Genealogy Trails History Group

Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States

State, Territories, Counties, Cities, Towns & Post Offices


Transcribed by Jeana Gallagher and Sandy Stutzman for the exclusive use of Genealogy Trails

Description of the United States

The "United States of America" is the most interesting and important division of the western hemisphere.  Comprising a territory equal in extent to that of half of the kingdoms and principalities of Europe combined, with a population exceeded by but three or perhaps four of the European states, and numbering scarce three fourths of a century since it broke loose from the leading strings of the mother-country, the American republic stands unparalleled in the history of the rise and growth of nations.  The territory of the United States lies between the meridians of 67° and 125° longitude west from Greenwich, and the parallels 24° and 49° of north latitude.  It is bounded by the Atlantic ocean on the east, and the Pacific on the west; by the British possessions on the north, and the republic of Mexico and the great gulf of that name on the south.  It Comprises an area of over 3,200,000 square miles.  The frontier line has a length of about 10,000 miles, about 5,000 miles of sea and lake coast.

Physical Aspects

A Territory of such vast extent must of course comprise a great variety of surface, soil and climate.  A large proportion of it is not only susceptible of cultivation, but has a fertile soil capable of supporting a dense population.  There are but few barrens, and no great deserts, except one in the territory of Utah.  It is numerously threaded by navigable streams, besides immense lakes, which not only give fertility to their borders, but are available in bearing the gifts of the soil to domestic and foreign markets, and in bringing back to the inhabitants the products and luxuries of other climes.


The territory of the United States is traversed by several chains of mountains.  The Allegany or Appalachian range, on the Atlantic side, runs in a northeasterly direction, from the northern part of Georgia to the gulf and river of St Lawrence, stretching along in uniform ridges, at the distance of from 250 to 80 miles from the seacoast, and following its general directions.  It occupies in breath a space of from 60 to 120 miles, and separates the water which run into the Atlantic ocean, from those which flow into the Mississippi and its tributaries.  The highest elevation in this range, and the most prominent at the Atlantic states, is Black Mountain, in the western part of North Carolina; it is 6,476 feet in height.  The general elevation is from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above the level of the sea.  The Rocky mountains, situated about 800 miles from the Pacific coast, are on a much grander scale than the Alleganies.  Their base is about 300 miles in breath, and their loftiest summits, covered with everlasting snow, rise to the height of from 12,000 to 18,000 feet above the level of the sea.  These vast chains may be considered as a continuation of the Cordilleras in Mexico.  The Sierra Nevada is a range of mountains extending through California, and from these branch off to the northwest the Cascade range, which traverses Oregon into the British territories.  Both these ranges become more elevated as they extend farther north, where some of their peaks enter the regions of perpetual snow.  Still farther west is the Coast range, running almost parallel to, and at a short distance from the Pacific coast.  Other minor ranges will be found described in the states in which they are situated.


The Principal bays and sounds on the Atlantic border are--Passamaquoddy bay, which lies between the state of Maine and the British province of New Brunswick; Massachusetts bay, between Capes Ann and Cod: Long Island sound, between Long Island and the coast of Connecticut: Delaware bay, which sets up between Cape May and Cape Henlopen, separating the states of New Jersey and Delaware; Chesapeake bay, which communicates with the ocean between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, extending in a northern direction for 200 miles, through the states of Virginia and Maryland; Albemarle sound and Pamlico sound, on the coast of North Carolina.  There are no large bays or sounds on the coast of the gulf of Mexico.  On the Pacific coast, however, there are several excellent bays, but the principal and only one necessary to mention, is the bay of San Francisco, in the newly-acquired domain of California.


The chain of inland seas, on the northern boundary, are unsurpassed in any country for size and utility.  Their dimensions are as follows:-

Name Length in miles Breadth in miles Circumference in miles Average depth in feet Elevation above sea level
Superior 420 140 1,500 1,000 627
Huron 250 220 1,200 860 594
Michigan 30 80 800 780 blank
Erie 265 63 700 250 565
Ontario 180 60 500 500 234
Champlain 105 12 235 blank blank

Lakes Michigan and Champlain are the only two of these lying wholly within the United States.  Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario, have boundary between the United States and the British provinces, running directly through their centre.  The other lakes of any magnitude in the United States are Lakes George, Oneida, Otego, Skaneateles, Owasso, Cayuga, Seneca, Crooked, Canandaigua, Honeoye, Chautauqua and Canesis; all in New York.  Moosehead, Chesuncook, Pemadumcook, Moosetogmaguntie, Sebago and Schoodie in Maine.  Winnipiseogee in New Hampshire and Memphremagog between Canada and Vermont.  In Louisiana, are the great lakes of Pontchartrain, Borgne, Ouacha, Grand and others formed by the waters of the Mississippi; Bedeau, Cadoe (Caddo), Bistinoe (Bistineau), Caunisnia, Bayou-Pierre, Spanish, Black and others formed by the Red rivers and it branches.  In Wisconsin is Lake Winnebago, formed by the Fox river.  There are several extensive lakes and everglades also in Florida of which Okeechobee is the principal.  In California are the Tulare lies, and the Pyramid lake, in the centre of which stands a natural granite pyramid.  There is also the Great Salt Lake in the territory of Utah.


