Iowa Biographies

William C. T. Adams

Adams, William C T., president of Highland College, Kans., was born July 6, 1869, in Vernon County, Wis. He graduated from the Wisconsin State Normal school, the upper Iowa University, the Taylor University and the University of Michigan; and has received the degrees of M.A. and M.S. He was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church; has been principal of schools in Wisconsin and North Dakota; and filled professorships in upper Iowa University and in Bellevue college of Nebraska. Since 1909 he has been president of Highland college of Kansas.

[Herringshaw's American blue, book of Biography: Prominent Americans of 1912, An Accurate Biographical Record of Prominent Citizens of All Walks of Life, transcribed by Therman K=FOFG]

William Vincent Allen

ALLEN, William Vincent, a Senator from Nebraska; born in Midway, Madison County, Ohio, January 28, 1847; moved with his parents to Iowa in 1857; attended the common schools and Upper Iowa University at Fayette; served as a private during the Civil War; studied law at West Union, Iowa; admitted to the bar in 1869 and practiced in Iowa until 1884, when he moved to Madison, Nebr.; judge of the district court of the ninth judicial district of Nebraska 1891, 1893; permanent chairman of the Populist State conventions in 1892, 1894, and 1896; elected as a Populist to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1899; unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1899; appointed and subsequently elected judge of the district court of the ninth judicial district of Nebraska and served from March 9, 1899, until December 1899, when he resigned to return to the Senate; appointed to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Monroe L. Hayward, and served from December 13, 1899, to March 28, 1901, when a successor was elected; was not a candidate for election to the vacancy; chairman, Committee on Forest Reservations and Game Protection (Fifty, fourth and Fifty, fifth Congresses); resumed the practice of law in Madison, Nebr.; again elected judge of the district court of the ninth judicial district of Nebraska in 1917 and served until his death; died in Los Angeles, Calif., January 12, 1924; interment in Crown Hill Cemetery, Madison, Nebr.

[Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774, Present; transcribed by A. N.]

Estelle Mendell Amory

Mrs. Estelle Mendell Amory, educator, and author, born in Ellisburgh, Jefferson county, N. Y., 3d June, 1845, passed her childhood on a farm. In 1852 her family moved to Adams, where her father, S. J. Mendell, engaged in business.

The Mendell home was a home of refinement and culture, where were entertained many prominent persons, intercourse with whom did much to inspire the young girl with a desire to make a mark in literature. Her father served in the army throughout the war, rising to the rank of colonel by brevet. Estelle had developed meanwhile into a studious young woman, and had taught her first school. She studied in the Hungerford Collegiate Institute in her home town, and in Falley Seminary, Fulton, N. Y.

In 1866 the family moved to Franklin county, Iowa. In 1867 she returned to the East and re, entered Falley Seminary, from which institution she was graduated with honors in 1868. Then followed seven years of earnest work as a teacher.

In 1875 she became the wife of J. H. Amory, of Binghamton, N. Y., and went to Elgin, Ill., to live. During all those years Mrs. Amory had written much but published little. Ready acceptance of offered work now encouraged her, and soon she became a regular contributor to standard periodicals. Her well, known "Aunt Martha Letters, "in the Elmira "Telegram, "and the more famous "Aunt Chatty "series in the Minneapolis "Housekeeper, "made her name a household word. Among the score of journals that have given her articles to the public are the "Ladies' Home Journal," "Mail and Express, "Cincinnati "Enquirer," "Union Signal," " Babyhood, "and "Golden Days"

Mrs. Amory's family consists of a son and a daughter, and her home is now in Belmond, Iowa.

(American Women, Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow.)

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Adrian Constantine "Cap "Anson

(April 11, 1852, April 14, 1922)

Professional baseball's greatest personality and superstar in its early years, remains, along with Cleveland pitching ace Bob Feller, Iowa's greatest contribution to the game. Nicknamed "Cap "for being player, captain of the Chicago White Stockings, this baseball innovator and 1939 Hall of Fame inductee was born to Henry and Jeanette (Rice) Anson of Marshalltown, Iowa. Henry Anson, Cap's father, was the first to lay out the early settlement of Marshalltown in the 1850s. Landmarks such as Anson Elementary School bear his name.

Anson's fame derives from baseball, a sport inextricably linked with him. The sport was in its infancy when it spread to the Midwest following the Civil War, but it flourished in the ensuing years. Anson learned the game playing on local teams with his father, Henry, and brother Sturgis, and perfected his skills attending boarding school at Notre Dame. In 1866, the same year he began attending Notre Dame, a baseball club was formed in Marshalltown. An exhibition game in 1870 against a team from Rockford, Illinois, changed his life.

Organized in 1865, the Forest Citys from Rockford had gained fame by defeating the Washington Nationals in a tournament held in Chicago in 1867, and by defeating the national champion Cincinnati Reds in 1870. In 1871 Rockford was one of nine teams in the first professional league, the National Association of Professional Baseball Players, or National Association. Recalling the team's 1870 clash with Marshalltown, the Rockford club offered Anson a salary of $66.66 per month during the season. The 18, year, old Anson took it after securing permission from his father, who also was offered a chance to play but refused. Although Rockford was destined for the cellar and extinction that season, Anson's career in baseball had begun. The following year he moved on to Philadelphia, where he stayed until 1876, and then to Chicago, the site of his greatest triumphs.

Anson spent 22 seasons with the Chicago White Stockings, the team now known as the Cubs. By the end of his career, Anson had set records that other stars aimed for in later years. The first player to amass 3,000 hits, he frequently hit better than .300 in his record 27 seasons as a major leaguer. A player and manager of the club, Anson not only led the team to five pennants but also won more games than any other manager in his era. Anson is said to have invented spring training and a pitching rotation, among other innovations. Author David L. Fleitz put the matter succinctly: "Anson was baseball's greatest player and its most successful manager, simultaneously"

In myriad ways, Anson helped baseball become America's national pastime while he became a celebrity in Chicago. But he also helped exclude African Americans from organized baseball. A handful of infamous episodes in the 1880s made Anson the public face for segregation in baseball. His run, ins with and complaints about black players such as Moses Fleetwood Walker and George Stovey are legendary. Major league baseball had no black players after 1891 until Jackie Robinson reintegrated the sport in 1947. Anson was a strong influence, but his opinions also matched the mood of the country.

Anson explains none of this in his autobiography, A Ball Player's Career. But the volume reeks with racist and stereotypical prose. In speaking at length about his relationship with the White Stockings team mascot, a young African American named Clarence Duval, Anson refers to him variously as a "little darkey, "a "little coon, "and a "no, account nigger"

Forever linked with baseball, Anson hoped his epitaph would read: "Here lies a man who batted 300. "His plaque at Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, reads, in part: "[the] greatest hitter and greatest National League player, manager of [the] 19th century."

Sources For a complete account of Anson's life and career, see David L. Fleitz, Cap Anson: The Grand Old Man of Baseball (2005). Anson's autobiography is A Ball Player's Career (1900). See also Roger H. Van Bolt, "Cap Anson's First Contract, "Annals of Iowa 31 (1953), 617, 22. For an article on how Marshalltown remembers Anson's racist legacy, see Andrew Logue, "Hero's Shadow Gets a Bit Shorter, "Des Moines Register, 1/2/2000.

Contributor: David Mcmahon
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 19 January 2015

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Miss Etha Josephine Babcock

There are people whom once having met, you always remember. I can't fancy anyone's ever forgetting Josephine Babcock. Her face is always radiant and she is so clever that her personality makes an impression not easily effaced. By profession she is a Journalist and has contributed to many newspapers and periodicals. She has a smooth, interesting style and one always reads her articles to the last word. She is the daughter of the late Nathan Lee Babcock, the son of Stanton and Thirza Babcock of New York. He was a soldier in the Civil War of Co. C, 19th Iowa Infantry. Her mother, Ophelia Smith Babcock, is directly descended from Samuel Rogers of Revolutionary fame. Miss Babcock was educated in the public schools, Washington Academy and the Iowa Wesleyan College where she was an Alpha Xi Delta. She is a trained librarian, had charge of the library in Washington and worked one summer with a story teller in Hamilton Park, Chicago, this being a branch of library work. She is especially interested in public play grounds and all that benefits children. She is a member of the D. A. R. and of P. E. 0. and has served the Iowa Federation of Woman 's Clubs as recording secretary. She is chairman of the Press Committee of the first district. Miss Babcock enjoys travel and she loves people, of all kinds and conditions and makes friends with them all.

[The Blue book of Iowa Women, by Winona Evans Reeves, Publ. 1914, Transcribed by Renee Capitanio]

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William Worth Belknap

William Worth Belknap, soldier, lawyer, legislator, cabinet officer, was born Sept. 22, 1829, in Newburgh, N.Y. He was elected to the Iowa state legislature in 1849. He was present at the battles of Shiloh and Vicksburg; was with General Sherman in his great campaign; and was so rapidly promoted as to have command of a division of the army as major, general. After the war he was appointed a collector of internal revenue, which position he held until he entered President Grant's cabinet. In 1869, 76 he was secretary of war. He died Oct 13, 1890, in Washington, D.C.

[Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography: Contains Thirty, five Thousand Biographies of the Acknowledged Leaders of Life and Thought of the United States, by William Herringshaw, 1909 ??? Transcribed by Therman Kellar]

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Mrs. Eugenie S. Birkholz

Author, born in Garnavillo, Clayton county, Iowa, in 1853. She is the daughter of Dr. F. Andros, who was the first physician and surgeon, regularly licensed to practice, who settled west of the Mississippi river and north of Missouri. He settled in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1830. Mrs. Birkholz was educated in the school of the Catholic sisters in Benton, Wis., and was in her early life a woman of original thought and sent many literary contributions to the periodicals and papers of the day. In 1881 she was married to John Birkholz, of Chicago, Ill, in which city they both resided, and whence they emigrated to Grand Forks, N. Dak., where she has since made her home. Mrs. Birkholz devotes considerable time to literary work.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Ann Weaver Bradley

Educator and temperance worker, born in Hartland, Niagara county, N. Y., 19th May, 1834. Her parents, William and Mary Earl Weaver, removed from New York to Michigan during her infancy, and she was reared in that State.

Her early philanthropic tendencies, fostered by home training, prepared her to espouse the anti, slavery cause and to engage heartily in all reformatory efforts. Loving study for its own sake and feeling that in brain culture one could exert an influence for good on humanity, her earliest ambition was to become a teacher. Attaining that position before her fourteenth birthday, she continued thus to labor with never, failing zest for over thirty years. With a power to impress her own personality upon others and to evoke their latent capabilities, her work in the class, room was especially happy, particularly in the department of literature. While attending Hillsdale College, she publicly gave herself to Christ.

In 1858 she was married to George S. Bradley, a theologue from Oberlin, then tutor in Hillsdale. Thereafter her influence for good was felt in all his labors, whether as pastor's wife or lady principal in the seminaries under his charge in Maine, Wisconsin and Iowa. While in Wisconsin, her husband, as chaplain of the Twenty, second Wisconsin Regiment, went with Sherman to the sea. While he was in that service, the last one of their three children died Mrs. Bradley returned to Hillsdale and engaged in teaching. At the close of the war her husband resumed his old pastorate near Racine, Wis., and there for two years they worked. Then followed two years of seminary work in Rochester, and six in Evansville, Wis. There was born to them their last and only living child, Charles Clement. Wilton, Iowa, was for the next five years the scene of their labors. Then Mrs. Bradley began her public work for temperance. The Iowa agitation for prohibition roused her to action. Stepping into the ranks of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, she organized and carried on a union, a temperance school, and lectured in her own town and vicinity. Later, in central and eastern Kansas, where her husband's labors led, her temperance efforts cost her a three, years' invalidism, from which she has never fully rallied. Her husband is at present pastor of the Congregational Church in Hudson, Mich., and she is State superintendent of narcotics for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Her inherited hatred of those destroying agents, her gift of persistence, her thoroughness of research and her love of humanity especially fit her for this work.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Mary Blatchley Briggs

Born in Valparaiso, Ind., 1st January, 1846. She is of Scotch, English and Dutch descent. The father was a practicing physician and surgeon of prominence in the allopathic school.

Mrs. Briggs' early school, days were spent in the public schools of Iowa. Later her education was continued in the young ladies' seminary in Council Bluffs, Iowa, receiving prizes for excellent scholarship. In the month of August, 1861, her family removed to Quincy, Ill., where she resumed her studies and there enjoyed the advantages of the best schools until she was nineteen years old.

In religious belief Mrs. Briggs is strictly a Presbyterian, was born "in the faith, "and has always lived the practical life of a consistent Christian. Rev. F. S. Blayney, LL.D., the first pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Omaha, writes of Mrs. Briggs's practical and valuable aid during the long and severe trials from 188o to 1886 in the struggle to found and build his church, she being one of the foremost workers for the society's welfare. She has always taken a vivid interest in public characters and the local and foreign politics discussed in the newspapers.

