his death, December 6, 1898. Cleon H. Foust was born in Delaware county, Ohio, November 21, 1881, and attended the public schools more or less until his sixteenth year, when he clerked with S. Stine and later in the hardware store of W. A. Tulley. Five months afterward he took a position in Peabody's planing-mill, until 1898. In July of that year he became identified with the Columbia City National Bank, of which he is now acting cashier and vice-president. He applies himself closely to the details of the bank management, having given financial affairs that careful study through which only can such enterprises be successfully conducted. September 12, 1901, Mr. Foust was married to Miss Lela G., daughter of Franklin and Alice (Bumgardner) Stemen, a native of Allen county, Ohio. Her father was for many years an employee of the Pennsylvania Company. Mr. and Mrs. Foust have one child, Franklin H., Jr. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church and in politics Mr. Foust renders allegiance to the Republican party.


JOHN C. MILLER John C. Miller is a native of Prussia, and came to the United States, with his family, when thirteen years old. They located at Pittsburgh, where he learned his trade of cigar maker and in 1863 came to Fort Wayne, where he worked five years as a journeyman and then set up in business for himself. In 1879 he established a small cigar factory and eventually, in company with his brother, Henry, became a jobber in tobacco, pipes and other articles suitable to this line of trade. From small beginnings he has enlarged until he now employs eight or nine hands, supplying an extensive jobbing trade in the surrounding towns, besides doing a paying local business. His own output is about 120,000 cigars annually of the finer brands of goods, though he sells fully double that number. Mr. Miller has ever taken a keen interest in the educational and commercial progress of Columbia City and as a citizen has liberally assisted in helping the growth of his adopted home. He was one of the organizers and is a director in the Building and Loan Association, an important factor in the city's growth. He is a supporter of the Republican party, though not counted as particularly partisan. In 1873 Mr. Miller was married to Miss Lizzie Witte, of Fort Wayne, and to this union were born the following children. Flora, wife of Joseph Deerheimer, a contractor at Fort Wayne; Harry W., and Ida, a talented musician. Harry W., who is actively associated with his father, married Miss Mabel G. Lee. He takes much interest in fraternal work and is an active member of the Order of Ben Hur, Knights of Pythias and Knights of the .Maccabees, the elder Miller holding membership also in the order first named.


ROBERT HUDSON Among the representative business men of Columbia City, whose achievements entitle them to more than casual notice, the well known merchant whose name heads this article stands out clear and distinct. Robert Hudson was born on the 10th of June, 1865, in Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland. In 1882 he came to America and at Buffalo, New York, secured a clerkship in a mercantile house. After becoming familiar with merchandising, he became associated with his brother in a general store at Mount Morris, New York. Mr. Hudson later became a traveling salesman for a wholesale house in St. Louis for five years, traveling over an extensive territory-. In February, 1896, he established the present business, the beginning being on the modest capital of three thousand dollars, which the demands of the trade soon obliged him to increase, the growth of the business exceeding his fondest anticipations. To dry goods he added other lines and at intervals enlarged the floor space to suit the growing demands. This store soon became one of the largest and best patronized establishments of the kind in Columbia City. Mr. Hudson's business has grown to its present mammoth proportions as a result of fair and honorable dealing and a desire to accommodate his patrons, between whom and himself mutually pleasant and agreeable relations have ever obtained. Since 1905 he has occupied the Masonic building, the ground floor of which is forty-eight and one-half feet front by one hundred and forty- five feet deep, the entire apartment handsomely equipped, advantageously arranged and stocked with everything in the dry goods line that the most critical and exacting public could expect. The trade, as already indicated, is extensive and constantly growing and so large at present as to require the combined services of twenty-one clerks. In addition to dry goods, Mr. Hudson carries a full line of carefully selected carpets, rugs, house furnishings, boots, shoes, ladies' suits, a complete stock of millinery and numerous other kinds of merchandise. A part of the second floor has been completely stocked and all systematized under the supervision of a skilled salesman with a full corps of competent assistants, the entire establishment being conducted in the most orderly and systematic manner under the judicious management of the proprietor. As a practical merchant, Mr. Hudson has few superiors and his career presents a series of continued advancements. Possessing executive ability of a high order, with his wide and varied knowledge of the trade, his pleasant relations with wholesale firms and customers, his judgment as a buyer and skill as a salesman, make him one of the representative merchants of the state. Mr. Hudson married Miss Helen Smith, of Dunlap, Iowa. His children are Robert, Margaret, Helen and Estelle. Mr. and Mrs. Hudson are esteemed members of the Presbyterian church of Columbia City, of which for some years he has been trustee.


STEPHEN O. BRIGGS Stephen O. Briggs is a native of Whitley county, being born in Union township, September 15, 1867, his parents being Silas and Rebecca (Nickey) Briggs. Until his twenty-sixth year he remained on the farm. At the period mentioned he determined to learn the plumber trade and found a favorable opportunity while the water-works plant was being installed at Columbia City. He succeeded from the start, but soon found his business enlarging until at present he carries a stock worth about three thousand dollars, and employs seven men. Mr. Briggs' work is always first-class, being done conscientiously and under his own direction. Mr. Briggs does most of the well drilling in Whitley county. Aside from all of this, he finds time to supervise an eighty-acre farm, located five miles east of Columbia City, which is devoted to general farming and the breeding of Polled Angus and Durham stock. For three years Mr. Briggs has been president of the school board, the present high school building being constructed under his direction at the cost of twenty thousand dollars. Mr. Briggs is a Blue Lodge and Royal Arch Mason, and in politics is a Democrat. Industrious, courteous and unobtrusive, attentive to business and strictly honest, in all his dealings no man in Columbia City has more friends than Stephen O. Briggs. In 1893 Mr. Briggs was married to Miss Belle, daughter of the late Harlan Clark, of Union township. They have three children, Phil. S., aged twelve, and Gertrude and Garnett (twins,) aged ten. Mrs. Briggs was an invalid for nine years, during which time she underwent several operations, but at present is fully recovered.


WILLIAM H. MAGLEY William H. Magley was born on a farm in Thorncreek township, March 2, 1861, his parents being John and Elizabeth Magley. He was on the farm until the close of his thirteenth year, during this time having passed through the grades of the city schools. At fourteen he began to clerk in the dry goods store of G. M. Bainbridge, and after four years in this line he became assistant postmaster under O. H. Woodworth, continuing during the terms of J. W. Baker and E. W. Brown, an experience extending from 1879 until 1885, when he became a clerk in the bank of F. H. Foust. In 1890 Mr. Magley was elected county clerk, receiving the small majority of four votes, which was in fact a decided victory, the lowest successful candidate on the Democratic ticket receiving a majority of 150. He did not seek a re-election, but soon after the expiration of his term resumed his old position in the bank. In April, 1904, this institution was organized into the Columbia City National Bank, of which Mr. Magley became a stockholder and director and was also elected cashier. Owing to failing health he was forced to retire from the confinement of the bank and in February, 1906, went to New Mexico, finding benefit in that salubrious climate so that he returned in a few months. Mr. Magley then became actively interested in the management of the Whitley County Telephone Company, which he had helped to organize in 1896, and of which he continued to serve as secretary and treasurer. The company employs twenty- five people, Mr. Magley having full control over all its operations in Whitley county. Mr. Magley has devoted considerable attention to political affairs, and for one term was chairman of the Republican county committee. He is a Knight Templar Mason and a Presbyterian. May 16, 1894, Mr. Magley married Miss Mary, daughter of Captain Peter Simonson, a soldier of the civil war, who was killed at Pine Mountain, Georgia, while serving as captain of the Fifth Indiana Battery. Mrs. Magley is a native of Columbia City and during her girlhood held various important clerical positions, including service for four years in the pension office at Indianapolis under Captain Ensley. Mr. and Mrs. Magley have one daughter, Dorothy, aged seven.


WILLIAM A. CLUGSTON Among the native sons of Whitley county who have gained honorable recognition in commercial circles, as well as in the social world, is the gentleman whose name furnishes the caption of this review. William .A. Clugston, member of the firm of Clugston Brothers & Company, and son of Azariah R. Clugston, was born in New Castle, Delaware, June 25, 1862. When a lad of twelve or thirteen years he entered the mercantile house of Clugston Brothers, where by close and diligent application he soon mastered the basic principles of business and in due time became a successful salesman. With the exception of the time spent in school he has been connected with the firm for more than twenty-five years, and in January, 1890, was admitted into partnership. Mr. Clugston possesses the practical intelligence, mature judgment and sound business ability necessary in the successful conduct of a business devoted to general merchandise and, working in harmony with able associates, has developed an establishment in which every citizen feels just pride. His relations with his associates and customers have ever been of the most pleasant and agreeable nature, not a little of his success being directly attributed to his courteous manner and genial personality. As stated elsewhere, the firm of which he is an influential factor commands an extensive patronage not only in Columbia City, but throughout Whitley county, and being managed by men with safe and conservative policies, stands a lasting monument to a broad commercial spirit. Mr. Clugston manifests a lively interest in other matters, being alive to all that benefits the community and a friend and advocate of every measure having for its object the good of his fellowmen. He is a thirty- second degree Mason. Mr. Clugston was wedded to Miss Cora Tanpert, of Columbia City, who died after a brief companionship. For several years prior to her marriage and for some time thereafter, Mrs. Clugston was a popular sales-lady in the store, with a wide circle of warm personal friends. In 1905 Mr. Clugston married Miss Minnie Erdman, who was also a clerk for some time with the firm.


ROBERT F. HOOD In 1858 Robert Hood came to Columbia City and opened a wagon shop and either as proprietor or journeyman, was engaged in this business for forty-five consecutive years. He is remembered, however, not solely as a mechanic, but because of his superiority as a singer, being gifted with an unusually rich bass voice, whose natural timbre had received careful cultivation. For thirty years he was leader of the Lutheran church choir, which his efforts had brought to a condition of efficiency, the tones of his own voice affording a peculiar pleasure to lovers of sacred music. Born in London, he came to the United States at the age of eighteen and was married at Fort Wayne to Sarah Smith, who died in her thirty-ninth year. After a third marriage he went to Chicago in 1903, to live with his son, J. W. Hood, superintendent of the Reagan Printing Company and who acquired reputation as a skilled workman. Robert F. Hood was born in Columbia City, January 12, 1862. At the age of sixteen he began an apprenticeship at the carriage-painting trade, and subsequently opening a shop, contracted to do all kinds of painting. He painted the court house, as well as scores of other buildings, public and private, until his health being injured through the affliction to which painters are subject, he removed to a farm three miles south of the city and remained there until 1902. Returning to Columbia City he soon purchased from George D. Ramp the furniture business established by him in 1893 on a small scale, but which has now assumed handsome proportions. It occupies a building twenty-two by one hundred and fifty feet, including the rear half of the second floor, all closely packed with a well selected stock of up-to-date furniture, including the latest patterns in all standard articles and representing a value of several thousand dollars. The annual sales have grown satisfactorily, showing a constant increase and proving that strict attention to business with a liberal sales method will yield suitable returns. Mr. Hood is a Mason and an active lodge worker, also a member of the Modern Woodmen, and he is a Republican in politics. January 13, 1886, Mr. Hood married Miss Minnie A., daughter of Jeremiah S. Hartsock, of Whitley county. The children are Thomas, Ellen and Robert. Mr. Hood is fond of out-door sports and usually spends his summer vacation on the lakes when his inclination to lure the finny inhabitants may be fully satisfied.