The rivers of the United States are numerous and some of them among the most important, and affording facilities for inland navigation and trade unparalleled in any section of the globe.  They may be divided into four great classes: 1st. The streams which rise on the east side of the Allegany mountains, and flow into the Atlantic ocean; 2nd. Those south of the Allegany range, which discharge themselves into the gulf of Mexico; 3rd. The Mississippi and its wide tributaries, which drain the waters of the vast valley included between the Rocky and Allegany ranges; and 4th. The rivers which, rising on the western declivity of the Rocky mountains, direct their course to the Pacific ocean.  The Mississippi is the largest river in the United States, and one of the noblest in the world.  Its course, in conjunction with its great auxiliary, the Missouri, is about 4,200 miles.  The Mississippi rises west of Lake Superior, in latitude 47 ° 47' north, amid lakes and swamps, in a dreary and desolate region, and after a course southeast for about 500 miles, reaches the falls of the St Anthony.  Thence it flows in a southeasterly and then a southerly direction, and discharges its waters in to the gulf of Mexico.  The principal tributaries of the Mississippi from the east are the Wisconsin, the Illinois and the Ohio, which is itself formed by the junction of the Allegany and Monongahela, at Pittsburgh.  The chief tributaries of the Ohio are the Wabash, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee.  The principle tributaries of tee Mississippi from the west, are the St Peter's, the Des Moines, the Missouri, the Arkansas, and the Red rivers.  The Missouri enters the Mississippi river about eighteen miles above St, Louis, after a course of 3,217 miles, and being much longer and larger stream of the two, should properly carry its name to the gulf of Mexico, but the Mississippi, having been first discovered and explored, has retained it name through the whole length.  The Missouri is formed of numerous branches, which rise among the Rocky mountains, between the parallels of 42° and 48° north latitude, the principal of which are the Yellow Stone, The Nebraska or Platte and the Kansas.  The most remote are the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers.  The only obstruction that occurs to its navigation is at the Great Falls, a distance of 2,000 miles from the Mississippi.  The principal rivers east of the Alleganies, emptying into the Atlantic, are the Penobscot, Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Roanoke, Great Pedee, Santee, Savannah and Altamaha.  The principle rivers which rise south of the Alleganies, and fall into the gulf of Mexico, are the Apalachicola, which is formed by the junctions of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers; the Mobile, which is formed of the Alabama and Tombigbee, which unite near latitude 31°, after a separate course of several hundred miles, and the Colorado, Brazos and Rio Grande del Norte, in Texas.  The latter stream, and the Gila, which empties into the gulf of California, nearly form the boundary line between the United States and Mexico. The rivers flowing from the Rocky mountains to the Pacific are, the Columbia, in Oregon, which rises near latitude 55° north, and falls into the Pacific ocean, after a course of 1,500 miles,  Its principal tributaries are Clarke, Lewis, Colville, and Willamette rivers.  The Colorado, in California, after a course of 1,000 miles, empties in the gulf of California.  The other rivers in California are the Sacramento and San Joaquin, which empty into the bay of San Francisco, and the Buena-Ventura, which empties into the bay of Monterey.


The United States, though lying within the temperate zone, embraces almost every variety of climate.  In the northern parts, the winters are long and severe; snow often falls to the depth of three or four feet, and the cold is so piercing as to oblige the inhabitants to make very diligent provision against it.  Spring returns here is April, and the heat's great in summer.  In the southern parts of the country, snow is seldom seen, ice is rarely formed in the rivers, and those fruits which shrink from a northern climate, and flourish only in warm regions, are scattered over the soil.  In Georgia, the inhabitants may load their tables with oranges, lemons and other exquisite fruits that grow in their gardens and graves, while in parts of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, even peaches will not flourish.  Between theses extremities, as in Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois and California, there is a region adapted to the wine-grape, which thrives best in places removed from both the torrid and frigid zones.

Public Lands

The public lands form a important feature of the national wealth.  The property of the soil within the limits of the United States, not owned by the several states, or by individuals, is vested in the general government.  They are principally located in the western and southwestern states and territories, and in California and Oregon.  The following table exhibits the number of acres of public domain that have been sold, and remaining unsold and unappropriate, to the first of July 1852.