She was married to John S. Briggs, 24th December, 1867, since which time they have resided in Omaha, Neb. Mr. Briggs was born in Ohio, but was reared in Iowa, removing to Nebraska in 1856. He is the son of the late Ansel Briggs, first governor of the State of Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Briggs three promising children have been born.

Mrs. Briggs has filled many important public positions. During eleven years she served as assistant secretary, superintendent, reporter for the press, and manager of county. State and inter, state fairs. While on a visit to Idaho, she and her husband prepared a collection of minerals, stalactitic and calcareous deposits, which, at the suggestion of the officials of the Union Pacific Railroad, was sent to the Mechanics' Institute in Boston, Mass. Mrs. Briggs is interested in art and is secretary of the Western Art Association, which has three, hundred members. In literature she has won an assured position by her poems, one volume of which has been compiled and published. Mrs. Briggs was selected by Mrs. Potter Palmer as one of the six representative women of the West to serve on the executive committee of the Board of Lady Managers of the World's Columbian Commission for the Exposition in 1893. She was appointed a member of the bylaws judiciary committee and was elected an honorary and corresponding member of the woman's branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary, and served on several committees. She possesses an intimate knowledge of Nebraska, its history, its resources, its development and its people.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Volume 1, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Miss Ida Joe Brooks

Miss Ida Joe Brooks, educator, physician and surgeon, born in Muscatine, Iowa, 28th April, 1853. She is the daughter of Rev. Joseph Brooks. When she was very young, her parents moved to St. Louis, Mo., and she there entered the public schools, beginning in the primary department of the Clay school, when Dr. William T. Harris began his career as a teacher. Her father removed to the South after the war, and Miss Brooks went to Little Rock, Ark., in 1870. Two years afterwards, in conversation with a friend, she warmly argued that women should earn their own money, and he made a wager that she would not do it herself. As a joke, he found her a school in Fouche Bottom, where the gnats were so thick that a smudge had to be kept continually burning. She accepted the position and taught there faithfully and well. In 1873 Miss Brooks, with a liking for the work, began to teach in the public schools of Little Rock. The following year she was made principal of the grammar school, and in 1876 she was made principal of the Little Rock high school. In 1877 she was elected president of the State Teachers' Association. In the same year her father died, and the family came to shortened means, but were sustained by the independence and noble work of the daughter. In 1881 the Little Rock University was opened. Having become a Master of Arts, she was placed in charge of the mathematical department, where she taught until, in 1888, she entered the Boston University School of Medicine, a course which had for years been her desire. She was graduated there with high honors, and afterwards took a post, graduate course on nervous diseases in the Westborough Insane Hospital. She spent one year as house officer in the Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, being assigned half the time on the surgical and half the time on the medical work. That was an unusual appointment. Returning to Little Rock in September, 1891, she began the practice of her profession and from the start won recognition and patronage. Dr. Brooks is an earnest woman suffragist and a thorough temperance advocate.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol I, Publ. 1897, Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Mary Ryerson Butin

Mrs. Mary Ryerson Butin, physician, born near Wilton, Iowa, 17th August, 1857. She lived on a farm until her eighteenth year, and then took up her residence in the village of Wilton Junction. There, with alternate schooling and teaching, she succeeded in nearly completing the course in the academy in that place, when its financial embarrassments necessitated the closing of its doors. Entering the high school, in one year she was graduated therefrom with the highest honors. At the age of twenty, one she felt the responsibility of choosing her life work. From her earliest remembrance she had heard her mother say that she was to be a doctor. The mother was farseeing and discerned that opening for woman and her fitness for her work. Though timid and sensitive as to the opinions of others, after deliberation she decided that her duty lay in that direction. She turned with keen perception of its responsibilities from the pleasures of a young girl's life and began the study of medicine, with the help and encouragement of the family physician and his partners. She entered the medical college in Iowa, City, a co, educational institution, which at that time had enrolled a membership of ninety men and ten women. From that college she came forth a firm opponent of co, education in medical colleges. The following year she attended the Woman's Medical College in Chicago, Ill., from which she was graduated in the spring of 1881, afterwards entering the South Side Hospital as resident physician. Her duties were so arduous, the lack of nurses making it necessary for her to supply that position sometimes, that, after four months' service, she resigned and returned home for rest. While on a visit to her brother in Dorchester, Neb., her practice became so extensive as to cause her to settle there, where she gradually overcame all opposition among physicians and people to women practitioners. There she met and became the wife, in May, 1883, of Dr. J. L. Butin, a rising young physician. Before she had been in the State a year, she became a member of the Nebraska State Medical Society. She was the first woman to enter that society and was received in Hastings, in 1882. Placed upon the programme for a paper the next year, she has ever since been a contributor to some section of that society. She was elected first vice, president in 1889. She has been a contributor to the Omaha "Clinic "and other medical journals, and was State superintendent of hygiene and heredity for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, county and local. Untiring in devotion to her profession, she has been ready to lend her aid to all progressive movements, and she has battled and conquered much of the prejudice against woman in the field of medical science.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897, Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Clara H. Sully Carhart

Mrs. Clara H. Sully Carhart, educator and reformer, born in Ottawa, Canada, 30th April, 1845. She is of English parentage. Her maternal grandfather, J. G. Playter, who was a government official from the first settlement of that city, was descended from an old family of English nobility of that name. In early life Mrs. Carhart showed an unusual aptitude for books. Her school duties were ever a source of enjoyment, and she decided to become a teacher. At ten years of age she was sent to a boarding, school in Ottawa, Canada, where she excelled in music. After two years she returned home, and studied in the Buffalo high school, until the removal of her parents to Darien Center, N. Y., where she attended the seminary. After graduating, she began to teach. In 1861, after the death of her father, the family removed to Davenport, Iowa. She immediately entered the city school there and for six years held high rank as a teacher. At the solicitation of the school, board she inaugurated a system of musical instruction, including every grade of all the city schools. On 5th October, 1871, she became the wife of Rev. Lewis H. Carhart, a young Methodist Episcopal minister, and with him went to live in Charles City, Iowa. Their family consists of two children. There she entered heartily into his work and seconded all his efforts to build up the church. Soon after the Civil War she went to Texas with her husband, who had been a captain in the Union army, and had volunteered in the work of reorganizing the Methodist Episcopal Church in the South. They had to work in the face of bitter opposition, but, largely owing to Mrs. Carhart's activity and popularity, large congregations were formed and churches were built in Dallas, Sherman and neighboring cities. In 1883 her husband retired from the active ministry, and they went to make their home in Brooklyn, N. Y., to be near Mrs. Carhart's family. She became much interested in the work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, being secretary of one of the largest local unions, and afterward president of the young women's work in Suffolk county. While on a visit in Donley county, Texas, she organized a local union, which union so aroused public sentiment that within eight months afterward the saloons in that county were closed by popular vote. She became interested in the social condition of the working, girls of Brooklyn. Prominent women were called together from the churches of the city, and in 1885 they planted the Bedford Club in the heart of a district where shop, girls and factory operatives live. The aim was the bettering of the social condition of those girls, offering them innocent amusements and instruction in practical branches. The work has since grown incredibly. Of that society she was the first president. She was thus the pioneer in establishing girls' clubs, which become such an important factor in the lives of the working, girls of New York and Brooklyn. For six years Mrs. Carhart held the position of corresponding secretary of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the New York East Conference, and she has been a great factor in its success. For six years she was sent as a representative to the national conventions, and in 1889 represented that society on the platform of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Chicago. She is a member of the advisory council of the woman's branch of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies, Vol 1, Publ. 1897, Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Carrie Chapman Catt

For more than twenty, five years Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt who is president of the International Woman's Suffrage Alliance, lived in Iowa. She was state lecturer and organizer of the Woman's Suffrage Association of Iowa in 1890, '92. To her is due in a large measure the marked impetus which equal suffrage received in Iowa at that time. She was born in Ripon, Wis., the daughter of Lucius and Maria Clinton Lane. She was educated in the State Industrial College of Iowa. Later she took a special course in law, which knowledge has been of the greatest aid in promoting suffrage measures. For several years she was principal of the high school at Mason City and later was elected superintendent of the schools. In 1884 she was married to Lee Chapman who died two years later. She was married in 1890 to George William Catt, a prominent civil engineer, who died in 1905. No other woman in the United States has a wider reputation in the work for equal suffrage than Carrie Chapman Catt. She served in various capacities in the state work in Iowa, then became president of the National Woman's Suffrage Association and is now president of the International Association. She has lectured in every state in the union. She went to Colorado, Idaho, and Louisiana during the campaign and was an active agent in bringing about the passage of suffrage bills. She has gone again and again to Europe in the cause of suffrage and has lectured in many countries. She has worked for the passage of laws in various states to give women the right to vote on tax levying questions. She has a remarkable mind, which reasons questions with the greatest logic. As a platform speaker she has few equals.

[The Blue book of Iowa Women, by Winona Evans Reeves, Publ. 1914, Transcribed by Renee Capitanio]

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William Williams Chapman

Chapman, William Williams, a Delegate from the Territory of Iowa; born in Clarksburg, Marion County, Va. (now West Virginia), August 11, 1808; attended the common schools; studied law while serving as clerk of the court; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Middleton; was one of the first settlers in Burlington, Iowa (then Michigan Territory), in 1835; prosecuting attorney of Michigan Territory in 1836; first district attorney when Wisconsin Territory was organized in July 1836; after the Territory of Iowa was granted representation he was elected as a Democrat to the Twenty, fifth and Twenty, sixth Congresses and served from September 10, 1838, to October 27, 1840, when his term expired by law; moved to Agency City, an Indian village, in Wapello County, Iowa, in 1843; elected from that county as a delegate to the first constitutional convention in Iowa City in 1844; started across the plains to become a pioneer of Oregon in 1847; went to California in 1848; returned to Oregon; member of the Oregon house of representatives; was one of the founders of the Oregonian, the first newspaper established in the Territory; surveyor general in 1858; died in Portland, Oreg., on October 18, 1892; interment in the Lone Fir Cemetery.

[Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774, Present; transcribed by A. N.]

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Miss Margaret Abagail Cleaves

