Jackson County, Kansas



Submitted by Verlin & Sue Wichman

I feel that this depicts the Little Red Schoolhouse as it stands in 1993. It is a fine tribute to the pupils who received their basic education there and went on to become successful men and women in whatever location they chose.

B. W.

The five occupations that are difficult to make out on the schoolhouse are a biologist, a draftsman, and artist, a doctor examining a patient and a trombone player.

Black School Carmel School Carwood School Carmel Cemetery Carmel Church Glenwood School Carmel Records beginning in 1874 -
Written by Edith Wilson Furnished by Bill Wilson

The History of Carmel School

Courage, fortitude and Christian endeavor was a very necessary ingredient in the hearts of the early settlers during this era. Kansas, organized under the Kansas, Nebraska Bill and known as "Bleeding Kansas" was located in the area which was very commonly called "the Great American Desert." These gallant people were to endure several long years of border warfare. The Burning of Osawatomie, the Sacking of Lawrence and the Border Blockade which prevented financial aid from reaching the besieged pioneers. Bogus Legislature; Illegal Voting by the influx of out of state voters at election time was a common problem.

On January 29, 1861 the question concerning slavery was answered when Kansas was admitted to the union as a free state. This did not lesson the bloodshed and chaos suffered by the citizenry when brother against brother fell in battle for a cause each felt was right. Not until four years had passed was this scourge erased from the Kansas soil.

Time waits for no man, 1865 had come to the war weary populace. Now with the war behind them their thoughts and energies were directed toward reconstruction. Many churched and schools were being built and others planned. Since two years had gone by, the citizens of an area in Jackson county were watching time pass by with little provision being made for the education of their children.

On January 14, 1867, a group of interested citizens living in what is now part of Liberty and Jefferson townships met for the purpose of organizing a school district. Included in the district were sections 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, and 36 in township 7, range 14. Listed also were half of sections 20 and 29, all of 30 and 31 and half of section 33 in township 6, range 15. On February 22, 1868 the south half of section 36, township 7, range 14 and the southeast quarter of section 31 and the southwest quarter of section 32, township 6, range 15 were annexed to Maple Grove district #36. On March 25, 1869 the southwest quarter of section 35, township 7, range 14, was attached to Banner district #5. This was dated on the 11th day of September, 1871 by R. M. Cook, County Superintendent. The outward boundaries of district #28 were now comprised of six and 13/16 sections.

No annual meetings were recorded before 1870 except the organizational meetings. According to John Brown the first schoolhouse was a log cabin located south from the Brown home on the south side of Elk Creek at Black's Crossing. The school was called Black school, but there is no mention of it in the clerk's book. It just states that the meetings were held in the schoolhouse.

(In regard to the Black Schoolhouse, it was located a mile south instead of just across the creek. Duane and Sheryl later discovered a school listed on the deed to their property. It was owned for many years by the Sawhills, George Bistlure, Holton High Superintendent owned it in the late forties and fifties. Bill Wilson)

The first annual meeting recorded was on March 31, 1870 with Liberty L. Dick as director; Green B. Pope, Clerk; and Daniel Hunter, Treasurer. Items listed in the treasurer's book were stamps, chalk, a 40 cent broom and a teacher's register. Manasee Parks and Charles Poppy were paid for repairing the windows.

School District #28 continued through 1871 without much deviation. On March 28, 1871 Manasee Parks was elected director, Frank Lyman, Clerk and Charles Poppy, treasurer. Provision was made for a three month summer and a six month winter term of school. During these early years a new board was elected each year. Three separate funds were available for the patrons to levy a tax on to finance the districts bills. They being the Building Fund, the Teacher's Fund and an Incidental Fund. The amount levied depended upon the need of the District usually one tenth of one percent to two or three percent. A special levy on the district taxpayers in addition to the state and county tax had to be sometimes considered.

At this time in 1872, Holton had a population of around 900 people and a new courthouse had been built in the center of the square. The Holton Exchange Bank Building and a Flour Mill had been erected. The first passenger train arrived in Holton on August the 22nd and was known through the later years as the Holton Train. An ordinance had been passed which required that only four foot wide sidewalks, were permissible around the square and must be made of pine. The First National Bank was organized and the Holton Express, a Republican Newspaper, was started. After several consolidations it became the Holton Recorder.

The town of Circleville was laid out on land owned by T. J. Oursler in 1863. A Mr. T. J. Anderson was in charge of this project. Dr. Granger was the first physician and Dr. Telfer of Onaga, built the first hotel in 1866. In 1870, a general store was built by the Oursler Brotehrs. This housed stocks of dry goods, groceries, clothing, hats, footwear and the post office was located there for many years. Dr. A. Y. Hanson began his practice there in 1876. There were several businesses located in the town in 1876, consisting of a drugstore, flour mill a hardware store, bank, a woodcarver, blacksmith shop and a lawyer. The grade and high school was erected in 1911. Two bad fires in 1930 dealt the town a blow from which it could not recover.

The annual meeting of District #28 was held at the Black Schoolhouse on March 28, 1872. M. A. Park's was elected, director, Wm. Sharpe, Treasurer and Sam Brown, Clerk. A budge of 3/5th of one percent for the teacher's salary and 1/10th of one percent for incidentals was allowed. S. S. Rider was employed to dig a well for the school. Furniture for the school was purchased and had to be hauled from the freight terminal in Netawaka by team and wagon.

Arch Abel was to furnish six cords of wood for $2.50 per cord and to be delivered by September.

In spite of all the well laid plans made at the annual meeting on March 28, 1872, records show that on January 24, 1873 the legal voters of District #28, pursuant to legal notice, had a special meeting at the home of Samuel Brown in said district on Friday afternoon at one o'clock. On motion it was voted to levy a one percent tax on the property of the district for the building fund. The new school building was to be ten feet high at the eaves. Another meeting was held that same day and a legal document was written to wit. "We the undersigned citizens of school District #28 in Jackson county, do hereby agree to do the amount of work and furnish the material set opposite our names for the special purpose of building a schoolhouse in said district whenever called upon by the district school board." Nineteen names were signed to furnish material or days of work. Some members offered to furnish both.

The people in the district worked diligently on their building project from April 1873 to the fall of 1874. Their main concern was to finish the school building as quickly as possible. There was no doubt that this was the time of the fire and loss of the Black Schoolhouse that John Brown had told us about. It was wintertime and wood was used for fuel, so a flu fire may have caused the building to burn.

The members of the community were busy hauling lumber and supplies at this time and helping the hired labor in order to keep the expenses at a minimum. A Mr. Rayfield, member of the district and a carpenter by trade, was hired to head up the building project.

Those who pledged labor and material were doing so for the common good of the community. Their goal being a schoolhouse built for the education of their children and a place to meet for social functions. Since money was scarce and times were hard, the following names were listed in the clerk's book on January 24, 1873 to furnish work or work and material.

M. A. Parks - Carpenter work - 6 - Days - Paid

Sam Brown - One sill 16 ft. long - 6 - Days - Paid

W. D. Sharpe - Two sills 16 ft. long - 0 - Days - Paid

A. D. Abel - Two sills 16 ft. long - 0 Days - Paid

John Black - One sill 36 ft. long - 0 Days - Paid

Wm. Allen - Work - 6 - Days - 0

Liberty L. Dick - Work - 6 - Days - Paid

Barton Roby - Work - 6 - Days - 0

Archibald Dick - Work - 2 - Days - Paid

G. D. Pope - Work - 3 - Days - 1 Day

E. D. Christie - Work - 2 - Days - 1 Day

Charles Poppy - Work - 6 - Days - Paid

John Abel - Work - 2 - Days - 0

L. D. Bliven - Work - 3 - Days - Paid

E. B. Clowe - Work - 5 - Days - 0

W. G. Pope - Work - 3 - Days - Paid

L. S. Colton - Work - 3 - Days - Paid

Tobia Glick - Work - 3 - Days - 0

Charles Rayfield - Work - 3-1/2 - Days - Paid

The annual meeting of district #28 was held at the new schoolhouse on March 27, 1874. W. C. Pope was elected director, G. B. Pope, treasurer and A. D. Abel, clerk. A motion was made and voted to hire Charles Rayfield to finish the building ready for plastering and to be paid $37.

Sometime nearly thirty years ago my husband, Dallas, son, Bill and I spent a Sunday afternoon visiting with John and Nell Brown in their home. They, I'm sure, had lived all of their married life there. John was the son of Sam Brown, who was very active in the community. John and Nell had two daughters, Edna and Doris Jean and three sons, Frank, Charles & Roy and all attended and graduated from the Carmel School. John was bedfast for many years and was cared for by his loving wife, Nell. Charles, who had never married, lived and worked at home.