  Acres Sold Acres unsold
Ohio 12,646,858 385,264
Indiana 15,960,902 503,417
Illinois 16,008,331 7,271,975
Missouri 10,866,723 24,309,606
Alabama 11,662,608 15,069,977
Mississippi 8,869,714 8,807,112
Louisiana 3,523,656 9,931,070
Michigan 9,372,907 19,679,811
Arkansas 3,328,986 22,069,493
Florida 1,035,416 30,454,518
Iowa 2,810,044 24,065,513
Wisconsin 4,995,023 24,190,106
California   120,447,840
Minnesota Territory 19,695 87,365,474
Oregon Territory   206,349,333
New Mexico Territory   127,383,040
Utah Territory   113,589,013
Northwest Territory   338,384,000
Nebraska Territory   87,488,000
Indian Territory   119,789,440
Total 102,113,864 1,387, 534, 002

Congress has granted during the same period, for (in acres):

Schools and universities--40,588,978; Deaf and dumb asylums--44,791; Internal improvements--10,007,677; Individuals and companies--279,792;  Military service--18,709,220;  Swamp lands to states--28,156,671


Minerals abound in the Untied States in great variety and profusion.  It has all the useful, as well as all the precious metals. Iron is very generally diffused, and is very abundant.  Coal, both bituminous and anthracite, is found in great quantities, especial in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Tennessee.  Rich copper mines exist in Michigan and some other states, and lead mines in Missouri and Illinois.  The gold mines of California seem inexhaustible: quicksilver mines have also been profitably worked there, Granite, marble, and other building stones, are found in every section of the country.  Salt springs abound in many parts of the Union, and large quantities of salt are manufactured in New York, Western Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Ohio and Illinois; it is also made from sea-water in some parts of New England.


The fisheries of the Untied States are extensive and valuable.  About 250 vessels and about 12,000 seamen and landsmen are employed in the whale-fishery.  The products of this fishery amount to from 400,000 to 500, 000 barrels of oil annually.  The cod-fishery is pursued off the coasts of New England, and as far north as Labrador, and about 100,000 tons of shipping are thus employed.  The mackerel fishery employs about 60,000 tons of shipping.


In the extent and prosperity of its commerce, the United States is second only to Great Britain.  There is no part of the globe to which American merchantmen do not find their way; and the coasting and inland trade is carried on to a far greater extent.  The foreign exports are confined principally to agricultural products, with naval stores, timber, and other productions of the forest.  The imports are European manufacturers, principally of the finer descriptions, and the productions of the tropics, as sugar, coffee, spices, wines &c.  The table of imports, exports, revenue from customs, public lands, &c, with the tonnage employed in foreign commerce, and the public debt of the United States, from 1791 to 1852, will be found on the succeeding page, exhibiting the rapid progress of the country.  See Import Chart


The manufactures of the United States are various, comprising almost every article known to commerce.  From the great variety of soil and climate, producing in abundance every species of raw materials, the cheap and inexhaustible supply of moving power furnished by innumerable running streams, combined with the improvements which are every day taking place in machinery, the Untied States is destined, eventually to distance all other countries in its progress in this branch of industry.  The entire capital invested in manufactures in the Unites States on the first day of June, 1850 was $530,000,000; amount paid for labor, year ending as above, $240,000,000; value of raw materials, $550,000,000; value of manufactured articles, $1,020,300,000; persons employed 1,050,000.  For cotton goods, there were 1,094 establishments, with $74, 501,031 capital invested, using 256,496,000 pounds of cotton, and 121,099 tons of coal; value of all raw materials, $34,835,056; number of persons employed 92,286, producing 763,678,407 yards of sheeting, &c valued at $61,869, 184.  For woolen goods, there were 1,559 establishments, with $28,118,650 capital invested, using 70,862,829 pounds of wool and 46,370 tons of coal; value of all raw materials $25,755,988; number of persons employed 39,252, producing 82,206,652 yards of cloth, valued at $43,207,555.  For the production and manufacture of iron, there were 1,190 establishments, with $49,258,006 capital invested, employing 57,294 persons, producing 564,755 tons of pig iron, and manufacturing 322,745 tons of castings and 278,044 tons of wrought iron, using 1,374,196 tons of mineral coal and 71,089,814 bushels of coke and charcoal; value of raw material, fuel &c used, $27,049,753: value of entire products, $54,604,006.  For the production of malt and spirituous liquors, there was $8,334,254 capital invested, employed 5,487 persons, consuming 17,582,240 bushels of grain &c, producing 1,177,294 barrels of ale &c, 42,133,955 gallons of whiskey and high wines, and 6,500,500 gallons of rum.

The first census was taken in 1790, since which period there have been six decennial enumerations.  Their results are as follows:

Census Year

White Persons

Free Colored Persons


Total Population

Ratio of Increase per cent

1790 3,172,464 59,466 697,897 3,929,827  
1800 4,304,489 108,395 893,041 5,305,925 35.01%
1810 5,862,004 186,446 1,191,364 7,239,814 36.45%
1820 7,872,711 238,197 1,543,688 9,654,596 33.12%
1830 10,537,178 319,599 2,009,043 12,866,020 33.48%
1840 14,189,70 386,295 2,187,355 17,063,355 32.67%
1850 19,467,537 426,762 3,204,089 23,263,488 36.25%

The following table contains some of the more important details of the population from the census of 1850, classified by states and territories:




White Male

White Female

Colored Male

Colored Female

Total Population

Alabama 73,070 73,786 219,728 166,779 1047 1,225 428,779
Arkansas 28,252 28,416 85,699 76,369 318 271 162,657
California no returns no returns no returns no returns no returns no returns est.165,000
Connecticut 64,013 73,443 180,001 183,504 5749 3,737 370,791
Delaware 15,290 15,439 35,771 35,518 8989 8,963 89,246
Florida 9,622 9,107 25,574 21,493 420 565 48,092
Georgia 91,011 91,471 266,096 255,342 1568 1,512 524,318
Illinois 146,544 149,153 400,460 400,460 2756 2,610 851,470
Indiana 170,178 171,564 506,408 471,220 5472 3,316 988,416
Iowa 32,962 33,517 100,885 90,994 168 167 192,214
Kentucky 130,769 132,920 392,840 368,848 4,771 4,965 771,424
Louisiana 49,101 54,112 141,059 114,357 7,598 9,989 272,953
Maine 95,797 103,787 296,788 285,404 705 620 583,188
Maryland 81,708 87,384 211,495 207,095 34,914 39,163 492,667
Massachusetts 152,835 192,679 484,284 501,420 4,314 4,431 994,499
Michigan 71,616 72,611 208,471 186,626 1,412 1,145 307,654
Mississippi 51,681 52,197 153,260 139,198 473 426 296,657
Missouri 96,849 100,890 312,986 279,091 1,338 1,206 594,621
New Hampshire 57,339 62,287 155,934 161,535 243 232 317,964
New Jersey 81,064 89,080 283,746 232,494 11,512 11,551 489,333
New York 473,936 566,869 1,546,052 1,504,405 22,978 24,959 3,097,394
North Caroline 105,542 166,023 272,789 272,799 13,226 13,970 580,491
Ohio 336,098 348,523 1,004,111 951,997 12,289 12,061 1,980,408
Pennsylvania 386,216 408,497 1,142,863 1,115,600 25,057 28,266 2,311,786
Rhoda Island 22,379 28,216 70,417 73,593 1,660 1,884 147,544
South Caroline 52,642 52,937 137,773 136,850 4,110 4,790 283,523
Tennessee 129,420 130,005 382,773 374,623 5,072 5,199 763,164
Texas 27,988 28,377 84,863 69,237 171 160 154,431
Vermont 56,642 59,753 159,678 153,732 567 543 314,120
Virginia 165,815 167,530 443,752 443,752 25,813 27,966 949,133
Wisconsin 56,316 57,608 164,221 140,344 365 261 305.191
Ter Minnesota 1,002 1,016 3,695 2,343 21 18 6,077
Ter N Mexico 13,453 13,502 31,730 29,800 14 3 61,547
Ter Oregon 2,374 2,374 8,142 4,945 119 87 13,293
Ter Utah 2,322 2,322 6,022 5,308 12 12 11,354
Dist Columbia 7,917 2,292 18,548 19,479 4,210 5,763 48,000
Totals 3,339,163 3,575,602 9,943,415 9,524,122 204,961 221,801 20,059,599



Deaths in 1850

Farms in Cultivation

Manufacturing Establishments

Reps in Congress

Alabama 342,892 9,084 41,964 1022 7
Arkansas 46,982 2,987 17,758 271 2
California ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- 2
Connecticut   5,781 22,445 3,913 4
Delaware 1,289 1,209 6,063 513 1
Florida 39,609 933 4,304 121 1
Georgia 381,681 9,920 41,759 1,407 8
Illinois   11,619 76,208 3,099 9
Indiana   12,728 93,896 4,326 11
Iowa   2,044 14,805 482 2
Kentucky 210,981 15,206 74,777 3,471 10
Louisiana 244,786 11,948 13,422 1,021 4
Maine   7,545 46,760 3.682 6
Maryland 90,258 9,504 21,860 3,863 6
Massachusetts   19,414 34,235 9,637 11
Michigan   4,520 34,089 1,979 4
Mississippi 309,898 8,711 33,960 866 5
Missouri 87,422 12,211 54,458 3,030 7
New Hampshire   4,268 20,229 3,301 3
New Jersey 222 4,339 23,905 4,374 5
New York   44,399 170,621 23,825 33
North Caroline 288,412 10,207 56,916 2,525 8
Ohio   28,949 143,887 10,550 21
Pennsylvania   28,318 127,577 22,036 25
Rhoda Island   2,241 5,385 1,144 2
South Caroline 384,984 7,997 29,969 1,473 6
Tennessee 239,461 11,759 72,710 2,789 10
Texas 58,161 3,046 12,198 307 2
Vermont   3,132 29,885 1,839 3
Virginia 472,528 19,053 77,013 4,433 13
Wiscousin   2,884 20,177 1,273 5
Ter Minnesota   30 157 5 0
Ter N Mexico   1.157 3,750 20 0
Ter Oregon   47 1,164 31 0
Ter Utah 26 239 926 16 0
Dist Columbia 3,687 846 264 427 0
Totals 3,204,089 318,305 1,448,495 123,087 234

The Annexed table is designed to show the comparative aggregate population of the state and territories according to the census of 1840 and 1850, with the value of the real and personal estate in each in 1850, and the state capitals:


Seat of Government

Aggregate Population

Real & Personal Estate



Assessed value

True or estimated value

Alabama Montgomery



$219, 476,150

$228,204, 332

Arkansas Little Rock





California Benicia





Connecticut Hartford & New Haven





Delaware Dover





Florida Tallahassee





Georgia Milledgeville





Illinois Springfield





Indiana Indianapolis




202,650, 264

Iowa Iowa City





Kentucky Frankfort





Louisiana Baton Rouge





Maine Augusta





Maryland Annapolis





Massachusetts Boston





Michigan Lansing





Mississippi Jackson





Missouri Jefferson City





New Hampshire Concord





New Jersey Trenton





New York Albany





North Caroline Raleigh





Ohio Colubus





Pennsylvania Harrisburgh





Rhoda Island Province & Newport





South Caroline Columbia





Tennessee Nashville





Texas Austin





Vermont Montpelier





Virginia Richmond





Wiscousin Madison





Ter Minnesota St Paul's





Ter N Mexico Santa Fe





Ter Oregon Salem





Ter Utah Salt Lake City





District of Columbia Washington City















Nativity of the Population

One of the most interesting results of the census of 1850, is the classification of inhabitants according to the countries of their birth.  The investigations under this head have resulted in showing that of the free inhabitants of the United States, 17,737,505 are natives of its soil, and that 2,210,828 were born in foreign countries; while the nativity of 39,014 could not be determined.  It is shown that 1,965,518 of the whole number of the whole number of foreign born inhabitants were residents of the free states and 245,310 of the slave states.  It is found that the persons of foreign birth form 11.06% of the whole free population.  The countries whence have been derived the largest portions of these additions to our population, and their relative proportions of each other, appear in the following statement:

1850 Numbers Percentages
Natives of Ireland 961,719 43.04%
Natives of Germany 573,225 25.09%
Natives of England 278,675 12.06%
Natives of British America 147,700 6.68%
Natives of Scotland 70,550 3.17%
Natives of France 54,069 2.44%
Natives of Wales 28,868 1.34%
All other countries 95,022 4.47%

Another interesting branch of this inquiry is that which concerns the inter-migration of our native citizens among the states.  The facts developed show how far one section has impressed its own characteristics and peculiar customs on others.  It is found that out of 17,736, 792 free inhabitants, 4,112,433 have migrated and settled beyond the states of their birth.  335, 000 natives of Virginia, equal to 26% of the whole, have found homes outside of her own borders.  South Carolina has sent forth 163,00, which is 36%, of all native citizens of that state living in the United States at the date of the census, and the very remarkable proportion of 59% of the number remaining in the state of their nativity.  North Carolina has lost 261,575 free inhabitants, equal to 31% by emigration.  Among the northern states, Vermont and Connecticut have contributed most largely to the settlement of other parts of the country.  Their proportion, about 25% of their native citizens, would exceed, perhaps that of either of the southern states already mentioned, were the number of slaves in the latter admitted as an element of the calculation.

Persons subject to Misfortune

There were in 1850, 5,027 white males, 4,058 females and 632 colored, deaf and dumb in the United States, being an average of one to each 2,151 persons among whites, and of one to each 3,005 of the free colored, and one to each 6,552 among slaves.  Of blind, there were 4,519 males, 7,459 females, and 1,705 colored, averaging one to each 2,445 among white population, one to 870 of the free colored, and one to 2645 of slaves.  Of insane, there were 7.697 males, 7,459 females and 612 colored, averaging one to each 1,290 among whites, one to 1,338 of free colored and one to 11,010 of slaves.  Of idiots, there were 8,276 males, 5,954 females and 1,476 colored, averaging among whites one in each 1.374, of free colored one in 985 and of slaves one in 3,080.


The whole number of persons who had received the benefit of the public funds of the different states for the benefit of indigent persons, for the year ending June 30, 1850, amounted to 134, 972.  Of this number there were 68,538 of foreign birth, and 66,434 Americans; while of the whole number receiving support on the first day of June, there were 36,916 natives and 13.437 foreigners, making a total of 50,353 persons. Of those termed Americans, many are free persons of color.  The entire cost of the support of these individuals during the year, amounted to $2,954,806


The whole number of persons convicted of crime in the United States, for the year ending the first day of June, 1850, was about 27,000: of these 13,000 were native and 14,000 foreign born.  The whole number in prison on the first day of June, was about 6,700, of whom, 4,300 were natives and 2,460 foreign.

Agricultural Products &c

The Agricultural products, live stock, &c of the United States, according to the census statistics, were, for the year ending Jun 1, 1850