Doctor of medicine, born in Columbus City, Iowa., 25th November, 1848. Her father was of Dutch and English and her mother of Scotch and Irish ancestry, but by birth they were both Americans. Her father, Dr. John Trow Cleaves, was born in Yarmouth, Maine, in 1813, and her mother, Elizabeth Stronach, in Baltimore, in 1820. In 1843 they were married in Columbus City, where Dr. Cleaves practiced medicine until his death, which occurred in October, 1863. He was a man who took a deep interest in public affairs, and twice he was elected a member of the Iowa Legislature, first in 1852, and again in 1861. Margaret was the third of seven children. She inherited her father's taste for medical pursuits and as a child frequently accompanied him on his professional visits. Her education was obtained in the public schools and in the Iowa State University, but because of limited means she was unable to finish the collegiate course in the latter institution. After she was sixteen, she alternately attended and taught school for some years. In 1868 the family moved to Davenport, Iowa. There Margaret resolved to become a doctor instead of continuing a school teacher. Her choice of a profession was not regarded with favor by the various members of her family, who entertained the prevailing ideas concerning the limitations of woman's sphere, but her mind was made up, and in 1870 she began to read medicine and against their wishes entered the Medical Department of the Iowa State University. Their opposition did not continue long, for it was soon made manifest that her choice of a profession had been a wise one. In 1871 she entered the office of her preceptor, Dr. W. F. Peck, who was dean of the faculty and professor of surgery in the university. She was graduated 5th March, 1873, standing at the head of the class. Shortly after graduating, she was appointed second assistant physician in the State Hospital for the Insane, Mount Pleasant, Iowa. There she was a veritable pioneer, for up to that time only one other woman in the world had occupied the position of physician in a public insane asylum. She remained in the asylum for three years and then resigned her position to commence private practice in Davenport. She was subsequently appointed one of the trustees of the asylum. While practicing medicine in Davenport, she became a member of the Scott County Medical Society, being the second woman to gain admission to that body. For several years she was the secretary of the society. She also joined the State Medical Society, where she was again the second woman to gain admission. She was the first woman to become a member of the Iowa and Illinois Central District Medical Association. During her residence in Davenport she was an active member of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. In 1879 the board of trustees of the State Asylum for the Insane chose her their delegate to the National Conference of Charities, which that year met in Chicago, Ill. In that conference she read a paper on "The Medical and Moral Care of Female Patients in Hospitals for the Insane "It attracted widespread attention, and was printed in a volume, "Lunacy in Many Lands, "which was published by the Government of New South Wales. In June, 1880, she was appointed by the Governor of Iowa a State delegate to the National Conference of Charities in Cleveland, Ohio, and thus the distinction was conferred upon her of being the first female delegate from Iowa to that body. She reported for the State to the conference, and her report was subsequently incorporated in the Governor's annual message. That same year she was appointed physician, in, chief in the Female Department of the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital in Harrisburg. After three years of hard work, rendered all the more arduous by her conscientious devotion to the minutest details of her duties, Dr. Cleaves was compelled by failing health to resign her position. She went abroad in 1883, remaining nearly two years, visiting insane hospitals in Scotland, England, France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Belgium, everywhere receiving flattering courtesies from men of recognized eminence in the treatment of insanity. She witnessed operations in general hospitals in England, France and Germany, and in Paris she was for several months a regular attendant at lectures and clinics. After returning to the United States, she opened a private home for the reception of patients in Des Moines, Iowa, conducting also an office practice in connection with her other work. In March, 1885, she was appointed one of the examining committee of the Medical Department of the Iowa State University. It was the first honor of that kind bestowed on a woman by any standard medical school in the United States. In July 1886, she was sent as a delegate to the yearly meeting of the National Conference of Charities, which was held in St. Paul, Minn. During her residence in Des Moines she was an active member of the Polk County Medical Society, of the Missouri Valley Medical Association and of the Iowa State Medical Association. Before all those bodies she read papers and she served the last, named body as chairman of obstetrics and gynaecology in the session of 1889. At that time she was the only woman who had received such an appointment. Her work was not confined to medicine alone. She took a deep interest in all that pertains to the welfare and advancement of women. She organized the Des Moines Woman's Club and was its first president. Some time prior to that she had become a member of the Association for the Advancement of Women. Becoming interested in the subject of electro, therapeutics, she went to New York in the winter of 1887 and to Paris in the following summer, to prosecute her inquiries and investigation. After her return she continued to practice for a while in Des Moines, but in 1890 she retired from that field and went to New York, where she opened an office. She there joined the Medical Society of the County of New York, the American Electro, Therapeutic Association and the New York Women's Press Club. In the Post, Graduate Medical School, New York, she is now clinical assistant to the chair of electro, therapeutics. Since she took up her residence in New York, she has read papers before the Medical Society of Kings County, Brooklyn, the New York Medico, Legal Society, the American Electro, Therapeutic Association and the National Conference of Charities. Many of them have been published, and all of them are distinguished by painstaking research, clearness of statement and logical reasoning. Though a very busy woman, though her chosen fields of labor and study have taken her far away from the paths followed by most women, she has sacrificed none of those sweet, helpful and peculiarly womanly characteristics which endear her to her friends. She is a woman who combines in a most felicitous way gentleness of speech and manner with firmness of character. She has keen insight and quick sympathies, yet cool judgment.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Mary Emilie Cobb

Educator and philanthropist, born in Elmira, N. Y., 31st October, 1838. Her father, Dr. George Wells, a descendant of Thomas Wells, one of the earliest settlers of Hartford, Conn., and the first colonial governor, was early in life a physician and afterwards a preacher of the Disciples' Church. Leaving Connecticut when he was nineteen years old, his life was spent in central New York and northern Pennsylvania. Mrs. Cobb's maternal grandfather was Dr. Ebenezer Pratt, also of an old New England family. A graduate of Middlebury College, Vermont, after a few years spent in the practice of medicine, he became a teacher, in which profession he was for many years prominent in Chautauqua county and in Ovid, N. Y., and in Troy, Pa. Thus the passion for study and literature and the love for teaching, early shown by Mary E. Wells, were an inherited tendency fostered by early influence. At eight years of age she began to write verses, and about the same time to collect, wash, dress and teach the stray and forlorn children of the neighborhood. During her school years she was a contributor to Elmira and Troy papers and to the "Ladies' Christian Annual " and "Arthur's Home Magazine, "of Philadelphia. At fifteen she began to teach as an assistant to Dr. Pratt, her grandfather, and under his influence became ambitious to excel in that profession, writing often on topics connected with it, besides her stories and poems for children. She became the wife in 1856 of S. N. Rockwell, of Troy, Pa., and resided in Iowa for several years, continuing to teach and write. Previous to 1870 she had published two juvenile books, "Tom Miller "(Philadelphia, 1872), and "Rose Thorpe's Ambition "(Philadelphia, 1875), and had written much for religious and educational publications. "Facts and Thoughts About Reform Schools, "in the "Educational Monthly, "of New York, and many articles in the "Children's Hour, "of Philadelphia, were illustrated by her brother, C. H. Wells, an artist, of Philadelphia. She has contributed some articles to "Scribner's Magazine, "and one of her poems, "Acquainted with Grief, "was widely copied. Mrs. Rockwell had become deeply interested in reformatory institutions for boys and girls, and she gave herself with enthusiasm to a work which seemed to open just the field for which her preferences and pursuits had prepared her. After some years spent as a teacher in schools of that kind in Philadelphia, New York and Providence, her work as assistant superintendent of the Connecticut Industrial School for Girls, in Middletown, attracted the attention of leading philanthropists and reformers, as seeming to give a practical solution of many questions in relation to reformatory and industrial training, which were then widely discussed. In 1876 the National Prison Congress met in New York. Mrs. Rockwell went upon a public platform for the first time and read a paper upon the topic assigned, "The Training and Disposal of Delinquent Children "Early in 1879, having been left alone with a little daughter of eight years, she accepted the position of superintendent of the Wisconsin Industrial School, in Milwaukee. There she remained seven years, during which time the school grew from thirty, eight pupils and three teachers, in one building, to two, hundred, twenty, five pupils and twenty assistants, and occupying three large and well appointed buildings, designed, erected and fitted up under her direction. In 1882 Mrs. Rockwell became the wife of Dewey A. Cobb, assistant superintendent of that school, and for four years they remained at its head, removing in 1886 to Philadelphia, where Mr. Cobb entered into business, desiring that Mrs. Cobb should retire from school work, to which she had given twenty, five years of continuous service. In Philadelphia she is an active member of the board of managers of the Woman's Christian Association, having been an editor of its organ, " Faith and Works, "for three years, and she is one of the editors of the "National Baptist, "Philadelphia. As secretary of Foulke and Long Institute and Industrial Training School, she is actively supervising the erection of its new building in Philadelphia. Mrs. Cobb has long been a member of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections and of the Association for the Advancement of Women, and she has several times read papers before those bodies. She is an advocate of institutional training, rather than of the "placing, out "system, for neglected and destitute children. She is earnest and practical in the promotion of manual training and technical education, and to her patient study and efforts much of the success of that movement in several States may be traced. Her more important recent papers have been "The Duty of the State to its Dependent Children, "and "Training and Employments in Reformatories"

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Ada Langworthy Collier

Poet, born in Dubuque, Iowa, 23rd December, 1843, in the first frame house ever built within the present bounds of the State of Iowa. Her father, a descendant of New England pioneers, was among the very first to explore the lead regions of Iowa, and he was one of the founders of the city of Dubuque. Her mother was a member of an old Baltimore family. None of the hardships and privation that go with pioneer life were known to the little Ada. The lead mines were a source of wealth to her father and his brothers, and soon a group of spacious brick mansions arose on a beautiful bluff above the city, wherein dwelt the Langworthy households. In one of these Ada grew up, a strong, vigorous, attractive child. In early girlhood she was for a time a pupil in a girls' school taught by Miss Catherine Beecher in Dubuque. Afterward she went to Lasell Seminary, Auburndale, Mass. Having always found she could accomplish anything she chose to undertake, she there thought she could do the last two years' work in one year, and had nearly succeeded, when she was taken ill of brain fever. In spite of that she was graduated in 1861, at the early age of seventeen. In 1868 she became the wife of Robert Collier, and has since lived in Dubuque. She has one son. She began to write for periodicals in her girlhood. She is the author of many sketches, tales and short poems, of several novels, and of one long, narrative poem, "Lilith " (Boston, 1885). The last is her greatest work, nor can there be any doubt that she should be accounted a poet rather than a novelist.

(American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Albert Baird Cummins

(February 15, 1850, July 30, 1926)

Attorney, governor, and U.S. senator, was a highly influential politician at the state, regional, and national levels for more than three decades. His odyssey from Gilded Age stalwart to moderate progressive to New Era conservative was a virtual microcosm of that experienced by legions of middle, class Americans. At his zenith, Cummins was second only to Robert M. La Follette Sr. as the champion of the midwestern Republican Insurgents who successfully challenged the hegemony of the party's northeastern Standpat leadership, and who played a major role in the achievements of Democrat Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom. At the same time, Cummins and his cohorts fiercely contested Wilson's handling of World War I and were instrumental in the ultimate defeat of the Versailles Treaty and American membership in the League of Nations. President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate from 1919 to 1925, Cummins cosponsored the controversial Esch, Cummins Transportation Act of 1920, which reorganized the nation's railroad system, and he was a member of the "Farm Bloc "that sought to have the federal government purchase surplus agricultural products for sale abroad.

Cummins was born in Carmichaels, Green County, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas L. Cummins, a carpenter/farmer, and Sarah Baird (Flenniken) Cummins. Raised in a Scotch, Irish Presbyterian tradition that valued both individual independence and education, he had accumulated enough credits to graduate from Waynesburg (Pennsylvania) College at age 19. Because he vociferously backed the valedictorian of his class in a dispute with the college's president over Darwinism, however, Cummins left school without being awarded his degree. Having no clear sense of direction, he moved first to Elkader, Iowa, with a maternal uncle, and then to Allen County, Indiana, in 1871, working variously as a railway clerk, carpenter, construction engineer, express company manager, and deputy county surveyor. Relocating to Chicago, Cummins clerked for an attorney, studied law on his own, and passed the Illinois bar in 1874. That same year he married Ida Lucette Gallery, with whom he had one child, a daughter. Still unsettled after practicing law in Chicago for three years, Cummins hung his shingle in Des Moines, where he specialized in railroad and patent law.

Taking on a variety of clients from many walks of life, Cummins manifested little proclivity to use the law as an instrument for reform. Most of his clients were corporations or businessmen, an orientation that made him fairly wealthy by the early 1890s. According to historian Leland Sage, Cummins "had no special appeal for or contact with small farmer and the working classes., On the contrary, he was a rather aloof, fastidious man of elegant tastes and patrician manner, a member of Des Moines' most exclusive clubs, who somewhat symbolically drove to his office daily in a fine carriage drawn by spirited horses driven by a liveried coachman, a custom which he continued long after the coming of the automobile "Cummins gained his greatest fame as a lawyer by representing the Iowa Grange in its suit against the "barbed wire trust "in 1884, a seemingly classic case of championing "the people vs. the interests "Although Cummins and his followers perpetuated that image, many historians regard the incident as an aberration or anomaly, especially since Cummins had represented the Moen Barbed Wire Company in an earlier action and withdrew from the legal team before a verdict was rendered in the Grange's case.

At the same time, Cummins became increasingly active in Republican politics. He was a delegate to every state and national party convention from 1880 to 1924, a state legislator from 1888 to 1890, a presidential elector in 1892, and a member of the Republican National Committee from 1896 to 1900. Gradually, he emerged as a leader of the Insurgent faction of the Iowa GOP that contested the leadership of the prorailroad, probusiness Regulars headed by U.S. Senator William Boyd Allison and Congressmen David B. Henderson and William P. Hepburn. The founder of that Insurgent faction was two, term governor William Larrabee (1886, 1890), a wealthy banker, landowner, and industrialist who became a staunch advocate of railroad regulation in the 1880s. Although this internecine conflict was largely a power struggle between two elite groups, Larrabee transformed it into a movement to curtail the economic and political power of the state's railroads. Larrabee's Railroad Commissioner Law of 1888 remained the defining issue between Regular and Insurgent Republicans for the next two decades, and Cummins, the governor's chief legislative lieutenant, became the leader of the younger group.

Defeated in campaigns for the U.S. Senate in 1894 and 1900, Cummins was elected governor in 1901, serving three consecutive terms. Associating himself with the larger Insurgent movement emerging in the Midwest, he ran on an antimonopoly, populist platform that stressed increased railroad taxation and regulation and support for the "Iowa Idea ": the removal of tariff protection for any industry dominated by a "trust "Even though he was not present at the convention that adopted the Iowa Idea, Cummins popularized the notion so widely that most people assumed that he was its progenitor, a perception that Cummins made little effort to dispute. As governor, he pressed for a prohibition of free railroad passes to public officeholders, a two, cents, per, mile limit on railroad fares, the regulation of insurance and investment companies, prison reform, a pure food law, the curtailment of child labor, primary elections, and the election of U.S. senators by popular vote. A firm believer in partisan competition, he unsuccessfully opposed adoption of the "Des Moines Plan "for a nonpartisan commission form of municipal government.