JAMES S. COLLINS James S. Collins, deceased, late a resident of Columbia City and a distinguished and venerable member of the Whitley county bar, is eminently worthy of representation in this volume, and the work might well be considered incomplete were there a failure to direct specific attention to his life and its accomplishments. Coming of one of the early pioneer families of the Hoosier state, and himself to be considered as a pioneer resident of Whitley county. Mr. Collins was born in Wayne county, Indiana, on the 24th of December, 1819, being the son of John and Jane (Holman) Collins, the former of whom was a native of Virginia and the latter of Kentucky, both being of the stanch old English stock. The father of the subject settled in Wayne county very early in the present century, purchasing a tract of land from the government and devoting himself vigorously and successfully to its reclamation. There he continued to abide until 1836, when he removed to Whitley county and settled in Cleveland township, where he purchased a tract of land upon which some slight improvements had been made. There the family home was maintained for many years. John Collins was a member of the state militia during- the war of 1812, and the Mexican war, and he went forth to aid in preventing an uprising among the Indians, whose insubordination was a feature of the memorable conflict. He was the first treasurer of Whitley county, becoming the incumbent in this office at a time when there was no cash represented in its exchequer. His son, Richard, was the first sheriff of the county, and soon became clerk, auditor and recorder, all .of which offices were combined so far as their executive was concerned. The father and mother of the subject both died in Columbia City, each having lived to a ripe old age. They became the parents of ten children, only two of whom are living at the present: Martha and Eliza. The subject was reared under the sturdy discipline of the pioneer farm, aiding in the work of clearing one hundred acres, and never having been enabled to attend school for a day after he had attained the age of sixteen years. There had been enkindled in his mind, however, an appreciation of the privileges which were of necessity denied him, and though his mental horizon was circumscribed, still he spared no effort to gain the knowledge, which, in an obscure way, he knew would be so essential to his success in life. He had a few books, and to these he devoted his spare moments at home. The intrinsic capacity of his mentality was shown forcibly in the fact that in the winter of 1843 he boldly waded into the pages of Blackstone's commentaries, with a dictionary beside him as an aid to ascertain the meaning and pronunciation of the "big words." Such was the power of assimilation that he possessed, that we find a most notable victory achieved by the young man within a year's time, since in the fall of 1844 he passed an examination and was admitted to practice at the bar. Such accomplishment at so great odds reads almost like a romance in these latter days when privileges are to be had for the acceptance, and when the way is made so smooth to the feet of the average searcher after knowledge. It is a significant circumstance that the honored subject began the practice of his profession in Columbia City, which point was the scene of his consecutive endeavors as an attorney at law from that early day to the day of his death. His title to the rank as the pioneer lawyer of that city is unquestioned, and his name is honored by the members of the bar to-day. as it has been through all the days of the past. The lot of the young lawyer was not one of sybaritic ease or one that yielded much financial return for a long time, but his perseverance and his ability eventually won him merited recognition in the according to him of representative clientage. In 1860, a distinguishing honor was conferred upon Mr. Collins in his election to the state senate, which preferment was accorded him without the formality of having intimated or suggested to him his candidacy. He was a member during the special term of 1861,— the war legislature,— and his efforts were marked by a lively appreciation of the nation's peril and by an earnest effort to support her time-honored institutions. In 1868 the demand for a new railroad was recognized by the citizens of Whitley and other counties, and of the company which was organized to bring the project to a focus, Mr. Collins was made president. This corporation completed what is known as the Eel River Railroad in 1873, and the subject retained the presidency until after the road had been brought to completion. After that time he devoted his attention entirely to his profession, although he withdrew to a large extent from the practice in the courts by reason of the fact of his advanced age rendering such service too burdensome. This phase of the work he relegated almost entirely to his associate in business," Benjamin E. Gates. Mr. Collins owned a large tract of land contiguous to the city, and also had some valuable realty within the corporate limits. During all the long years in which he was a witness of the advancement of Columbia City from a straggling village to its present flourishing status as a progressive and modern city, the subject manifested a hearty interest in the affairs of the place and the welfare of the county and was a prime mover in every enterprise which had as its object the benefiting of the community. In political matters he was a stalwart Republican, and was an active and zealous worker in the party ranks. Turning in conclusion to the more purely domestic phases of Mr. Collins' life, we find that on October 24, 1849, was consummated his marriage to Eliza J. Fleming, a native of Londonderry, Ireland, and the daughter of John and Frances Fleming. The offspring of this most happy union were six children, namely: Jane H., city librarian; Reginald Heber, in Seattle, Washington: Dora, deceased ; Howard, deceased; Sophia, wife of John Wilson Adams, of Columbia City; and William J., also of Seattle. Washington. Even this brief review will be sufficient to afford an idea of the accomplishments of our honored subject, who is well worthy of the title of a "self-made man," and whose actions ever stood in evidence of his sterling integrity and of high principles which shaped his career. Among the people who knew him so long and so well he passed the golden autumn of his life, secure in their esteem and confidence. The close of this honorable and eventful life crowned with long years of successful service for the development of his country and the elevation of mankind, came like a gentle evening breeze, and the noble and courageous spirit answered the angel call and crossed the mystic river into the great beyond August 22, 1898. Mrs. Collins still resides in the old home, though since Mr. Collins' death, Mrs. Collins has laid out ten acres in city lots.


ELIZA J. COLLINS Eliza J. Fleming, wife of James S. Collins, was born at Londonderry, Ireland. November 22 1822. She was the youngest daughter of John and Frances Fleming. In 1826 she came with her parents to America, they located in Philadelphia, where she resided until 1848, when she came to Indiana to visit an older sister living there. October 24 1849, she married James S. Collins in St. Paul's Episcopal church, Richmond, Indiana, and immediately came as a bride to Columbia City. To this union were born six children: Jane H., of Columbia City; Reginald Heber, of Seattle, Washington; Dora A. (Mrs. Samuel Fleming), deceased; Howard, also deceased; Sophia D. (Mrs. W. J. Adams), of Columbia City; and William J., of Seattle, Washington. She has always been actively interested in even-thing for the advancement of the town. During the Civil war she engaged in the work of the sanitary commission. She has been a lifelong member of the Episcopal church and while she did not always have the church of her choice she freely helped in one and all of the churches, doing much in early days to build them up. From its formation she was a member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and all her life an advocate of temperance. She is also a member of the Woman's Relief Corps but of no secret order.


DANIEL DANIEL A creditable representative of the sterling German nationality in Columbia City is Daniel Daniel, who has for many years been actively identified with its varied interests, and who has attained a standing and influence second to none. Mr. Daniel was born February 18, 1844, in the kingdom of Bavaria, and there spent his early life and received his education. At twenty-two years of age he left his native land and came to the United States, sailing from Havre de Grace, France, for New York, and proceeding direct to Columbia City, where his brother Leopold already was. For one year he traveled in Whitley and bordering counties as a peddler, carrying a pack of miscellaneous merchandise, and learning the language as well as adding materially to his meager finances. In January, 1868, he and Mr. Levi became partners in a meat market, which they conducted for little more than a year, when he became sole owner, though his brother, Leopold, was soon taken in as a full partner. They thus operated for a period of seventeen years, during which time the brothers built up an extensive trade, becoming the largest dealers in their line of business in Whitley county. In 1882 the large brick building now owned by Daniel Daniel was erected at a cost of ten thousand dollars, one room being devoted to the meat business, which grew rapidly in magnitude and importance and in connection with which the firm also did a large and thriving business buying and selling live stock. At the expiration of seventeen years the meat market was sold to F. G. Binder, but the brothers continued their partnership as stock dealers, becoming the largest buyers and shippers in this part of the state. They also dealt quite extensively in wool, their combined business frequently amounting to over one hundred thousand dollars annually. Mr. Daniel and his brother were associated for twenty-six years, when the firm was dissolved by mutual consent, since which time, 1894, they have carried on the stock business separately. In addition to handling live stock, in which his yearly sales run from seventy-five thousand to one hundred thousand dollars. Daniel Daniel deals extensively in various other lines, buying and shipping most any kind of produce or merchandise for which there is demand and in connection conducts a large and well assorted shoe store, which, like his other enterprises, has proven successful. Financially his success has been commensurate with the intelligence, sound judgment and wise forethought displayed in his various undertakings, and he is to-day one of the substantial citizens of the city and county, owning in addition to a fine residence and other property, a valuable farm, which is devoted to grazing. Air. Daniel takes a living interest in local affairs and, though never an aspirant for official preference, he accords staunch allegiance to the Democratic party and by reason of his eminent fitness has been twice elected to the city council, serving six years in that body. He is also jury commissioner, a position he has held continuously for twenty years and frequently he has been chosen delegate to county, district and state conventions. He is a Mason. March 19, 1873, Mr. Daniel was united in marriage to Miss Hannah Levi, of Fort Wayne, the union resulting in the birth of the following children: Hattie, wife of S. A. Myers, of Ligonier, Indiana; Sarah, wife of L. N. Allman, of Plymouth, Indiana; Bertha, who married Benjamin Etlinger, of Chicago; Josie, wife of I. N. Baum, of Ligonier; Albert, associated with his father; Maurice, who is with his father, being in direct charge of the boot and shoe trade; Lewis, a traveling salesman representing the Myer Carriage Works, of Ligonier, of which his brother-in-law is the head. Mr. Daniel has been actively identified with the business interests of Columbia City since 1868, and, with the single exception of F. H. Foust, is the oldest business man in the place. He has led a busy life, as useful as it has been active, and as a result occupies an influential place, not only in business circles and public affairs, but in the hearts and affections of the people, with whom he has been so intimately associated.


ASHER R. CLUGSTON This representative business man and respected citizen was born in New Castle county, Delaware, December 26, 1839. His- father, Asher Clugston, a farmer by occupation, was of Scotch descent, while his mother, whose maiden name was Catherine Rittenhouse, was of German lineage. Mr. Clugston was reared and educated in his native commonwealth, remaining on the home farm until about twenty-two years of age. In 1862 he came to Whitley county and soon entered upon a mercantile career, to which his life has since been almost wholly devoted, he now being reckoned one of the county's oldest merchants. For the past six years he has not been in direct management, though retaining his interest in the establishment with which he has so long been connected. Mr. Clugston has achieved distinct success in his various enterprises, being classed with the financially substantial men of Whitley county, owning in addition to his interest in the mercantile business, valuable real estate alone and in association with his brother and brother-in-law, Henry McLallan. He owns personally a fine farm of two hundred and sixty acres, three miles northwest of Columbia City, in a rich agricultural section, where he was actively farming for some years, and which continues to yield a handsome return. That Mr. Clugston is public-spirited is amply shown by his being ever found ready to invest in and encourage any enterprise that promises lasting benefits to the community. He was one of the promoters and is vice- president of the cupboard factory, and by voice and influence has encouraged various other objects making for the city's welfare. He has always been a loyal supporter of the Democratic party, in defeat as in victory, but beyond voting his principles and maintaining the soundness of his opinions, has taken little interest in politics, having never aspired to leadership nor sought the honors and emoluments of office. He devoted his energies to the building up of a great mercantile interest, his establishment developing gradually till it far exceeds his fondest anticipations and giving him much more than a local reputation in commercial circles. He is a Mason of exalted rank, having advanced to the thirty-second degree in the Scottish Rite, has been accorded positions of honor and trust in the order and is widely and favorably known among his brethren of the craft. Mr. Clugston's domestic life dates from the year 1867, when he entered the marriage relation with Miss Mary A. Mattoon, of Northfield, Franklin county, Massachusetts, the native place of Dwight L. Moody, between whom and Mrs. Clugston a warm friendship long obtained, the two having been pupils in the same school. Mrs. Clugston taught school, a work for which she was eminently fitted and in which she attained creditable distinction. Possessing intelligence and culture, she presides with grace and dignity over the beautiful and attractive home in which her domestic tastes shine with peculiar luster, and which through her winning personality has become a popular resort for the best society. Mr. and Mrs. Clugston have had three children, namely: Lucia E. married Dr. O. V. Schuman, of Columbia City; Gertrude M. is the wife of Charles H. Snyder, who is in the employ of the American Express Company in Chicago; Arthur W. died April 12, 1904. at the premature age of twenty-seven. He was a young man of fine mind and promising business ability, who, after finishing his education had been in the store with his father, succeeding to the latter's interest in the establishment a short time prior to his death. Popular with all, and a general favorite in the social circle, his life was full of promise, his future bright with hope, but the "King of Shadows" touched his brow with a merciless finger, the response taking from the family an only son and brother and from his associates and the community a keen and brilliant intellect, a genial companion and a promising citizen.