Wheat 100,503,899 bushels
Rye 14,188,639 bushels
Indian Corn 592,326,612 bushels
Oats 146,567,879 bushels
Peas & Beans 9,219,975 bushels
Potatoes, Irish 65,796,793 bushels
Potatoes, Sweet 38,259,196 bushels
Barley 5,167,016 bushels
Buckwheat 8,956,916 bushels
Flaxseed 532,312 bushels
Grass seeds 885,790 bushels
Rice 215,312,710 lbs
Tobacco 199,753,646 lbs
Cotton 987,449,000 lbs
Wool 52,789,174 lbs
Butter 313,266,962 lbs
Cheese 105,535,219 lbs
Flax 7,715,961 lbs
Maple Sugar 34,249,886 lbs
Cane Sugar 247,581,000 lbs
Beeswax & Honey 14,853,857 lbs
Silk 10,843 lbs
Molasses 12,700,606 gals
Wine 221,240 gals
Hay 13,727,579 tons
Hemp 35,093 tons
Orchard products $7,723,326
Garden products $5,269,930
Homemade manufactures $27,481,399
Slaughtered Animals $109,485,757
Horses 4,335,358 animals
Asses & Mules 559,220 animals
Milch cows 6,392,044 animals
Working oxen 1,699,241 animals
Other cattle 10,268,856 animals
Sheep 21,721,814 animals
Swine 30,316, 608 animals
Value of live stocks $543,969,420
Acres improved land 118,457,622
unimproved land in farms 184,621,348
Their total cash valve $3,270,733,093
Farming implemens &c $151,569,675

Railroads &c

About fourteen thousand miles of railroad are in successful operation in the various sections of the United States, and the same number in progress of construction.  They are nearly equal, in the aggregate, to the railroads of all the rest of the world; and if extended in one line, would reach more than halfway round the globe.  There are abut 5,000 miles of canals in the United States, forming valuable artificial means of navigation for transporting the heavy products of the country; but since the rapid increase of railroad communication, few canals have been commenced.  It is within ten years that the first line of telegraph was erected in the United States, and there are now more than 18,000 miles in operation, connecting the most important points of the country with each other, for the instantaneous transmission of intelligence.


There is great attention paid to education in most of the states.  Common and primary schools are widely distributed, and high school are numerous.  The common schools are supported either by a fund accumulated from various sources or by taxation; and in the new states and territories 640 acres of the public lands in every township is specially reserves for purposes of education.  There  are in the United States 130 colleges and universities, 50 theological seminaries, 16 law schools, and 40 medical schools.  Nearly 4,000,000 youth were receiving instruction in the various educational institutions of the country in 1850, distributed in about 100,000 schools and colleges and employing more than 115,000 teachers.  At the same period, there were 2,800 newspapers and periodicals published in the Union, with a circulation of 5,000,000 and an annual aggregate issue of 422,600,000 copies.


There is no established or national church in the United States, religion being left to the voluntary choice of the people.  No special privileges or immunities are granted to one denomination beyond another, it being an essential principle in the national and state governments, that legislation may of right interfere in the concerns of public worship, only so far as to protect every individual in the exercise, without molestation, of that of his choice. The following table gives the number of churches, their aggregate accommodation, average accommodation, and total value of church property of the several denominations in the United States in 1850


number of churches

Aggregate accommodations

Average accommodations

Value of Church property

Baptist 8,791 3,130,878 356 $10,931,382
Christian 812 296,050 365 845,810
Congregational 1,674 795,177 475 7,973,962
Dutch Reformed 324 181,986 561 4, 096,730
Episcopal 1,422 625,213 440 11,261,970
Free 361 108,605 300 141,255
Friends 714 282,823 396 1,709,867
German Reformed 327 156,932 479 965,880
Jewish 31 16,575 534 371,600
Lutheran 1,203 531,100 441 2,867,886
Mennonite 110 29,900 272 94,245
Methodist 12,467 4,209,333 337 14,636,671
Moravian 331 112,185 338 443,347
Presbyterian 4,584 2,040,316 445 14,369,889
Roman Catholic 1,112 620,950 558 8,973,383
Swedenborgian 15 5,070 228 108,100
Tunker 52 32,075 674 46,025
Union 619 213,552 345 690,065
Unitarian 243 137,367 565 3,268,122
Universalist 494 205,462 415 1,767,015
Minor Sects 325 115,347 354 741,980
Totals 36,011 13,849,896   $86,416,639


The government of the United States is a confederated republic, each state being independent, and having the exclusive control of all concerns merely local, with its own executive, legislature, judiciary, &c.  But the regulation of commerce, the defense of the country, and all the general concerns of the confederacy are committed, by the constitution, to a general government.  The legislative power is vested in a Congress, consisting of a senate and house of representatives.  The senate is composed of two members from each state, chosen for a period of six years, and so arranged that one third of the senate is renewed biennially.  The members of the house of representatives are chosen every two years.  Their number is proportioned to the number of inhabitants, two fifths of the slaves being omitted in the enumeration.  The house of representatives represents the people; the senate represents the states.  The executive power is vested in the President, who together with the vice president, is chosen for four years, by electors from all the states.  The principle subordinate officers of the executive department are the secretaries of state, of the treasury, of the interior, of war, and of the Navy, the postmaster general, and the attorney general.  The President must be a native born citizen, and 35 years of age.  The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, of one chief and eight associate judges, of 46 district courts, held respectively by a district judge alone and of nine circuit courts, composed of the judge of the district and one of the judges of the supreme court.  There are, besides, territorial courts, which are temporary, and lose that character when the territory becomes a state.  The present constitution of the United States was adopted in 1789, and has since been amended.  It secures to the people the grand principles of freedom, liberty of conscience in matter of religion, liberty of the press, trial by jury, and the right of suffrage in elections