Defeated as a candidate for the U.S. Senate in the legislature in 1908, Cummins won the Republican nomination in a primary election that same year and was selected by the legislature to fill the vacancy created by Allison's death. In the Senate, he quickly became second only to Robert La Follette as the point man in the Insurgent revolt by supporting tariff reductions, the federal income tax, the popular election of U.S. senators, and Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot in his public land dispute with Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger, while opposing trade reciprocity with Canada. In 1911 Cummins participated in the formation of the National Progressive Republican League, designed to support a Progressive challenger to Taft in 1912. However, Cummins and several of his cohorts switched their allegiance to Theodore Roosevelt, creating a rift between themselves and La Follette that gradually destroyed Insurgent solidarity. In spite of his personal support for Roosevelt, Cummins refused to leave the Republican Party.

Although personally affronted by President Woodrow Wilson's manner and his highly partisan tactics in pushing legislation through Congress, Cummins eventually supported many of the landmark measures of the administration's "New Freedom, "authoring the "Magna Charta "provision of the Clayton Antitrust Act, which proclaimed that "the labor of human beings is not a commodity or article of commerce "Although that provision supposedly exempted labor unions from prosecution as "combinations in restraint of trade "under the antitrust laws and recognized their right to organize, bargain collectively, and strike, it failed to permit secondary boycotts and was vague enough to allow antilabor judges great latitude in issuing injunctions. Always a strong supporter of the railroad brotherhoods, he opposed the Adam, son Act limiting most railroad workers to an eight, hour day as too weak.

In favor of neutrality and opposed to Wilson's efforts to strengthen U.S. military forces with the outbreak of World War I, Cummins was one of what Wilson called that "little group of willful men "who filibustered against the arming of merchant ships in 1917. Although he voted for Wilson's declaration of war and generally supported the Wilson administration's prosecution of the conflict, the Iowan was part of the "loyal opposition "that demanded strict accounting, restraints on governmental authority, and measures to restrict profiteering. Like the rest of the Insurgents, Cummins opposed U.S. membership in the League of Nations and thus helped to defeat the Versailles Treaty twice in 1919. His role in drafting the 1920 transportation act that bears his name, however, greatly upset fellow Insurgents, liberals, and the unions by effectively returning the railroads to private operation, ending their wartime control by the federal government.

A personal friend and golfing companion of Warren G. Harding, Cummins frequently sided with the new president in his desire to "return to normalcy "Increasingly sympa thetic to the antigovernment, probusiness orientation of Harding and the other "New Era "Republicans, he nevertheless voted with the midwestern "Farm Bloc "in favor of the various McNary, Haugen bills for federal subsidies to agriculture. When La Follette resurrected the Progressive Party during the 1924 election campaign, Cummins denounced his former close ally as a radical and campaigned for Calvin Coolidge and his "the business of America is business "orientation. Cummins's growing conservatism cost him a great deal of progressive political support in his native state, causing him to lose the 1926 Republican primary to La Follette protege Smith Wildman Brookhart, leader of a new progressive movement. Within a few months of his defeat, Cummins died in Des Moines and was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.

Sources Cummins's papers are housed at the State Historical Society of Iowa, Des Moines. They constitute the major source for the only full, scale biography, Ralph Mills Sayre, "Albert Baird Cummins and the Progressive Movement in Iowa "(Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1958). Elbert W. Harrington has written helpful analyses of two important aspects of Cummins's career: "A Survey of the Political Ideas of Albert B. Cummins, "Iowa Journal of History and Politics 39 (1941), 339, 86; and "Albert Baird Cummins as a Public Speaker, "Iowa Journal of History and Politics 43 (1945), 209, 53. Important insights into Cummins's activities and ideas can also be gained from James Holt, Congressional Insurgents and the Party System, 1900, 1916 (1967); Thomas Richard Ross, Jonathan Prentiss Dolliver: A Study in Political Integrity and Independence (1958); and Kenneth W. Hechler, Insurgency: Personalities and Policies of the Taft Era (1964).

Contributor: John D. Buenker
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 19 January 2015

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William Wirt Dixon

William Wirt Dixon, of Butte, who succeeds T. H. Carter as Montana's Representative in Congress, was born at Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1838, and at the age of seventeen began the study of law, and was admitted to the bar of Iowa when in his twentieth year; practiced his profession in Iowa for one year, when he moved to Arkansas, where he practiced law another year; went to California, and from there to Nevada, where he practiced four years, coming to Montana in 1866; located first at Helena, but soon after moved to Deer Lodge, where he continued his practice for thirteen years; went to the Black Hills in 1879 ; returning to Montana three years later, he located at Butte, where he has since resided and practiced law. Mr. Dixon, like all Montanans, has mined to some extent; was elected to the Legislature in 1871, and in 1883 was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention held at Helena in January, 1884. He was nominated by the Democratic party to make the race with Carter for congressional honors, and was successful. Mr. Dixon was married to Miss Ida Wilson, of St. Louis, Mo., in 1874.

[The Montana blue book: a biographical, historical and statistical book of reference by Journal
Publishing Co., 1891 , Transcribed by Therman Kellar]

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Miss Caroline Matilda Dodson

Physician, born near Keosauqua, Iowa, 17th December, 1845. Her father, Stiles Richard Dodson, was the son of Richard Dodson and Hannah Watson, being a descendant of Thomas and Mary Dodson, of whom the doctor's mother was also a descendant. Her mother, Mrs. Caroline Matilda Dodson, was the daughter of Stephen Harrison, and Mary Dodson. Miss Dodson's father and mother were natives of Huntington Valley, Pa. On 28th July, 1836, they were united in marriage. The mother, Mrs. C. Matilda Dodson, was a woman of strong character and advanced thought. About six weeks after marriage they left Pennsylvania for the West and settled in Van Buren county, Iowa. Stiles R. Dodson died 28th October, 1847, leaving his widow with four daughters, the youngest not two years of age. That winter the mother taught school in her own house. In the spring of 1848 she returned with her family to her father's house in Pennsylvania. Caroline was baptized in November, 1857, and she was henceforth a laborer by the side of her mother, in the Baptist Church. Study at home under private teachers and at the district school supplemented the early lessons from the mother. At about twelve she was sent to an academy and normal institute. She began to teach in the winter of 1861. Returning at intervals to school, she followed the profession of teaching until the fall of 1871 when she matriculated at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, and entered upon the three year course just inaugurated. Dr. Ann Preston was then Dean. The summer of 1872 she spent in the Nurses' Training School of the Woman's Hospital of Philadelphia. The course required was completed and a certificate of the Training School for Nurses was given her. The summer of 1873 she spent in the same hospital as student in the wards and out practice. She received her diploma in March, 1874, and went to Ypsilanti, Mich., for further study with Dr. Ruth A. Gerry, one of the first women to practice medicine. After a year spent in hospital and private practice with that worthy medical pioneer, she went to Rochester, N. Y., and there in connection with practice opened a drug store. In 1877, her mother having gone West again, she started for Iowa, going by the Hudson and Great Lakes. She lost a car load of valuables in the riot at Pittsburgh, Pa. After her trip West she returned to Philadelphia and worked for a mere pittance. Among the offers that came finally was one from the Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity, to act as superintendent of one of its districts, which position she filled for eight years. Realizing the need of a movement to educate the masses to a knowledge of self, care, she was prominent in having a call issued for a public meeting to be held in Association Hall, Philadelphia, 23rd July, 1890. and an organization was effected under the name of the National Woman's Health Association of America. The Association was chartered 1st November, 1890, and Dr. Dodson was elected first president.

(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.
Transcribed by Marla Snow.)

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Mrs. Marlon Howard Dunham

Born in Geauga county, Ohio, 6th December, 1842, passed the first part of her life upon a farm. She early decided to be a teacher, beginning her first district school at the age of fifteen, and taught in the public schools of Chicago,

Ill., from 1866 to 1873. In July, 1873, she became the wife of C. A. Dunham, an architect, of Burlington, Iowa, where they now live. In 1877 she entered upon temperance work with the inauguration of the red, ribbon movement, but, believing in more permanent methods, she was the prime mover in the organization of the local Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and has ever since been an active worker in that society. In 1883 she was elected State superintendent of the department of scientific temperance, and held the office four years, lecturing to institutes and general audiences on that subject much of the time. She procured the Iowa State law on that subject in February, 1886. When the Iowa State Temperance Union began to display its opposition to the National Union, she was rather slow to declare her position, which was always fully with the National, but she was soon forced to declare herself, and came to be considered rather a leader on the side of the minority. When the majority in the State Union seceded from the National Union, 16th October, 1890, she was elected president of those who remained auxiliary to that body. At the State convention in 1891 she was re, elected. She has spent a large part of her time in the field. She has always been a radical equal suffragist, and has spoken and written much on that subject. She is a Christian socialist, deeply interested in all reforms that promise to better the social system and the conditions of life for the multitudes.

(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.
Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Mrs. Ella Hamilton Durley

Educator and journalist, was born in Butler county, Pa. She is the oldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Hamilton. In the spring of 1866 the family removed to Davis county, Iowa, where, in the most unpromising backwoods region, they made their home for a few years. It was in the rude log schoolhouse of that locality that the young girl acquired sufficient knowledge of the rudimentary branches to permit her to begin to teach at the age of sixteen. The loss of her father, whose ambition for his children was limitless, led her to make the attempt to carry out his oft, expressed wish that she should take a college course. To do so meant hard work and strenuous application, for every penny of the necessary expense had to be earned by herself. In the spring of 1878 she took the degree of B. A. in the State University of Iowa, and four years later she received the degree of M.A. After graduation Miss Hamilton accepted the principalship of the high school in Waterloo, Iowa, which she held for two years. She then went abroad to continue her studies, more especially in the German language and literature. She spent a year in European travel and study, features of which were the attendance upon a course of lectures in the Victoria Lyceum of Berlin, and an inspection of the school system of Germany and Italy. Upon her return the result of her observation was given to the public in the form of a lecture, which was widely delivered and well received. After a year spent in the Iowa State Library, Miss Hamilton decided to turn her attention to newspaper work. She became associate editor of the Des Moines "Mail and Times, "which position she held over a year, when a tempting offer caused her to become editor, in, chief of the "Northwestern Journal of Education, "where her success was very gratifying. Her later journalistic work has been in connection with the Des Moines "Daily News, "upon which she served as reporter and editorial and special writer for several years. In 1884 Miss Hamilton was appointed a member of the State Education Board of Examiners for Iowa, which position she held until 1888, serving during the most of her time as secretary. In October, 1886, she became the wife of Preston B. Durley, business manager of the Des Moines "Daily News "Mrs. Durley's newspaper work was kept up uninterruptedly until the summer of 1890, when their home was gladdened by the birth of a son. At the present time she is president of the Des Moines Woman's Club, a large and prosperous literary society.

(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.
Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Miss Lillian Blanche Fearing

Lawyer and poet, born in Davenport, Iowa, 27th November, 1863. She was educated partly in the Iowa College in Vinton, Iowa, and was graduated in 1884. In 1888 she removed to Chicago, Ill., and entered as a student in the Union College of Law. She was graduated in the spring of 1890, the only woman in her class, and one of four students whose records were so nearly equal that the faculty of the college could not decide to whom the scholarship prize should be awarded. The difficulty was solved by the division of the prize between the four. Miss Fearing is thus far the only woman who has received a scholarship prize from that college. She is now practicing law in Chicago and achieving success in that arduous field of labor. She is the author of two volums of verse, entitled "The Sleeping World, and other Poems "(Chicago, 1887), and "In the City by the Lake "(Chicago, 1892). Her literary work "shows merit of high order. Miss Fearing's success in life is nothing short of remarkable, when it is remembered that she is blind.

(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.
Transcribed by Marla Snow.)

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Mrs. Susan Frances Nelson Ferree

Journalist and reformer, born in Mount Pleasant, Ia., 14th January, 1844. She is a daughter of John S. Nelson, who was a lineal descendant of Thomas Nelson, the founder of Old York, Va., where his mansion still stands. His oldest son, William, was at one time president of the king's council. William's oldest son, Gen. Thomas Nelson, was the most illustrious of his race one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, the war governor of Virginia, and a very brilliant member of that body of great men who distinguished the country's early history. Mrs. Ferree is a fitting representative of her noble line of ancestors. Educated and refined, her influence is always on the side of kindness and right. At the age of one year she, with her parents removed to Keokuk, which was her home for many years. Her home at present is in Ottumwa, Ia., where she is the center of a large and interesting family of children. Her husband is a successful business man of that city. Mrs. Ferree is a great lover of poetry, of which she has written much, but she excels in journalism. Some of her newspaper correspondence from Washington, D. C., is exceptionally fine. She is an untiring worker for temperance and for the advancement of woman. She is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, Woman's Relief Corps, the Iowa Woman's Suffrage Association, and the local Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and a communicant of St. Mary's Episcopal Church, of Ottumwa.

