The early life of W. A. Hillhouse is woven with the story of the Hill-house family related in the preceding chapters. He is a prominent citizen and the present efficient postmaster of Glasco. He is a native of Scotland, born at Lenarkshire in 1854, and a son of Mr. and Mrs. John Hillhouse, He was educated in the common schools of Missouri and Kansas and began his career farming; took up a homestead in the Solomon valley, where he lived until 1885, when he became associated with his father and J. E. Olmstead, Sr., in the grain business, and built an elevator. At the expiration of one year Mr. Olmstead retired from the business and the firm was continued by the father and son until the death of the former in 1892. Mr. Hillhouse continued the business alone until 1897, when he was appointed postmaster of Glasco.

He was married in 1883 to Vira McCullough, a daughter of James T. McCullough, who died April 5, 1885. Mr. McCullough was born near Athens, Ohio, December 14, 1820. His paternal grandfather was a soldier in the Black Hawk war. Mr. McCullough was married to Mary G. Brown January 29, 1843, and moved to Marshall county, Iowa, in 1864, where he followed blacksmithing. Mrs. Hillhouse is one of twelve children, eight of whom are living: James and Robert, of Iowa; Mrs. Joe Olmstead, of Glasco; Mrs. Oscar Hillan, John, William and Oscar. Mrs. McCullough died February 9, 1878, and the father with his family moved to Cloud county, Kansas, in 1879. In 1881 he was married to Mrs. A. Patrick, who survives him. Mr. McCullough was a good man, faithful in the discharge of his duties and had been a member of the Presbyterian church for many years. Mr. and Mrs. Hillhouse have one daughter, Nellie, a graduate of the Glasco high school, class of 1901. She is a qualified assistant in the postoffice and thoroughly competent in that capacity. Mrs. Hillhouse is also registered in the postoffice department.

Mr. Hillhouse is a Republican and has figured conspicuously in the political arena of Cloud county. He served four years as deputy sheriff of the county, under John D. Wilson two years, 1880-1, and under a brother, Daniel Wilson, two years, 1882-3. Mr. Hillhouse has served three terms as mayor of the city of Glasco and at various times as member of the city council. Has been a Mason for twelve years and has occupied the chair as master of Glasco lodge; is an Odd Fellow, having been a prominent member of the order for twenty-four years and helped to organize the lodge at Glasco. He is also a member of the Modern Woodmen, Royal Neighbors, Fraternal Aid and Sons of Veterans.


M. L. Hare, of the successful and enterprising drug firm of Brierley & Hare, is a thoroughly competent pharmacist and prescriptionist He is not only one of the most reliable druggists in the country, but one of the best posted men on the topics of the day and perhaps the best general authority in his town. Their stock of drugs, medicines and druggists' sundries have been selected with the greatest care and they have one of the neatest and best appointed business houses in the city of Glasco.

Mr. Hare is a native of Iowa, born in 1854. His parents are D. L. and Rebecca (Burk) Hare. His father was a farmer. Mr. Hare's mother died in 1891, and his father married again in 1900 and resides in Glasco. The Hares are of English origin and the Burks of German. Mr. Hare is the third child of a family of eight children, all of whom are living. Two brothers and one sister are residents of Cloud county; the others have found homes in various states. Mr. Hare is a self-made and self-educated man. He was reared on a farm and followed that pursuit until thirty years of age. During the period he should have been in school they lived in Missouri, where everything was devastated as a result of the Civil war. He gained his knowledge of book lore after he had passed the age of twenty years. He realized more and more the need of an education and by his personal efforts he succeeded in obtaining one. He was seven years old when his parents left Iowa and settled in Andrew county, Missouri. In March, 1871, he emigrated to Cloud county and settled on a farm in the Solomon valley. In 1883 he came into Glasco and engaged in the hardware business; five years later he erected the large stone business block now occupied by R. G. Bracken's furniture store, where he remained until receiving the appointment of postmaster in 1889, during the latter part of Cleveland's administration, to succeed Noah Welch, resigned, and though a Democrat he recommended Mr. Hare, who was appointed and served four and one-half years. When Mr. Cleveland was elected to his second term Mr. Hare resigned and was succeeded by Owen Day. In the meantime Mr. Hare had become associated with C. M. White in the drug store located in the postoffice building. In 1892 he bought Mr. White's interest in the firm and conducted the business until 1896, when he entered into partnership with Dr. Brierley in their present business. They also own jointly two very fine farms. One, the Captain Potts farm, is situated on the river, one mile west and the other three and one-half miles west of Glasco. These farms are both under high cultivation and improvement and are valuable estates.

Mr. Hare was married in 1879 to Miss Margaret Hillhouse, a daughter of John Hillhouse. Their family consists of three children, viz: Jeanette, a talented and accomplished young woman, is a graduate from the Glasco high school and on the fourth year of a collegiate course at Lindsborg. Charles is a trusted and valuable employee of the Glasco State Bank. He has evidently pleased his employers, as the length of time he has been with them (two years) signifies. .He is a graduate of the Glasco high school and one of the most popular young men in the community. May, the youngest daughter, is a graduate of the Glasco high school.

Mr. Hare is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons and Knights of Pythias. He has attained his good record through constant application and is an excellent business manager. Mr. Hare took a correspondence course through the Chicago Institute of Pharmacy and passed an examination before a board of examiners. He worked hard to accomplish this end, often burning midnight oil, but was rewarded by a satisfactory test of his qualifications. Mr. Hare is an agreeable, pleasant gentleman, and with his esteemed family occupy one of the handsome homes of Glasco and are among the most highly respected citizens of their town.


W. W. Palmer, an extensive farmer and stockman residing in Glasco, is a native of Massachusetts, born in Somerville, a suburb of Boston, in 1843. He is a son of Theodore and Lyclia (Wood) Palmer. One branch of the Palmers came over in the Mayflower and settled in Massachusetts, and emigrated later to New Hampshire where Theodore Palmer was born and married. They subsequently moved to Massachusetts, where their family was reared. Mr. Palmer's mother was a native of Massachusetts and died June 5, 1863. His father came to Kansas in 1881 to live in the home of his son and died in Neosha Falls in 1883.