CLINTON WILCOX Clinton Wilcox is a native of "Old Whitley" and within her borders has spent all his thirty-three years. Identified with her interests, connected through his parents with her growth and development and enjoying a wide acquaintance, there is good reason why he should enjoy general esteem. It was during the pioneer days that Gideon Wilcox came from Columbus, Ohio, to become a citizen of Indiana. He bought a small farm in Troy township, where by dint of industry and good management he not only made a living for those dependent upon him, but left a fine estate at his death in 1890. He had married Mary Aston in Ohio and she proved a most suitable colaborer and companion. Clinton Wilcox was born in Troy township, December 25, 1873. He received a good education in the schools of the neighborhood, besides becoming inured to the exacting but health-giving labor of the farm. At his father's death, when Clinton was but seventeen years old, he had the necessary experience and ability to enable him to take charge of and manage the farm. His only duties aside from this were connected with the office of justice of the peace, which he was called on to fill for a while in his township. In 1893 Mr. Wilcox was married to Miss Ruby, daughter of Thomas C. and Mary (Noble) Havens, who also came from Ohio to Troy township at an 'early day. Mrs. Wilcox was born at the paternal homestead, December 25, 1871, and it is something of a coincidence that both she and her husband first opened their baby eyes when Santa Claus was delighting older children with the gifts peculiar to Christmas Day. Mr. and Mrs. Wilcox have three children: Paul C. W., Mary Ruth and Leland Stanford. He owns a valuable farm which was their home until his election to the treasurership in 1906. He is a Republican and a member of the Modem Woodmen of America. His wife is a member of the Presbyterian church.


AUGUST ERDMANN The mechanic deserves much credit for the part he plays in the growth of States and nations, as without his constructive work, aided by the engineer, there could be no railroads, no canals, no electric lines and no cities. Any one looking over Columbia City will perhaps be surprised when told that nearly all the brick houses have been built by one firm, of which August Erdmann has for years been ruling spirit. Such, however, is the fact and no apology is necessary to justify a few biographical facts in outline of his useful career. Indiana is indebted to Germany for this contributor to her industrial life, Mr. Erdmann being born in Hanover, February 1, 1844. His parents, August and Louisa (Shoultz) Erdmann, were both natives of the same section of the "Faderland," where the father was first engaged in hotel keeping and afterwards in stone-quarrying. They were members of the Lutheran church and after fulfilling all the duties incident to rearing a large family, they passed peacefully away with the Christian's hope of happiness in the life to come. As August grew up in his native home, he secured a fair education in the excellent schools for which Germany is noted. These have industrial departments, known here as manual training, and by taking advantage of this feature young" Erdmann was enabled to qualify himself as a brick-layer. He worked at this trade in the old country until twenty-four years of age, when he determined to try his fortunes in the great Republic. Taking passage in 1868. he landed at the port of Baltimore, but soon made his way to Forty Wayne, Indiana, where he put in one year in such irregular employment as he could obtain. Being favorably impressed with what he heard of Columbia City as offering opportunities in his line, Mr. Erdmann came to this place in 1869. He soon found employment and worked steadily at his trade during the next nineteen years. In 1881 he purchased a local brick-yard and entered actively into the business of manufacturing building material and contracting. He is justly proud of the fact that most of the fine brick buildings that now grace the streets of Columbia City were erected under his supervision and out of the material made in his busy yards, in partnership with Charles Wynkoop. Mr. Erdmann's political affiliations are with the Democratic party, and he is at present serving his second term as a member of the city council. In 1870 Mr. Erdmann married Wilhelmina, daughter of William and Johanna Luecke, of Whitley county, and to this union have been born nine children: Johanna, wife of William Kuhne; Louisa, deceased wife of William Bruggeman; August, also a brickmason; George, in business at Chicago ; Minnie, wife of Ash Clugston ; Edward. Emma and Amelia. The parents are members of the German Lutheran church and are much esteemed in the social circles of the community.


WILLIAM HENRY HILDEBRAND The subject of this sketch is a native of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, where he was born August 2, 1846. His parents, Dewalt and Margaret (Huffman) Hilde- brand, came to Columbia City in 1852, and here he followed his trade of cabinetmaker and carpenter until his death in April, 1857. He was a member of the Lutheran church and an unobtrusive, industrious man, who made and kept many warm friends. He left five children, William H.; Elizabeth, wife of John Fullerton, of Columbia City; Joseph, deceased; Mary Margaret, and Jane, wife of Benjamin Flora, residents of Kansas. Mrs. Margaret Hildebrand later married Peter Hartman, by whom she had two children, Abraham L., deceased, and Hugh W., a resident of Kansas. Again left a widow, Mrs. Hildebrand chose as her third husband Levi Gilliland. by whom she had one child, Bartlet, and became a widow for the third time, surviving Mr. Gilliland and now living in Kansas with her daughter Jane. William Henry Hildebrand was six years old when brought to Whitley county. In 1865 he went to Missouri, and five years later to Kansas where he spent two years. His next step was to Colorado, where he put in another two years, and then "took the back track" as they say out west, revisiting the same states and places. Remaining in Kansas until 1876 and in Missouri from that time until 1885, he concluded that Columbia City was good enough for him and returned to Whitley county. He had worked as a carpenter for several years and until 1878, when he began to learn the wagon maker's trade and in 1892 established his present business. He manufactures buggies and wagons besides doing general repair work, horseshoeing and blacksmithing. His business has prospered as the result of much hard work, patient industry and ceaseless attention to the details incident to his occupation. In 1874 Mr. Hildebrand married Emma Cross, of Illinois, who bore him one child, named Nellie, who died in infancy, the mother also dying after a companionship of ten years. Mr. Hildebrand married Dolly A. Fullerton in 1886. They are members of Grace Lutheran church and have hosts of warm friends in Columbia City. Mr. Hildebrand is a Republican and has served in the city council for two years, where he made a record for careful attention to the city's interests. He is a firm believer in and advocate of the municipal ownership of public utilities, the soundness of such opinion being supported by actual experience in his own city.


JOHN HANSON As far back as records show, members of this family have been engaged in agriculture pursuits, and are excellent types of the class of men who rescued Indiana from the wilderness and made her one of the great farming states of the Union. Charles and Nancy (Garland) Hanson, the former a native of New Jersey and the latter a Pennsylvania, formed part of the pioneer army that invaded the state of Ohio when it was still struggling with all the difficulties of the early settlement. Having been married in the Keystone state, they settled for a while in Fayette county, Ohio, but about 1845 sought a home in northeastern Indiana, when that section was still filled with wild game and Indians. Residing temporarily in Kosciusko county, they removed later to Noble, where their remaining years were spent on a farm. He died at the age of eighty years. This pioneer couple reared twelve children, whose names are as follows: Julia, Samuel, Isaac, Elizabeth and Sarah, all now dead; Rebecca Jane, John, Joseph, Margaret, Mary, Charles (deceased) and Malissa. John Hanson, who was number seven of this list, was born in Fayette county, Ohio, January 2, 1841. He went through the usual experience of a farmer's boy. doing farm work in summer and attending school irregularly until he reached legal age. He then rented for some years till he became a land-owner himself. After buying and selling several tracts, he eventually purchased eighty acres in Thorn creek township, which he still retains. In addition to this, he owns five acres of land adjoining Columbia City, and here he makes his home, having retired from active farm labor. He leads an unobtrusive life, votes the Republican ticket, attends services at the Methodist church and has a wide circle of acquaintances. In 1861 Mr. Hanson married Nancy Moore, who died in 1891. In 1901 he chose a second wife in the person of Mary (Miller) lively, widow of George lively. by whom she had two children, Lavina, who married William Bargeman's, and died leaving one child named Canoga. Ira lively, the only son, is a professional cartoonist and caricaturist formerly connected with the Davenport (Iowa) journals. Mrs. Hanson's parents were Solomon and Malinda (Onslaughts) Miller, the former one of the first settlers of Whitley county and still living in Thorn creek township. Mr. Hanson as not affiliated with any fraternities.


JOSEPH H. RUCH This name has been a familiar one in Whitley county, and especially in Columbia City, for more than half a century. Those who bore it have been engaged in a wide variety of business pursuits, from farming to livery and from mechanic arts to participation in many lines of modern industry. As is usual in wide family connections, some have failed, some have partially succeeded, some have "merely made a living," while others have much to show as the result of lives of energetic endeavor, wisely directed toward the accomplishment of results. As these brief biographical details will show, the immediate subject of this sketch belongs in the last mentioned class and may look back on a life well spent, which has brought that competence and ease without which the evening of one's days will be a time of trial. It was in 1845 that Charles and Sarah (Firdig) Ruch, natives of Pennsylvania, settled in Fort Wayne. The former was a cabinetmaker by trade and depended upon this work for his livelihood. After spending a few years in Allen county he came to Whitley county, and located on a farm in Smith township, and later engaged in painting in Columbia City, but this in turn was abandoned to take up the livery business, which he conducted until a year or two before his death. His marriage resulted in the birth of eleven children. Sarah Jane. Mary, Margaret, Joseph, George, Jacob, Albert, Elizabeth, and three who died in infancy. Joseph H. Ruch, the fourth, was born at Fort Wayne, January 26. 1847, and received what schooling he obtained after coming to Whitley county. He learned the painter's trade with his father. and, in company with his brother George, followed that trade for eighteen years. At different times he was engaged in the drug1 trade and in the grocery and in lumbering and electric lighting. In company with his brother George, he erected an electric lighting plant, operating this and the saw-mill at the same time. After operating the electric plant for eleven years he sold it and installed the present city lighting plant under contract. They then engaged in buying and shipping horses until 1906. In partnership with his brother, George, he owns one hundred and fifteen acres of farm land in Union township, besides several rental properties in Columbia City. At present he resides in a commodious residence on East Van Buren street, whose surroundings are among the most beautiful in the city. He is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the Masonic order. In 1868 Mr. Ruch married Adriena Alebaugh, a native of Columbia City, and they have two children : Samuel, married Jennie Alwine, and operates a hoop and stave mill at Dexter, Missouri. lone is a bookkeeper. Mrs. Ruch and daughter are members of Grace Lutheran church as well as of the Eastern Star.


OLIVER H. DIFFENDARFER It was in 1873 that Harry and Hannah (James) Diffendarfer came from their native state of Pennsylvania to seek a new home in Indiana. They settled in Kosciusko county, where the former engaged in teaching, supplementing this by clerking in stores during vacations. His career in the state, however, was short-lived, as he met an untimely death in 1876. His widow survives, and is a resident of Denver, Colorado. The children, three in number, are Clarence, a resident of Glenwood Springs, Colorado; Oliver H., and Mary, the wife of Herman Wilier, at Denver. Oliver H. Diffendarfer was born at Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, October 20, 1863, and hence was twelve years old when his parents removed to the west. The death of his father not only deprived him of his only support, but threw him on his own resources at the tender age of thirteen. He faced the situation bravely, however, and did such work as he was able to secure until, at sixteen years of age, an opportunity was afforded that promised better results. I. N. Smith, who was in the produce business at Warsaw, Indiana, offered him a clerkship that was gladly accepted. That determined his business for life, as after remaining at Warsaw a few years he came to Columbia City, and opened up in the same line on his own account. It was only in a small way that he began in 1883, but, backed by resolution, industry and natural turn for trading, he is now able to show much accomplished in the twenty-three years. In the busy season he employs about twenty hands at his place on South Chauncey street, and he handles most all the poultry, butter and eggs that are produced in the country tributary to Columbia City, his annual business amounting to about one hundred thousand dollars. Mr. Diffendarfer has made hosts of friends and we find him influential in the councils of the Republican party. He served four years in the city council, besides being active in fraternal circles, as a Knight of Pythias, a Maccabee, and a Woodman. In 1885 Mr. Diffendarfer married Miss Minnie A., daughter of Isaac N. and Christiana (Grindle) Brady, old settlers of Kosciusko county. The former at one time owned one thousand two hundred acres of land near Winona lake, and was a man of note in that section of the state. Mr. and Mrs. Diffendarfer have four children, Earl Vern, Nadene, and Zoe.