(American Women, Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Volume 1 Copyright 1897.
Transcribed by Marla Snow.)

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Mrs. Kate Tupper Galpin

Galpin, Mrs. Kate Tupper, educator, born in Brighton, Iowa, 3rd August, 1855. She is a sister of Mrs. Wilkes and Miss Tupper, whose lives are found elsewhere in this book. She lived during her girlhood on a farm near Brighton. As a child she was very frail, but the free and active life of her country home gave her robust health.

Her first teacher was her mother, who taught school while her father was in the war. Her mother would go to school on horseback, with Kate behind her and a baby sister in her lap. Later she attended the village school until she was fifteen, when she was sent to the Iowa Agricultural College in Ames, where she was graduated in 1874. The vacations of the college were in the winter, and in the vacation following her sophomore year she had her first experience in teaching, in a district school three miles out of Des Moines, Iowa, where the family was then living. The next winter, when seventeen years of age, she was an assistant in a Baptist college in Des Moines, her earnings enabling her to pay most of her college expenses.

As a student her especial delight was in oratory. In an oratorical contest, during her senior year, she was successful over a number of young men who have since become well, known lawyers of the State, and in the intercollegiate contest which followed she received second honor among the representatives of all the colleges of the State. She has very marked dramatic ability, but this has been chiefly used by her in drilling students for the presentation of dramas.

Her first schools after graduating were in Iowa. From 1875 to 1879 she taught in the Marshalltown, Iowa, high school, having held responsible positions in summer institutes in many parts of the State. In 1878 she taught an ungraded school in the little village of Beloit, Iowa, in order to be near her parents, who were living on a homestead in Dakota, and to have with her in the school her younger brother and sister. Later she taught for four years as principal of the academic department of the Wisconsin Normal School in Whitewater. During the following three years she held positions in the high school of Portland, Ore. Next she was called to the professorship of pedagogics in the State University of Nevada, with salary and authority the same as the men of the faculty. In 1890 she resigned her professorship in the university and received a call to the presidency of a prominent normal school, which she refused. That summer she became the wife of Cromwell Galpin, of Los Angeles, Cal., consummating a somewhat romantic attachment of her college life. Since then she has rested from her profession, but has taught special classes in oratory in the University of Los Angeles. All the ambition, energy and ingenuity that made her so distinguished as a teacher are now expended with equal success in the management of her housekeeping and the care of her husband's children. She has one child, a daughter.

[American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897]
Transcribed by Marla Snow

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Mrs. Jennie T. Gray

Gray, Mrs. Jennie T., temperance worker, born in Pilot Grove, Iowa, 16th September, 1857. Her father, Stephen Townsend, was of English descent. Her mother was of Welsh and English descent. She was reared in the faith of the Quaker Church.

From her father she inherited literary taste and ability, and from her mother a fearless firmness for the right. She always showed an intense love for books and at an early age made herself acquainted with a large number of the best authors.

From Iowa her father removed with his family in the spring of 1865 to Fountain City, Ind., near the place of his nativity, where the remainder of her childhood was spent. She and her older sisters identified themselves early in life with the temperance cause, and they are still active, enthusiastic workers in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

She became the wife of Dr. C. F. Gray, of Winchester, Ind., 18th December, 1878. Her husband not only encourages her in every good word and work, but supplies with lavish hand all the financial assistance which she may feel called upon to bestow in any good cause.

She consecrated herself wholly to Christian work in the spring of 1889, and since then she has been led into more active service in the line of temperance. At present she is president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Randolph county, Ind. In all her travels from ocean to ocean and gulf to lakes she has tried to carry the strongest possible influence for temperance, often finding suitable occasions for advocating her theme in a modest but convincing way.

[American Women by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol. 1, 1897]
Transcribed by Marla Snow

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Ada Hayden

(August 14, 1884, August 12, 1950)

Botanist, ecologist, educator, and prairie preservationist, was the only child of Maitland David Hayden and Christine Hayden, who owned and operated a farm near Ames, Iowa. As a high school student, Ada's interest in botany came to the attention of Louis Pammel, one of Iowa's preeminent botanists, who became her lifelong mentor. She studied botany at Iowa State College, earning her bachelor's degree in 1908. With the award of a research fellowship at the Shaw School of Botany, she undertook graduate work at Washington University in St. Louis, receiving a master's degree in 1910. In 1911 she returned to Iowa State and received her Ph.D. in 1918, the first woman to receive a doctorate from Iowa State, and remained at the university thereafter.

Beginning in 1911, Hayden taught botany at Iowa State as an instructor. In 1920 she became assistant professor of botany, and in 1934 her appointment changed to research assistant professor at the Agriculture Experiment Station (Lakes Region) and curator of the herbarium. During her lifetime, she added more than 40,000 specimens to the herbarium, founded in 1870 by C. E. Bessey. Until Pammel died (1931), much of Hayden's research was done in collaboration with her mentor and Charlotte King, another of his proteges. She contributed chapters as well as illustrations to two of Pammel's major works: The Weed Flora of Iowa (1926) and Honey Plants of Iowa (1930). After 1931 she refocused her attention on prairie plants in the lakes region. Duane Isely, writing in 1989, called her 1943 floristic study of Clay and Palo Alto counties, derived from her experiment station research, "possibly the best published native flora survey, of any part of Iowa, an important historical document for Iowa and the midwest "

Hayden is primarily associated with prairie preservation in Iowa. Within a year of earning her Ph.D., her research on the ecology of prairie plants in central Iowa was published in the American Journal of Botany (1919) and the Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science (1919). She issued a tentative call for prairie preservation in a short piece, "Conservation of Prairie, "published in Iowa Parks: Conservation of Iowa Historic, Scientific and Scenic Areas (1919), suggesting that a few acres of relict prairie, preferably tracts located near larger schools, be preserved in each county of the state. During the next two decades, while she was busy teaching and conducting floristic research, Hayden also made public presentations to educate Iowans about prairie ecology, illustrated with her own set of hand, colored lantern slides. By the 1930s a few other voices had joined hers to promote prairie conservation, notably those of Bohumil Shimek, professor of botany at the State University of Iowa, as well as Margo Frankel and Louise Parker, members of the State Board of Conservation.

The movement for prairie preservation began in earnest in 1944, when Hayden and J. M. Aiken, chair of the Conservation Committee of the Iowa Academy of Science (IAS), issued a report on the status of conservation in Iowa and then proceeded to identify patches of relict prairie worthy of preservation. Hayden directed the Prairie Project, as it was called, and the IAS published her findings in "The Selection of Prairie Areas in Iowa Which Should Be Preserved "(1945), followed by "A Progress Report on the Preservation of Prairie "(1947).

By systematically developing the scientific database from which the State Conservation Commission (SCC) could make informed decisions about land acquisition, she and the IAS, in collaboration with the SCC, launched a fledgling prairie preservation program. During the late 1940s, the SCC purchased two areas of relict prairie: three adjacent parcels in Howard County and another 160 acres in Pocahontas County known as the Kalsow Prairie. As a result, in 1949 the Exploratory Committee of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Plant Industry cited Iowa as one of the leaders in prairie preservation. That same year, the IAS established an advisory committee to assist the SCC with prairie management. Hayden and Aikman carried out just one of those studies before her death, from cancer, in 1950. Later in 1950 the SCC named the Howard County prairie tract in her honor. Hayden Prairie holds the additional distinction of being the first area dedicated as a preserve under the 1965 State Preserves Act. Other posthumous honors include the Iowa Conservation Hall of Fame Award from the Iowa Chapter of the Wildlife Society (1967), induction into the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame (2007), and formal designation of the Iowa State University herbarium in 1987 as the Ada Hayden Herbarium.

Sources A small collection of Hayden's papers and publications is housed in Special Collections, Iowa State University Library, Ames. Two excellent biographical articles are Jan Lovell, "She Fought to Save Iowa's Prairies, "Iowan 36 (Winter 1987), 22, 26, 56, 57; and Duane Isely, "Ada Hayden: A Tribute, "Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 96 (1989), 1, 5.

Contributor: Rebecca Conard
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 21 January 2015

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Miss Ida Hinman

Hinman, Miss Ida, litterateur and journalist, was born in Keokuk, Iowa. Sir Edward Hinman, the progenitor of the family in America, was an officer of the body, guard of Charles I. of England. After the king's death, having risked all for royalty, he came to America and settled in Connecticut. He was the father of two sons, from the oldest of whom Miss Hinman's family is descended. Her father, B. B. Hinman, was for years a successful merchant in Keokuk. Her mother, who before marriage was Miss Ellen E. Fithian, is a woman of rare strength of character. Ida, the fourth child, was the first to live to maturity. She has two younger sisters, Ella and Carrie.

Miss Hinman is a graduate of the Iowa Wesleyan University, Mount Pleasant, and early in life she showed a decided tendency toward literary pursuits, which, when financial difficulties overtook the family, she utilized with profit and success. She has contributed for a number of years to many periodicals, including "Harper's Magazine, "leading religious journals and prominent newspapers. For five seasons she had charge of the Washington, D. C., correspondence of a large New York paper, doing an incredible amount of work. She spent a part of the year 1891 in Europe, writing for a number of American periodicals. Among the questions that her editors desired her to investigate were the socialist movement in Germany, the principles of the sub, treasury system in England, and the impetus that the temperance movement has received in Germany. Though not strong, Miss Hinman can do a large amount of work in her profession.

(Source: American Women, by Frances Elizabeth Willard, Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Vol 1, 1897.Transcribed by Marla Snow)

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Harriet A. Ketcham

HARRIET A. KETCHAM was born in New Market, Ohio, July 12, 1846. Her parents removed to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, when she was but five years old where she graduated from the Wesleyan University of that place.

While quite young she was married to William B. Ketcham, a manufacturer, of Mount Pleasant. It was eight years after her marriage that she turned her attention to the art in which she became known throughout the State.

Beginning to model in clay she soon discovered her skill in shaping figures. She was fascinated with the work and soon began a course of instruction with noted sculptors. Mrs. Ketcham finally determined to devote her time and talent to the profession and placed herself under the guidance of the famous Clark Mill. After ten years and instruction in this country she went to Italy and in Rome pursued her studies under the instruction of the most noted sculptors of that city. While there she executed the figure of "Peri at the Gates of Paradise, "which was taken to the Columbian Exposition and afterward placed in the Library of the State House at Des Moines.

When designs were sought for the Iowa Soldiers' Monument there were forty, seven submitted. The one made by Mrs. Ketcham was accepted by the commissioners and the structure erected after that model. She made busts of President Lincoln, Senators Harlan and Allison and Judge Samuel F. Miller.

Mrs. Ketcham was stricken with paralysis while in the midst of her work, and died on the 20th of October, 1890.

[History of Iowa from the earliest times to the beginning of the twentieth century, 1903]
Submitted by Cathy Danielson

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John Llewellyn Lewis

(February 12, 1880, June 11, 1969)

20th, century American labor leader, was born in Cleveland, Iowa, the son of Welsh immigrant parents, Thomas A. and Ann Louisa (Watkins) Lewis. He was the first of eight children who survived infancy. His mother was likely a Mormon, although Lewis as an adult showed little interest in religion. His father was a coal miner and a Knights of Labor loyalist.

Cleveland, together with the larger town of Lucas a mile to the west, was in 1880 a coal mining community, one of many that flourished from about 1875 to 1920 in an area radiating about 50 miles south and east from Des Moines. In 1882 Thomas Lewis's family began to move from one Iowa coal town to another. There had been a strike in Lucas, and he likely was blacklisted. During the mid 1890s, the family lived in Des Moines, where John finished elementary school and three years of high school.

In 1897 the family returned to Lucas, where John worked as a miner and farm laborer, served as secretary of the new local of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) based in Chariton, joined the Masons, and performed in amateur theatricals at the Lucas opera house. From 1901 to 1905 he traveled and worked in the Mountain West.

The years 1905, 1907 seemed to presage a life of small, town striving. He returned to Lucas, reentered the mines, renewed his active role in the UMWA, again joined in amateur theatricals, and co, leased and managed the opera house for a year. He rose to office in the Masons, ventured into a grain and feed business partnership, and became active in local politics. On June 5, 1907, he married Myrta Edith Bell, the daughter of a Lucas physician. They had three children, Mary Margaret (b. 1910), Kathryn (b. 1911), and John Jr. (b. 1918). From a locally prominent family, Myrta had completed high school, attended summer sessions at Drake University, and taught school for seven years. She seems not to have been the mentor to John alleged by Lewis's early biographers, but she was a steadying influence until her death in 1942.