Mr. Palmer emigrated to LaSalle county, Illinois, in 1860 where he remained until the following June, when he enlisted in Company A, Twentieth Illinois Infantry, and served three years, before arriving at the age of twenty-one. After the siege of Vicksburg he was transferred to the signal corps. He did not miss an engagement that his company participated in and was with Grant in every battle that famous general commanded, with the exception of Fort Pillow. When the signal corps in Banks' regiment arrived at Cane river, Louisiana, and they were fired upon by the enemy, the movements of the attacking column were conducted entirely by signal. The history by J. Willard Brown says, "Private Warren W. Palmer was complimented in the records for standing at his post like a true man and soldier while staff officers ran their horses to the rear for a more secure position/' His picture also appears in the work. Mr. Palmer was very young but had a brother in the service who was a good soldier and through this influence he was allowed to pass and enlist. At the time of his transference he was a corporal. He was neither wounded, sick or in prison during the service. He was in the battles of Fort Henry, Shiloh, Siege of Corinth, Britton's Lane, and with Grant's army at Fort Gibson Utica and Champion Hill, where their regiment turned the tide of that battle ; by a bold dash of General Logan's at the proper time every piece of artillery fell into their hands. The battle was a bloody one and fiercely fought. On the march from Jackson to Vicksburg they charged on Fort Hill and were repulsed, but stationed themselves a few rods away, threw up an embankment, dug trenches and tunneled through to the Fort; put in powder and blew it up making several efforts before they succeeded. One of the Rebel officers and a colored servant were killed in this affair, the darky being hurled into the air and landed in the Federal ranks. While the regiment was lying at Memphis in the autumn of 1862, there were numerous desertions. On one occasion Mr. Palmer and a comrade were strolling along Pigeon Road where the woods were full of guerrillas. The pair drifted several miles from camp in the vicinity of an old railroad track and discovered half a dozen men coming in their direction who they supposed were guerrillas. As they approached one of their number, a German, expressed a desire to be spokesman and upon being questioned as to what their intentions were, replied that they were fugitives of war and also affirmed that thousands more wanted to join them. The German invited them over to their plantation where they found card tables and other evidences of entertainment. Before taking their departure arrangements were made for Mr. Palmer and his partner to return and bring with them all who desired to desert the army with, the promise of sending them anywhere on parole in the south or north on the Mississippi river. Upon returning to camp the gallant "boys in blue" related their novel experience and General Logan immediately sent two companies of soldiers with staff officers, guides and men to arrest the fugitives who had forsaken their post of duty. Mr. Palmer with several others repaired to the place of meeting, reported themselves ready for the promised assistance and were instructed to go to a certain rendezvous for passports, etc. A few moments later and the door was burst open, the occupants taken in charge and put under guard. The three leaders of the gang were sent to the Alton penitentiary for the remainder of the war. Upon investigation they found in the house accoutrements of war and the papers of one hundred or more soldiers who had become deserters.
After the war Mr. Palmer obtained a position with Drake & Beebee's commision house, remaining eighteen months and removed to Dongola, Union county, Illinois, where he lived two years and was appointed postmaster and express agent, which offices he had held one year prior to this date for Mr. Leavenworth, who resigned and was succeeded by Mr. Palmer. Our subject was one of eleven children, four of whom are living. He has two brothers-Homer, a resident of Idaho, and George, who was in the same company with Mr. Palmer, is an inmate of the Soldiers' Home at Ouincy, Illinois. He is sixty-six years of age. A sister, Caroline Moore, is a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. A brother, William, who enlisted in a Massachusetts regiment, was killed in the battle of Spotsylvania. Lyman, another brother, who was also one of a Massachusetts regiment, was wounded and died in this state from the effects of the wound.

Mr. Palmer located in Glasco in the winter of 1878-9 and for several years followed carpentering. He assisted in building the first house that was erected in that city after it secured the railroad. He leases and operates a section of fine land about one mile from Glasco, which he has farmed since 1893. Within the eight years that he has operated this farm the land has produced thirty thousand bushels of wheat, and the present year (1901) he has two hundred and sixty acres. In 1897 his wheat averaged forty bushels and in 1891 forty-one bushels per acre. In the latter year he had twenty acres of volunteer-wheat that yielded twenty-seven and one-half bushels per acre. In 1901 a field of two hundred acres yielded forty bushels per acre; much was wasted on account of dry weather and he garnered but twenty-three hundred bushels. Mr. Palmer has raised cattle and hogs successfully, shipping two car loads of the latter per year. His herd of cattle consists of ninety head. He visited Missouri in 1900 and purchased several head of the Aberdeen strain and is breeding his herd into the Aberdeen-Angus. He has been very successful in alfalfa and has sixty-five acres that yielded one hundred and twenty-five tons the present year. Mr. Palmer has also been engaged in the real estate and insurance business, and through his shrewdness and efforts many transactions in good real estate have taken place. In i8<So he became manager for the Chicago Lumber Company and was with this enterprise eight years.

Mr. Palmer was married in 1865 to Mary E. Little, a daughter of John F. Little, of Compton, New Hampshire. She is a lineal descendant of George Little, nine generations removed, who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1640. The place of his nativity was Union street, city of London, England, in the vicinity of London Bridge. Her father was born in 1810 on the old Little homestead at Compton. The house in which he was born was a well-constructed building erected in 1786; the first shingles lasting half a century.

John F. Little was a teacher in his early life and moved to Mississippi, where he met and married Sarah Ann Dennis. She was born in 1818. They emigrated to Dongola, Union county, Illinois, in 1866, where Mr. Little was a prominent citizen and became postmaster, express agent and justice of the peace, holding these positions several years. They lived to celebrate their golden wedding and were both deceased the following year. Mrs. Palmer is one of five children, viz: Alice Jane, deceased wife of Henry C Neville; she died in 1866, leaving one son, Henry C, living in the state of Indiana. John Augustus, deceased in 1859, at the age of twelve years. James Albert, born July 4, 1853, is watchman in the Marine Hospital of Cairo, Illinois. Sarah Phoebe, deceased wife of John McNamer, died July 21, 1878. The Little ancestry served in the French and Indian war, the Revolution, the War of 1812 and the Civil war. A cousin of Mrs. Palmer was the youngest captain of an Iowa regiment. They were prominent people, many of them being graduates of Harvard, Yale and other noted colleges. They were all upright, industrious and God-fearing men. Her grandfather, four generations back, was Colonel Moses Little, who won distinction under Washington at the battle of Bunker Hill. He led three companies across Charleston Neck under a severe fire from the British batteries, reaching the scene of action before the first charge of the enemy and was present throughout the engagement. He is spoken of in history as "behaving with much spirit." Though not wounded he had many narrow escapes, and forty of his regiment were killed and wounded. He was the officer of the day when Washington took command of the army and afterward became personally acquainted with his commander-in-chief, who held him in high esteem. Upon one occasion several officers were complaining- bitterly of the character of their provisions. Washington suggested they confer with Colonel Moses Little, who had not found time to allude to hardships of this sort In 1777 he was compelled to return home on account of illness and two years later declined for the same reason the commission of brigadier general and the command of an expedition raised by the commonwealth of Massachusetts to dislodge the enemy from their position on the Penobscot. He afterward represented his native town in the legislature as he had done before the war. He died in 1798.

To Mr. and Mrs. Palmer have been born eight children, seven of whom are living, viz: Theodore Dudley, born in 1868, is a bookkeeper in a railroad office at Altoona, Wisconsin. Roscoe, born in 1877, occupies a position in the same office. He was a member of the Fifteenth Minnesota, Company H, and served nine months in the Cuban war. They did not encounter active service, but were encamped at Camp McKenzie, Georgia, and at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. They expected and were anxious to be sent to Cuba. but the warfare ceased ere they were called on to go. John Dennis, born in 1870, is a clerk in a department store in Marshalltown, Iowa. Adah Marie is the wife of A. R. Hilsabeck, a farmer near Gilman, Iowa. Alice Emma is married and resides in Glasco. Albert and Alma were the first twins born in the city of Glasco. Albert is at present in Colorado, where he is sojourning for the benefit of his health. Alma, a prepossessing and promising young woman, was deceased January 21, 1901, at the age of twenty-one years. Harry, the youngest child, is a student of the Glasco high school.