JOHN W. WATERFALL In the early half of the nineteenth century there was born in the canton of Beme, Switzerland, a boy christened Samuel Waterfall, who married a neighboring girl by the name of Mary Helbling. and this couple, in 1847, crossed the ocean and took up their residence in Fairfield county, Ohio. They were poor, and the husband had to work for his daily bread, in this way supporting his family until 1854. when he came to Whitley county. For a while he rented land, but in 1869, having saved sufficient money, he bought a small farm in Thorn- creek township on which he lived until his retirement from active business in 1901. His wife died in 1893, but he survives at the age of eighty-eight years, making his home with his children. These were five in number: Mary, widow of Jacob Phiested, now living in Columbia township; Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Poulus, of Noble county; John W.; Ann, wife of William Kessler, of Columbia City, and Samuel, who died in infancy. John W. Waterfall was born in Fairfield county, Ohio. September 22, 1847, soon after his parents' arrival from Switzerland, and since coming to Whitley county he has spent within its borders all the intervening years. He obtained but a meager education, but learned all about hard work on the pioneer farms of the county's formative period. He learned the carpenter's trade, and in a few years began contracting and building, which he has followed for more than thirty- five years, meeting with a success insured by experience and attention to details, many of the finer residences of Columbia City standing as monuments to his capacity, skill and supervision. In 1873 Mr. Waterfall married Caroline, daughter of Frederick Humbarger, an early settler of Thorncreek township, who was born in 1854. Her demise occurred March 27, 1906. They had eight children, William H., Frederick S., Irene Elizabeth, Carl, Mabel, Catherine, Mary and Paul. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church and Mr. Waterfall is a Knight of the Maccabees. He has ever been a strict advocate of temperance, his decided aversion to the liquor traffic leading him to abandon the old parties twenty-four years ago, since when he has been an untiring advocate of the principles of prohibition, a cause to the furthering of which his best energies are devoted.


JOHN F. LAWRENCE. John F. Lawrence, proprietor of the Hoosier Foundry and machine shops of Columbia City, is a native of Wayne county, Ohio, and the son of John and Sarah Elizabeth (Rouch) Lawrence, he born in Harris- burg, Pennsylvania, the mother in Hagerstown, Maryland. They grew to maturity and were married in Wayne county, Ohio. Mr. Lawrence was a farmer and civil engineer, a profession he followed until his eighty-sixth year, having often served as surveyor of Wayne county. He possessed sound judgment combined with practical' ideas and wide information and during a long and useful life exercised a wholesome- influence. He lived to the ripe age of ninety-three years, being well preserved to the last. His wife died when eighty-five years old and of their eleven children, none died under the age of forty. George W., ex- county commissioner, is a successful farmer of Union township; Mary Ann married William Mowery, and died some years ago in this county; Malinda, also deceased, was the wife of S. L. Rouch; Sarah, Mrs. J. D. Wagoner, lives in Warsaw, Indiana; Margaret J. is the wife of James E. Kelly; Priscilla is Mrs. Austin McMannis; Henry H. resides in Union township; Lehannah is the wife of Elmer McMannis; Isaiah E. is- a doctor of Columbia City, and Levi is a farmer of Union township. John F. Lawrence was born April 27,. 1840, in Wayne county, Ohio. In September, 1860, he came to Indiana and for two years taught school in Whitley and Elkhart counties. August 14, 1862, he enlisted at Wooster, Ohio, in Company A, One Hundred and Twentieth Ohio Infantry, with which he shared the fortunes and vicissitudes of war for three years and five months, participating in a number of battles, among them being an attack on Red River, where his regiment lost two hundred and thirty-six men. The regiment was on a boat going up the river to join the command and the -one boat was attacked by five thousand of the enemy. The boat was disabled and floating to the opposite shore the survivors managed to escape, but one hundred and eighty-six of the four hundred and four men getting away. He was also in the attack on Mobile besides numerous skirmishes and minor engagements. He returned to Indiana and engaged in the manufacture of lumber, in which he continued until 1885, when, in partnership with Frank Mossman he established the foundry and machine shop in Columbia City of which he is now sole proprietor. The Hoosier Foundry and Machine Shop is one of the largest establishments of the kind in northeastern Indiana. On the 3d day of October 1867, Mr. Lawrence married Miss Eliza J. Penland, who was born in Elkhart county, Indiana, October 7, 1847, being the daughter .of John and Eliza (Abshire) Penland. early settlers of that county. The father, a soldier in the late civil war, lost his life in the battle of Chickamauga. Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence have had seven children: Effie May, wife of George L. Padgett; Charles C, an attorney by education, but now a traveling salesman for a Chicago publishing house; Myron, (deceased), was in the United States mail service. Pittsburg to Chicago, till his death, February 17, 1895, aged twenty-three: James A., of Portland, Oregon; Sarah E., wife of D. F. Main, of Toledo, Ohio; Blanch, now Mrs. Christian D. Meyer, living at Redland, California, was a teacher for several years in Whitley county; and Walter I. Mr. Lawrence and wife are members of Grace Lutheran church. Politically he is a Republican and fraternally belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic, being a past commander and present quartermaster. Financially Mr. Lawrence has been fortunate, owning in addition to his beautiful home and business interests in Columbia City, a two-hundred-acre farm in Union township.


EMILE DORIOT The subject of this review was born September 28, 1840, in the canton of Berne, Switzerland. His parents, Gustavus and Amelia (Leshah) Doriot, emigrated to America in 1850, and settled in Wayne county. Ohio, removing five years later to Williams county, their permanent home, however, being in Fulton county, where both died. They were the parents of sixteen children . Emile Doriot grew to maturity on a farm in Ohio and received a limited education. He was early taught the necessity of honest toil, working almost incessantly to help support the large family. He enlisted in 1862, in Company F, Nineteenth Ohio Infantry, with which he served for a period of eleven months, re-enlisting in Company G, Sixty-fourth Regiment, serving until the close of the war. His military experience included hard service in several campaigns, he participating in the battle of Stone River, McMinnville, Spring Hill and Franklin, and many others. He was severely wounded in the last engagement, being confined to the hospital from November until the following June, a gun-shot wound in the throat rendering treatment exceedingly difficult, a permanent disablement of his right arm resulting. He fell into the hands of the enemy during the battle of Franklin, but after three weeks was re-captured, the confederates leaving their hospital when retreating from Nashville. He returned to the farm in Ohio and was married at Columbia City in 1866, to Miss Elizabeth Pfiester, who was also a native of Switzerland. Their children are Alice, wife of Theodore Mosier, of Anderson, Indiana; William, who married Jessie Peltcher and lives in Peru; El- more, a resident of Michigan City; Charles G., the fur dealer in Columbia City, and Edward, deceased; a twin , brother of William. The mother died in 1873, and in July, 1878, Mr. Doriot married Alice Mettert, who was born June 4, 1858, in Preble county, Ohio, being the youngest of the three children of David and Elizabeth (Banfield) Mettert, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio, respectively. They also had five children, of whom two survive: Harry is still with his parents and Ransom living in Columbia City. Mr. Doriot came to Fort Wayne in 1866, and in 1870 purchased a farm in Thorncreek township, removing later to Columbia township, where he bought eighty acres of wild land which he converted into a fine farm. He made valuable improvements, including substantial buildings, good fences and an extensive system of tile drainage. In 1902, he retired to Columbia City, residing in an attractive home which he built on West Van Buren street. Selling his old farm, he has invested in another wild tract two miles west of Columbia City, and is actively engaged in the improvement of a third farm in Whitley county. Mr. Doriot was reared a Democrat, but after the war transferred his allegiance and has since been one of the most loyal and uncompromising supporters of Republican doctrine. He belongs to Post No. 181, Grand Army of the Republic, taking an active part in its deliberations and keeping in touch with all matters relative to the old soldiers. He is a wide-awake, public-spirited citizen, keenly alive to whatever tends to benefit the city of his residence and the county and with his family is widely known and possesses the esteem and warm regard of all who are favored by his acquaintance.


BENJAMIN RAUPFER Benjamin Raupfer was born in Baden, 'Germany, November 3, 1838. His father, Peter Raupfer, died in 1851, when the boy went over to Switzerland and worked at the teaming and selling silks until 1865, when he embarked for the New World at Havre-de-Grace, in the English ship "Belonia." After a stormy voyage of twenty- two days he arrived safely at New York. He soon after located at Columbia City and ran an engine for three years. He then opened a saloon, which he ran till 1879. He then, with Ford Walter, of Mansfield, Ohio, bought the Eagle Brewery in Columbia City. and at once put life, ability and business tact into the concern and transformed it from a languishing and low rate institution to one of the best of its kind in the country. In September, 1889. Mr. Walter sold his interest to Mr. Raupfer and his brother-in- law, Anton Meyer, who still runs it and holds it in the front rank, fully competing with the large breweries of the cities. It has a capacity of nine thousand barrels per annum. In September, 1859, Mr. Raupfer bought with R. J. Jontz, the stock of hardware of George W. North and soon thereafter moved into his new building, subsequently acquiring Mr. Jontz's interest. The new building which he erected at the corner of Line and Van Buren streets is the handsomest in town. It is three stories and a basement thirty-nine by one hundred and fifty feet. The first story and basement, as well as all three stories of the rear part, are occupied with the immense hardware store, carrying a large stock including building material. The second story is occupied by the Free City Library, and the third by the lodge of Ben Hur. Finding even these commodious quarters too small for his growing business, in 1904, he joined the Free Masons in building the Masonic block, the west part of the building belonging to Mr. Raupfer. It is eighty-nine by one hundred and forty-five feet. The first story is occupied with machinery and implements, the second is the armory of the local company of National Guards, the third is occupied by the Modern Woodmen. Mr. Raupfer also owns the brick block on Van Buren street, built by William Meitzler, and known as the Meitzler building. He also owns a fine residence on Line street, another on North Elm street, and several other pieces of property. In addition to his business capacity Mr. Raupfer has found time to assist the community in other ways. He has been a large stockholder and director of the Harper Buggy Company, almost from its beginning, and was for many years a member of the council manic board under the old town government. When the city government was installed he was again called upon and served several years as a councilman from the second ward, in which ward nearly all the business of the town is conducted. He was a chairman of the finance and other important committees during the digging of the sewers, the putting in of water works and the taking over by the city from private parties of the electric light plant and also during the paving of almost four miles of streets. He has been identified with all the improvements that brought Columbia City from a backwoods town to a modern little city, giving his valuable sen-ices for the pittance of a salary. Though himself one of the heaviest tax payers, he has always advocated improvement, though on a conservative business basis. He has been one of the directors of the Whitley County Building and Loan Association and is director of the Hunting- ton. Columbia City & Northern Electric Railway and was its first president. His faith in the enterprise, backed by his money and work, is about to bear fruit to the satisfaction of the public. Mr. Raupfer is an ardent and unwavering Democrat, faithful to his party in defeat as well as success, and was eight years treasurer of the Democratic county committee. He is a member of the Catholic church and one of its stanchest supports. He is also a member of the Marquette Club. Mr. Raupfer married Mary Meyers, November 9, 1869, and four sons are the fruit of their union, all of them able assistants of their father in his business. Joseph and John, the oldest and youngest, are looking after the brewery interests, and William and Jerome have charge of the immense hardware store, which employs a number of men in the mechanical and sales departments. Two years ago Mr. Raupfer for the first time visited his old home, remaining several months, coming back more satisfied than ever with the country of his adoption and its social and financial systems.