Somehow our conversation reflected back to Carmel school and the community, with John volunteering this information as he swung his arm toward the south and saying "The First Schoolhouse in the district was over across Elk Creek at Black's Crossing and was called Black School." He also said that a family by the name of Black had lived there and that the school house had burned down with classes being held at the Brown home for the last three months of the school term. How I wish now that I had asked more questions about the Black School that day, for there is no mention of it in the school record books. All that I know about it is what John told us and what I can piece together from studying the minutes in the Clerk's record book. I have asked several about it, but no one has ever heard of the Black School.

It seems that the fire was either in December of 1872 or early January of 1873. According to the clerk's book a special meeting was called on January 24, 1873 to levy a tax for the building of a new schoolhouse. It would be interesting to know when and why the school was started at Black's Crossing. Thinking about it makes me wonder if perhaps the Black family might have been large and maybe the mother was educated enough to begin teaching her children and other may have come to learn the three R's. This, of course, is pure speculation, but I do know that the schoolhouse was made of logs, had a brick chimney and glass windows. They had voted to cover the logs with boards shortly before the fire, so evidently intended to use it for many more years. How many years before 1868 it was used I do not know.

(In copying what my mother has written concerning the mystery of the Black schoolhouse, I can remember well our visit to the Brown home. I can recall very clearly of John motioning to the south and of his telling about it being the first school. I mentioned the Black Schoolhouse to Loren Porterfield a few days ago and he told me that his grandmother had talked to him about it. It seems that it had burned down the year before she was to start her schooling. She was one of the first pupils in the newly built Carmel Schoolhouse at the new site in 1873 and 74. Her maiden name was McAllister and she was born and raised on the farm across the road south of the Bob Vanderlinde home. The land later was in the Glenwood District. The Glenwood schoolhouse was built sometime in 1897 or 98. Bill Wilson October, 1992.)


The new frame schoolhouse was probably 16 feet wide, 36 feet long and 10 feet high at the eaves. It was built on a new site more centrally located on land owned at that time by Wm. Allen. The farm was later owned by a Mr. Klephardt. The land has been owned by the Knouft family for many years. The Carmel Schoolhouse was located ½ mile south of where the Carwood school now stands and ¼ mile west. School was held there for 72 of the 76 years it stood on this location.

The first annual school board meeting held in the new schoolhouse was on March 27, 1874. E. B. Clowe was elected director, G. B. Pope, treasurer, and L. S. Colton, clerk. It seems that men teachers were preferred for the winter months and women for the shorter spring term. No doubt, the male teacher could cope with the severe Kansas winters a little better. The male teacher was paid five or ten dollars more per month than the female.

The 1870's were difficult times for the early settlers. But they were a sturdy people who must conquer the vast prairies. A land that was scorched by hot winds in summer and swept by blizzards in winter. Crops that were scourged by grasshoppers and with drought taking its toll, however, there must be a silver lining somewhere if they as a people would stay steadfast and strong.

In 1870 there were 27 males and 35 females living in the district between the age of five and twenty-one. At this time there were twenty-two males and twenty-five females enrolled in the Black School. The following, year of 1871 there were forty-four pupils enrolled with an average attendance of fifteen. A balance of $27.13 was in the treasury on September 1. On August 31, 1873 there were twenty-eight males to thirty four females enrolled with an average daily attendance of twenty-seven. A total of 62 persons lived in the district between the age of 5 and 21. A hedge fence was planted around the school yard at the new site in 1873. The value of the new schoolhouse being built was $700 and $150 for the furniture.

In October of 1874 two teachers were hired J. W. Lowe teacher for the winter term and E. E. Birkett for the spring session. They were each paid $20 per month and were the first teachers in the newly built schoolhouse. It is unclear to me where school was held in 1873. But might have been held in the building before it was completed. This could explain the tuition fee that was paid to three teachers at this time. They were Lonaire McComas, Louis McCleary and J. W. Lowe.

Several meetings were called in the 70's to investigate the finances to see if it was possible to add another month or two to the school term, but as usual was negative with only five or six months undertaken. On March 22, 1875 a special meeting was called to see if it was financially possible to have both a winter and summer term, but due to the indebtedness being $483 and only $35 in the treasury it was voted to have a three months term and to be financed with state funds.

In 1880 a hitch rack was built on the south side of the schoolhouse. The posts were burr oak placed eight feet apart and 2-1/2 feet in the ground with 5/8th inch bolts fastening it together. Due to better financial conditions repair work was done as needed during the 1880's. In 1885 a seven month school term was voted to commence in September and end in April. Broken terms had been used prior to this, due partly by the young people having to help out at home during the busy seasons. Tax levies at this time were from seven to eight percent on all taxable property.

In October of 1888 a bell was purchased from Mr. John McBracken for $15.50. Frank Lindsey was paid $1.50 for putting it in place. However, in 1892 a larger bell was purchased from Green and Chivar for $25.00. This bell was larger and rested in a newly built belfry and was rung by rope. It could be heard for a greater distance and no doubt was standard for those days. Not all schools had belfries and I'm sure it was enjoyable for the closer resident to hear the ringing of the bell.

Railroads were usually built through county seat towns with the idea of picking up as many of the small towns along the way as was possible. However, keeping in mind the terrain and distance thus avoiding too much cost outlay in building the roadway and the upkeep after its completion. A railroad being built or the promise that one might come close to a town brought almost instant growth, only to be regretted later in some instances. Most of the towns had hotels with meals served to the travelers. Rooming houses were also available if your stay was longer in duration.

Cattle and ranching was becoming big business which provided the area with cowboys, both wild and tame. Several saloons were also available for those who desired a high old time, but who forgot about the jail down the road which was always ready to admit a new guest.

We must not forget the traveling salesman or drummer as he was known sometimes, also various medicine salesmen such as Watkins, Rawleigh and Baker and Seely, who specialized in one cure all, "Wasa-Tusa". The peddler had certain farm families that he would stay overnight with and would pay his bill by allowing the lady of the house to choose, maybe a jar of mustard or a bottle of vanilla. Nor could we ever forget the peddler with his one horse and boxed in buggy bringing beautiful materials, knickknacks, dishes, pictures and items of many descriptions. 

Livery stables were a necessity to provide food, shelter and care overnight or longer for the horses of the cowboy and other travelers. They also had horses and equipment for anyone who wished to hire a rig for some reason or another. Hacks were pulled by two horses, usually matched in weight, build and color. The vehicle resembling a top-buggy, or maybe some larger was wood. Towns where they provided transportation for travelers and luggage between two depots in the same town. The driver of the hack was not overly paid by any means. One dollar a day was the usual amount unless there was some generous tipping. I do know there was plenty of nipping at the schnapps’ bottle as the two horses trotted along with its cargo. I have direct knowledge of this since one of my grandfathers was a hack driver from a livery stable in Marysville, Kansas back when Kansas history was being made.

My husband's grandparents Sam and Martha Gore Wilson and family migrated to St. Joseph, Missouri and then on to Hiawatha, Kansas following the Civil war. In 1880 he was a book salesman hopping around by train and hack all over northeast Kansas. The following train and hackfare is copied from his small pocket notebook

Hiawatha to Hamlin - Railroad .30 cents

Hiawatha to Troy - Railroad $1.15

Hack Bill from Sabetha to Wetmore - $1.00

Hotel Bill from Frank Nottingham’s

Hotel in Netawaka - .75 cents

Hotel Bill in Wetmore - .50 cents

Hotel Bill in Seneca - .35 cents

Dinner at Seneca - .35 cents

Sam Wilson later became clerk of the district court of Brown County and held that position until his death in 1886.

Reconstruction was slowly working its way westward and trains were playing a very important role in the growth and development of many communities in Kansas. Many towns were platted during this period. The survival of a town missed by a train as it chugged westward was very doubtful. The Chicago Rock Island and Pacific came through Holton in 1872 on its way to St. Joseph, Mo. and in 1880 was running fourteen passenger trains daily through Holton and became known as the Holton Train.

The L K & W and Kansas City, Wyandotte and North Western came up the Elk Creek Valley brining transportation and communication to the small towns springing up along the way. The Leavenworth, Kansas and Western Railroad was in operation from 1871 to 1935 and passed through the north edge of Holton, then on to Circleville, Soldier, Havensville and Onaga to the end of the line at Miltonvale. In 1908 it was renamed the Union Pacific and took bankruptcy in 1935. The Kansas City Wyandotte and Northwestern came up Elk Valley going through Circleville, Ontario and on to the end of the line at Virginia, Nebraska. It began operation in 1887 and went bankrupt in 1919. They both served the community well but financial conditions took its toll with the coming of the cars, trucks and buses. The economy of the small towns was badly hurt by the closing of the railroad lines.