In spring 1908 there came another break from Lucas and Iowa, this one permanent except for occasional family visits. John and Myrta left for the burgeoning coal fields of Illinois, settling in the town of Panama, where they were soon joined by his parents, five brothers, and two sisters. Better employment prospects doubtless fueled the decision, as did the failure of both Lewis's grain and feed business and his bid for the Lucas mayoralty. And clearly Lewis now harbored ambitions for climbing the UMWA leadership hierarchy. Illinois provided a much better base for that purpose thandid Iowa.

Lewis had spent more than 23 of his first 28 years in Iowa. Iowa had been formative. There he had gained a better than average education for a working, class youth of his day, and there he first entered the mines and became active in the UMWA. His Iowa theatrical experience would later abet his natural gifts as a labor orator. Broad, framed, deep, voiced, with sharp eyes, impressive eyebrows, and wavy, abundant hair, he would soon become a master of timing, the caustic phrase, and biblical and Shakespearean allusions. Finally, and, though negative, important in view of the young Lewis's vocational equivocation, his Iowa experience channeled him toward his calling as a labor leader by process of eliminating other options.

Within a year, Lewis was president of the large Panama local. He soon also became the UMWA's legislative agent in Springfield. From 1911 to 1917 he served as field representative for the American Federation of Labor (AFL), traveling widely but keeping close ties with key UMWA leaders, including President John P. White (he, too, had lived part of his youth in Lucas). In 1917 Lewis became the UMWA's statistician, and later that year he replaced Frank Hayes as vice president. Hayes, plagued by ill health, had assumed the UMWA presidency when White resigned to accept a federal post. Lewis was soon the de facto president of a union that was the AFL's largest, with a membership that had swelled during wartime to some 400,000. In 1920 Hayes resigned, and Lewis was elected UMWA president.

UMWA membership, along with union membership in general, declined rapidly during the 1920s and disastrously during the Depression years 1930, 1933. But the remainder of the 1930s brought Lewis's great triumphs. He was one of only a few union leaders to recognize, and by far the best positioned to seize, the opportunities posed by the Roosevelt administration's relative friendliness toward the labor movement and the new protection that New Deal legislation offered to workers trying to form unions.

First, Lewis bet the UMWA's treasury on a mass organizing campaign among coal miners. It succeeded spectacularly. Then, sensing a widespread desire for unionization among industrial workers and brushing aside AFL leaders' wish for limited organizing along narrow "craft "lines, he launched huge organizing campaigns in the mass production industries. His vehicle was the Committee for Industrial Organization, formed in 1935 and reconstituted in 1938, upon its formal split from the AFL, as the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The CIO was Lewis's creature. A few leaders of other AFL unions joined him in forming it, but about 70 percent of the CIO's organizing resources came from Lewis's UMWA. Again the success was spectacular. Total union membership leaped from less than 3 million in 1932 to some 7.5 million in 1939 and to 13.4 million in 1945. Nor was organized labor's new power confined to the workplace. For the first time, labor jumped wholeheartedly into electoral politics. The CIO under Lewis contributed mightily to the Roosevelt landslide of 1936. Later Democratic victories were in large part due to CIO efforts, along with the AFL's and, after the 1955 merger, those of the AFL, CIO.

Beginning with his opposition to Roosevelt's reelection in 1940, Lewis's willfulness did not serve the labor movement so well. When Roosevelt won a solid electoral victory, with the support of most unions and most union members, Lewis resigned as CIO president. In 1942 he led the UMWA out of the CIO, and in 1943 his UMWA conducted wartime strikes that, in the eyes of many, impugned the patriotism of the entire labor movement. Until his retirement in 1960 he continued to win gains for UMWA coal miners, but their numbers were dwindling as their industry declined.

The UMWA under Lewis was always an undemocratic organization, with proclivities for violence and financial chicanery. By the time of Lewis's death in Washington, D.C., on June 11, 1969, the UMWA was thoroughly decayed. In 1973 his one, time lieutenant and eventual successor as UMWA president, W. A. "Tony "Boyle, was convicted of having ordered the infamous December 1969 murder of dissident union leader Joseph Yablonski and his wife and daughter.

Yet in any assessment, Lewis's shortcomings must be balanced against his huge achievements. Lewis, more than any other person save Roosevelt, was responsible for two long, prevailing features of 20th, century American life. One was the rise of millions of industrial workers into the middle class. The other was labor's emergence as the lynchpin of the Roosevelt coalition, the core of a Democratic Party that sustained the generally centrist, liberal, reformist national politics and federal policies of the middle third of the century. As a result, he is viewed by many as the preeminent American labor leader of the 20th century.

Sources The two authoritative biographies are Melvyn Dubofsky and Warren Van Tine, John L. Lewis: A Biography (1977), and the shorter Robert H. Zieger, John L. Lewis, Labor Leader (1988). The latter is especially valuable for its bibliographical essay, which, among other things, outlines the scattered state of primary sources concerning Lewis and cites several works concerning Lewis's elusive Iowa years, works that are doubtless largely accurate, though based on not wholly reliable sources. The latest and best of such works is Ron E. Roberts, "Roots of Labor's Demiurge: Iowa's John L. Lewis, "Journal of the West 35 (1996), 10, 18. Dorothy Schwieder, Black Diamonds: Life and Work in Iowa's Coal Mining Communities, 1895, 1925 (1983), examines the society in which Lewis grew up.

Contributor: John N. Schacht
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 22 January 2015

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Almon A. Lieuallen, deceased.

One of the earliest pioneers that broke sod in this section of the country, a man of whom all spoke well, and one who wrought here continuously from the inception of his career in this region until the sad day of his demise with manifestations of wisdom, stability, enterprise and display of those manly virtues and an intrinsic worth that characterize the typical man, the subject of this sketch is eminently deserving of this memorial which it is our privilege to grant to him.

Almon A. was born in Tennessee on September 10, 1842, being the son of Paton and Jemima (Smith) Lieuallen, farmers of that state and Iowa. Our subject went in 1858 to where Princeton, Missouri, now stands, remaining until 1860, when he moved to Iowa, whence he crossed the plains in 1867 to Walla Walla and there engaged in stock raising and freighting. He did a large business in the latter industry, handling as high as twenty outfits from The Dalles to the interior mining camps of Idaho, and continuing the same until 1868. In this last year he disposed of his freighting business, repaired to Oregon, founding the town of Centerville, and there and at Walla Walla gave his attention to raising stock.

In 1871 he brought forty thousand dollars' worth of cattle to the region now embraced in Latah county, taking a pre, emption four miles east from where Moscow now stands. Success attended his wise business methods, and he owned land in different bodies all the way down to the Snake. He had vast herds of cattle, and he was always a progressive, public minded man, ever laboring for the welfare and progress of the country where he was domiciled. At one time he owned between two and three thousand acres of land in Washington and Idaho and one, half section in California. He homesteaded the land where Moscow is now built, taking it in 1875, and opening up a general merchandise store there. He was the first postmaster of Moscow and held the office until he sold his store. In 1881 he sold the mercantile interests, platted the town site of Moscow, and devoted his energies to placing the young city on a proper basis and to building it up. He was one of the main factors in the development of the country, in establishing the city, in forwarding its growth, and in the general progress of the county's interest, and no man was better known in the country than Mr. Lieuallen.

On November 4, 1898, he was called from the scenes of his worthy labors to the realms of another world, and with appropriate ceremonies his body was laid to rest in the Moscow cemetery. He had been a faithful member of the Baptist church since sixteen years of age, displaying the virtues and graces of the Christian, and his example was bright and good, and his death was sincerely mourned throughout the entire county.

The marriage of Mr. Lieuallen and Miss Sarah A., daughter of William E. and Mary J. (Holloway) Good, was solemnized on July 4, 1871, and there were born to them the following issue: Mary A., died December 15, 1877, aged five and one, half years; Lillie Irene, wife of Jay Woodworth; John T., died at the age of eighteen; William B., died January 5, 1888, aged eight years, all buried beside their father. Mrs. Lieuallen is a native of Iowa and her parents were natives of Ohio, but removed to Iowa in an early day, and there remained until the time of their death, Mrs. Lieuailen is a member of the Presbyterian church and has always been a leader in the noble work of missionary undertakings and charitable labors, while the bright Christian life that she has maintained has been the means of doing much good. She is also a member of the Women of Woodcraft. Moscow Circle, No. 192. She owns eighty acres of the old homestead and an elegant residence, which is as it always has been, the center of refined hospitality, and a model Christian home, presided over by a lady of gracious personality, with manifestation of those lovable grace and characteristics of the real Christian. In addition to this valuable property. Mrs. Lieuallen has a fine farm of four hundred and twenty, four acres, which she manages with discretion and sagacity.

[An Illustrated History Of North Idaho Embracing Nez Perces, Idaho, Latah, Kootenai, Shoshone Counties State Of Idaho, Western Historical Publishing Co., 1903, submitted by Barb Z.]

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Peter Mangold

Peter Mangold, banker of Bennington, Neb., was born in March, 1855, in Iowa. He is president of the Nebraska Transportation company.

[Herringshaw's American Blue, Book of Biography by Thomas William Herringshaw and American Publishers' Association, 1914, Transcribed by AFOFG]

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Abner Kneeland

(April 6, 1774, August 27, 1844)

Carpenter, teacher, minister, writer, newspaper editor, Bible translator, state legislator, and free thinker, was the sixth child of Timothy and Martha (Stone) Kneeland. Born in Gardner, Massachusetts, shortly before the Revolutionary War, he attended the Gardner common schools and, for one term, the academy at Chesterfield, New Hampshire. As a young man, he worked at his father's trade as a carpenter. He preached for the Baptist denomination and served one term in the New Hampshire House of Representatives.

Kneeland's desire for knowledge was unending; he taught himself Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. That same inquiring mind caused him to question many dogmas of the Christian faith. Unable to retain his faith in the Baptist tenets, Kneeland became a Universalist at age 29 and moved on to minister in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Throughout his entire career with the Universalists, Kneeland was subject to seasons of religious inquiry and doubt. At one time he left the Universalist church. After an exchange of letters with Rev. Hosea Ballou, his doubts, then on the divine authenticity of the scriptures, were relieved. He returned to the ministry and served as a Universalist minister for 26 years. His views on theological questions were published in Universalist newspapers and magazines, and he often edited those publications. He lectured extensively and published a version of the New Testament translated from the Greek. In a volume of his sermons published in 1818, his likeness was used as a frontispiece, the first lithograph ever produced in the United States. He contributed the text for 138 of the 410 hymns in a Universalist hymnal. Eventually, at age 55, his religious doubts and unorthodox views led to his departure from the Universalist church.

Kneeland removed to Boston in 1831, founded the First Society of Free Enquirers, and published a weekly newspaper, the Boston Investigator, in which he carried on his arguments concerning religious thought, allying himself with the free thinkers of the day, including utopian Robert Owen, who became Kneeland's new mentor.

Thousands attended Kneeland's lectures, in which he denounced the conservative influence of religion on society and called for racial equality and equal rights for women. He wrote in favor of birth control, divorce, and interracial marriage. For those of orthodox orientation, the ideas he expressed became intolerable. In his Philosophical Creed of 1833, Kneeland declared, "I believe, that God and Nature, so far as we can attach any rational idea to either, are synonymous terms. Hence, I am not an Atheist, but a Pantheist; that is, instead of believing there is no God, I believe that in the abstract, all is God;, it is in God we live, move, and have our being; and that the whole duty of man consists in living as long as he can, and in promoting as much happiness as he can while he lives"

Eventually, his published statements led to his arrest and trial for blasphemy. The articles of contention included a letter to the editor in which he wrote, "I believe that [the Universalists'] god, with all his moral attributes, is nothing more than a chimera of their own imagination. "The ensuing trials extended over a four, year period, and at the age of 60 Kneeland was convicted of blasphemy and served 60 days in the Boston common jail. Following the verdict, a strong public protest in defense of free speech resounded through Boston. William Ellery Channing, George Ripley, A. Bronson Alcott, William Lloyd Garrison, and Ralph Waldo Emerson headed a list of petitioners demanding Kneeland's release, to no avail.

During the period of his trials and imprisonment, Kneeland began to look for a more tolerant environment. Perhaps influenced by the social experiments at New Harmony and Nashoba (undertaken by his friends and former coeditors, Robert Dale Owen and Francis Wright), he selected a site on the Des Moines River in Van Buren County, Iowa Territory, and in 1839 started a small utopian community he named Salubria, which failed to thrive.

Kneeland became a popular lecturer in southern Iowa and eastern Illinois. Admired by local Democrats, he was nominated to represent his region in Iowa's Third Territorial Legislative Assembly. He died from a stroke at age 70. Within the Unitarian Universalist tradition he is considered an important contributor to the freedom of religious thought.