Mr. Palmer had been a life-long Republican, but in the two last presidential elections voted the Democratic ticket. He is a Master Mason, a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Grand Army of the Republic and has been post commander several terms. He has held the office of police judge and justice of the peace for several years and bears the reputation of being the best officer Solomon township ever had; and has tried some important cases. Mr. Palmer has probably spent more time and money in Glasco than any other individual citizen. He took a prominent part in the erection of the school building and is foremost in any public enterprise of his town. He is one of the most influential men in Glasco, one of the most highly esteemed in the community and was a faithful and trustworthy soldier. Mrs. Palmer is a refined and cultured woman. She is a member and earnest worker of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer occupy one of the handsomest homes in their little city.


The subject of this sketch is the eldest of the four sons of Captain John Potts, one of the old pioneers of the Solomon valley, who, after a residence of thirty-five years on his homestead near Glasco, removed to southeastern Kansas, in the vicinity of Parsons. He was one of the most highly esteemed citizens of the community and his removal was regretted. He had the honor of captain conferred upon him by Governor Crawford, during the Indian uprising-s on the Solomon. He with others organized the company which he commanded.

Charles Potts was born in the "Hoosier" state in 1863 and emigrated with his parents to Kansas in 1866, during the turbulent Indian times. He has been educated and grown to manhood in the vicinity of Glasco, where he owns eighty acres of land, and with his brother, A. F. Potts, the fifth son, operates a threshing machine. They do an extensive business, handling from thirty to seventy thousand bushels of grain in a season. A. F. Potts was born near Glasco in 1875. He was married in July, 1901, to Miss Ella Hunt Gregg, a daughter of G. W. Gregg, a farmer with residence in Glasco. There are two other brothers-Joseph C, who is interested in a mineral water establishment in Kansas City. He was a successful Cloud county teacher for several years. In 1888-9 he was principal of the Lincoln school in Concordia. Morton Elmer is a prosperous farmer of Labette county, Kansas. A brother, sixteen years of age, was accidentally killed on August 19, 1876. On his return from hunting he stopped at a neighbors to procure a drink of water; the gun which he had rested against the curbing, fell to the. ground and was discharged, the young man receiving the contents just below the knee. Before the services of a physician could be obtained he almost bled to death. The leg \\fas amputated, but the unfortunate boy died under the operation.

The accompanying illustration shows the original Kansas home of Captain Potts, which was supplanted by a commodious and modern residence several years ago. This old landmark has been torn down since the photo was taken by Mr. Soule specially for this volume. The old cabin which sheltered the family during the stirring Indian scenes, when dangers menaced them upon every side and where they spent anxious days and nights momentarily anticipating the dread warwhoop, has sunk into oblivion. Again there are doubtless many pleasant memories clustered around its fireside, for pioneers are a unit when giving expression to the sympathy, neighborly kindness and good cheer that prevailed in the early days. There is a pathos in the obliteration or blotting out of these monuments of pioneer days; however, the conditions seemingly demand it and they are ruthlessly torn down and forgotten.


The handsome stone structure known as the Oakes House was erected in the summer of 1887, by H. H. Spaulding. It is a massive and substantial building of brown sandstone, with trimmings of white magnesia stone, which gives it a striking and imposing appearance. It is thirty-five by eighty feet in dimensions and three stories in height, with a basement under the entire building. On the first floor is a commodious office, well furnished parlors, dining room, kitchen, well and cistern room. On the second floor are the sleeping rooms, which are well appointed, airy apartments. They are not marked by numerals, as is ordinarily the case, but are designated uniquely, as McKinley, Cleveland, Goebel, Baby Ruth, Mary Ellen Lease, etc. The third flood has never been finished, as the trade does not demand it. In the basement are sample rooms and a billiard hall. A double veranda extends around two sides of the building and is pleasantly shaded by thrifty growing trees. The hotel is well furnished and is one of the most desirable properties in the county. Few towns the size of Glasco can boast of as good a hostelry, and the money expended in this enterprise evidenced H. H. Spaulding's faith in the future of his town. The property passed into the control of Nichols Klein in 1901.


One of the very early settlers of the Solomon valley is Phoebe Snyder, a native of Pennsylvania. She went with her parents to Indiana when but seven years of age and grew to womanhood in the town of Frankfort. Her father, John Murfin, was born near Liverpool, England, in 1802, emigrated to America and settled in Pennsylvania in 1834. One year later he was married to Permelia Sanders. He was a shoemaker by trade and after moving to Frankfort he owned and operated a boot and shoe store in connection with a factory. The Murfin ancestry were nearly all tillers of the soil. Mrs. Snyder's father was twice married. His first wife died in England, leaving two children, who remained with their grandparents near Liverpool. The Sanders were early settlers of Pennsylvania and later of Indiana, where Mrs. Snyder's grandparents
located in the early 'thirties and cleared their land when wild beasts roamed the forests. Her father died May 31, 1858, at Frankfort, Indiana, and her mother December 30, 1886. Mrs. Snyder is the eldest of eight children, three of whom are living: Jedduthen, proprietor of a chair factory in Austin, Indiana; Elizabeth, deceased at the age of eleven years; Catherine, the widow of James Davis, of Scottsburg, Indiana; Sarah died at the age of three years; Marion died in infancy; William died at the age of thirty-three years, near Austin, Indiana, leaving a wife and two children: Permelia Alice, the deceased wife of William Faulkner, died at the rgc of thirty years, leaving two children.

Mrs. Snvder was married to Captain H. C. Snvder in Frankfort, Indiana, December 24, 1854. He first enlisted in the Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry and was commissioned lieutenant of that company. In his second enlistment he was promoted to captain of the Eighth Indiana Cavalry. He was wounded twice and disabled for a short period each time, but served all through the war. When he entered the service Captain and Mrs. Snvder owned a residence and were living at Austin, Indiana, but during his absence Mrs. Snyder had traded the property and moved on to a farm. They sold the farm in 1866 and emigrated overland to Kansas with their family of five children. They were preceded by H. H. Spaulding, who wrote back telling his Indiana friends of the beautiful valley he had found, the "Eden of the world" its natural resources and great possibilities, which resulted in Captain Snyder and five other men with their families seeking homes on the boundless prairies of Kansas. Of this little company of emigrants Mrs. Snyder and her children are the only ones living in the community. A part of the band sought other places of residence, some became disheartened and returned to their former homes and some have gone to the unknown realms of the "great beyond." Captain Snyder homesteaded land one-half mile west of Glasco, now owned by Garrett Davidson, but still known as the Captain Snyder farm. While Mrs. Snyder has experienced many hardships and privations, this spot marked by many sorrows, where she lived in the primitive days and often sat on the corner of their little dugout during her husband's absence, watching the night through, while her little brood slept peacefully on the inside, endeavoring to catch the outline of the savages who might be hovering near, still seems more like home to her than any other place.

The Pawnees were numerous and while pretending to be friendly Indians were often troublesome and gave cause for alarm. The outlook from the first was of a discouraging nature, though not more perhaps than in any new country, and things moved on in a monotonous channel until the Indian raid of August 11, 1868, the first in this locality and a description of which is given elsewhere in this volume. After this excitement the Snyders, with other settlers, moved to the stockade until affairs assumed a normal condition. While a new stone house was in course of erection their old domicile, built of stone with a sod roof, which was weakened by the washing down of continued rains, gave way, and, had it not been for the door casing which kept the ridge pole from giving way, Mrs. Snyder and two small children would perhaps have been severely injured. In 1872 Captain Snyder erected a one-and-a-half-story house of four rooms, which was a very pretentious residence for that day and the best in the vicinity and where they lived until 1879, when they came to Glasco. They built the little cottage where Mrs. Snyder now lives in 1887.