SAMUEL S. MILLER In 1833 Peter Miller, born in York county, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1811, walked across the mountains towards the west with a pack on his back containing all his earthly possessions, and eventually found a home in Clarke county. Ohio. There he married Sarah Snyder, with whom, in August, 1864, he removed to Thorncreek township, Whitley county, where the wife died at the age of sixty-nine. He survived until January 25, 1887, being in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He was successful and died possessed of a large farm, which he had improved and developed into a valuable estate. Both were long members of the Lutheran church. Of their children, three sons and one daughter grew to maturity and two, a son and a daughter, died in Ohio. Henry W. came to Whitley county with his parents and at present lives on the old homestead. Mary E. is the wife of William Miller and a resident of Whitley county. Samuel S. Miller was born in Clark county. Ohio, April 30, 1844, and grew to manhood on his father's farm. In 1862, when eighteen years-old, he enlisted in Company A, Ninety-fourth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with which he served until the close of the war. He was engaged in thirteen prominent battles, including Perryville, Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga, and Kenesaw Mountain, and he accompanied Sherman on the famous "March to the Sea." After receiving his discharge at Columbus, Ohio, he came to Whitley county, where his parents had removed in the meantime. December 27, 1868, he was united in marriage with Anna Z., daughter of Gideon T. and Elizabeth (Hornaday) Klinck, the latter a native of Randolph county, North Carolina, where she was born December 23, 1816, and when six year old was brought to Fayette county, Indiana. Gideon Klinck was born near Buffalo, New York, in 1812, and when the latter city was burned by the British, his mother fled and shortly afterward settled on a farm of General Harrison's in Ohio, but later came to Connersville, Indiana. When fourteen years old Gideon learned the saddler's trade and at the age of twenty-two married at Shelbyville and went to Illinois, where his wife died. Returning to Indiana he was married, August 6, 1839, to Elizabeth Hornaday, after which he went back to Illinois to enter a tract of government land, which subsequently was traded for a farm in Whitley county, where he lived until his death, November 6, 1893. His wife survived until December 30, 1901, when she passed away in the eighty-fifth year of her age. In early life a Methodist, Mr. Klinck had for fifty years been a member of the Universalist church, while she for a time belonged to the "New Lights," but was not a communicant in later life. After his marriage Mr. Miller settled on his farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Thorncreek township, on which he built a fine barn and made other extensive improvements. His health, which had been failing for some years, eventually became so poor as to compel him to retire from active business. He removed to Columbia City, supervising the farm in a general way, but in 1902, hoping a change of climate would bring benefit, he purchased a farm of two hundred and thirty-six acres in Benton county, Missouri, residing at Windsor, a near-by town. The change bringing no improvement, he longed to return and spend the few remaining months near old friends. The family accordingly returned to Columbia City. The touch of the Death Angel could not be delayed and on the i2th of December, 1906, his spirit took- its flight. He had ever felt a warm interest in his old soldier comrades and the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Porch, paid the last sad rites to their departed friend. Mrs. Miller, as also three of the four children, Murray, Ocie and Ethel, reside in Columbia City, Marl Miller is a resident of Redlands, California. Mr. Miller was reared in the Lutheran faith, and after coming to Columbia City, became a member of Grace church. Quiet and unobtrusive, his greatest pleasure was found in the midst of his family, though he retained a warm friendship for all with whom he had ever been on terms of intimacy. With a keen sense of citizenship, he was alive to the advancement of the county's interests, though never an aspirant for public honor, and in his death the community lost a loyal citizen.


FRANKLIN H. FOUST In modern times banks have constituted a vital part of organized society and governments have depended upon them for material aid in times of depression and trouble. Their influence has extended over the entire world and their prosperity has been a barometer which has infallibly indicated the financial status of all nations. Of this important branch of business, Franklin H. Foust is a worthy representative. The story of his success is instructive as well as entertaining, dealing as it does with a gradual rise from unpromising beginnings to a position of commanding influence in the financial world. Franklin H. Foust was born in Delaware county, Ohio, January 10, 1825. The paternal grandfather, Jacob Foust, was born in Germany, and when a youth accompanied his father to the United States, settling in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, where the family became tillers of the soil. Jacob Foust removed to Delaware county, Ohio, being one of the first settlers in that section. He located where the city of Delaware now stands and constructed the first bridge across the river between that point and Columbus. The family lived in their wagons until they could hew timbers and complete the erection of the primitive log cabin which served as their domicile. The land was wild and the Indians still disputed dominion with the incoming pioneers. Jacob Foust bore arms in the war of the Revolution and in recognition of his services was awarded a pension, which he continued to draw until the time of his death. His son, Henry, who was born in Pennsylvania, married Mary Olds, of the same state, in 1812, and settled ten miles north of Delaware where they began housekeeping in a log cabin, typical of the place and period. He enlisted as a soldier in 1812, while his wife contributed what she could to the cause by doing camp work at Fort Norton. After the war they were reunited and for more than sixty years lived happily on the farm which they had reclaimed from the wilderness, where both eventually found graves. Henry Foust was a successful farmer and accumulated a competency. He was a man of strong individuality and integrity of character and served many years as a local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church. He had nine children who grew to maturity, but the only survivors are Solomon and Franklin, the former a resident of Atlanta, Kansas. Franklin Foust was reared on the old homestead in Ohio and bore his part in its reclamation and cultivation. Schools were scarce and poor in those days, but he managed to acquire an elementary knowledge of the ordinary English branches and arithmetic. In his boyhood he partially learned the shoemaker's trade at which he frequently worked until twelve o'clock for the compensation of fifty cents a night. The frequent want and need of a dime taught him to realize the value of money, a lesson never forgotten during his subsequent career. He made most of the footwear worn by the members of the family, and in every way did his part toward their support. He hauled wheat from Delaware county to Sandusky City by team, a distance of seventy-five miles, and sold it at sixty cents per bushel. In. 1848, when unable to command a single dollar, he hired to Adam Wolfe to peddle fanning mills, retaining the position for two years, receiving for the first year eight dollars per month and expenses, which was increased to fifteen dollars the second year. Even at this small compensation he managed to save some money, and in the fall of 1849 formed a partnership with his employer under the firm name of F. H. Foust & Co., for the manufacture of fanning mills. This association was maintained without interruption until the death of Mr. Wolfe in 1892 at Muncie, Indiana. At the time the above mentioned partnership was consummated, Mr. Foust came to Columbia City, rented a room and began the manufacture of fanning mills, the firm continued this enterprise for three years. In 1852 the firm purchased a stock of dry goods, valued at about ten thousand dollars, and opened a store which the partners operated about nine years. Mr. Foust hired an experienced buyer to accompany him to New York to purchase the original stock, but subsequently attended personally to all purchases. The firm retired from the mercantile business to engage in other lines in which the senior partner. Franklin H. Foust, especially was destined to achieve a notable success. Mr. Foust for some time did a collecting and banking business of a modest order. During the war he received deposits, and the confidence which was placed in him is shown by the fact that his system of accounts consisted in merely making a note of how much he received and from whom, making no charge for his services. In this way he had in his old-fashioned, large, fireproof safe at one time deposits aggregating sixty thousand dollars. Realizing the necessity as the town grew, he opened a private banking house in 1867 in partnership with Mr. Wolfe. This enterprise prospered and became in time one of the most reliable financial concerns in northeastern Indiana, its conservative management gaining public confidence and making it widely known. The firm acquired ownership of about one thousand acres of land contiguous to the city, of which three hundred acres were brought under cultivation, the remainder being devoted to pasturage. In April, 1904, the bank was organized a? The Columbia City National Bank, Mr. Foust being made president. About this time the properties of Foust & Wolfe were divided, Mr. Foust retaining about seven hundred acres of land, all personal property, and the banking building for his share, the balance going to the Wolfe estate. Later he sold the bank building to the bank. He still continues to take much interest in agriculture. In 1850, Mr. Foust was married at Columbia City to Maxia Jones. They have no children. Mr. Foust is a Republican and although never a seeker of official preferment, has rendered hearty support to the party whose principles he advocates. As a pioneer banker of Whitley county, within whose limits no man is better known, and enjoying the confidence and respect of men, a particular interest attaches to the career of Mr. Foust. At the age of sixteen he was found buying and selling with as much confidence as a man of the world, exercising his mental powers to a proportionate degree in the little sphere within whose narrow limitations his life was bounded at the time. Finally, overwork told upon a constitution none too rugged, and on the advice of a kindly physician who told him his only hope for life and health laid in abandoning the farm, he contracted with Mr. Wolfe to peddle fanning mills and continued to work under this contract for one year. Before taking a position with Mr. Wolfe for the second year, he contemplated going to California, but afterward gave up this idea. He had also been offered thirty dollars per month by one Bohart, of Mansfield, Ohio, to enter his employ in the fanning mill business; but notwithstanding the temptation of this offer and looking to the future and placing implicit confidence in the honesty of Mr. Wolfe, Mr. Foust accepted his terms, fifteen dollars per month, a decision he has never had cause to regret. The two gentlemen in their long and pleasant business associations accumulated a fine property, including four fine business blocks, besides much other property in the line of suburban and farm realty. To such men all honor is due and to them it is seldom denied.


ISAAC MASON SWIGART The era of reform in Indiana has caused a watchful eye to be cast on all the county seat towns to ascertain the manner in which they enforce laws and order. Columbia City has been able to stand this inspection reasonably well and much of the credit for this is given to the gentleman above named, who for nine years has acted as night policeman. His official duties are so performed that the city is known as a peaceable, law- abiding place, where tough characters are repressed and all are expected to lead the lives of good citizens. In 1885. A. Y. and Margaret (McCuen) Swigart. natives of Ohio, settled on a farm two miles north of Columbia City and lived there until the former went to the war as a member of the Eighty-eighth Regiment Indiana Infantry, with which he served until the close of hostilities. Returning to his farm, he was engaged in its cultivation until 1901, when he retired to live with his son, Christopher M., in Columbia City. He died January 2, 1904. having survived his wife five years. This couple has a family of ten sons, seven of whom grew to maturity, and five are living in 1907. John, eldest of the survivors, is a watchman in the Harper Buggy Works ; Henry is a physician at Hastings, Nebraska ; and Frank is a railroad employee at the same place: Isaac, subject of this sketch, and Christopher M., a barber at Columbia City. Isaac Swigart was born in Richland county, Ohio, October 8, 1855, and was brought an infant to Whitley county. After he grew up he worked for some years or, the farm and at a later period became a commercial traveler for a firm in one of the large cities. He made an enviable record as a salesman, leading the entire force employed by his house in the amount of sales. In 1897 he accepted his present position as night-watchman in Columbia City, and has administered that important office so well as to seem to have been especially cut out for this line of work. For nine years he has been on duty, constantly without a break, and, while not popular with evil-doers, is pronounced by citizens generally an affable and most pleasant gentleman. Mr. Swigart is a Democrat and has been a lively participant in state and county conventions of his party. His fraternal connections are with the Odd Fellows and Modern Woodmen of America. May 25, 1882, he married Alice Welch, who died in 1888, at Mentone, Indiana, without issue. December 21, 1892, Mr. Swigart took a second wife in the person of Miss Mariah Flaharty, of Mansfield, Ohio. Her father having died when she was two years old Mrs. Swigert was reared by an uncle at Mansfield, and after she grew up became his housekeeper. She learned dressmaking and now has a high reputation in that line of work so dear to woman's heart. Mr. and Mrs. Swigart have one child, a daughter named Ercia May.