The central branch was a spur from the Missouri Pacific at Atchison, Kansas. It went through many small towns such as Effingham, whiting, Netawaka, Wetmore, Goff, Centralia and Frankfort. Marysville was the end of the line in 1890 for my father came from Illinois that year and could go no farther by rail. Today in 1984 it is still running, but rumors are floating around that its survival is very unlikely.

The Rock Island Railroad had been a real asset to the area towns located between Topeka and St. Joseph, Missouri, but like the other railroad lines the rubber tired vehicles brought an end to their business. Now it is in the process of being dismantled. It served the area for approximately 113 years, and will be sadly missed, especially by the older residents who have grown up listening to the trains rumbling through town with their warning whistle.

The L K & W and Kansas Wyandotte and Northwestern Railroad bisected the Carmel School district which brought a distinct advantage with the extra revenue paid into the coffers of the schools treasury. The valuation of the railroads was extremely high and needless to say was a big help to the school district financially. In talking to some who had gone to school when the trains were running, many commented on how much they enjoyed watching them chug up and down the lines.

The smaller lines or spurs from the larger railroads made their way north, south, east and west carrying supplies, oil, mail, grain, livestock and other commodities to be processed into food for this country and the rest of the world. It was also a reliable mode of transportation for the many travelers paying their way or for hoboes catching a free ride. The trains whistle could be heard for many miles telling the area residents that it was still on the job fulfilling its mission to society. What is more melodious and reassuring than a train whistle off in the distance? Maybe a little lonely on occasion as it takes a loved one away, but beckoning to its listeners to press on for hope will lead the way. Yes, another landmark fades into oblivion; progress marches on.

The Carmel Schoolhouse built in 1873 had been in use for thirty of more years, with considerable repair being done on the building during the 1890's. Much sentiment was being heard out in the grass roots of the district for a new and bigger school building. Better times tin the 1880's had brought more financial stability to the community and with the railroads as a taxpayer, the patrons of the district were very much in favor of a building project. Notice of the bond meeting was posted; the wheels of progress were starting to turn once again.The following paragraph is copied as written from the clerk's book.

The following paragraph is copied as written from the clerk's book.

A special bond meeting was held at the Carmel Schoolhouse on the 13th day of July 1903 from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. of said date. The meeting as stated in the notice was announced by the chairman - to wit - voting to bond the district for the purchase of erecting a new schoolhouse. The vote carried by a thirty majority. At the close of the meeting the old school building was auctioned off and purchased by the highest bidder J. J. Klephardt for $114.

John Newman


The Building Committee met at the S. L. Abel home on August 10, 1903 to receive bids for the erection of the new building, built to the plans and specifications drawn by D.G. Scott. The contract was let to low bidder, Jacob Nothacker, for $1145.

The following bids were received:

Frank Strowig - $1,272.00
D. G. Scott - $1,225.00
Biggart, Moore & Schroeder - $1,149.36
Jacob Nothacker - $1,145.00

Many loads of rock were hauled and long hours of labor put in toward the erection of the new school building by the local men of the community. The building must have been built quickly for records show that school started in October. The contract was lot on August 10, 1903 and Jacob Nothacker was paid $400 on September 1 and the balance of $718.75 on October 18. It was not painted until August of 1904 so may have not been completed in 1903. The first teacher hired to teach in the new schoolhouse was Miss Minnie Maxwell. W. C. Porterfield was the last teacher in the old school building.

The old schoolhouse as I have previously written, was purchased by J. J. Klephardt who at that time was the owner of the farm on which the schoolhouse stood. It is now owned by Donald & Floye Knouft. It was originally purchased by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Knouft sometime in the 1920's. They were the parents of Clarence, Henry, Everett, Frank and Donald. Donald was known to most of us as "Deacon," but I do not know how he came up with that nickname.

Through information given to me by Joe Dick, son of James M. Dick, I discovered that the old schoolhouse was moved to the Klephardt homestead by horsepower. According to Joe, when he was 12 years old, he and his father watched the moving proceedings. It was moved up the road east to the top of the hill, then across the field to the homestead where it became a barn. Joe said that the building was too heavy to pull, so some sort of a stump pulling device was used. I am sure it was a slow and time consuming procedure.

Steady progress was made with the upgrading of the public school system during the 1890s and early years of the new century. State-aid, together with higher taxes as the valuation increased made better educational opportunities available to the pupils of Kansas schools. Better facilities were sought by the state and from interested patrons of the various districts. The state had put together a list of requirements for the standardization of the public schools. One of these requirements was a good heating system. When the schoolhouse was built in 1903 no provision for a basement had been made. Sentiment became strong in the district for the installation of a wood to coal burning furnace which would necessitate the digging of a basement.

A special meeting was called for the 23rd day of August in 1913. A full board of officers were present consisting of Grant M. Brown, director, John Vincent, Treasurer and Charles McKeever, Clerk. The business for the day was to decide whether to install a new furnace or continue with the old method for another year. It was voted to continue with the present system.

The annual meeting was held on April 10, 1914 with a full board present consisting of G. M. Brown, director, Arthur Rings, treasurer, and Charles McKeever, clerk. At the meeting it was voted to have eight months of school and a $700 budget. The afternoon meeting was adjourned until eight o'clock that evening to hear a report from the furnace committee, which consisted of J. Abel, Alfred Mannell, and A. W. Rings. After much discussion the motion to put in the new system carried and the details were left up to the committee.

Another special meeting was held on May 13, 1914 and the contract was let for the excavation of the basement, tearing down and rebuilding the chimney and all the concrete work. Mr. G. T. Heathman was given the contract and paid $208 for the job. The finshed basement was 18 x 20 x 7 feet and was under the west end of the building. The new wood and coal burning furnace was purchased from Mr. J. J. Bennett for $168.20 which included the installation and all of the duct work.

Note by Bill Wilson………..

(Having gone to school there for several years, I can say that it was a good heating system for that era. I am sure that the stove or stoves used up until 1914 could not heat the building during severe weather. I can remember sitting around the furnace register for a couple of hours on Monday mornings when the temperature was around zero. The room was large with high ceilings and no storm windows and with the fire about out in the mornings it took a while to become comfortable. Since there was no indoor plumbing at that time there was no worry about pipes freezing. I am sure that the members of the district were very happy with the moderization of the schoolhouse. Bill Wilson)

The schoolhouse was reseated in 1915 and an organ was purchased from Mr. George Shillenger for $ 415.00. A stool for the organ was purchased from Tom McKeever for $1.50 at a later date. Upon completion of the new heating system, the school was given a standard rating sometime in 1916. During this time the teachers were paid a salary of from $45 to $60 per month.

E. E. Bailey drilled two wells for the district in September of 1914. The first was 70 feet deep and a duster. The second well was drilled up the road east a short distance on the north side of the grader ditch. This well was 41 feet deep and proved to be a good one that ended the school's water problem. They evidently had hand dug wells at Black and the first Carmel school, for rope, pulleys, and buckets were purchased at different times. A well was dug in 1879 by S. S. Rider and another was bored and cased in September of 1895 by C. Pool. No doubt water was a problem for many years. The well east of the schoolhouse served as a source of income for the pupils, for starting sometime in the 1920's, two pupils carried each month earning .35 cents apiece. Needless to say this was looked forward too by the pupils, for this was a small fortune in those days.

Some of the teachers from 1917 to the middle thirties were Lena Porterfield, Evelyn McDonald, Mabel Sawhill, Gertrude Tolin, Mary Richling and Helen Douglass. School terms by this time had become eight months, starting in September and ending in April. The only male teacher hired after 1910 was Ralph Thompson who taught two terms from 1937 through 1939.

The budget had been increasing during the better years. In 1925 a budget of $1150 was voted but by the thirties it had dropped to around $600. During the thirties wood again was used for fuel to cheapen the coal bill. A wagon load of wood was listed at $2.50 and a ton of coal was around $6.00. With $3.00 paid for delivery. Wood was also welcome source of income for the local residents.

When Jessie Jones was the Pastor of the First Baptist Church in Holton, a booklet printed in 1910 mentioned a church outpost that was very active and growing in membership. In 1972, the church celebrated its 100th anniversary and the committee of which I was a member, sent out letters to all former members and friends for whom we had a known address. we received a nice letter from Ina Brown Prior telling us about the church meetings held at the Carmel Schoolhouse. I was quite taken by surprise to learn that the outpost was located in my own school district.