Kneeland married four times and was the father of 12 children. Sources Primary sources include the Abner Kneeland Collection at the State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa City and Des Moines; and the Louise Rosenfeld Noun Papers and Margaret Atherton Bonney Papers, Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City. Secondary sources include Henry Steele Commager, "The Blasphemy of Abner Kneeland, "New England Quarterly 8 (1935), 29, 41; Edgar R. Harlan, A Narrative History of the People of Iowa (1931); Ruth A. Gallaher, "Abner Kneeland, Pantheist, "Palimpsest 20 (1939), 209, 25; Mary R. Whitcomb, "Abner Kneeland, "Annals of Iowa 6 (1904), 340, 63; Stephan Papa, The Last Man Jailed for Blasphemy (1998); and Stephan Papa and Peter Hughes, "Abner Kneeland, "Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography (1999, 2004).

Contributor: Margaret Atherton Bonney
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 22 January 2015

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Ada E. North

(November 19, 1840, January 9, 1899)

Librarian, she was born in Alexander, New York, the daughter of Rev. Milo N. Miles. In 1865 she married Major J. North, an assistant to Iowa Governor William M. Stone, but in 1870 her husband died, leaving her a widow with small children. The following year, Governor Samuel Merrill appointed her Iowa's first State Librarian at an annual salary of $1,200, a post she held until 1878, when she became Des Moines' city librarian. In 1879 the Board of Regents of the State University of Iowa (UI) voted to employ a full, time librarian at a salary of no more than $900, and the same day hired North, who held the job for the next 13 years. However, politics rather than merit governed state appointments, and in 1892 she was relieved of her position to make room for a political appointee, Joseph W. Rich, a UI alumnus and member of the university's Board of Regents since 1886. Although still in her early 50s, North retired from librarianship after losing her UI position. She died at the age of 58.

Over a 21, year career North helped shape the nascent profession of librarianship in Iowa and nationally. At a time when the appointment of a woman to a state position was highly controversial, she contributed to the opening up of new possibilities for women's participation in the public sphere. She also helped establish a vision for libraries as dynamic institutions that emphasized accessible and relevant collections designed primarily for use rather than preservation and storage. She was the first State Librarian and the first full, time librarian at the UI, and as a founder of the Iowa Library Association was a driving force behind the eventual establishment of a library training program.

North instituted several radical improvements in the libraries she managed. On becoming State Librarian, she immediately set about improving accessibility by producing the State Library's first printed catalog of about 14,500 volumes, in 1872. Two years after becoming UI Librarian, she devoted vacation time to touring eastern libraries to learn about new methods. At about the same time she introduced a card catalog to the university library. She was also responsible, a student newspaper article reported with approval, for reclassifying the 27,000 volumes of the university library according to the Dewey Decimal system, making the university library "the best regulated library in the state "In response to student demand, North extended the time the library was open from five to nine hours daily, and encouraged greater student use by instituting lending procedures and opening the stacks to students.

North was also active at the state professional level. In 1890 she was one of five library leaders to call a meeting of librarians at the State Library in Des Moines to set up the Iowa Library Society (renamed the Iowa Library Association in 1896). In 1892 North encouraged the society to set up a training program for working librarians, which eventually opened in 1901, when the UI held a six, week summer course in conjunction with the Iowa Library Commission.

The official pretext for North's dismissal from the UI in 1892 was "failing health," but the Library Journal protested indignantly that she had been "summarily dismissed" despite her popularity with students. In 1903, however, an article by Johnson Brigham in the Annals of Iowa concurred with the official view and reported that from 1892 to her death in 1899 she was an invalid and sufferer most of the time. There may be some truth in both of these accounts, but there is no doubt that up until 1892, North worked energetically for libraries and librarianship. In addition to reorganizing the libraries and extending their services, she gave talks to students and wrote articles for student newspapers and professional journals. In 1891 she gave no hint in a Library Journal article that she was about to retire. Reporting on the tireless efforts of Iowa's librarians to increase the number and quality of the state's libraries, she called for greater awareness and understanding on the part of the public, as well as more financial support. "What is wanted now," she wrote, "is a general waking up to the progress of library movement around us, and to the superlative importance of the library as a factor in education. Once having started the demand for larger libraries and improved accommodations, we believe that the necessary money will be forthcoming from both public and private funds, until Iowa, shall have a library and reading, room in every town and village."

Sources include Johnson Brigham, Mrs. Ada E. North, Annals of Iowa; 6 (1905), 624, 26; Daniel Goldstein, The Spirit of an Age: Iowa Public Libraries and Professional Librarians as Solutions to Society's Problems, 1890, 1940, Libraries and Culture 38 (2003), 214, 35; Mrs. Ada E. North, in The Blue Book of Iowa Women: A History of Contemporary Women, ed. Winona Evans Reeves (1914); Mildred Throne, The History of the State University of Iowa: The University Libraries (master's thesis, State University of Iowa, 1943); Mrs. Ada E. North (2002). Ada North's own writings include Catalogue of the Iowa State Library, 1872 (1872); Iowa Libraries, Library Journal 16 (1891), 332, 33; and Iowa Library Association, Library Journal 17 (1892), 491.

Contributor: Christine Pawley
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 22 January 2015

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Agnes Mathilda Samuelson

(April 14, 1887, May 12, 1963)

State and national leader in education, was the eldest of seven surviving children of Sven August Samuelson and Alvida (Johnson) Samuelson, Swedish immigrants to the United States. Born in Shenandoah, Iowa, she enjoyed the benefits of a municipal school system within a rural setting, graduating from high school in 1904. Her desire to become a teacher was due in part to her experience in orienting newly arrived Swedish immigrants to American customs and language. She enrolled in the Western Normal College in Shenandoah, completing the 11month scientific course in 1905.

Samuelson began her teaching career in 1906 in the one, room Pleasant View country school, two miles north of Shenandoah. Over the next two years, she taught in a number of southwest Iowa schools before becoming principal and teacher of the Silver City high school (1908, 1911). When her father died in 1908, Samuelson became the primary source of support for her family, a situation that made her particularly sensitive to the common practice of justifying higher salaries for male teachers because of their family support roles.

To further her education, Samuelson attended the University of Nebraska from 1911 to 1913. That course of study, in combination with a State University of Iowa extension course on the history of education and her own teaching experiences, prepared her to become superintendent of the Yorktown, Iowa, public schools in 1913. The Iowa legislature mandated that the position of county superintendent become an appointed rather than an elected position beginning in 1915. That year, Samuelson successfully campaigned to win appointment as Page County Superintendent of Schools, joining 54 women county school superintendents in Iowa.

As Page County Superintendent of Schools, she worked to provide rural schools, which had fewer resources than municipal schools, with instruction in the new curricular areas of home economics and vocational and agricultural education. In order to promote more uniform standards, she instituted countywide textbooks and saw to the professional advancement of teachers by organizing summer schools and institutes.

In 1923 she became an extension professor of rural education at Iowa State Teachers College. In that capacity, she traveled around the state continuing her efforts to provide equal education for rural children by insisting that they have scientific and vocational instruction, promoting increased certification requirements for county superintendents, and advocating consolidation of rural school districts.

Samuelson earned a B.A. from the State University of Iowa in 1925 and an M.A. in 1928. During graduate study, she worked with O. S. Lutes on a study of the efficacy of arithmetic drills, published as "A Method for Rating Drill Provisions in Arithmetic Textbooks" in the first series of the State University of Iowa Monographs in Education. Samuelson's master's thesis, "A Study of the County Superintendents of Public Instruction in Iowa," dealt with professional qualifications, methods of election or appointment, salaries, and proportions of males to females from the origins of the position to 1928.

In 1926, while both a student and an extension professor, Samuelson determined to run for the position of State Superintendent of Public Instruction. She entered the Republican primary against the incumbent, May E. Francis, who in 1922 had been the first woman elected to a state office in Iowa. Samuelson won an acrimonious battle for the Republican nomination, which was viewed as a victory for an education establishment that favored consolidation of rural schools. She won reelection in 1930 and again in 1934, when she was unopposed.

During her 12 years as Superintendent of Public Instruction, Samuelson proved to be an effective and well, regarded leader. She reorganized the state into divisions to enhance supervision; established a statewide course of study for elementary grades and developed syllabi for the high school extension service; conferred with Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt during the Depression on the administration of the Federal Emergency Relief Program for Education in Iowa to provide work for unemployed teachers, create programs for adult and early childhood education, and increase support for rural schools; created a research division to conduct a regular census of Iowa's teachers and collate information on their salaries; formed the public junior college system to carry out statewide vocational education; provided financial incentives and special programs for rural schools to facilitate consolidation; formed the Iowa Council for Better Education; and established a statewide education system for children with disabilities, which was a testament to her commitment to equal opportunity.

In 1935 Samuelson won election as president of the National Education Association (NEA), firmly cementing her presence on the national scene. Choosing not to run for a fourth term as Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1938, she became executive secretary of the Iowa State Teachers Association (ISTA), a position that allowed her to work on teacher certification and salaries.

Samuelson left the ISTA in 1945 for the Washington, D.C., headquarters of the NEA to become assistant editor of the NEA Journal and associate director of American Education Week. Before she retired in 1952, she worked with Hazel Davis of the NEA's research division on an article, "Women in Education," for a 1950 issue of the Journal of Social Issues about problems of professional women. In addition, she was instrumental in establishing the NEA's Division of Rural Service.

Samuelson was a member of a number of honorary, professional, and volunteer associations. She was elected to Phi Beta Kappa at the State University of Iowa, was a member of Pi Lambda Theta, and was a charter member of Delta Kappa Gamma, formed in 1929 to address issues of equality for women professionals in education. She served on advisory committees of education organizations and women's clubs, and maintained consistent involvement with the Augustana Lutheran Church and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In recognition of her accomplishments in education, she received honorary degrees from Augustana College, Simpson College, MacMurray College for Girls, Luther College, and Tarkio College. A Des Moines elementary school was named for her in 1965.

Samuelson spent her retirement years in Des Moines, where she continued to participate in numerous community and service organizations and kept up a full agenda of speeches, seminars, writing, and radio and television appearances. She was inducted into the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame in 1976.

Sources Samuelson's papers are at the State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa City. See also Dorothy Ashby Pownall, "Agnes Samuelson: A Dedicated Educator," Palimpsest 43 (1962), 497, 544.

Contributor: Kathy Penningroth
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 24 January 2015

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Miss Maisy B. Schreiner

Among the unusually successful teachers of Iowa is Miss Maisy B. Schreiner, who brings to her profession an unusually vigorous mind and a sympathetic understanding of boys and girls, which is one secret of her success. She is a high school teacher and in a single season has been offered positions in six different cities, unsolicited. She was christened Mary Boone, being named for her great grandmother who was a descendant of Daniel Boone of Kentucky. Her father was the Rev. E. L. Schreiner, who for forty years was a prominent minister of the Methodist church in this state. Her grandfather, Theodore Schreiner, was for many years a minister of the Lutheran denomination and for twenty, five years was Grand Tyler of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Iowa, and was lovingly known by Iowa Masons as ???Father??? Schreiner. Her mother was Martha Ann Robinson, a daughter of the Rev. Anthony Robinson, a minister in the M. E. church for forty, three years. Miss Schreiner is a graduate of the Iowa Wesleyan College, as were her father and mother and most of her kinsmen. She has taken postgraduate work in the University of Chicago and in the Leland Stanford University, specializing in Latin. She has taught in Iowa schools for nineteen years, eight years as principal of the Albia High School and six as principal of the Ames High School, and is now teaching Latin in the High School at Colorado Springs. She has traveled extensively in this country and in Europe. She is an Alpha Xi Delta and a P. E. O. and one of the finest women this state has produced.

[The Blue book of Iowa Women, by Winona Evans Reeves, Publ. 1914, Transcribed by Dana Kraft]

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Abigail Gardner Sharp

(1843, January 21, 1921)

Celebrated survivor of the so, called Spirit Lake Massacre of 1857. She was born at Twin Lakes, New York, the third of four children of Rowland and Francis (Smith) Gardner. At the time of the massacre, Abbie's sister Mary was married to Harvey Luce, and they were living, with their two children, in the Gardner household.

Like many other Americans in the 19th century, the family moved steadily west with the frontier. They moved to Ohio and Indiana in 1851 and on to Joliet, Illinois, in 1854. Later that year they moved to Davenport, Iowa, and then to Janesville on the Cedar River. The following year they moved to Mason City and Clear Lake. In the spring of 1856, led on by reports of a beautiful scenic area to the west that also had fertile farm ground, they left Clear Lake and arrived at Spirit Lake in July. (Today the area is composed of three large lakes, Spirit Lake to the north, East Okoboji Lake in the center, and West Okoboji Lake, with a series of smaller lakes,but at that time the entire area was called Spirit Lake.)

The Gardners built a cabin near the east shore of West Okoboji Lake. It was too late to plant crops, but they brought provisions that they hoped would last them until spring. That winter was extraordinarily severe, which threatened to exhaust the food supplies of most of the settlers in the area as well as those of the local Indians. There had already been some incidents between settlers and Indians and localized warfare between the Indians.

