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Orleans Parish History
The city of New Orleans and Orleans Parish are coterminous.
New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River.
Founded May 7, 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of the Kingdom of
France at the time.
New Orleans was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, remaining
under Spanish control until 1801, at which time it reverted briefly back to the French
until Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
After the Louisiana Purchase, numerous Anglo-Americans migrated to the
city. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s and by 1840, New Orleans had become
the wealthiest and the third-most populous city in the nation. Large numbers of German
and Irish immigrants began arriving in the 1840s, working as laborers in the busy port.
In this period, the state legislature passed more restrictions on manumissions of slaves,
and virtually ended it in 1852.
Population growth was frequently interrupted by yellow fever epidemics, the last of which
occurred in 1905.
Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large
plantations outside the city.
Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery, located just south of
the city, is the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans.
Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the French
Quarter dates from the Spanish period, the most notable exception being the Old Ursuline
Convent. The French Quarter is bounded by the Mississippi River, Ram
part Street, Canal Street, and Esplanade Avenue.
Canal Street serves as the dividing point between the "South" and "Nort
h" portions of various streets. In the local parlance, "downtown" means "
downriver from Canal Street", while "uptown" means "upriver from Canal Street".
Downtown neighborhoods include the French Quarter, Tremé, the 7th Ward, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater (the Upper Ninth Ward), and the Lower Ninth Ward. Uptown neighborhoods include the Warehouse District, the Lower Garden District, the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. However, the Warehouse and the Central Business District, despite being above Canal Street, are frequently called "Downtown" as a specific region, as in
Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John,
Mid-City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, and Algiers
[excerpted from wikipedia.org]
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New Orleans City View in 1909
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St. Tammany - North
St. Bernard - East
Plaquemines - South
Jefferson - Southwest
Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north
and Lake Borgne lies to the east.
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