The letter stated that Mr. A. Seabold used his horse and buggy to transport the preacher to and from the church held in the Carmel Schoolhouse each Sunday afternoon. This was approximately a five mile trip each way. Joe Dick verified this and told me of their having protracted meetings at the Klephardt farm home. In 1910 there were from 30 to 35 persons attending the Sunday School and Church services. Many souls were saved during the ministry held at the outpost. There was also a nice picture of the Severium Sunday School class in the letter sent by Mrs. Prior of which she and her three sisters were members. They were the daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Grant M. Brown who at that time owned the 80 acre farm now in the ownership of Mr. McDonald. It was owned for many years by the David West family, also. The Brown sisters were Hattie, Ina, Vada and Edith Brown Slimmer, my neighbor and friend who I have known for many years.

Isaac and Velma Gunn, a negro family, lived in the district from 1897 to 1908 according to the Clerk's record book. He worked on the new 1903 school building and did other jobs in the vicinity. There were several children in the family who attended Carmel school. Edith Slimmer and Joe dick said that they lived in a small shanty southwest of where the KPL sub-station now stands. The farm is now owned by the Duane Klahr family.

My heart is heavy as I write this, after much mental anguish whether or not to include this in the Carmel History. The family moved to a town somewhere in Missouri after leaving here and it seems their oldest son had run afoul with the communities pro-slavery element. A rural school teacher had complained that he was coming to the school and bothering her. Members of the group hid in the schoolhouse and upon his arrival took him into their custody. Their punishment was to chain him to the rooftop, setting the schoolhouse on fire and burning him alive. The picture of him chained to the top of the schoolhouse and it burning was in the Atchison Daily Globe. I saw it when we lived on a farm south of Monrovia in Atchison County sometime between 1931 and 1932. I have never forgotten such a dastardly deed, nor will I ever forget the picture of a lonely young man perched on that roof with no means of escape. A sitting duck for racist vultures. No doubt his blood thirsty enemies were taunting him and happy over their avenue of vengeance. This was a classic example of man's inhumanity to man. I had no idea when I started to collect information for my history of District #28 that this man's life would suddenly flash back across my horizon and bring back memories of years when equality hung in the balance and civil rights was unknown. Much progress has been made in the past fifty years and my only consolation is that we are learning that the color of a person's skin should make no difference for we are all God's children and I truly hope so.

In 1940 there were twelve students enrolled in the Carmel School, but by 1943 the enrollment had dropped to six. There was much moving from farm to farm during the late thirties and forties, so when a family with children left the district the loss was deeply felt. In 1944 there were three small girls in school, Flora Jean Williams, a third grader, Barbara Slimmer in the fourth and Barbara Lutz, a sixth grader. In January of 1945 Flora Jean and her mother Berniece moved from the community leaving the two Barbara's to keep the school going. The teacher was Mary Winifred Pitsche and, as it turned out, was the last to teach at Carmel School. At the annual meeting n 1945 it was voted to close the school until more pupils might move into the district. Both Barbaras entered the Holton school system.

Farming, as a vocation, was going through a change at this time with the tractor rapidly replacing the work horse, which led to larger farming operations. The farms of 40 and 80 acres were being swallowed up leaving empty improvements and less children for the small one room school district. Glenwood, the district adjoining Carmel to the north was plagued by the same problem as were most of the districts in the county. The idea of consolidating the two districts was brought forth in 1946 and proved to be very popular to the patrons of both communities. Glenwood, however, still had enough children to continue until 1949. A special meeting was held at the Carmel schoolhouse on April 15, 1950, at 3 o'clock to decide whether to consolidate with Glenwood and move one of the schoolhouses to a more central point. The meeting was called to order by acting chairman, Nell Brown, due to the absence of director, Mrs. Charles Hawks. The motion to consolidate carried with eighteen votes for and three opposed. Glenwood also had a duplicate meeting and voted to join in the consolidation. Board members at Carmel were Mrs. Charles Hawks, director, Mrs. Dallas Wilson, treasurer, and May West, clerk. Glenwood records do not show who their director was, but think it was Walter Sigmund. Edwin Bareiss was their treasurer and Bill Dick the clerk. Their last teacher was Mrs. Mary Holt. After the consolidation of the two districts in early 1950, a meeting was held in the new Carwood District #103. There is no record of where it was held. The new board members elected were Edith Wilson, director, Edwin Bareiss, treasurer, and Walter Sigmund, Clerk.

Many obstacles, problems and much worry befell the new board. A great deal of help was given by the county superintendent, Mrs. Winifred Nelson. One acre of ground was purchased from George McKeever, owner of the land where the site of the school was to be. He was paid $200 for the acre and Anderson Construction co. was hired to lay the new foundation. Albert Fields from Havensville, was hired to move the Carmel School building which was some larger and better built. Mr. Fields was paid $337.50 for moving the school building, swing set and the Glenwood toilets.

The schoolhouse was jacked up and placed on dollies to be pulled by a truck. The truck was unable to pull the load so the board contacted Devere Doty, a local heavy equipment operator to help with his bulldozer. All went well until two tires blew a short distance west of the small bridge. After a few hours delay and a wider corner being made the schoolhouse was heading north to its new site. A big sigh of relief was given by everyone as the building was placed on its new foundation. The difficult job was done with papering, wiring, and painting as the next projects.

A well was drilled by Dale Springer from Wetmore at a cost of $193. Sam Dick did the paperhanging and Guy Massey all the painting. A new Moncrief gas furnace was installed by Petree Propane of Holton for $740.50. However, it smoked up the interior after only two months because of the smoke stack not being high enough. That, of course, cost us another paperhanging job.

School opened on schedule the first Monday in September of 1950, with nine pupils enrolled and Lea Riggert was the teacher the first students to attend the re-organized district were as follows.





Bobby Segenhagen


Raymond & Clara

Phyllis Sigmund


Walter & Gwen

Wayne Segenhagen


Ray & Clara

Jackie Stolzenberger


Jack & Betty

Jack Horner


Bill & ?

Patricia bareiss


Edwin & Grace

Wilma Horner


Bill & ?

Leonard Sigmund


Walt & Gwen

Virginia Sue Dick


Bill & May

This was a new experience for the patrons and pupils of the new District #103. Gravel roads, electricity, and an automatic furnace was certainly progress, in our estimation. A telephone was installed sometime during the 1956 school year. Bateman, Pearidge, Liberty and Hazel Grove all closed soon which helped the attendance at Carwood. The school had a shorter life than was anticipated due to the buses coming by the front door, which made it more convenient transportation wise.

Mrs. Riggert taught the first two years, followed by Mrs. Aileen Teeter teaching five very successful terms. Mrs. Claire Jones taught the remaining two years of the school’s existence. The new district was well supported with good attendance at the community meetings, school programs, and all social events, including a wolf hunt or two. It was the consensus of everyone concerned that those nine years were well worth the expense and effort put forth to move the schoolhouse to the new location. The school was always the back bone of the rural community and its closing left a big hole in the fellowship and neighborliness of the district which will never again be filled.

The last pupils to attend Carwood were the following:

Raymond Tannahill

Phyllis Cattrell

Janice Tannahill

Wilma Cattrell

Ruth Ann Tannahill

Larry Cattrell

Mickey Knouft

Charles Cattrell

The Cattrell and Knouft children were the only ones to finish out the 1959 school year. So ended over 90 years of schooling in District #28 and #103. Many people attended and graduated from these school buildings, but no list of students was kept until the middle 30's. I am including the following few paragraphs which depicted the final years of the small rural schools demise as an educational center.

"The one room school came to an end by the movement to modernize and centralize the elementary and high schools of Kansas. In the 1930's children were going to school in a wide assortment of ways such as walking, riding horses, lumber wagons, cars and any way possible. Buses were being put on the road in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors.

This was the beginning of a long period of change over the entire nation for our school system. The abandonment of the historic little red school house for larger and better equipped more centrally located schools had begun. The idea slowly spread to the middle west but many years were to go by before the new system would really gain momentum.

In the meantime, Dr. Frank Cur, a professor of rural education at Columbia University had stepped into the picture. Born on a farm in a sod shanty, beginning his education in a one room school, taught, and was a county superintendent of rural schools disclosed that there was a frightening lack of safety measures governing the use of buses. A national conference was called at the teachers college on October 10, 1939 with all facets of the bus industry invited to attend. Each state was represented by a delegate, and the modern bus of today is the direct result of the plans developed at this meeting.