JAMES M. HARRISON Prominent among the leading business men and representative citizens of Whitley county is James M. Harrison, to a brief review of whose family history the reader's attention is respectfully invited. Samuel Harrison, his father, a native of county Down, Ireland, emigrated to America about 1814 and settled in Virginia. He had one brother by the name of Alexander and a sister Jane, who married John Boyd, also of Ireland, where his family remained and where his descendants still reside. The parents of Samuel Harrison were Adam and Martha (McWilliams) Harrison, the former born in England, from which country he went to Ireland, where he married and became a well-to-do landowner, prominent in the affairs of the community in which he lived. Samuel Harrison was married March 12, 1820, in Greenbrier county, Virginia, to his cousin, Polly McDowell, daughter of John and Esther Ann (Harrison) McDowell. Samuel and his wife were either first or second cousins of William Henry Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe, first governor of Indiana territory and afterward President of the United States. James M. Harrison was born in Beaver county, Pennsylvania, August 8, 1837, and in 1855 came to Indiana, settling in Noble county, where, during the ensuing seven years, he devoted the winter seasons to teaching and the rest of the time cultivated his farm of forty acres, meeting with gratifying success as educator and agriculturist. On March 15, 1860, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary J. Richards, daughter of Joseph Richards, a old-time resident of Churubusco and for a number of years one of its leading merchants. Six children were born to this union, three dead and three living, the latter being Joseph R.. William and George F. Joseph R. Harrison is now serving his second term as mayor of Columbia City; William A. is engaged in the mercantile business at Argos, Indiana, and George F. is a member of the firm of Clugston Brothers & Company, in Columbia City. Mrs. Mary J. Harrison died at Churubusco, in 1873, and in August of the following year Mr. Harrison entered the marriage relation with Jennette, daughter of John J. and Delilah DePoy, the union being blessed with two children, Mary lone, and Jesse W. Mary lone Harrison, after receiving a liberal scholastic training, took up the study of music, in which she acquired great proficiency, graduating from The American Institute of Music, in the state of Massachusetts, after which she became supervisor of music in the public schools of Columbia City. Miss Harrison did not live long to enjoy the marked success which she attained in her profession, dying after a sickness of a week's duration, at the age of twenty-three years, her sad premature taking off proving a severe blow to the family and being profoundly lamented by the large circle of friends with whom she has ever been a favorite. She was a young lady of many estimable qualities, cultured and refined, and had her life been spared she doubtless would have achieved marked distinction in the calling to which her time and talents had been devoted. Jesse W. Harrison is in the Boyd Harrison Company, dealers in automatic musical instruments at Chicago. Mr. Harrison's second wife, who was prostrated on account of the death of her daughter, never recovered from the blow and soon followed the latter to the land of silence, departing this life on December 12, 1904. James M. Harrison became a resident of Whitley county in 1862, from which time until 1874 he was engaged in farming and merchandising, being associated in the latter years with Joseph Richards, his father-in- law. Subsequently in 1879, he was elected clerk of the Whitley count circuit court and discharged the duties of the position with eminent fidelity for a period of eight years, retiring from the office in 1887 with an honorable record. From 1893 to 1898 he served as mayor of Columbia City, proving an able, conscientious and exceedingly popular executive, and since the latter year has devoted his time and attention to the real estate and loan business, in which his success has been gratifying, as is attested by the large and lucrative patronage he now commands. He is a Democrat and for many years held active relation to his party. He is a pleasant, well-informed gentleman, especially well liked in Columbia City by all classes of people. He has indicated great interest in advancement of his county. While mayor, the city water system was installed, by which the community was supplied with pure water. A system of sewers was also constructed, and the city now owns all the public utilities, including an up-to- date fire department and electric light plant. Many cement and brick sidewalks were made and arrangements were put under way for the excellent paving now found on the streets. Mayor Harrison at first encountered great opposition to his progressive measures, even amounting to threats of personal violence and destruction of his property, but the results of his policy eventually gained him many friends and increased his popularity.


FRANK MEITZLER What is known as the Red Cross Drug Store has a history almost coeval with the business development of Columbia City. The location is the best in the city and for more than a generation it has been occupied by a drug store and the change to anything else would mark the loss of a landmark. The first proprietor was Dr. Clingerman, probably the first druggist in the town and he was succeeded by Dr. A. L. Sandmeyer, who, after long possession, sold out to W. H. Beeson. It was in the latter's hands until purchased by the eldest Tyree and eventually we are brought up to date by the subject of our sketch succeeding W. J. Tyree, which occurred June 12, 1905. It is only under the present owner that it assumed the captivating designation of "Red Cross," under which it seems destined for a new lease both of fame and fortune. Frank Metzler was born in Columbia City, Indiana, January 31, 1873. His father, William Meitzler, was a native of Germany and came to Columbia City in 1865. When twenty-six years old he was married in Huntington county to Elizabeth Dexheimer and conducted the business of a baker and lunch room proprietor, but is now retired. When sixteen years old, or in 1889, Frank entered the drug business with E. J. Mowry, who subsequently became his brother-in-law, and when the latter sold his interest to W. H. Carter, Mr. Meitzler remained in charge of the store two years, till his own purchase. He took a course in pharmacy at Purdue University and is well qualified in every respect as a dispenser and compounder of medicines. He handles drugs, wall paper, paint, and all other articles appropriate to the trade and the "Red Cross" has all the outward indications of the prosperity that comes from a liberal patronage, insured through capable management and courteous treatment. In his political affiliations Mr. Metzler is a Democrat, and his fraternal connections are with the Odd Fellows and Modern Woodmen, he being a charter member of the latter order and for ten years clerk of the local camp. June 19, 1894, Mr. Meitzler was married to Miss Grace B., sister of E. J. Mowry. who was born at Roanoke, Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Meitzler have two children, Esther and Edwin. Mrs. Meitzler is active in social affairs, being a member of the Ladies' Aid Society and of the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal church.


JOHN D. SHERWOOD From reliable data the branch of the Sherwood family to which John D. belongs appears to have descended from one of three brothers who came to America from England prior to the war for independence. His direct ancestor entered the American army in the Revolution and was either killed in battle or, died in the hospital, as nothing definite could afterward be learned concerning him. His son, Adaiah Sherwood, settled in Virginia, where he reared sixteen children, one of whom was David, whose birth occurred in 1802, and who in 1829, settled in Delaware county, Ohio, where he died January 23, 1873. James J. Sherwood, son of David, was born in Delaware county, Ohio, February 27, 1829, and at seventeen learned the tanner's trade. Later he started a tannery of his own in his native county, but in a few years closed out the business and in the fall of 1871, moved to Thorncreek township, Whitley county, buying a farm of one hundred and twenty acres, where he died January 29, 1873. Caroline Seaman, wife of James D. Sherwood, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, came to America with her parents when thirteen and was married in Ohio. She died August 30, 1875. Their four children living are John D., Lewis Edward, Margaret, who married James Maine, of Morrow county, Ohio, and Presley R., a farmer of Union county, Ohio. John D. Sherwood was born August 24, 1853, in Delaware county, Ohio, and at the age of nineteen came with his parents to Whitley county, where he has since lived. He taught school during the four years after his arrival, and subsequently, in 1875, he purchased the interests of his brothers and sister in the homestead and for thirty years thereafter devoted his attention wholly to the operation of the farm, meeting with the success that generally comes to intelligently directed effort. The better to devote his attention to the manufacture of brick and drain tile, in which he and his son had become interested, he, in 1905, removed to Columbia City. As manufacturers of brick and tile the Sherwoods have achieved wide repute, there being but few farms within Whitley county that have not profited by the product of their kilns, the local demand exceeding their capacity. Mr. Sherwood is an enterprising, wide-awake business man of progressive ideas and as manager of the oldest and largest industry of the kind in Whitley county has done much to advance the country's material interests. On February 22, 1875, Mr. Sherwood was married to Miss Jennie Sherwood, of the same family, their grandfathers having been brothers. Mrs. Sherwood was an efficient and popular teacher and a lady whose urbanity and culture have made her highly esteemed by a large circle of friends. Mr. and Mrs. Sherwood have one son, Justus J., who was born July 22, 1876, and who is a partner in the brick and tile business. Justus J. Sherwood graduated from the Columbia City high school and taught school in Thorncreek township, when he took charge of the tile factory, having since devoted himself to that work, proving a capable, straightforward business man. Actively interested in public matters, he visited the Republican national convention in Chicago that placed Mr. Roosevelt in nomination for the presidency. Mr. Sherwood is a Republican, and in 1888, was chosen township trustee though in a normally strong Democratic township. But one trustee before him had been a Republican and none has been so chosen since. He is a Methodist and a contributor to the support of the church.