To Captain and Mrs. Snyder ten children have been born, five of whom are living: Permelia, deceased wife of John Mann, "a farmer of Cloud county and resident of Glasco (see sketch). She died August 29, 1887, leaving seven children, five of whom are living. Lewis, the oldest son, who was wounded by the Indians, is a miner of Bingham, Utah. Leonard is supposed to be dead. He went to Colorado and thence to Arizona and has not been heard from for fourteen years. Ulysses is a resident of Kansas City, and was sergeant of the police force until the Democrats were put in power. He is now following his trade-that of a painter. Ora Bell, wife of Joe Martin (see sketch). Ada, wife of Charles Pilcher (see sketch). Anna I-aura died at the age of eleven years. Henry, Jr., died in infancy. Luella, wife of Charles Franks (see sketch). Arlet died in infancy.

Hattie Mann, who found a home with her grandparent, Mrs. Snyder, at the death of her mother in 1887, is deserving of much commendation for her personal virtues and meritorious career. Having been deprived of a mother's loving care, she was thrown upon her own resources early in life. and while her grandmother assumed the duties and responsibilities of a mother to the extent of her means, she was not in a financial position to give her more than a home and the wise counsels that will follow her through all the viccisitudes of life. Miss Mann is a young woman of more than ordinary talents and intellect and excels in her chosen profession-that of teacher; is now engaged on her third term. She is not only cultured and refined but possesses an amiable disposition and many excellent personal qualities.

Mrs. Snyder is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church and lives her religion daily. She is also a member and active worker of the Woman's Relief Corps and a woman ever ready to promote the happiness or welfare of her friends and neighbors.


G. W. Smaile is a retired farmer and one of those old veterans of the Civil war that never tires of relating army lore. He enlisted August 15, 1862, at the age of eighteen years in Company B, One Hundred and Fortieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, under T. B. Rogers and Colonel R. P. Roberts, serving until May 11, 1865. He entered as a private and was promoted to sergeant He received a wound in the hand June 2, 1864. at the battle of Cold Harbor, which disabled him until the following February. He was in the battles of Chancellorsvilie, Gettysburg, Bristow Station, Mine Run campaign, Todd's Tavern, Spottsylvania Court House, Lone Pine, Petersburg, Five Forks and at the surrender of Appomattox and was mustered out at Alexandria, Virginia. His company distinguished themselves and lost the heaviest of any in the state.

After the war Mr. Smaile emigrated to Iowa when that state was new, and six years later emigrated to Kansas, where he homesteaded land in Ottawa, just over the line from Cloud county, and ten miles southeast of Glasco, where they suffered many trials during the drouth and grasshopper years. He. sold this farm two years later and after several removals located in Delphos in 1897, and in 1893 bought a residence property in Glasco, where he has since resided.

Mr. Smaile is a native of the "Keystone' state, born in September, 1843. He is from a race of farmers. His father was Henry Smaile. The family four generations removed were from Germany. His paternal grandfather was a Revolutionary soldier and died of small-pox on Lake Erie. Mr. Smaile mother was Sophronia McKessick. of Scotch-Irish origin. She was a native of Maine but reared in the state of Pennsylvania. His parents died at the age of eighty years, respectively.

Mr. Smaile went home from the war and began the battle of life with the woman who had prayed for his safe return. He was married in March, 1866, to Vallie Hutton, a daughter of John Grant, who was an own cousin of General Grant. Her maternal grandfather was a farmer, and died in Delphos, Kansas, in December, 1892, at the age of one hundred and two years. He had received his second eyesight, was a remarkably well preserved man, possessed of a clear mind. Mrs. Smaile has his autograph written at the age of one hundred years. Her mother died April, 1901, at the age of eighty years.

Mr. and Mrs. Smaile are the parents of four children: Minnie, wife of James Cobb, a farmer near Glasco; Nellie, an excellent dressmaker; Ida, wife of John Teasley, a farmer near Glasco, and Frank, who is interested in farming. Mr. Smaile votes the Republican ticket and is a justice of the peace. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic post of Glasco. The family are members and active workers in the Christian church.


Fred Prince, the editor and publisher of the Glasco Sun, is a native of Wisconsin, born in 1857. After several removals during his youthful days, his father settled in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, where Mr. Prince was educated in the high school and grew to manhood. He began life in the avocation of teaching school, but his career in this line was brief. One year later he came to Kansas and entered the State Normal School of Concordia for two terms, and in the spring of 1876 apprenticed himself as a printer in the Expositor office at Concordia, then endited by J. S. Paradis. One year later he filled the position of "devil" in the Empire office and a few months afterward was promoted to foreman, remaining in this capacity until the paper was sold to Honey & Davis in 1880. Mr. Prince then leased the jobbing department of the Blade, during J. M. Hagaman's reign, and in 1883 bought an interest in the Critic. The following August he became owner and publisher of the Glasco Sun. On January 1, 1889, he sold this paper to Miss Kate Hubbard, and purchasing the Cawker City Journal, removed to that city and successfully operated a paper there for a period of one year and three months. He then moved the plant to Concordia, where lie started a paper under the name of Alliant, the first Alliance paper published in northern Kansas. In 1895 he returned to his farm near Glasco, a small tract of land which he had secured while a resident of that city. October 1, 1899, - Prince again assumed control of the Glasco Sun, buying the interest of George Wright, and has since operated that paper. The Glasco Sun is a local paper giving the general news and is non-partisan in politics.

Mr. Prince was married in 1879 to Miss Delia A. Guffin, of Concordia. Her father was J. C. Guffin, an old resident of Concordia, locating there in 1872, and where Mrs. Prince finished her education in the State Normal School. She was a teacher one year before her marriage. To Mr. and Mrs. Prince four children have been born.

Mr. Prince resides on his little farm one mile east of Glasco. He is a thorough horticulturist, has an irrigating plant in course of construction and raises some of the finest fruit in the country, including peaches, grapes, raspberries, etc. Mr. Prince's parents are old settlers of Cloud county, and live on a farm five miles northwest of Glasco. Mr. Prince is an only child. His paternal grandfather, while serving in the Revolutionary war, was taken prisoner, and carried to England, with the choice of staying in prison or a voyage on a whaling vessel. He chose the latter and when the ship returned the war had ended. His ancestors were all seafaring men.- [Mr. Prince recently sold his interest in the Glasco Sun and has retired from newspaper work. He remains a citizen of Glasco however, and is engaged in the confectionery and restaurant business.-Editor.]


G. A. Wright located in Glasco in the spring of 1892. Prior to establishing his present business he had charge of the tin and pump works in the hardware house of Day & VanLandingham. He subsequently bought and edited the Glasco Sun three years and three months, and sold to Ferd Prince. Mr. Wright made a financial success of the newspaper work in Glasco. He is a native of Chicago, born April 5, 1865. The Wrights were among the early settlers and homesteaded one mile northeast of Concordia, where they lived nearly twenty years. His father is W. H. Wright, a farmer now living near the station of Rice.