The size of the bus and color was not the real issue that caused the most oratory. They all wanted the color of yellow but were divided on the shade. Chrome yellow was eventually chosen, which became school bus yellow. The first buses were running late in 1939 carrying the specifications decided on at the conference. In 1981 there were 380,000 buses running all across the nation. They were also standard now in Canada, Saudi Arabia, the West Indies and several countries in South America. The yellow school bus has become as American as peanut butter sandwiches and hot dogs. This, of course, helped bring an end to the rural schools and small high schools. Bill Wilson."

The little red school house though most of them were white, came into being over 100 years ago during the 1850's and 60's when Kansas was reeling but not overcome by the ravages of the Civil War and its aftermath. Its bloody tentacles touched many hearts when the battle raged to settle the question of secession and to humanize the negro race granting equality to one and all regardless of race or color.

I'm so glad to have had the opportunity to attend a one room school and to teach in one. I will always treasure the nice memories of those days of long ago. How well I remember the Christmas programs, box suppers, special ball games on the last day of school, playing fox and geese on a cold winter snowy day and maybe a game of handy over the schoolhouse on a warm noon hour. We must not forget pum pum pull away, blackman, red rover and a quick game of hide and seek. A game many of "may I" played inside on a real cold day, spelling bees, penmanship, writing on the blackboard, and especially the closeness between the teacher and students. Yes, these things are now history, but never to be forgotten by those of us who were lucky enough to have lived in those days.

There was always a welcome for the shy little girl or boy on that happy or sad first day of school. Too some it was a step about which they had many emotions, but with the help of a kind and dedicated teacher the timid and hesitant youngster was soon drawn into the everyday routine and schedule of the school day. Thus, starting down the road of education which was free to everyone, young or old, rich or poor.

The little one room school was a solid institution of learning, providing the basic three R's, plus encouragement and assistance to the pupils in helping them build a strong foundation of knowledge for a good and meaningful life. We humbly acknowledge the value of the one room schools all over the country for their contribution toward the building of this great nation. An institution that became the bulwark and foundation for the schools of today. We say a sincere thank you to those early settlers who pioneered the first schools for your determined effort to provide quality education for the youth in your community, which was under very trying conditions as the economy of the new state was slowly stabilized. To you our friends and forebears, we the 1985 residents of the Carmel area honor and salute you for a job well done. It is with the highest esteem that we hold you in our memory.

I have attempted to capture the highlights of the 90 plus years that the Black, Carmel and Carwood schools served the community. I'm sure there are many interesting stories that could be told about these schools had they been recorded for posterity. It has been a very enjoyable experience for me to delve back in time to read and record the history as it was lived back in the early days. It has brought back many happy memories of my life spent in a one room schoolhouse starting in September 1909 at Cottage Hill, which was close to Waterville, Kansas. Midhill School was built on a gentle slope 3-1/2 miles southwest of Waterville in Marshall County and was a typical country school much like Carmel. Like all rural schools during that era, pupils were from six to perhaps twenty or more years old. It had a pot-bellied stove to sit around trying to keep warm on a cold winters day, outdoor plumbing and kerosene lamps that did not provide too much illumination. Roads that were almost impossible to travel on at times even for a horse and buggy. School lunches were carried in syrup pails, dinner buckets, containing homemade bread sandwiches, but with a nice piece of pie to make up the difference. A far cry from the gravel roads, electric lights, cafeteria style dinners and automatic temperature control of the 1980's. Times have changed and for the better I might add.

The country school to me was a no frill institution where many a young lad and lassie was started down the road of life with worthwhile values and ambitions. Enough patriotism to last a life time, while unashamedly a tear or two might trickle down a proud face. Not too proud, though, to admit that shivers danced up and down the spine while the flag was passing by, as we listened to the rhythmic beat of the National Anthem being played by the members of the local volunteer band.

As my mind wafts back to things that have happened in my lifetime and the building of the second Carmel Schoolhouse in 1903, which is the same age as myself, I can't help but recall some of the times and happenings of that period. The collapse of wall street in 1929 that was the ruination of so many people. Banks failed, businesses and farms alike were foreclosed upon with people not only losing their homes, but their lifesavings, also. This, followed by the drought in the 1930's brought widespread unemployment, hunger and food lines to the starving populace. It was indeed a period of great suffering and hardship for the masses.

This was during the presidency of Herbert Hoover. A big blow to his popularity was the World War I veteran debacle. Some 20,000 jobless veterans calling themselves "The Bonus Expeditionary Force," traveled to the nations capital in old jalopies, open trucks, hitch hiking and any way possible in a useless search for help. A bonus had been promised to them after the war to be paid in 1945. However, since times were difficult they wanted it in their dire time of need, but Congress and the President refused to help them in any way. A fracas occurred on July 28, 1931 as the Washington police set about evicting the veterans from their camp. President Hoover ordered the Army, led by General Douglass McArthur, to drive them from the city. Cavalrymen brandishing sabers, a long column of infantrymen in full dress, and six tanks arrived at the veterans camp. McArthur, disobeying Hoover's orders to stay away from the camp, sent in the troops, setting fire to the tents and shacks and firing tear gas. This harsh Action taken by President Hoover’s administration severely damaged his reputation as a humanitarian and dramatized more graphically than any other event the tragedy of the "Great Depression". Will Rogers summed up the feeling of many observers with his comment, "the bonus expeditionary force held the record for being the best behaved of any hungry men assembled anywhere in the world."

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected the 32nd President in 1932. The economy of the nation was in a deplorable condition. Hungry and unemployed persons were living in hopeless despair. The banking industry was in a state of chaos. President Roosevelt called for a forty-eight hour bank holiday in 1933 to study the situation, hoping to stop the bank closures and start a new with federal help. The administration under Roosevelt was the author of the F. D. I. C., which guaranteed the assets of the bank depositor.

Several years of drought and dust storms in the middle west with dust accumulating like snow drifts in winter in some places, made life on the farm almost impossible. Growing crops on the farm even vegetables from the garden was hopeless situation. People were moving from one place to another in a futile effort to find enough work to make a living. Under the President’s guidance, who incidentally had four terms, we somehow managed to weather the recession. We bought only what we had to have with what little money we managed to make, which was maybe .50 cents to $1.00 a day. We just made do with what we had and hoped for better days to come. Sadly, it took World War II to really help the economy.

The corn and hog program was made available to the farmers, which was a little something to look forward to, for fifty dollars or more in those days was a small fortune. N.R.T.A. was started and as I remember had to do with controlling prices. The W. P. A. also came into being which was a work program for men with families to do hand labor on public projects such as swimming pools, stadiums, schools, etc. It paid one dollar a day and was a life-saver for many of us. My husband, Dallas, worked on the Amelia Earhart Stadium in Atchison. I understand that the Holton Swimming pool was built under this program. I am not sure when the WPA was started but was going strong in the middle thirties.

A program for young men, single and turning 18 years old was started about this time, too. Growing up in the "Civilian Conservation Corps" was the privilege of many young men out of work and with parents on relief. The Corps was created to combat forest destruction, erosion and flood control. It provided useful work for the unemployed young men who were unable to find work in that jobless era. They were paid $30 per month of which $25 was sent to their parents to help them eke out an existence. The Corps known to many as the "Tree Planting Army", was organized in 1935 and came to an end shortly after Pearl Harbor and our entry into World War II. The Seneca Lake was built under the supervisions of the CCC.

These were some of the Government programs made available to help the low income families cope with a very difficult situation during the "Dirty Thirties." Times were hard for those of us in our 20’s and 30’s trying to raise a family, but I’m sure it was even worse for the older people. We, of the younger generation had hopes that better times would someday come.

It was also a difficult time for the school districts throughout the nation. Carmel school was no exception as the history I am writing relates. Times now have changed for the better, and more children have the opportunity to attend high school and go on to college. Hopefully those hard times are in the past and no one will have to go through them as we did.

I look back on those years with mixed emotions, happy to have made it through them without too many scars, but also sad to see life slowly ebbing away. I’m glad that I have had the opportunity to see my family grow to maturity and some of my hopes and dreams fulfilled. What will happen tomorrow I do not know or want to know. The future belongs to the young, to look forward too and enjoy. History is for the old to talk about, to look back upon and to remember and cherish. The Black, Carmel, and Carwood schools, I hope, will always be remembered with the love and dignity they so rightly deserve, not only by those who studied and prayed inside their walls, but by the generations yet unborn.