Colonial History

The original thirteen states, it is well known, were formerly colonies of Great Britain.  The English made the first settlement at Jamestown, in Virginia in 1607: New York was settled by the Dutch in 1614, and afterward ceded to the English; and at Plymouth, MA, in 1620, the first settlement was made by the English in New England.  The remaining colonies were principally offshoots from these parent stems.  The dates of their settlements are as follows: New Hampshire in 1623, New Jersey in 1623, Maryland & Delaware in 1627, Connecticut in 1633, Rhode Island in 1636, Pennsylvania in 1640, North Carolina in 1665, South Carolina in 1670, and Georgia in 1732.  Among the earliest settlers in North America were many who emigrated from Great Britain on account of civil or religious persecution; men who, being of republican principles, naturally instilled those principles into the minds of their children, and thus aid the foundation of that spirit of resistance to arbitrary acts of power, which kindled the flames of war between the mother country and the colonies and ended in the establishment of a powerful republic.

In 1765, a stamp duty on various articles was imposed by the British parliament on the colonies: but on their remonstrating, this was soon after repealed.  But it was subsequently followed by several oppressive acts, against which the colonists remonstrated and petitioned in vain.  At length, despairing of redress, a general congress of delegates was called to consult upon the public good.  The Congress assembled at Philadelphia, September 4, 1774, and various measures were adopted to obtain justice from the British government.  But their petitions were answered by new aggressions, and their remonstrance were replied to by sending arms to intimidate them, and to coerce then into submission to arbitrary power. The alternate presented was, war or slavery.  The colonists chose the former, and made vigorous preparations for the coming storm.  The first martyr-blood of the Revolution flowed at Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts, April 19, 1775.  The church-bells rang throughout the neighboring region, and the people seized arms and flocked to Boston by hundreds.  On the 17th of June following, the battle of Bunker's Hill occurred between 1,500 Americans and about 3,000 British regulars.  The enemy was three times repulsed, but at length the Americans were compelled to retreat across Charlestown Neck.  Among the American's slain was the brave General Warren. The loss of the Americans was 450; that of the British upward of 1,000.  About the time of the battle of Bunker's Hill, Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, and Congress adopted the army collected at Boston, under the name of the "continental army."  He took the command about the first day of July, and proceeded to invest Boston.  In March following, the British under General Howe evacuated the town and New England became freed from foreign soldiery.

The battles at Lexington and Bunker's Hill had aroused the minds of the colonists to a more determined resistance; and when, in the spring of 1776, intelligence was received of the intention of the king to subdue them at all hazards, public opinion soon became  decidedly in favor of union and independence.  A resolution was adopted by Congress, on the 9th of June, that "the united colonies are, and ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown; and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is and ought to be, totally dissolved."  This bold proposition was soon after followed by the appointment of a committee to draft a declaration of independence.  This committee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R Livingston.  The draft was made by Jefferson, and after a few verbal alterations by Dr Franklin and Mr. Adams, it was submitted to Congress on the 28th of June.  It was laid upon the table until the 1st of July, when it was taken up in committee of the whole, and after several amendments were made, nine states voted for independence.  The assemblies of Maryland and Pennsylvania refused their concurrence; but conventions of the people having been call, majorities were obtained, and on the 4th of July, votes from all the colonies were procured in its favor, and the thirteen united colonies were declared free and independent states.  The contest thus auspiciously commenced, was continued with varied success--- victory sometimes perching upon the banner of the patriots, and sometimes rout and disaster-- til the defeat, and surrender of Cornwallis, with his whole army, at Yorktown, October 19, 1781, proved the death-blow to British power in the United States, and a cessation of hostilities was soon after proclaimed.  A preliminary treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain, was signed on the 20th of January, 1783 and on the 3rd of September following, a definite treaty was signed, and speedily ratified, and the United States declared to be "a free and independent nation."

Federal History

The year subsequent to the declaration of independence, the united colonies had entered into a compact for the general good, and adopted articles of confederation as organic law for the whole.  But when peace returned, and commerce and the arts began to revive, they were found too defective for sound and efficient government, and accordingly, in May, 1787, delegates from the several states met at Philadelphia, and adopted the present federal constitution on the 17th of September following.  The government was organized under it, and George Washington, who had commanded the American army through the trying times of the Revolution, was elected the first president.  He was inaugurated in the city of New York, on the 30th of April, 1789.  Washington filed the presidential chair eight consecutive years, and within that time established a wise financial and foreign policy for the government--the chief features of which were an economical expenditure, a judicious, tariff for revenue, and strict neutrality in relation to the wars of nations in the eastern hemisphere.  Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were admitted into the Union during Washington's administration.  Our neutral policy irritated the French, and they not only committed aggressions upon our commerce, but threatened us with invasion.  John Adams succeeded Washington in 1797, and in view of the threats of the French, he raised an army and increased the navy.  Washington was appointed to the command of the former, but he died soon after.  Happily for humanity; the services of the army were not needed.  Thomas Jefferson succeeded John Adams as president of the United States in 1801.  During his administration a treaty was effected with France (then ruled by Napoleon as first-consul) for the cession of Louisiana to the United States, for which our government paid fifteen millions of dollars.  The energetic measures of President Jefferson, made the commercial and political influence of the United States seriously felt in Europe. 