THOMAS R. MARSHALL In glancing over the biographical history of the western states, any man who has not thought upon the tendencies of our popular institutions would be astonished at the number of prominent men who have raised themselves to high places of power and usefulness by their unaided energies. This fact, while it is a source of honest pride in every American heart, also teaches a lesson of deep philosophy. It enables every right thinking man to rise in his own estimation and to put a juster estimate upon his own intrinsic worth. It proves to him that the seeds of ability and virtue have not been hoarded up for a favored few, but have been sowed broadcast among the people. Though all cannot gain the highest point, every effort to attain it is an advance towards the great end of individual and national prosperity and a benefit alike to the public, as well as to the individual that makes the effort. The subject of this review has earned a place in the honorable company of self-made men and stands four square to all the world, with a true conception of the responsibility of citizenship and a comprehensive grasp of those great questions and issues which test the standing of men in a free and enlightened commonwealth. When a mere boy he learned the great truth which so many fail to grasp, that energy is talent and time is capital, and throughout a long and satisfactory career he has acted upon this knowledge with constant and unvarying success. Thomas R. Marshall occupies a position in the front rank of the northern Indiana bar, while his eminent legal abilities and long and distinguished service in the practice of his profession have won for him an endearing fame throughout the state in which he has achieved such signal honors. Long a member of the leading law firm of Columbia City and ever active in promoting measures for the public good, he has become widely and favorably known among the people of his own and neighboring counties. Mr. Marshall is a native of Indiana and dates his birth from the I4th day of March, 1854, being a son of Daniel M. and Martha A. (Patterson) Marshall, who were both descended from ancestry which has been illustrious in the country since a period antedating the war for American independence. Indeed some of his antecedents were quite prominent in colonial affairs and later a distinguished member of his family, John Marshall, who served in the Revolutionary struggle, became chief justice of the United States and one of the world's greatest and most honored jurists. The paternal grandfather of the subject was Riley Marshall, who came to Indiana from Greenbrier county, Virginia, in an early day and settled in Grant county, where he acquired six hundred and forty acres of land, on which the city of Marion now stands. He was an honored pioneer, took an influential part in the growth and development of the above county, after the Organization of which he was elected the first clerk of the circuit court. The mother's family also includes the names of a number of men who achieved honorable distinction, among them being Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, a hero of the Revolution and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Rev. Charles Elliott, D. D., LL. D., president of the Western Theological Seminary in the city of Pittsburg, was her uncle and one of her cousins, Rev. Lynn Milligan, chaplain of the state prison of Pennsylvania, has earned world-wide repute as a reformer, spending his entire salary to advance the interest of the work in which he is engaged. Daniel M. Marshall, the subject's father, a native of Indiana, studied medicine when a young man and in 1849 located at Wabash. this state, where he practiced for a short time, and then moved to Lagrange. Missouri. He was a politician of more than local repute, a firm and unwavering Democrat of the Jeffersonian school and after changing his residence to Missouri became actively interested in public and political affairs and made his influence felt as a zealous and efficient party leader. As the result of a personal altercation, with a man by the name of Duff Green, he was forced to leave Missouri and, returning to Indiana, took up his residence in Kosciusko county, where he lived until his removal to Columbia City in 1874. He retired from the practice of his profession in that year and spent the remainder of his days in honorable retirement, departing this life in 1892. Dr. Marshall was not only a learned and successful physician, but stood high in the esteem of the public in his different places of residence. Personally he enjoyed great popularity, and by his pleasant, genial manner won and retained many warm friendships among those with whom he associated. In addition to his activity and influence as a politician, he was long deeply interested in the Masonic fraternity, with the sound and sublime principles of which his daily life harmonized. Mrs. Marshall was a native of Pennsylvania and a lady of -refinement and varied culture. She was also noted for rare beauty and for those charms of person and manner that made her a favorite in the high social circles in which she moved and which her graces adorned. Even at the time of her death, which occurred on December 9, 1894, at the age of sixty-four years, she had lost little of her prepossessing appearance, and her beauty of face and form were rivaled only by her nobility of character and sterling worth. The family of Dr. and Mrs. Marshall consisted of only two children, a daughter who died in infancy in Wabash county, and the gentleman whose name furnishes the caption of this article. Thomas R. Marshall grew up under the sturdy and invigorating discipline of an excellent home and, being blessed with superior parentage, his life early received the correct bent and impetus which in due time developed into a symmetrical, well-rounded character. In the public schools which he attended during the years of his boyhood he received his elementary education, but possessing a positive and self-reliant nature, and not being satisfied with the limited opportunities thus afforded him. he subsequently entered Wabash College at Crawfordsville, where he prosecuted his studies until completing the full course, graduating in 1873 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Three years later the degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him. Having early manifested a decided preference for the law, Mr. Marshall began his preliminary study of the same at Columbia City in the office of Hon. Walter Olds, late of the supreme bench, under whose instruction he continued until his admission to the bar in 1875, the day he was twenty-one years old. He at once entered upon the active duties of his profession and soon made his presence felt as a learned, able and discriminating lawyer, receiving in due time his full share of legal business, besides winning a conspicuous place among his fellow attorneys of the local bar. During the first two years he was alone in the practice, but in 1877, he became a member of the firm of Marshall & McNagny, which rapidly forged to the front as one of the strongest legal partnerships in northern Indiana, and which in point of continuous existence is now the oldest, as well as one of the most successful firms of the kind in Indiana, its style at this time being Marshall, McNagny & Clugston. the last named gentleman becoming a member a short time after the year indicated above. The practice of this old and reliable firm takes a very wide range and the patronage, which is large and lucrative, is confined principally to the best class of people of Whitley and adjacent counties. in addition to which the different members are not infrequently retained in important cases in other and more remote parts of the state. For a number of years no case of importance has been tried in the courts of Whitley county in which they have not appeared as counsel, and among litigants there has long been a rivalry as to who should be first to arrive at their office. Mr. Marshall has served both as city and county attorney and by reason of his high professional standing and eminent fitness, he was universally recommended by bench and bar to succeed Judge Olds on the supreme bench, but matters over which his friends had no control prevented him from being chosen to this high station. As a lawyer sufficient has been stated in the foregoing lines to indicate Mr. Marshall's strong mentality, ripe scholarship and thorough mastery of the basic principles of legal science and the ability to apply the same to successful practice. He is easily the peer of any member of the Indiana bar, has long been recognized as a master spirit among his professional brethren of Columbia City and Whitley county, and by reason of his distinguished career he has achieved marked prestige in legal circles and reflected honor and credit on the state of his nativity. Personally Mr. Marshall is a gentleman of unblemished reputation and strict integrity and his private character, as well as his public and professional record, has ever been above criticism. He is a vigorous as well as an independent thinker and has the courage of his convictions upon all subjects which he investigates. He is also strikingly original, prosecutes his researches after his own fashion and cares little for conventionalism or for the sanctity attaching to person or place by reason of tradition, artificial distinction or accident of birth. He is essentially cosmopolitan in his ideas, a man of the people in all the term implies and in the best sense of the word a representative type of that strong virile Americanism which commands and retains respect on account of inherent merit, sound sense and correct conduct. He has ever been a close student, not only of his profession, but of all the leading questions and issues before the people, while his knowledge of the world's best literature is both critical and profound. As an advocate he is strong, masterful and not infrequently eloquent and before court or jury he presents the merits of his case in clear, concise, logical arguments and with a command of pure, vigorous English. He makes a careful analysis of his cases, familiarizes himself with their every detail before going to trial and by his thorough preparation and skill in conducting causes, as well as by his logical and powerful appeals to juries, has made himself a formidable antagonist and one to be feared. He attributes much of his success at the bar to his uniform popularity with courts and juries and to a strict adherence to the rules of conduct he prescribed for himself at the beginning of his professional career, which are, never to misrepresent the facts of a case, never to speak unless he has something of importance to say, and never repeat what has once been said. He has ever kept in mind that although courts and juries are compelled to listen, persuasion is impossible when compulsion is permitted to be felt. Hence he takes pains not to weary their patience, but addressing himself at once to the strong points of his case, which he marshals in logical order, he makes his arguments clear, explicit and forcible, and when the story is told he is done. In this respect, as well as in earnestness of manner and form of thought, he follows in the walk of some of the most illustrious members of the American bar. Mr. Marshall has substantial interests in a number of the leading industries of the city and county. In Masonic circles Mr. Marshall is an honored and esteemed member and has risen to the highest standing in the order, receiving the thirty-third degree on September 20, 1898. He has served as presiding officer in all the local bodies and as grandmaster of the grand council of Indiana, and grand high priest of the grand chapter of Indiana, in all of which high and honorable positions he has discharged his duties ably and faithfully. He also belongs to the Greek-letter society, Phi Beta Kappa, which was originally organized in 1770 by the subject's granduncle, John Marshall, and associates. Mr. Marshall was married in Steuben county, Indiana, to Miss Lois Kimsey, October 2, 1895. She was a daughter of William E. and Elizabeth (Dole)' Kimsey, prominent citizens of Steuben county. The family are Presbyterians in church relations.


HEBER A. BEESOX The subject of this sketch is a native of Whitley county, his birth having occurred February 10, 1878, and he is the son of H. H. Beeson, one of the county's substantial farmers. After attending the country schools he finished his academical education in the Columbia City high school, meantime spending vacations on the farm, thus securing a "sound mind in a sound body," which is the most valuable of all possessions. At the age of seventeen he entered the hardware store of William A. Tulley as clerk, but after three years returned to the farm for two years. He then entered the business college at Fort Wayne, and after a special course in bookkeeping, secured employment with the Provident Trust Company, but at the end of a year became bookkeeper in the Columbia City Bank, and in six months was made clerk and general assistant. December 24, 1904, Mr. Beeson was married at Peru, Indiana, to Miss Lutrella Love, who was born in Kosciusko county, being the daughter of Rev. L. W. Love, at present minister of the United Brethren church, at Frankfort, Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Beeson have an only daughter, La Von Edna. Mr. Beeson is a Republican, a Maccabee and a Knight of Pythias.


FRANK E. KENNER Among the younger generation of business men in Columbia City, few are better or more favorably known than Frank E. Kenner, who is a native of Whitley county, and son of Andrew Kenner, and has spent his whole life where the name has long been familiar by reason of the family's identification with the county's interest. His birth occurred November 13. 1876, and from the time he reached school age he was busy with his studies in local schools, until in 1901, when he became a student in the business college at Fort Wayne, taking a course in bookkeeping. He soon secured a position as bookkeeper in the City National Bank, though in November, 1905, he was made general assistant. He is regarded as one of the capable and reliable members of the staff of this popular institution. April 1, 1904, Mr. Kenner was united in marriage with Miss Addie K., daughter of David Hyre, of Thorncreek township. They have one child, Helen. Mr. Kenner owns a pleasant home on North Line street. The family attend the services of the Methodist Episcopal church and in his political affiliations Mr. Kenner renders allegiance to the Republican party.


ARTHUR S. NOWELS As early as 1828 David Nowels came from Virginia to Jasper county, Indiana, with his father, who settled on land purchased from the government. The former amassed a competency as a farmer and a stock-dealer and is now, at the age of eighty- five, a retired capitalist residing at Rensselaer. His son, Charles D. Nowels, became a retail lumber dealer at Rensselaer, but subsequently removed to Parsons. Kansas. His son, Arthur S. Nowels, was born at Rensselaer, Indiana, August 2, 1871. He graduated from high school, and immediately thereafter entered his father's yards, becoming a partner within a year, and remaining such until 1898. He then went to Hammond, Indiana, spending a year and a half clerking for a retail lumber company. Subsequently he owned a yard at Geneva, Indiana, but came to Columbia City March 1, 1902, and purchased the lumber business of L. E. Humerickouse, which the latter had established some years before. Under his management the business increased largely, the sales being thirty thousand dollars the first year. January 4, 1904, the business was incorporated as the Columbia City Lumber and Coal Company with Charles D. Nowels as president, Arthur S. Nowels as secretary-treasurer and manager, with a capital stock of twenty thousand dollars. The firm handles all kinds of building material, employs five men and enjoys a fine trade, the annual sales amounting to fifty thousand dollars. Arthur S. Nowels was a member and treasurer of the school board for two years. The high school building was completed during the first year of his incumbency and his administration met with general approval. Though a Democrat, Mr. Nowels is no politician much less an office seeker. September 14. 1892, Mr. Nowels was married at Rensselaer, Indiana, to Miss Cora Wasson. also a native of Jasper county. They have two children. Russell and Helen. Mr. Nowels' fraternal connections are with the Royal Arch Masons and the Knights of the Maccabees.


JOHN EDWARD NORTH The subject of this sketch is a son of Arthur J. and Louise M. North, the former a native and lifelong resident of Columbia township. Mr. North's birth occurred at the old home place December 9, 1876, and his boyhood career differed little from that of the usual boy. Being ambitious of obtaining a good education, he succeeded in graduating at the age of fifteen. In 1896 he began teaching in Union township and having a natural adaptitude for this calling, he met with such marked success that he continued to teach for five years. To further prepare himself he became a student at the Valparaiso Normal School, and also attended the State University, besides taking the Chautauqua course for two seasons at Winona Lake. At the present time Mr. North is a bookkeeper in the Columbia City National Bank. He makes his home with his parents. He is a Republican in politics.


BENTON ELI GATES The crowning glory of this Union is that the paths to wealth and to political, social and professional distinction are open to all, and there are few whose careers better illustrate what can be accomplished by industry, energy and integrity than the gentleman whose brief history is herewith presented. Benton Eli Gates, attorney at law, is descended paternally from old English stock, but American in sentiment, as is attested by the gallant part taken in the war of 1812 by his great-grandfather, Thomas Gates, who fell in the attack on Baltimore while up holding the rights of his adopted country. He left his native land in 1805 and in due time acquired all the rights and privileges of American citizenship. He joined the army in 1812 and bore the part of a brave soldier, sealing with his blood his devotion to the American cause. Eli S. Gates, son of Thomas, was born in Baltimore, in 1810, and when young emigrated to Hancock county. Ohio, where he died in 1843. ^-is wife was Eleanor Ann Gorsage. Their son, John T. Gates, was born in Hancock county, in 1839, and is by occupation a plasterer. He married Sarah J. Eckert, born in Ohio, and of Scotch descent. Sullivan Eckert, the father of Sarah J. Gates, was born and reared in Hancock county, Ohio. Benton E. Gates was also born in Hancock county, Ohio, on the first day of December. 1863, and in 1872, came to Whitley county, Indiana, with the history of which his life has since been very closely identified. He attended school in Columbia City and also at Findlay, Ohio, later taking a course in the Methodist college in Fort Wayne. At the age of eighteen he began to teach in Kosciusko county, and followed this occupation for several years, earning recognition as an efficient and painstaking instructor. Mr. Gates was attracted to the law as best suited to his tastes, and accordingly, in 1885, entered the office of Raymond & Royse at Warsaw, and was admitted to the Kosciusko county bar in June, 1888. In April the year following he came to Columbia City and formed a partnership with John C. Wigent. In 1894 the firm was dissolved, Mr. Gates succeeding to the business. Later Mr. dates and Judge James S. Collins became associated, which partnership continued until the death of the senior member in 1898. In January, 1904. the firm of Gates & White- leather was formed. Mr. Gates served as deputy prosecuting attorney from 1890 to 1892, and from 1895 to 1898, and from 1902 to 1905. inclusive, he was county attorney. He is careful and painstaking and well versed in the fundamental principles of his profession. His achievements have been the result of untiring industry, strict integrity and economy both of time and means, and he is therefore what may truthfully be termed the architect of his own fortune. A Republican, he has rendered valuable service in a number of campaigns. In 1902 he became a candidate for the judgeship. Whitley county remained loyal to him throughout the contest during twenty-eight ballots, and he also succeeded in securing a number of delegates from Noble county, but failed of the nomination by the vote of but a single delegate. Mr. Gates is now serving his third term as chairman of the Republican central committee of the county, and as such has devoted much time and means in furthering the party's interest. He is a skillful organizer, and leader, his ability along this line being cheerfully conceded by all of his political associates. In 1893 Mr. Gates assisted in organizing the Whitley County Building-Loan Association and was made its secretary, which position he has since held. In 1904 he helped organize the Columbia City National Bank, of which he has remained a stockholder and director. On April 18, 1888, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Gates and Miss Alice C. Fesler. daughter of George and Sarah Fesler, of Kosciusko county, the father a popular local minister of the Methodist church and a pioneer of Troy township, Whitley county, where he settled in 1843 and lived until 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Gates are the parents of four children, John Elmer, Ralph Fesler, George Scott and Benton Earl.