So we say a final sad goodbye and farewell to all of the one room schools all over America, may they always have a special place in history and a fond niche in our heart, for the little red schoolhouse did not die, it just slowly faded away. Thanks for being there for us.
Edith Wilson

The following pages are devoted to data taken from the school clerk and treasurer’s books. I have enjoyed reading the names, dates, prices of supplies, etc., and feel they should be jotted down for the sake of history. Many names such as Dick, Brown, Abel and Kuglin are still in the area. Many other names such as Allard, McKeever, Black, Naylor and Rings are very familiar. Some names may not be spelled correctly for it is difficult to make out some of the letters.
B. W. 1992

Given to the Classmates in 1918 
By Lena Porterfield
Teacher 1917 to 1918

Beautiful School days
When beautiful school days are over 
And grown men and women are we.
Tho gone we will think of them ever
O, bring back my school days to me.

We long for our playmates of childhood 
Who played with us day by day
And little did we dream how we loved them
Until they had gone far away

O, beautiful, beautiful school days
O, could your sweet memory remain
Through all of our pleasures and sorrows
And bring back our school days again

Author Unknown
This poem was copied from a pamphlet given to each student as a souvenir from Lena Porterfield, teacher during the 1917-1918 school term. The pamphlet is a souvenir of Mr. Bill Dick’s, a pupil in the Carmel School at this time.

Students Listed in the Pamphlet are as follows:


Edna Brown John & Nell
Frank Brown John & Nell
Charles Brown John & Nell
Roy Brown John & Nell
Jack Benton  
George Benton  
William Mannell Alfred & Elizabeth
Milton Mannell Alfred & Elizabeth
Robert Brown William
Maude Brown William
Sean Brown William
Mervin McBroom William & Minnie
Cecile McBroom William & Minnie
Virginia Myers ??
Will Dick James & Laura
Esther Dick James & Laura
Ethel McKeever Charles &
Mary McKeever Lon &
Elsie McKeever Lon &
Alice Mae West Rollo & Nellie

Tobias Glick The Widow Allen
Liberty Dick John Charles
C. G. Dick John Black
Michael Seamish Barton Roby
John Abel Wm. West Lake
Samuel Brown Isaac Bliven
George Pope Calvin Pope
B. F. Nicewunder Wm. Darlington
Charles Poppy Frank Lemon
William Allen Wm. McCallister

On August 31, 1870 there were 27 males and 35 females between the age of 5 and 21 living in the district. Twenty-two males and twenty-five females were enrolled in Black school. The teacher's salary was $40 per month for the male and $37 for the female. Taxes were 3/4 th of one percent for the teacher's fund. Nine months of school was held with six months in the fall and winter beginning the fifth day of September and three months in the spring starting on the 25th day of April. These were the first records kept in the district that was organized in 1867. Records in the Holton Register of Deeds office show that it was organized in 1864. There very definitely was school being held before 1867.


John Abel Franklin Lindsay
Perry Abel G. W. Pope, Sr.
A. D. Abel G. W. Pope, Jr.
John Black W. C. Pope
Isaac Blivens G. B. Pope
L. D. Blivens Charles Poppy
E. B. Clowe Wesley Patton
? Cuilen Barney Parkhurst
L. S. Colton M. A. Parks
Samuel Brown George Roby
C. G. Dick Barton Roby
Liberty Dick Wm. Roby
Archibald Dick Wm. Sharpe
Wm. Dobbins G. R. Sharpe
Tobias Glick J. A. Sawhill
Daniel Hunter J. W. Lowe
Mrs. Allen  

During this time the teachers salary was twenty dollars per month for both male and female. Twenty-eight males and thirty-two females between 5 and 21 resided in the district. Sixty pupils were enrolled in Carmel school with an average attendance of twenty-seven. The tax for the teachers salary was ½ of one percent and the building fund tax was one percent.


"The grounds should not be less than one acre and be enclosed with a neat and substantial fence. The schoolhouse should be situated a few yards from the front and equally distant from the two sides of the lot. A close fence extending from the center of the rear of the house should divide the backyard into separate play grounds for the boys and girls. A substantial woodshed and other outhouses should also be provided. Door scrapers and good mats (those made of corn husk being excellent) should remove all excuse for entering the school room with muddy shoes. The schoolhouse shall be a beautiful well constructed commodious building properly and neatly furnished, kept in cleanly and wholesome condition, inspiring him with higher greatness as scarcely anything else will. We are indebted to those who have gone before us for most of what we now enjoy. We are derive benefits from our ancestors and are morally bound to transmit those benefits to posterity."


A. D. Abel Daniel Hunter
John Abel Franklin Lindsay
Perry Abel G. W. Pope Sr.
James Allen G. W. Pope Jr.
Mrs. Allen G. B. Pope
Wm. Allen W. C. Pope
John Black Charles Poppy
Isaac Bliven B. F. Parkhurst
L. D. Bliven Manasee Parks
Samuel Brown George Roby
F. Brown Wm. Roby
L. S. Colton ? Morely
C. E. Dick James Shelby
Liberty Dick ? Shelby
Archibald Dick Barton Roby
Mrs. Glick G. W. Sharpe
J. A. Sawhill  

There were 30 males and 35 females between 5 and 21 in the district. Twenty-four males and twenty-seven females were enrolled in Carmel school with an average attendance of 32. Taxes were 3/4ths of one percent for the building fund and 1/8th of one percent for incidentals.


The first annual meeting on record
Daniel Hunter - Director
Green B. Pope - Treasurer
Liberty L. Dick - Clerk

The Annual Meeting was held in the Black schoolhouse on March 31, 1870 at 2 p.m. It was voted to have nine months of school with the summer term to commence on April 25, 1870. The winter term to begin on the fifth day of September. A tax of ¾th of one percent was voted for the teacher's salary. The board at this time was voted new each year unless a member was re-elected.

Eliza Granger - Teacher - $35.00
Abner Buzby - Teacher - $40.00


Manasee Parks - Director
Charles Poppy - Treasurer
Frank Lyman - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on March 30, 1871 at 2 p.m. It was voted to have six months of school. The three months of school. The three month winter term beginning in November and the summer term starting the first day in May. A tax of one percent was voted for the teacher's salary and 1/8th of one percent for sheeting of the Black schoolhouse.

J. G. Edwards - Teacher - $40.00
Mary Rayfield - Teacher - $35.00
S. S. Rider - Digging well - $12.00
Wm. Sharpe - Boarding of the hands while digging well - $7.00
McGrew and Smith - Well rope - .75 cents
T. Adamson - Well wheel - .75 cents
J. G. Edwards - Chopping wood - $1.50
R. N. Adamson - Well bucket - $1.50


M. A. Parks - Director
Wm. Sharpe - Treasurer
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on Thursday the 24th day of March. A nine month school term was voted with a tax of one percent for the teacher's wages and 1/10th of one percent for incidentals.

Wm. Blosser - Teacher - $30.00
Marian Chistester - Teacher - $40.00
Arch Abel - six cords of wood - $15.00
James M. Dick - chopping wood - $1.50
S. S. Rider - balance on well $16.00
M. A. Parks - making well curb - $7.00

A special meeting was held in January of 1873. I am copying it as it was written in the Clerk's Record book.

"The Legal voters of school district number 28 county of Jackson, State of Kansas pursuant to legal notice held a special meeting at the Sam Brown home in said district on Friday the 22nd day of January 1873 at one o'clock. On motion it was voted one percent of the taxable property of said district for building fund purposes and it was voted that the new schoolhouse to be 10 feet high.
Arch D. Abel

(This meeting, no doubt was held shortly after the fire and subsequent loss of the log cabin school house called Black school. I would imagine that the number 10 feet high would mean to the eaves.)


W. C. Pope - Director
G. B. Pope - Treasurer
Arch Abel - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on the 27th day of March 1873. There is no record of where the meeting was held. A building fund tax of one percent and an incidental tax of 1/4th percent was voted. No teacher's salary tax was voted. It was voted that Charley Rayfield be employed to finish the schoolhouse ready for plastering. No teacher's were paid a salary at this time. The fire was probably in late December of 1872 or early January of 1873.

Liberty Dick - lath for s. house - .75 cents
Bishop - window glass - .75 cents
Freight agent at Netawaka for schoolhouse furniture - $15.00
M. Parks - hauling furniture - $2.50
M. Parks - setting up furniture - $2.50
Charlie Rayfield - making blackboard - $5.00
W. C. Pope - hauling lumber - $2.00

April 21, 1873

As written in Clerk's Book

The legal voters of school district #28 in the county of Jackson and State of Kansas in pursuant to legal notice held a special meeting at the schoolhouse in said district on the21st day of April 1873. On motion it was voted to receive the seats that were contracted for by the ex-board. On motion it was voted to paint the schoolhouse in said district. On motion it was voted to adjourn.