Mr. Wright began his career repairing sewing machines and organs. In 1885 he became associated with his father in the Cloud County Critic, afterward known as the Kansas Critic. This was their first newspaper experience, our subject and sister doing the mechanical work while his father and mother managed the editorial department. The paper was reform in sentiment and took up the Union Labor and Alliance movements and the result brought about in this part of the country was somewhat owing to their labors. Three years later they discontinued the paper and our subject moved the plant to Arkansas. Mr. Wright farmed that year and raised a big crop of corn, but it only brought thirteen cents, and he became discouraged with farming and resumed newspaper work at Fairmount, Arkansas. Nine months later he moved to Hazen, where he edited the Hazen News and at the same time published a paper at Duvalls Bluff, the Prairie Gem, and later consolidated the two papers.
Mr. Wright was married to Inez Burnett, a daughter of L. C. Burnett, of Glasco, in 1888. She came to Glasco with her parents in 1885. Was a graduate of the Glasco school and taught one year. They are the parents of four daughters and one son: Edna, Leila, Beth, Elsie and Ralph. Mr, Wright is a reformer in politics, not radical in his expressions, but lends his influence in that direction. He is a member of the Modern Woodmen of Glasco. The Fraternal Aid and the Knights of Pythias, and Mrs. Wright is a member of the Royal Neighbors and Fraternal Aid.

Addenda: Since writing the above sketch Mr. Wright has again assumed control of the Glasco Sun. He bought the interest and good will of Ferd Prince and is publishing one of the test papers in Cloud county, devoted solely to the interests of Glasco and the Solomon valley. Mr. Wright is a capable man and it is surprising that one of his talents in that direction should have suspended newspaper work. His career in that line has been one of flattering success and his paper is receiving a large patronage, assuring him of good financial returns. Much of his success is due to the energy and ability of Mrs. Wright, to whom he has taught the mysteries of the art preservative, and who is capable of managing both the news and job departments when the necessity presents itself. Being a fond mother, however, she prefers the home life to that of the more strenuous printing office.


The subject of this sketch, Nichols Klein, is the owner and manager of the Oakes House, one of the best business properties in the city of Glasco. Mr. Klein is an old resident of Mitchell county, Kansas, having settled there in 1876 and was the first white proprietor of a barber shop in the city of Beloit, remaining there until 1901, when he purchased the hotel of Mr. and Mrs. Oakes, trading some good Beloit real estate in the transaction.

Mr. Klein was born in the southern part of Germany in the year 1849. His boyhood days were spent on the farm in his native land, but when he reached the age of twenty-three years he started out to see something of the world and with his parents settled in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, where he learned the barber trade, became an adept tonsorial artist and has followed that occupation ever since. Mr. Klein's father emigrated west and died in Beloit. His mother was deceased in Ohio.

Mr. Klein was married in 1878 to Mary Arnoldy, of Mitchell county, Kansas, where her father, Nichols Arnoldy, was an early settler and prominent citizen. He owned nine hundred and forty acres of land, part of which extended into Osborne county. He emigrated to Kansas in 1873 from Minnesota, his former home, and where Mrs. Klein was born. He died in Downs in the year 1887, where he owned a hotel at the time of his death. Mrs. Klein is one of a family of ten children, five boys and five girls, all of whom are living. Three of her brothers are residents of California; one of them being county attorney of Yuba county, California, and resides in Marysville. One brother is in Chicago, and another in Mitchell county, Kansas. Three of her sisters live near Tipton, Mitchell county, and one in California.

Mrs. Klein is an estimable woman and an indulgent mother, devoted to the welfare of her family.

To Mr. and Mrs. Klein eight children have been born, viz: Anna, who was married about a year ago to John Smith, a young farmer of Mitchell county. Ella, the second daughter, assists in the duties of the hotel. Arnold and Leo are young men aged twenty and eighteen years, respectively. Frances, Willie and Maxie attend the Glasco schools, and Marie, an interesting little girl of five summer's, completes the family circle. Their family of children are Kansans, born, bred and educated in Beloit. Arnold, the eldest son, was a student for one year of St. Benedict's College at Atchison, Kansas. The family are members of the Catholic church.


An old settler and progressive farmer of Cloud county is J. A. Mann, a native of Hawkins county, Tennessee, torn in 1842. He is a son of McMinn and Elizabeth L. (Bradshaw) Mann, both of southern birth. His father was an extensive planter in Tennessee and Georgia, moving to the latter state when our subject was a small boy. The Mann ancestry were of Scotch origin, emigrated to America, settled in Virginia in colonial times, and later removed to Tennessee. Mr. Mann's paternal grandfather was a soldier in the War of 1812. J. A. Mann is the eldest of a family of ten children, seven of whom are living, five in Kansas and the others have drifted to the far west.

Mr. Mann was educated in the subscription schools of Georgia and in 1859 emigrated with his parents to Illinois, where he enlisted in the United States army, under Captain Carmichael of Grant's corps and McClelland's brigade. He served three years, and during that time participated in the battles of Fort Henry, Shiloh, Fort Donelson and many other engagements and skirmishes; came out with several bullet holes in his overcoat, but escaped bodily injury. After the war Mr. Mann returned to his home in Illinois and in 1866, with his parents and two other families, emigrated to Kansas. They came overland with six wagons drawn by ox-teams and were six weeks making the trip. They arrived in July, the grass had been eaten down by the buffalo and was dry and sear, the country was new, the settlers far distant from one another and the prospect was very discouraging. The father's possessions were ten children and one hundred and fifty dollars in money. Mr. Mann had four hundred and fifty dollars. They both took up homesteads on Chriss creek, which takes its name from a man who took up school land at the mouth of that stream in 1860.

Mr. Mann participated in several buffalo hunting expeditions; On one of these trips he started November 15, 1866, and was gone until Christmas, bringing back a wagon load of buffalo meat for his father's family. They killed sixty cows and brought home the hind quarters. They also suffered the loss of a yoke of oxen, which cost one hundred and fifty dollars, from storm and starvation, on this expedition. On one trip to Chapman creek to mill he was delayed by a storm for three weeks, during which time the family lived on meat and hominy, having no flour to make bread. They had made a few improvements and were just getting in a condition where they could exist when the Indian troubles began and they were forced to abandon their home. In 1869 they returned and this year an abundant crop was raised. From this they began to prosper and in 1874 there was not a claim in the country unoccupied. Mr. Mann's father died in 1884 and his mother in 1889.

Mr. Mann sold his homestead in 1887, moved to Oregon, bought a farm which he sold one year later, and then returned to Kansas and purchased a farm three and one-half miles north of Glasco. His farm consists of two hundred and forty acres. Among other improvements there is a fine basement barn. His chief industry is wheat and stock raising. Mr. Mann and his family own a pleasant home in Glasco, where they now reside.

Mr. Mann was married in 1871 to Pennelia Snyder, a daughter of Captain Snyder, of Glasco. She was deceased in 1887, leaving seven children, five of whom are living, viz: Henry, foreman of a fine horse ranch near Portland, Oregon; Albert, pilot in the railroad yards in Kansas City; Lewis farms with his father; William, a farmer, and Hattie, a Cloud county teacher. Mr. Mann was married in 1888 to Ella, widow of James Axley, by whom she had two children, Myrtle and William. Mr. and Mrs. Mann are the parents of two bright little girls, Olive and Florence. Mr. Mann is a Republican in politics, and a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Grand Army of the Republic.