A renegade band of Sioux Indians known as the Wahpekute under Inkpaduta appeared around Spirit Lake in early March 1857. On the morning of March 8 they came to the Gardner cabin and seemed friendly at first but then demanded food and supplies. Although Rowland Gardner tried to comply, they shot him and then proceeded to kill Francis Gardner and the rest of the family, except Abbie. One sister, Eliza, was in Springfield (now Jackson), Minnesota, at the time and escaped the massacre. Abbie (not yet 14 years old) was taken captive. During the next few days, the Wahpekute went from cabin to cabin around the Spirit Lake area killing settlers and taking three additional captives. Before Abbie's ordeal was over, two of the captives, a Mrs. Thatcher and a Mrs. Noble, were also killed.

A relief expedition under the command of Major William Williams set out from Fort Dodge early in April to provide general assistance but also to pursue Inkpaduta and his band. However, they were already deep in the Dakota Territory with their captives and eluded capture. In June the Wahpekute negotiated with the Yankton Sioux along the James River and released Abbie to them. The Yanktons immediately headed into Minnesota and turned her over to Governor Medary, receiving $400 in return. On June 24 she went by steamboat to Dubuque, overland by stage to Fort Dodge, and then to Hampton, where she was reunited with her sister Eliza. The relief expedition found and buried the bodies of 29 settlers.

At Hampton, Abbie met Casville Sharp and married him on August 16, 1857. She and Casville had three children: Albert (b. 1859), Allen (b. 1862), and Minnie (b. 1871). Minnie died in infancy, but the boys lived to adulthood. The family lived briefly in Missouri about 1858, 1859 and in Kansas in 1860, but returned to Iowa. In the years that followed, Abbie Sharp tried unsuccessfully to reclaim her father's land. Finally, in 1891, she was able to regain 13 acres of the original Gardner claim near what is now Pillsbury's Point at Arnolds Park near the east shore of West Okoboji Lake. She settled and lived there the rest of her life, giving tours and telling her story to tourists during the summer months. Abbie Sharp died on January 21, 1921, and was buried in the Gardner family lot at Arnolds Park beside her parents.

In 1894 the 25th Iowa General Assembly appropriated $5,000 for the construction of a commemorative monument. In 1943 the Gardner Log Cabin at Pillsbury's Point, Arnolds Park, became a State Historical Site.

Sources Abigail Gardner Sharp's own History of the Spirit Lake Massacre and the Captivity of Miss Abbie Gardner (1885) has gone through many editions. In 1990 the Dickinson County Historical Society and Museum published a 12th edition. The one piece of basic biographical information that is missing is Abbie's exact date of birth. Oddly enough, she gives the exact date of her parents' marriage, March 22, 1836, but not her date of birth other than the year 1843. No other sources give an exact birth date either. Notices of her death are in the Des Moines Register, 1/23/1921, and the Spirit Lake Beacon, 1/27/1921. Notice of her passing also produced a laudatory editorial in the Des Moines Register, 1/24/1921. A larger general history of the background and course of the massacre, the relief expedition, the general outcome, and the decades of settlement and life in the Spirit Lake area that followed is in Thomas Teakle, The Spirit Lake Massacre (1918). See also William J. Petersen, "The Spirit Lake Massacre," Palimpsest 38 (1957), 209, 64; R. A. Smith, A History of Dickinson County (1902); and Benjamin Shambaugh, "Frontier Defense in Iowa, 1850, 1865," Iowa Journal of History and Politics 16 (1918), 336, 47. The massacre also has been treated in historical fiction by MacKinlay Kantor, Spirit Lake (1961).

Contributor: David Holmgren
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 24 January 2015

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Adeline Morrison Swain

(May 25, 1820, February 3, 1899)

Amateur artist and scientist, suffragist, and reformer, was born in Bath, New Hampshire. The daughter of a schoolteacher, she was given educational opportunities often denied to young women of her time. By 1836 she had completed her formal education, and at 16 took a teaching position in modern languages and art in a female seminary in Vermont. In 1846 she married James Swain, a pharmacist, and in 1858 the couple moved to Fort Dodge, Iowa, a struggling frontier town, where James achieved considerable financial success as a businessman. By 1871 the couple was able to build a showcase home that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Adeline Swain, clearly the best, educated woman in the community, made her home the town's social, intellectual, and cultural center. Recognizing the lack of local educational opportunities for young women, she organized classes in French, English, music, and painting. She also organized a children's lyceum to provide cultural opportunities for younger children. She personally was an accomplished artist who won statewide competitions in landscape and still life drawing and painting. A truly renaissance woman, she was a voracious reader who developed expertise in history, theology, and natural sciences. Her interest in science led her to offer classes in the study of the natural flora of the area.

Swain's scientific interests brought an appointment as a correspondent of the Entomological Commission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Her most important contribution in that capacity was a report published in 1877 on the Colorado grasshopper that was devastating agriculture in the northern Great Plains and western Iowa. Swain's scientific interests and accomplishments earned her election to membership in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, an honor seldom conferred on a woman at the time, and she was the first woman to prepare and read a paper before that body's national convention.

The arts and sciences, however, were not Swain's primary interests. She became involved in public affairs and social reforms, with women's rights as her primary political focus. In 1869 she organized the first woman suffrage meeting in Fort Dodge. During the 1870s, she traveled around the state, accompanying nationally recognized women's rights leaders such as Susan B. Anthony, speaking on the issue, and helping to establish local suffrage societies. She was an active participant in the National Women's Congress and the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), and for several years was a contributor to the Women's Tribune, a national publication. In recognition of her more than 40 years of work for the cause, the NWSA elected her vice president for life at its convention in Atlanta.

The Panic of 1873 and the subsequent depression forced her husband into bankruptcy and brought about the loss of their home and business property. In response, Swain increasingly became involved in politics and in the early farmer' movement. Rejecting the two major parties, she turned to the Greenback Party because of its commitment to monetary reform and its support for equal political and legal rights for men and women. After the death of her husband in 1878, her commitment to the party increased, and in 1881 she accepted the party's nomination for Iowa Superintendent of Public Instruction, becoming the first woman in Iowa to be nominated by a party for a statewide elective office. In the subsequent election, Swain tallied almost 27,000 votes, outpolling the party's male candidates for other offices. In 1884 she was chosen as a delegate to the party's national convention and was an active participant in that event, addressing the assembly from the speaker's platform.

In religious matters, Swain broke from the mainline denominations because of their traditional stands on women's roles in the church. She identified instead with the Unitarian, Universalist church, the only major denomination of the period to allow women to be clergy. She also became involved with Spiritualism, and the Swain home became the center of Spiritualist activities in the community. In 1874 Swain was elected secretary of the Iowa Spiritualist Association.

In 1887 Swain, aging and facing increasing financial difficulties, moved to Illinois to live with her brother. She died there in 1899. Her remains were returned to Fort Dodge. In 2000 Swain was elected to the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame.

Sources An obituary appeared in Annals of Iowa 4 (1899), 79. See also Benjamin F. Gue, History of Iowa (1903); Roger Natte, "Adeline Morrison Swain, Early Women's Rights Movement in Fort Dodge," Fort Dodge Today Illustrated Fort Dodge (1896).

Contributor: Roger Natte
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 24 January 2015

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Miss Florence Elizabeth Ward

Miss Florence Elizabeth Ward, head of the kindergarten department, Iowa State Teachers' College, was born in Wisconsin and is the daughter of Lemuel J. Ward and Elizabeth Herrington. She is a graduate of the Chicago Kindergarten College in the class of 1903. She is one of the foremost kindergartners in this country. When the American Civic Association sent a commission to Great Britain and Europe to study primary schools, Miss Ward was appointed on the commission. In 1912 she went to Rome to study the Montessori method first hand. Since her return she has written a book, ???Ten Practical Talks on the Montessori Method for Home, Kindergarten and Primary School,??? which was published by the MacMillan Co. of New York, and is considered one of the clearest expositions of the Montessori method yet publishd. She has delivered many lectures on primary and kindergarten subjects, child study, etc., before chautauquas, and teachers' associations, as well as before city audiences. She is a member of the Congregational church, is a member of the Propagation Committee of the International Kindergarten Union, member of the educational committee of the I. F. W. C. of the educational committee of the Iowa Society, D. A. R., is chairman of the educational committee, Iowa Congress of Mothers, chairman of the Iowa Department of school patrons of the National Educational Association, member of the educational committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. She is a member of the Waterloo Woman's Club and is a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. She has contributed to many school journals and other school publications.

[The Blue book of Iowa Women, by Winona Evans Reeves, Publ. 1914, Transcribed by Dana Kraft]

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Adonijah Strong Welch

(April 12, 1821, March 14, 1889)

First president of Iowa State Agricultural College, was born near East Hampton, Connecticut. Upon hearing about the opportunities available at the new state university in Michigan, Welch traveled to Jonesville, Michigan, in 1839. After a few years of preparatory work at the Academy of Romeo, he entered the university in 1843 and graduated in 1846 with a B.A. Welch headed the preparatory department from 1844 until he graduated, earning a strong reputation for organizational skills and as a leading proponent of educational innovation. He studied law at the office of Lothrop and Duffield in Detroit for a year and then returned to Jonesville to organize the Union School, the organization of which highly influenced the state high school system. In 1851 Welch accepted the head position of the state normal school in Ypsilanti, Michigan. After organizing and administering the teacher training school for 15 years, poor health forced him to resign and move to a more temperate climate in Florida.

In Florida, Welch dabbled in several pursuits, including lumbering and orange growing in Jacksonville. His reputation as an effective leader, a spokesman for progress, and an adamant supporter of Reconstruction politics resulted in his election to the U.S. Senate in 1867. He chose to accept a short two, year term rather than the full six, largely because Iowa leaders had offered him the position of president at the newly established Iowa State Agricultural College. Also at that time, Welch married Mary Beaumont Dudley, a recent widow of a colleague at Ypsilanti.

Welch's prior experience at organizing, administering, and defending a fledgling college became extremely important as the new land, grant college began its operations in Iowa. As expressed in his inaugural address in March 1869, Welch championed the liberalization of education and the equalization of educational opportunities for women. While his wife organized and conducted domestic economy coursework, Adonijah both administered college affairs and taught regular classes in psychology, political economy, and sociology. He also presented lectures in rhetoric, English literature, German, philosophy of science, normal instruction (teacher training), geology, landscape gardening, and stock breeding.

Welch's breadth and depth of educational experiences helped him navigate and reconcile the intricacies of combining classical and technical education at an institution charged with teaching "such branches of learning as related to agriculture and mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life" He brought his urban ideology to a pioneer environment, and his educated, knowledgeable, and social demeanor to a rural setting. Boys and girls who grew up on farms or worked in industrial shops encountered an administrator, teacher, and role model with both exacting social etiquette and humanizing attributes. Welch's ability to maintain a sense of dignity combined with adaptability and an easy sense of humor endeared him to students, teachers, and staff on campus, as well as legislative proponents and opponents. In 1874, following a financial scandal involving the misuse of the college's land appropriations and venomous attacks from the public regarding the usefulness of the college's curriculum, Welch skillfully defended the educational importance of agricultural and mechanical arts training for the future prosperity of Iowa's farming and industrial economies.

In 1883 Welch accepted an offer from the U.S. secretary of agriculture to tour European agricultural schools. The State Board of Education granted him a one, year leave; during that year, however, dissenting board members and farmer' organizations moved to remove Welch. Welch's and his wife's salaries were cut by $300. To further remove support for Welch and his wife, friendly faculty members had their appointments changed, were pressured to resign, or were placed in undesirable administrative positions. The board officially removed Welch as president in November 1883 despite strong support from the faculty, students, and the Ames community. Welch remained in Germany with friends for a year following his dismissal, but finally returned to Ames and accepted the position of professor of psychology and sociology in December 1884, largely to help stabilize the college community's contentious atmosphere. He continued to hold that position until January 1889, when his declining health forced him to remain at his Pasadena, California, winter residence until he died on March 14. Friends held funeral services a week later in the college chapel, and he was laid to rest in the college cemetery.

Sources include the Aurora 18 (April 1889), 1, 2; History and Reminiscences of I.A.C. (1893); Egbert Isbell, A History of Eastern Michigan University 1849, 1965 (1971); Earle D. Ross, The Land, Grant Idea at Iowa State College: A Centennial Trial Balance, 1858, 1958 (1958); Earle D. Ross, A History of the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1942); and Dorothy Schwieder and Gretchen Van Houten, eds., A Sesquicentennial History of Iowa State University: Tradition and Transformation (2007).

Contributor: Paul Nienkamp
The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, 2009. Web. 24 January 2015

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