A. D. Abel

May 2, 1873
As Written

The legal voters of school district No. 28 in the county of Jackson state of Kansas pursuant to notice held a special meeting at the schoolhouse in said district on the 2nd day of May, 1873 at one p.m. for the purpose of changing the term of school, also to give direction about finishing the schoolhouse. On motion it was voted that E. B. Clowe act as chairman. On motion it was voted to change the term of school from four months to five months. Two months summer school to commence as soon as the schoolhouse is ready and three in the fall commencing the first of October 1873. On motion it was voted to finish the schoolhouse as soon as possible, motion to adjourn.

A. D. Abel

Sam Brown - hauling furniture - $2.00
W. C. Pope - hauling lumber $2.00
C. A. Walker - Stove pipe, elbow & stove - $616.00
Sam Brown - material to work on schoolhouse - $19.50
James M. Dick - chopping wood - $1.75

(Marian Chistester was the last teacher to be paid at Black school so evidently was teaching at the time of the fire. There is no actual record of it burning or of a school by the name of Black existing. There is no record of any teacher being paid from January 1873 to October of 1874. Records do show that a tuition fee was paid to Lonaire McComas in September of 1873, Louis McCreary on February of 1874 and J. W. Lowe also in February.

I do know how the tuition fee worked, but had to do with the education of the students while the school building was being erected. J. W. Lowe was the first teacher hired to teach in the first Carmel schoolhouse in October of 1874.

It has been difficult trying to piece together this period in time when the Black schoolhouse was lost by fire at Black’s Crossing." The 1873 or First Carmel schoolhouse, served the district until 1902. The second Carmel schoolhouse was erected in 1903 and served the district until 1950 when it was moved to its present location on the Circleville road and re-named Carwood. The new name was determined by putting the name Carmel to Glenwood together after the consolidation of the two districts. Into the new district #103.) B. W.


E. B. Lowe - Director
G. B. Pope - Treasurer
L. S. Colton - Clerk

The annual meeting was held at the newly built Carmel schoolhouse on August 13, 1874 at 2 p.m. John Black was chosen as chairman in the absence of the director. It was voted to have four months of school and not pay the teacher more than $20 per month.

J. W. Lowe - Teacher $20.00
E. E. Birkett - Teacher - $20.00
Charley Rayfield - work on s. house - $49.90
J. Dickey - lumber for schoolhouse - $339.25
Sam Brown - one cord of wood - $3.00
W. P. Bishop - window glass - .75 cents
Cole Bros. - lighting rods - $16.00
J. Gordon - one broom - .25 cents


A. D. Abel - Director
Barton Roby (served one month) - Treasurer
B. F. Parkhurst - Appointed - Treasurer
L. S. Colton - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on the 12th day of August 1875. A tax of one percent was voted for the building fund, ½ of one percent for the teachers fund and 1/4th percent for incidentals. Voted to have three months of school in the fall and winter and five months during the spring and summer.

A special meeting was called on August 22, 1875 to take into consideration the financial condition of the district. The indebtedness of the district being $483 and with only $85 on hand it was voted to fund the final three months of school with dividends from the state funds.

S. S. Reutter - Teacher - $34.00
E. E. Birkett - $26.66
John Black - wood - $3.50
John Black - two cord - $7.00
John Black - one cord - $3.50
A. D Abel - one cord - $3.50
J. Dickey - work on schoolhouse - $44.00
M. M. Beck - window glass - putty - .90 cents

Sam Brown - Director
Liberty L. Dick -Treas.
Ach Able - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on August 10, 1876 at 2 p.m. at the schoolhouse. It was voted to have nine months of school and a tax of ¾ ths of one percent for the teachers salary and incidentals.

E.E. Birkett - teacher- $40.00
Dora Parkhouse - teacher - $35.00
L.L. Dick - wood - $20.00
A.D. Abel - wood - $3.00
McGrew and smith - bucket and dipper - $.55

James Piper - Director
Liberty Dick - Treas.
Arch Abel - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on August 9, 1877. It was voted to have nine months of school with a tax levy of seven mills for all purposes. Motion was made and carried to buy six cords of wood from Arch Abel. It is to be walnut at $1.90 per cord. Motion made and carried to pain the schoolhouse if enough money is available. 

R.M. Cook - teacher - $25.00
Wm. Allen - lumber - $2.00
WM. Dobyn - cleaning well $.50
Samuel Abel. Wood - $21.60
WM. Allen - repairing fence - $3.00
Andy Walker - ash bucket - $1.00

James Piper - Director
Liberty Dick - Treas
Arch Able - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on August 8, 1878. It was voted to have a nine month school term and a tax of seven mills for all purposes.

R.M. Cook - teacher $ 30.00
Alfred Bayse - "- $ 30.00
S.L. Abel - one load of wood $ 3.00
John R. Butts - digging well - $16.00
S.L. Abel -Wood - $11.40

(During this period the board members term in office was extended to three years instead of one)


James Piper - Director
L.L. Dick - Treas.
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on August 14, 1879. It was voted to have seven months of school and a tax of nine mills for all purposes . It was voted to put shutters on the windows.

Alfred Bayse - teacher- $30.00
J.J. Preston - teacher $30.00
J.J. De Board - (sub) teacher- $30.00
Charlie E. Dick - wood $23.00
J.C. Dickey - lumber- $4.40
C.A. Walker - Pump- $13.13
W.W. Naylor - chalk and broom- $.90


James Piper - Director 
L.L. Dick - Treas.
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on August 12, 1880. It was voted to have an eight month school term with a tax levy of 6 ½ mills for the teachers salary and two mills for incidentals. A motion was made and carried to make window shutters out of oak wood and hung so as to fasten from the inside. It was voted to change the ten cords of walnut wood on contract with Sam Abel to oak for $2.25
Per cord. John Black was chairman in the absence of the director 

J.L Heron - teacher - $25.00
Mary W Naylor - teacher - $25.00
W.W. Naylor - stove pipe and matches $ 1.00
S.L. Abel - wood - $22.50
Jacob Swart - shutters $20.00

1881- 82

James Piper - Director
Perry Abel - Treas.
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on August 11th 1881 at 2 P.M. It was voted to have eight months of school and a tax levy of six mills for the teachers wages and two mills for incidentals. Voted to paint the schoolhouse and fence the yard. It was voted to burn coal instead of wood. 

Mary W. Mayor - Teacher- $30.00
Alice Ferguson - Teacher- $30.00
Flora Hanum - (sub) Teacher- $30.00
Alice Horn - (sub) Teacher- $30.00
F.M Vincent - Wood- $2.00
Perry Abel - Hauling Lumber- $1.00
John Black - One Post- $2.00
Mack Brown - Chopping Wood- .60 cents


On January 1 1882 a petition was presented to the board members signed by the 4/5th of the legal voters to accept the following school books- 
Appleton’s Readers
Cornell’s Geographic’s 
Quacken Bo’s Arithmetic
Quacken Bo’s Histories
Quacken Bo’s Language Lessons
Yeoman Botany
Krusac’s Drawing
The middle copy book
The American Speller

1882- 83

James Piper - Director 
Perry Abel - Treasure
G.W Pope - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on October 10, 1882. It was voted to have nine months of school and a tax of eight mills for the teachers salary and one mill for incidentals. 

Flora Hanum - Teacher- $25.00
S.S Reutter - Teacher- $25.00
H.S Cutter - (sub) Teacher- $9.00
Perry Abel - Work on well- $11.00
H. Barnes - Walling Well- $5.00
James Abel - Grading S. Yard- $11.00

1883 - 84

Lyman Allard - Director
Perry Abel - Treasure
G.W Pope - Clerk

The Annual business meeting was held on August 9, 1883. It was voted to have nine months of school and tax of ten mills for all purposes. Voted to repair the fence with plank and fix the well. Motion was made and carried to extend the hitch rack the entire length of the schoolhouse. 

H.S. Cutter - Teacher- $25.00
Joseph Littlefield - Teacher- $25.00
John Abel - Hauling Sand - $12.00
H. Bishop - Sand - $1.50
G.W Pope - Repair of Pump - $1.00
L. Allard - Coal - $ 18.54

1884- 85

H.M. Bailey - Director 
John Shelby - Treasure
G.W Pope - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on August 14, 1884. Voted to have eight months of school , and ten mills for the teachers and salary, and two mills for incidentals. 

J.R Dague - teacher $40.00
W.H. Summer - (sub) teacher $35.00
Larkin and Brother - Plastering - $23.35
Perry Abel - Work - $5.00
Lyman Allard - Work on Schoolhouse - $5.00 
Scott and Co. - Coal Bucket - .75 cents

1885- 86

H.M Bailey - Director
John Shelby - Treasure
J.M Dick - Clerk 

The annual business meeting was held on August 13, 1885. A nine month term of school was voted. With a tax levy of eight mills levied for teachers salary and two mills for the incidentals. A motion was made and carried to buy a world globe and maps.