Augustus Ott, an old resident, leading merchant and representative citizen of Glasco, is a native of Stephenson county, Illinois, born in 1856. His parents are natives of Germany. His father emigrated to America when t twenty-five years old and his mother at a youthful age. They are both living on a farm near Glasco and are aged respectively seventy-six and sixty-six years. Mr. and Mrs. Ott reared a remarkable family of fourteen children, all of whom are living and are useful men and women. Augustus Ott is the eldest child. Two brothers and one sister reside in Colorado City, Colorado, and one brother in Orange, California; the other members of the family reside in the vicinity of Glasco. Mr. Ott's early education was limited. He took a four-months' course in the Commercial College of Savannah, Missouri, taking a special course in penmanship. He is an expert and thorough penman and taught the Spencerian system for several years. There has been but little penmanship taught in Glasco except through his efforts. He conducted a private subscription school very successfully for a considerable length of time.

Mr. Ott emigrated with his parents from Illinois to Iowa, from there to Missouri, and in 1878 he came to Glasco and entered the employ of Isaac Biggs, where he remained more than a year. In 1879 he succeeded Isaac Biggs as postmaster and served in this capacity for seven years; in the meantime with his brother George he established a small business under the firm name of A. Ott & Brother, grocers, and to meet the demand they established a jewelry shop in connection and employed a workman in that line. After his term as postmaster had expired they opened a general store, which they conducted until 1900, and then sold to Mr. Staley. During the financial crisis, and owing to his brother signing a heavy bond, they virtually failed, but were appointed their own agents, and much to their credit, be it said, these honorable and enterprising men cleaned out and squared up every dollar of their indebtedness. His brother went west in search of health and our subject opened up a general store under the name of A. Ott in the La Rocque building, situated on the corner opposite the bank, where he is now located and has been very successful ever since. By his honest dealing he has built up one of the best mercantile houses in the city of Glasco.

Mr. Ott was married in 1881 to Lucy H. Dalrymple, a daughter of H. H. and Mary (Conner) Dalrymple. The Dalrymples are of Scotch origin. Her father was born in Ohio and her mother in Indiana. The Conners emigrated from that state to Blue Ridge, Harrison county, Missouri. Mr. Dalrymple visited a sister who lived at Blue Ridge and while on this mission met Mary Conner, whom he married in i860. The Conner's are of Irish origin several generations removed. One and one-half years later Mr. and Mrs. Dalrymple removed to Stark county, Illinois, and settled near Bradford. From this point he enlisted in the army at the beginning of the Civil war and served three years. At the end of that period he was discharged on account of disability, which resulted in his emigrating to the west. In 1865, with his wife and three children, he came to what is now Cloud county and took up a homestead on Second creek, where he lived until his death in 1879, his wife having preceded him two years.
They experienced the same hardships that all the pioneers endured- Indians, drouth and grasshoppers. They were among the settlers who left their homes during the Indian uprisings and for over a year walked one and a half miles to the fort which the settlers had built for protection against the savages. During these primitive times they drove to Manhattan for flour and to Salina for groceries. The store building was a shanty constructed from a few upright boards. These towns consisted of a few small houses of similar architecture interspersed with dugouts. During those times they did not dare make known they had provisions stored in their homes on account of the Indians, who would not leave without their share and to offset this trouble the settlers would make their beds on layers of flour and provisions in order to hide them from the penetrating eye of the savages. When the Indians passed with Mrs. Morgan in captivity the settlers at the fort watched their movements through a spy glass and saw them stop at the Dalrymple claim presumably for something to eat. The two Dairymples, H. H. and his brother, were the only men in the fort one day among nine families of women and children. Mrs. Ott's father was on the outside when he saw the Indians coming and scaled the high wall of the stockade. His brother Isaac was in bed, jumped out in his night clothes, procured a gun and sallied forth just as tlie red skins were coming through the gate. He fired and killed one of their number and while the murderous band gathered around to carry him away, as is their custom, they closed the gates. The demons lingered near all day and in the meantime they passed the fort with their captive, Mrs. Morgan.
One day Mrs. Ott and her brother were playing on the hill side near the house when three Indians rode up and attempted to capture them. They threw Mrs. Ott on a horse and proceeded to do likewise with the boy, but he fought and screamed until their uncle Isaac, who lived with them, heard his cries for help and came with his carbine and frightened them away. For several years her father plowed with his gun strapped to his person. In their first settlement on the frontier Mrs. Ott and her brother would often herd the buffalo off the fields as they would cattle. They lived in this locality several years before a death occurred from natural causes. Her father's house was a small log building and served as a church for several years, services being held once a month with Alfred Stackhouse as minister. Prior to erecting their cabin they lived in a dugout about four years; their beds were in tiers and were sort of swinging shelf one above the other.

Mr. Dalrymple had shipped to the end of the railroad a car load of provisions and among other things some live hogs; they were red in color and had long snouts-the "razor back" quality-and were sent in first because that breed could subsist on prairie hay. Mrs. Ott remembers her father having sold one hog for seventy-five dollars. The event was impressed upon her mind more forcibly perhaps because upon his return she was the recipient of a new dress and silver thimble. To Mr. and Mrs. Dalrymple seven children were born, all of whom are living. Lucy H., wife of A. Ott; James, a farmer of Solomon township; Zorilda, wife of Dennis Hanchett, a farmer of Stark county, Illinois; Dora, wife of William Luckenbill, a farmer of Rooks county, Kansas; Arthur, a farmer, now owns the old homestead; Henry, of Boise City, Idaho, and Herbert, living near Glasco, are both farmers.

To Mr. and Mrs. Ott six children have been born, five of whom are living. Elma E., the eldest child was deceased July 11, 1883, at the age of one year and ten months. Those living are Mattie B., Roy H., Eva P., Homer M., and Lucy M. Mr. Ott is a Republican in politics. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Modern Woodmen and Fraternal Aid of Glasco. The family are members of the Presbyterian church. Mr. Ott is a good citizen and one who is always ready to advance the interests of his town or county. He began at the bottom of the ladder and has proven that when ones opportunities are not of the best everything is possible to him who possesses strength of character, push and integrity.

No man is more universally respected by his friends and fellow townsmen than Mr. Ott. Their pleasant, cheerful home is evidence of Mrs. Otts refined nature and their family of bright children give promise of useful careers.


Owen Day, one of the old residents of Cloud county, is a retired farmer and merchant. He was born in the little town of Warren, Marion county, Missouri, in 1841. His father, Thomas Day, was born in Ohio but reared in Virginia and emigrated to Missouri in 1839. He was born in 1801 and died in Marion county in 1855. He was a farmer and carpenter by occupation. His mother, before her marriage in 1827, was Hannah Corder, born and reared in Virginia. The Corders were among the colonists of that state and were slaveholders. Mr. Day's mother was born in 1809, married when but sixteen years of age and became the mother of fifteen children. She died in 1871. His parents were slaveholders and when the negroes were emancipated his mother read the proclamation and informed them they were free to either go or stay. But one of them departed, a young negro woman, who returned ten days later. When Mr. Day with his family, visited his old Missouri home fourteen years ago, their aged cook of slavery times gave them a dinner.