JOSEPH R. HARRISON Joseph R. Harrison, mayor of Columbia City and one of the leading public men of northeastern Indiana, is a native of Noble county, this state, and the oldest son of James M. and Mary J. (Richards) Harrison, whose family history appears elsewhere in this volume. Mr. Harrison was born on a farm in Green township, of the above county. May 28, 1862. and in his veins Hows the blood of a long line of Scotch, Irish and English ancestors, combining in his physical, mental and moral fiber many of the sterling qualities and characteristics by which these sturdy nationalities have long been distinguished. The subject's early educational advantages were such as the public schools afforded. The training thus received was afterward supplemented by a high-school course in the town of Churubusco. where he made such a rapid progress that at the age of fifteen he was sufficiently advanced to pass successfully the required examination and obtain a teacher's license. After spending a couple of years in educational work he became deputy clerk of the Whitley county court, entering upon the duties of the position in 1879 and discharging the same with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the public for a period of eight years, during which time he acquitted himself with commendable fidelity and won an abiding place in the confidence and esteem of his fellow citizens. Retiring from the office at the expiration of his terra of service in 1888, he was made deputy clerk of the fourth district of New Mexico under President Cleveland's first administration, with his office at Los Vegas, in which capacity he displayed ability of a high order until the end of the time for which appointed, when he returned to Columbia City, where since 1891 he has been interested in mercantile pursuits, besides taking an active and meritorious part in promoting all laudable enterprises for the public good. In 1902 Mr. Harrison was elected mayor of Columbia City and has held the position by successive re-elections ever since, his present term expiring January i, 1910. The honorable distinction acquired in the various lines of endeavor to which he had previously directed attention, has been heightened by the creditable record earned as the city's chief executive, an office requiring the exercise of strong mentality, sound and discreet judgment, in view of the fact that the prosperity of the municipality and the general good of the people depend very largely upon judicious counsel and firm leadership. Faithful to the trust confided to him and loyal to the best interests of the people, he makes every other consideration subordinate to duty and directs his conduct so as to retain the warm place he occupies in the esteem and confidence of his fellowmen. A Democrat of the Jeffersonian school and loyal to the principles of the same, he resorts to none of the wiles and practices of the professional partisan, conducting his canvasses in an open, honorable manner that not only carries the strength of his own party, but wins a considerable following from the opposition. He served two terms as member of the local school board, elected both times by a Republican council, and while holding this important position he was untiring in his efforts to promote the city's educational interests and to him, as much perhaps as any other man, is due the high standard of excellence which the schools of Columbia City have attained. In 1906 Mr. Harrison was one of the most prominent candidates of his party for congress before the convention, but withdrew his name for personal reasons, when his nomination was almost assured. He has long been a power in political circles, his counsel being eagerly sought and his co-operation earnestly solicited in every campaign in which important principles are involved, his advice and influence having much weight in selecting candidates and formulating policies. At the breaking out of the Spanish-American war Mr. Harrison was one of the first men in Whitley county to tender his services to the government. In May, 1895, he organized Company G, Fourth Indiana Infantry, and May 15, 1898, was mustered into service as captain of Company G, One Hundred Sixtieth Indiana Volunteers, which command he accompanied to Cuba, where he shared with his comrades the fortunes and vicissitudes incident to active warfare under conditions by no means the most favorable. Returning home at the cessation of hostilities, he resumed the quiet pursuits of civil life, yet retained his interest in military affairs, reorganizing in 1899, Company G, in the Indiana National Guard, and holding at the present time the position of major in the Third Infantry. He is well versed in military science, keeps in close touch with the history and movements of the armies of the world and holds membership with the United States Military Association and the Military Order of Foreign Wars. Mr. Harrison is a Scottish Rite Mason, in addition to which he has been active in the various other branches of the fraternity to which he belongs. He is also a member of the Pythian order, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Knights of the Maccabees, in all of which he has attained standing, besides being honored with important official positions. The domestic chapter in the life of Mr. Harrison dates from February 10, 1881, at which time he was united in marriage with Miss Jennie E. Stough, of Whitley county, whose birth occurred in Columbia City on October 28, 1860. Mrs. Harrison, who was the daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Stough and Eleanor M. Stough, bore her husband four children: George R., a student at the West Point Military Academy, will graduate in 1907; Hazel E., attending college at Roanoke, Virginia; Ray P. and Ruth M., the last two pursuing their studies in the public schools of Columbia City. Mrs. Harrison died June 7, 1905, and was buried at Columbia City in the Masonic cemetery. Mr. Harrison has been presiding officer of all the branches of Masonry except the Scottish Rite.


REV. ANTHONY M. ELLERING Pastor of St. Paul's church, Columbia City, was born in the province of Westphalia, Prussia, March 18, 1854, the first of a family of seven children born to Gerhard and Mary Ann (Esseling) Ellering. Gerhard Ellering attended the parochial school of his native village of Epe until he attained the age of fifteen and was then employed in farming. He was married in Epe, in 1852, by Father Bernard Lammers, and this union was blessed with seven children, who were named in order of birth as follows: Anthony M., Henry, Bernard, Catharina, George, Joseph and Clement, all living in Minnesota, with the exception of the Rev. Anthony M. and the sister who remains in the Fatherland. August 22, 1868, the family landed in New York city, whence they went directly to Meire's Grove, Steams county, Minnesota, where the father purchased a farm, which he cultivated until his death in 1884, his wife having died the previous year. Anthony M. was primarily educated in a parochial school of his native village of Epe, Westphalia; then, after his first holy communion, he attended for two years a private Latin school, leaving at the age of fourteen to accompany the family to America. From 1874 until 1878 he attended the university at Collegeville, Minn., from which he was graduated after finishing his classical studies. From 1878 until 1880 he attended Calvary College, Fond du Lac county, Wisconsin, from which he graduated in philosophy, and from 1880 until 1884 attended St. Francis Seminary at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he finished his theological course. He was then invested with minor orders, sub-deacon and deacon, in the seminary chapel by the late Most Rev. Archbishop Heiss, and was ordained priest at the Fort Wayne (Ind.) cathedral by the late Right Rev. Bishop Dwenger, June n, 1884. He then returned to the home of his parents in Minnesota, and said his first mass on St. John's day, June 24, 1884. He was appointed assistant pastor at Michigan City, Indiana, the same year and later in charge of the missions at Warsaw, Pierceton and Bourbon, with his residence at Fort Wayne, and May 1, 1886, was appointed to the pastorate of St. Paul's, Columbia City, still having charge of the Warsaw mission. Since he has had charge of St. Paul's parish he has erected a new school-house, made other improvements and paid debts all amounting to about $15,000. Father Ellering takes deep interest in all movements for the general advancement of the community and in his association with the citizens has made many warm friends who may not always agree with him on theological questions but who recognize in him a genial, courteous gentleman whose every act makes for more exalted citizenship, purer morals and cleaner living. Source: History of Whitley County, Indiana By Samuel P. Kaler, Richard H., b. 1859 Maring, R H Maring Published by B. F. Bowen & Co., 1907


PROF. PHILEMON A. ALLEN Prof. Philemon A. Allen, superintendent of the public schools of Bluffton, Indiana, has been associated with educational work in the Hoosier State during much of his active career. For twelve years, however, he was interested in journalism and during that time was editor of the Bluffton Banner. Holding advanced ideas concerning education and methods of teaching, during the ten years of his incumbency as superintendent of the Bluffton schools, he has introduced many methods that are proving of the most practical value in making the school what it ever should be—a preparation for the responsible duties which devolve upon every individual after reaching maturity. His course has received the hearty approval of the most progressive citizens of Bluffton and he has procured the co-operation of his teachers to such an extent that the result is one of great benefit to the pupils enrolled. A native of Whitley County, Indiana, Philemon A. Allen was born January 29, 1853, and he is a son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Force) Allen, both natives of Akron, Ohio, where they were reared, educated and married. Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Allen came to Indiana in 1843 and located in Whitley County, then all woods, and there operated a saw mill with marked success for a number of years. There were nine children born to them, three of whom died in infancy and three of whom are living, in 1917. William and Wesley Allen, two of their sons, were both Union soldiers in the Civil war. The Allens were devout members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and they were influential citizens in their own community. Born and reared on a farm, Professor Allen attended the neighboring district school during the winter months and in the summer time ably assisted his father and brothers in the work and management of the old homestead. So diligent had he been in procuring an education that at the age of seventeen years he began to teach school himself. In 1873 he entered the National Normal School, at Lebanon, Ohio, and after several years' attendance in that institution he taught school for two years in Mason County, Illinois. During the year of 1875 he was a student in Fort Wayne College, where he subsequently became an instructor in the normal department, holding that position for two years. In 1877 he was elected superintendent of the Ossian schools and he served in that capacity with the utmost efficiency for a period of four years, during which time he raised the standard of and graded the schools. In 1881, in order to make himself more efficient as an educator, he traveled extensively in Europe and while there made a thorough study of the school systems of the various countries he visited. Immediately after his return home he was elected superintendent of the Bluffton schools, holding that position for ten years. One of the first things he did on assuming office was to organize a high school, the first class of which graduated in June, 1883. In every possible manner Professor Allen raised the standard of the schools under his guidance and did much to stimulate the pupils to greater efficiency in their school work. In May, 1891, he resigned his office as head of the Bluffton schools and was installed as editor of the Bluffton Banner. For the succeeding twelve years the dissemination of news, the discussion of public questions and the promotion of the general welfare through the columns of his paper constituted life's object with him as a private citizen. Returning to the educational field in 1905, Professor Allen established a business college in Bluffton and conducted the same with marked success for a period of two years. In 1907 he was again prevailed upon to serve as local superintendent of schools and by successive re-elections he has continued to serve in that capacity up to the present time, in 1918. Professor Allen is a democrat in politics and in a fraternal way is a Royal Arch Mason. His religious faith coincides with the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he served as superintendent of Sunday school for twenty-four years. December 25, 1884, was celebrated the marriage of Professor Allen to Miss Georgiana Swaim. She was born at Troy, Ohio, and was educated in the public schools of Ossian. Mrs. Allen, prior to her marriage, was a teacher in Wells County and she is now an enthusiastic church and Sunday-school worker. Two children were born to Professor and Mrs. Allen: Forrest and Lucile. Forrest was graduated in the Bluffton High School as a member of the class of 1903 and he is now one of the assistant superintendents of the National Malleable Castings Company, in Chicago. In October, 1911, he married Grace Murray, of Chicago, and they have three children, namely: Murray Bernard, Charles Forrest and Patricia. Lucile, born October 2, 1888, died February 6, 1891.


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