M.W. McCleary - Teacher - $45.00
W.J. Blake - Cleaning Schoolhouse - $5.00
J.C. Shoff - hauling coal - $5.00
Union School Furn. Co. - Globe and Maps - $ 47.35
T. Quackenbush - Coal - $17.25

1886- 87

Martin Wilkinson - Director
John Shelby - Treasure
J. M Dick - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on August 12, 1886 at 2 P.M. It was voted to have nine months of school with a tax levy of eight mills for the teachers wages and two mills for incidentals. It was voted to clean out the well, repair pump, fix toilets, and grade up around the schoolhouse. 

M.W McCleary - Teacher- $45.00

Eaton Smith - Cleaning Schoolhouse - $2.50
M. Wilkinson - Repair of Schoolhouse - $ 11.90
Quackenbush - Hauling Coal - $2.50


Martin Wilkinson - Director
Sam Brown - Treasure
James M. Dick - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held at the Carmel school on June 30, 1887 at 2 o’clock. It was voted to have eight months of school with a tax of seven mills for the teachers salary , two mills was allowed for the incidentals. It was left up to the board to hire the teachers.

C.L Brown - Teacher- $40.00
Winnie Smith - Teacher- $30.00
J.S Elliot - Coal - $8.29
M. Wilkerson - Hauling Coal - $4.05
Sam Brown - Repair Window - $2.50
W.S Brown - Repair of Coal House - .50 cents

1888- 89

Martin Wilkinson - Director
Sam Brown - Treasure
James M. Dick - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on Thursday, June 28, 1888 at 2 o’clock. School to be taught for eight months. Five mills was voted for building an addition on the schoolhouse and putting the bell on top. Five mills was voted for the teachers salary.

J.C Ramey - Teacher - $45.00
Carrie Blue - Teacher - $30.00
?? - ---- Lightning Rods - $28.00
F.M. Lindsay - Work on Hitch Rack - $10.00


S.L. Abel - Director
Sam Brown - Treasure
J.M. Dick - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 25, 1889 at 2 o’clock. It was voted to have eight months of school and an eight mill tax levy for all purposes. It was voted to use the money on hand to pay off the debt of the district. 

Minnie Hunter - Teacher- $40.00
Winnie Smith - (sub) Teacher- $30.00
W. Athey - Building on new addition- $304.46
C.D Rose - Three School Seats- $19.50
J.T Simpson - Six joints of pipe and a stone grate- $2.50
J. Kelchner - Cleaning out the well and schoolhouse- $8.00
Naylor and Sarbach - One dictionary- $10.00


S.L Abel - Director
J. Kelchner - Treasure
J.M Dick - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 31, 1890 at 2 o’clock. It was voted to have nine months of school with a tax levy of five mills for the teachers salary and two mills for incidentals,

Carrie Blue - Teacher - $40.00
J.M. Dick - Cleaning out well - $3.00
W.C. Richardson - Repairing Schoolhouse- $1.25
A.J. Boyse - Coal- $11.90

1891- 1892

S.L Abel - Director 
J. Kelchner - Treasure
H.M Bailey - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 30, 1891 at 2 P.M with A.D Abel as chairman protem. It was voted to have nine months of school. A fall and winter term of six months, then a months vacation followed by three monthsof spring and summer school. Seven mills was voted for the teachers wages and two for incidentals. It was voted to dig a cave.

Julia Bryant - Teacher- $35.00
Logan and Brown - Lumber- $2.10 
Williams and Wenner - Well bucket, broom and hinges - $1.75


S.L. Abel - Director
J. Kelchner - Treasure
H.M Bailey - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held at the Carmel schoolhouse on Thursday, July 28, 1892 at 2 P.M. It was voted to have nine months of school and a tax levy of six mills for all purposes. Voted to let the board hire the teachers.

Luella Littlefield - Teacher - $35.00
? Taylor - Teacher - $40.00

Green and Chevis - One Bell - $25.00
E.M Lindsey - Clean Schoolyard - $5.50
J.T Simpson - Hardware and Stove Pipe - $4.80
Perkins - Coal - $6.30

(Some names may not be spelled correctly due to my writing ability to have to make out writing.
Mrs. Wilson )

1893- 94

S.L. Abel - Director
James Kelchner - Treasure
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 27, 1893 at 3 o’clock. It was voted to have nine months of school and a tax levy of five mills for all purpose. It was voted to buy two stoves and paint the schoolhouse. It was voted to hire a female teacher and repair the privies. 

Dora Porterfield - Teacher - $40.00

G.W Pope - Cleaning out well - $4.00
E.E Coulson - Painting Schoolhouse - $31.00
Maylor and Sarbach - Putty and Crayons - .60 cents
Sam Brown - Boarding Painter and Repair of Schoolhouse - $6.00
Logan and Brown - Lumber - $4.00

1894- 95

S.L. Abel - Director 
J. Kelchner - Treasure
Sam Brown Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 26, 1894. It was voted to have eight months of school and a tax of seven mills for all purposes. Voted to hire either male or female teacher.

May Woodburn - Teacher - $40.00

W.M McBroom- Cleaning Out Well - $2.00
State Bank - Interest on Two Years- $1.50
F. Nevenhiser - Plastering and making a blackboard - $55.00
J. Kelchner and Sam Brown - Cleaning Schoolhouse and Repair Stove and Seats - $6.50

1895- 96

S.L Abel - Director
Alex Abel - Treasure
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on July 25, 1895 at the Carmel schoolhouse. It was voted to have a nine months of school and a tax levy of eight mills for all purpose. 

Mattie Myers - Teacher - $40.00
Floy E. Stone - (sub) Teacher - $35.00
Frank Lindsey - Work on Schoolhouse - $2.00
J. Kelchner - Hauling one load of coal - $1.40
W.J. Hanna - One Atlas of the World - $5.50
C.Pool - Boring Well - $30.65
Dick Butts - Schoolhouse Repair - $4.50

1896- 97

S.L. Abel - Director
Alex Abel - Treasure
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on July 30, 1896. It was voted to have eight months of school with a tax levy of eight mills for all purposes.

Mary Maylor - Teacher - $40.00
Floy E. Stone - (sub) Teacher- $35.00
S.W. McComas - Repair Schoolhouse - $22.00
J.G Sharp - Work on Schoolhouse - $5.00
Sam Brown - Hauling and Putting up stones - $2.50
Alex Abel - Help Put up Stones - .50 Cents
G.C Brown - Hauling Coal and Cobs- $6.25

1897- 98

S.L. Abe - Director
John Glick - (Appointed) Treasure
Milton Porterfield - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on July 29, 1897. John Glick was appointed treasure and A.B Hunter appointed clerk protem, Milton Porterfield was elected clerk for the year. An eight month school term was voted and ten mills levied for all expenses. 

Hattie McColgun - Teacher - $40.00
F.M Lindsay - Repair of Schoolhouse - $13.75
Chevis and Woods - Hardware - $2.10
Holton Lumber Co.- Lumber and Shingles - $38.75
M.S Porterfield - Cleaning Brick and shingles off school yard - $1.70
Alex Abel - Haul and Set up two desks - $2.00
M.S Porterfield - Hauling Coal - $5.00
M.S Porterfield - Helping set up desks - .50 cents

1898- 99

J.M. Dick - Director
John Glick - Treasure
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual business meeting was held on Thursday, July 28, 1898.

Willeta German - Teacher - $40.00
W.E Leeman - Coal - $10.50
Charly Abel - Cleaning schoolhouse - $4.50
C.L Brown - Repairing blackboard - $5.00
Adam McAllister - District 86 (Glenwood) - $122.17
James Ruth - Hauling Coal and Mowing schoolyard - $6.00

(Due to newly formed district # 28 and the building of Glenwood Schoolhouse, M.S. Porterfield resigned as Clerk of Carmel District # 28. The Porterfield and Glick farms were in the new district, which was formed sometime in 1898.)


J.M. Dick - Director
S.L Abel - Treasure
Sam Brown - Clerk

The annual meeting was held on July 25, 1899. It was voted to have eight months of school and a tax of eight mills for all purposes.

Willeta German - Teacher- $40.00
M.H Roller - Coal - $12.75
John T. Brown - Hauling Coal- $3.80
W.T Williams - Cleaning Schoolyard- $1.00
Isaac Gunn - Cleaning Schoolhouse- $1.00
George Allen Jr. - Slate Blackboard- $42.00
Clark McKeever- Getting Stove Pipe- $1.00


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