Mr. Day's ancestors were patriotic, two of his uncles serving in the War of 1812, and his maternal grandfather in the War of the Revolution. Mr. Day had finished the common school course and had just entered upon high school work when the war was declared. His parents being slaveholders engendered in him a tendency or inclination to defend their property and in 1862 he enlisted in Captain Valentine's company of Porter's regiment, in the Confederate ranks. While in the enemy's line they were disbanded and with other comrades made their way south, under the protection of Quantrell, the noted guerrilla chieftain. Among Mr. Day's associates were Captain "Bill" Anderson and his brother "Jim," who were schoolmates of Mr. Day in Missouri. They were on the south side of the river and resorted to all manner of strategy to pass through the lines and over the Missouri. They stopped over night at Roanoke with parties whom they had been referred to and pursued the journey the next morning, traveling toward the river during the night time, but before morning Mr. Day and his companion after crossing the river grew sleepy and fatigued and concluding to rest they tied their horses to a stack of oats and sought the inviting shelter of a hedge, where they slept soundly until sunrise, and upon awakening from their slumbers found themselves along side a public highway in imminent danger of falling into the enemy's hands. They met a brother Confederate, who assisted them in finding a boatman, who rowed them over the river, while their horses swam one on either side of the boat. Upon gaining the ranks they joined the command of Colonel Shelby. Mr. Day's two older brothers served in the southern army, the eldest responding to the first call. Mr. Day was among those who surrendered at Austin, Texas, August 5, 1865. He experienced his principal service through Arkansas, but also operated in Texas, Tennessee and Louisiana.

During the hostilities he was on five raids through Missouri and with Price in his expeditions. He participated in the battles of Helena and Little Rock, Arkansas, seven days' fighting with General Steele, Cape Girardeau, Marshall, Springfield, Missouri, and many other minor engagements. He was struck by a spent ball on the shoulder, but not seriously wounded. Mr. Day's mother was a woman of considerable courage and great nerve. During the turbulent war times in Missouri, Colonel Glover and some of his men endeavored to force an entrance into their residence at an early hour before the household, including her daughters, had arisen. She refused them admittance until they could make their morning toilets, and while defending -their honor a warm volley of wrathful words ensued; Colonel Glover called her a liar and she in return gave him a violent slap in the face.

After the war Mr. Day settled at his old home, but one year later located south of the Missouri river. In 1872 he was married to Amanda YanLandingham and the same day started overland in a "prairie schooner" bound for Kansas, and' located on the land he had homesteaded the year prior, five and one-half miles northwest of Glasco, where they lived until the autumn of 1886, when he sold, and, becoming associated with J. R. Fuller in the hardware business, moved his family into Glasco. One year later Mr. Fuller sold his interest to G. B. VanLandingham and the firm continued until the autumn of 1894, when Mr. VanLandingham retired and the firm became Day & Day, the partner being the son, Samuel T. They conducted a successful hardware business until 1900 and were succeeded by T. W. Nicol. Mr. Day was appointed postmaster, under Cleveland's second administration, and served a little more than four years. He has been trustee of his township, a member of the school board for several years, a justice of the peace, and is a notary public.

Mr. and Mrs. Day are the parents of one son and two daughters. Samuel T. is a graduate of the Glasco common school and was a student for one year of William Jewell College at Liberty, Missouri, one of the best institutions in that state. He was married in 1898 to Miss Bessie Miller, of Liberty, who is a daughter of Robert Miller, the founder of the Liberty Journal and a prominent journalist for many years. Her mother's people, the Wilsons, are a family of politicians and prominent people. Her grandfather was a noted general in the Confederate army. Samuel T. and wife are the parents of two children, Roger Owen, aged two years, and an infant. Estelle B. is the wife of Sherman Truex, whose parents were among the old settlers of Ottawa county; their residence is Delphos. Mrs. Truex passed the examination and finished the high school course of Glasco. Leta Catherine is a graduate of the Glasco high school, and in 1901 graduated from the Lindsborg College, in music and elocution. She has special talent and is a successful teacher in music.

Mr. Day is a member of the Ancient Order United Workmen Lodge at Delphos. He is a Modern Woodmen and an honorary member of the Fraternal Aid. The Days have one of the neatest and most tasteful cottage homes in Glasco, made particularly charming by a bower of fine evergreens and other trees. Mr. Day is a good citizen, and though once a southern sympathizer heartily affiliates with the people of his Adopted home. Is one of them politically and socially and no one enjoys a larger circle of friends than he and his estimable family. Mrs. Day is a woman of culture and the daughters are accomplished and possessed of many personal charms.


The lives of the Davidsons have been so interwoven with the history of the Solomon valley that to know one is to know the other. Of the older Davidson families there are two brothers, Garrett and E. C. They are the sons of Levi and Charity (Handley) Davidson.

Levi Davidson was a farmer. He died in 1880. The mother died in 1853. The paternal grandfather was Genaja Davidson who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war at the age of twelve years. He married and emigrated to Kentucky in the early settlement of that state and was twice captured by the Indians. The last time, he had started out for an arm full of wood when he was seized by the savages and carried away. His wife did not know his fate and had not received a word from him until he returned seven years later carrying an arm full of wood which he said was the one he had started for when captured.

After demonstrating to the Indians that he was a good shot and lucky huntsman, they treated him well, as he made a "good Injun." Another man was taken prisoner about the same time who did not have the strength to keep up in the tramp and dropped back. His fate was never known, but in all probability he was tomahawked.

Ganaja Davidson moved to McCordsville. Indiana where he died: The maternal grandfather, Lieutenant Handley was a native of Connecticut. He emigrated to Ohio in an early day and located in Perry county, near Columbus, where Charity Handley Davidson was born. He was a Lieutenant in the war of 1812.


Careful speculation, good judgment and -close application to his business interests have made Garrett Davidson the Croesus of Cloud county and he is still active on a business career. He had acquired a good start before coming to Kansas but earned every dollar of his belongings through his own personal efforts. He possessed an indomitable will, pushed westward and soon occupied a foremost place among the moneyed men of Cloud county. He has built up a competency on the foundation he laid early in his "34 career and may still be considered in the prime of life. Like his brother E. C he is fond of the chase and the music of his hounds has made merry many a chase for the running to earth of the yelping coyote.

Mr. Davidson is a native of Ohio, born May 2, 1841, in the town of Dublin, built on the old lime stone rocks of Franklin county, Ohio. His mother having died when he was twelve years of age, he worked for a cousin several years for his board and clothes. He then started out to make the record herein recorded.

He had received but a few months schooling during the winter months for as soon as the sugar making season arrived, both teacher and pupils adjourned from the old log school house to assist at the sugar camps. Mr. Davidson's career began by working on a farm at $11 per month. His duties consisted of clearing ground, picking up chunks from the newly made fields, and farming. His first worldly possession was a young horse purchased in exchange for three months labor plus $1, which he invested in a straw hat and a pair of overalls. The following year he earned enough to buy a $40 colt and then rustled and skirmished around until he purchased a wagon. His next project was to rent a farm in Madison county, Ohio. From this date he began to accumulate, the origin of his present financial standing. In 1862, he drove a team down into Lexington, Kentucky, then a wintering quarter for horses and troops, furnishing rations and feed. In 1863, he moved to Illinois, where he bought sixty acres of land three miles distant from Bushnell. In 1865, he enlisted in Company C, 151st Illinois Volunteers. His company did not see active service but went as far south as Kingston, Georgia, where they guarded the railroad and scouted around on dark nights over the corduroy roads. After being discharged at Springfield, Illinois, he returned home and resumed his farming operations. Mr. Davidson is a man of keen perception and foresight and this coupled with his energy has made him prosperous in every undertaking. He engaged. in buying, feeding and selling stock on his farm in Illinois and acquired a good start before coming west. In 1874, he'emigrated to Cloud county and bought the D. W. Teasley homestead rehnquishment, paying $1,000. About one year later he bought eighty acres of the Edwards homestead and shortly afterward the "Goddard eighty." In 1880, he purchased the Capt. Snyder farm and forty acres of school land on the Solomon river; in 1896. seventy-five acres of the Bond estate; in 1897, he bought a half section of State land from Samuel Beard and the "Samuel Fuller homestead," one of the best farms on the Solomon river; in 1898, the two hundred and twenty acres of land sold at administrator's sale to settle up the Hostetler estate.

Nearly all of his farms are bottom land. Stock raising and feeding cattle and hogs has been Mr. Davidson's strong point. He keeps a herd of about one hundred high grade cattle and one hundred head of hogs. This year (1901) he is feeding ground wheat to his cattle as an experiment.
The proportion is one-third corn, two-thirds wheat ground and mixed. He raises wheat extensively and has never had an entire failure. Several seasons his land has produced forty bushels per acre.

Mr. Davidson was one of the first growers of alfalfa in the neighborhood, and sowed it as an experiment. One year he sold $1,000 worth of seed. In 1901, from twenty-two acres there was a yield of one hundred and three bushels of seed and ninety-two tons of hay, and this one of the dryest years ever known in Kansas. The one hundred and three bushels of seed at $5 per bushel netted him $515; the ninety-two tons of hay at $7 per ton netted him $644, a total of $1,159 thus being produced from twenty-two acres of alfalfa. He has a fine producing apple orchard of about two hundred trees and a considerable number of peach trees which yield well.

When Mr. Davidson bought the Teasley homestead there were but few improvements, a small cabin, a shed and corral. In 1875, he built a large stone residence situated in a grove of tall cottonwoods set out by himself and Mrs. Davidson. The lumber for this residence was hauled from Clay Center via Concordia. In 1892 he built a barn 50x96 feet, the first commodious barn built in the neighborhood.

Mrs. Davidson before her marriage was Catherine Gross, a daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Cargy) Gross, of Ohio, near the city of Columbus, where Mrs. Davidson was born and grew to womanhood. Her father died when she was eight years of age and her mother died in 1898, at the age of ninety-three years. Mrs. Davidson is one of ten children, three of whom are living: a sister, Sarah, the wife of Levi Cooper, a farmer of Solomon township, and a brother James, a farmer living in Indiana. Mrs. Davidson had three brothers in the war, who enlisted from their Ohio home. They died from illness contracted during the service. Mrs. Davidson is a true helpmate and is entitled to much of the credit for her husband's prosperity. She is a true patriot of Kansas now, but in the early days would watch the emigrants coming in and weep for her eastern home.

Politically Mr. Davidson is a Populist. In 1889, he was elected county commissioner on the Democratic ticket, which showed his popularity, as 9t that time his district was very strong in its Republican majority.

Mr. Davidson was practically the banking firm of the Glasco community for many years, making it possible for many of his neighbors to buy more land or for some man to increase his business capital by a loan. He never oppressed a debtor, nor forced the payment, allowing all the time required for paying the loan; thus his wealth has made him a public benefactor.


E. C. Davidson, the subject of this sketch, has gained a record in the Solomon valley for the perserverance, pluck and courage with which he bore the hardships incident to building a home on the frontier. But the spirit which led him to the new West served him through a long seige of toil, disappointments, failures, drouths and grasshoppers. Though not the first to pitch his tent in the undeveloped country, E. C. Davidson was early on the ground, and his lands to-day bear little resemblance to the government claim he secured in 1869.

The handsome and commodious residence has long since been substituted for the dugout or cabin of primitive days. His herds of fine bred cattle have supplanted the horned Texas steer and the poorly constructed stables have given way to the immense bank barn that is filled to the rafters with the sweet scented alfalfa and golden grain. In fact, everything has been transformed from a mere prairie claim to a well tilled and improved farm.

E. C. Davidson is a native of Franklin County, Ohio, born in 1847. When sixteen years of age he came with his brother, Garrett, to Illinois, and settled on a farm near Bushnell, where he lived seven years. In 1869. he came to Kansas and rented land in Washington county for one year, in the meantime coming to Cloud and selecting a homestead, his present country place.

He was married in 1870, to Anna Franks, whose parents were early settlers in Kansas. Mr. Davidson started in life with practically none of this world's goods, but he secured a wife who has very materially assisted in gaining the competency they now enjoy. She shared nobly the trying ordeals of the early settlers' wives and is his better half in the truest sense of the word. They adapted themselves to circumstances, and their little cabin was polished with content, happy in their dreams of the future. While their larder was sometimes lacking in variety, there was never a scarcity of meat.

Mr. Davidson was a typical frontiersman, fond of the hunt, and his trusty rifle has been the means of bringing about many a repast fit for the gods. Buffalo and antelope were plentiful, with droves of wild turkeys and flocks of prairie chicken and quail. He brought in game by the wagon load. He was also fond of the chase and retains a special weakness in this direction, keeping a kennel of dogs for this pastime. He has quite an interesting collection of coyote, fox and jackrabbit trophies.

However, he is a thorough agriculturist, taking great pride in his crops of wheat and alfalfa. This year (1901) he has two hundred tons of hay in his barn. The yield from this alfalfa ground netted him $50 per acre. He has been feeding and shipping cattle for more than fifteen years, which was the beginning of his prosperity. He is a Short Horn breeder and has one hundred and fifty head of fine cattle. He has just completed one of the most perfectly planned feeding barns in this or any other country. Its dimensions are 43x64 feet, with a basement. He constructed another large barn 64x64 feet, in 1889.

To Mr. Davidson belongs the distinction of hauling the first building material that went into the present town of Beloit, which is in all probability a bit of hitherto unwritten history. When making his second trip from Washington county to the Solomon valley, he was accosted by a citizen of Abilene, who asked his destination. Upon being told it was Glasco, he said he had some lumber he wanted hauled to Willow Springs, (now Beloit) and offered five dollars for the transportation of it to that place. This was May 5, 1870, and the lumber was for a Mr. Elliott, who built the first shanty on the town site.

Mr. Davidson relates many interesting reminisences of pioneer times, buffalo hunts, etc., some of them appearing elsewhere on these pages. It was several years before the Davidsons' began to prosper or even possessed a cow. The new comers were handicapped in so many ways they could not progress rapidly. Again, after raising the grain there was no market nearer than Clay Center. He says on one occasion he hauled a load of rye to that town, which required three days time, receiving but twenty-five cents per bushel.

He has always raised hogs and got his start in this industry by delivering fourteen bushels of corn to Matt Wilcox in exchange for two Chester White pigs. It took Mr. Davidson a dozen years or more to put his land under cultivation. His efforts were retarded because he did not have sufficient teams or grain to feed them.

Mr. and Mrs. Davidson have an interesting family of three sons and one daughter, who are all useful members of society, viz: William (see sketch), Lorean, (see sketch): Retta, the only daughter is an accomplished young lady. She is a student of Lindsborg College, where she is taking a special course in music. She is a graduate of the Glasco high school and on her third year of the college course. Joseph N. graduated from the Glasco high school and is a law student in the Kansas State University.

Mr. Davidson is a Democrat in politics and is a member of the order of I. O. O. F., of Glasco lodge.

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