The scar which England received, in her contest with America during the Revolution, still mortified her pride, and the growing commercial importance of the new republic excited her fiercest jealousy,  In her impotent wrath, she committed aggression after aggression, until at length they could no longer be borne with honor; and during the fourth year of Mr. Madison's administration (which succeeded Mr. Jefferson's, in 1809), war was formally declared against Great Britain.  This war was continued until February, 1815, when peace was restored, a treaty having been agreed to at Ghent, by commissioners appointed by both powers.  During Mr. Madison's administration, Ohio, Louisiana, and Indiana, were admitted into the Union.  The total expenditures of the United States government during the war, may be stated in round numbers at $100,000,000, and the loss of lives at abut 30,000 persons.  The war with England had scarcely closed, when the depredations upon our commerce by the Algerian corsairs, rendered it necessary to declare war  against that power.  A squadron under Commodore Decatur sailed for the Mediterranean in May, 1815, and in a very short time he obtained payment for property destroyed, and treaties highly advantageous to the United States from the day of Algiers, and the bays of Tunis and Tripoli, James Monroe succeeded Mr. Madison in the presidential chair in 1817.  His administration (which lasted eight years) was a quiet one, and no feign war disturbed the repose of our people.  A brief war with the Seminole Indians occurred in 1818; and in 1819 Spain ceded to the United States the whole of East and West Florida, and the adjacent islands.  During Mr. Monroe's administration, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine and Missouri, were admitted into the Union.  On the admission of the latter state, in 1820, the slavery question first arrayed the North and South as Antagonists upon sectional grounds.  In 1822, Congress, by an almost unanimous vote, acknowledged the independence of the South American republics.

John Quincy Adams succeeded Mr. Monroe, in 1825, and his administration was one of almost unbroken peace and prosperity.  Andrew Jackson succeeded Mr. Adams as president in 1829. A tariff law, passed in 1828, caused much discontent at the south, and a threatened rebellion, called Nullification, was manifested in South Carolina in 1831-32.  During Jackson's administration, the Indian "Black Hawk war", occurred, and a second war with eh Seminoles commenced in 1835; and Arkansas and Michigan came into the Union.  Martin Van Buren succeeded Jackson in the presidential chair, in 1837.  It was during his administration that the troubles on our Canada frontier took place, when the sympathizing aid which our people lent to the revolted Canadians, came very near involving us in hostilities with Great Britain.  Van Buren was succeeded by General Harrison in 1841, but death terminated his earthly career just one month after he was inaugurated, and John Tyler, the vice-president, succeeded him.  During Mr. Tyler's administration a new tariff was instituted; Texas , an independent republic, and Florida, were annexed to our confederacy.  James K Polk succeeded Mr. Tyler in 1845, and war soon after followed between this government and that of Mexico, in consequence of the annexation of Texas.  General Taylor, with a small force, was sent to the Mexican frontier of Texas to oppose a threatened invasion; and two severe battles were fought between the Americans, under Taylor, and the Mexicans, at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, on the 8th and 9th of May 1846.  General Scott was also sent to Mexico, and took the chief command.  Taylor captured Matamoras and Monterey, and defeated a Mexican army of four times the number of his own forces, at Buena Vista; while Scott, after securing Vera Cruz, pushing on toward the capital.  After several successful battles, he hoisted the American flag over "the halls of Montezuma."  A treaty was finally concluded between our government and the of Mexico, by which California and New Mexico became property of the United States.  Iowa and Wisconsin were admitted into the Union, and the Oregon boundary question settled, during Mr. Polk's administration.  General Zachary Taylor was elected the twelfth president in 1848.  The discovery of gold in California, and the colonization and founding of a new state on the Pacific coast were the chief events of Taylor's administration.  President Taylor died quite suddenly, on the 9th of July, 1850, and was succeeded in office by the vice-president, Millard Fillmore, whose administration was signalized by the admission of California into the Union, and the passage of the compromise measure.  On the 4th of March, 1853, Franklin Pierce entered on the discharge of the duties of the executive office, as the fourteenth president of the United States.


No. Name Residence Born Installed into Office Age at that Time Years in Office Died Age at time of Death
1 George Washington VA 22 Feb 1732 1789 57 8 14 Dec 1799 68
2 John Adams MA 30 Oct 1735 1797 61 4 04 Jul 1826 91
3 Thomas Jefferson VA 13 Apr 1743 1801 58 8 04 Jul 1826 83
4 James Madison VA 16 Mar 1751 1809 58 8 28 Jun 1836 85
5 James Monroe VA 02 Apr 1759 1817 58 8 04 Jul 1831 72
6 John Quincy Adams MA 11 Jul 1767 1825 58 4 23 Ferb 1848 80
7 Andrew Jackson TN 15 Mar 1767 1829 62 8 08 Jun 1845 78
8 Martin Van Buren NY 05 Dec 1782 1837 54 4    
9 William Henry Harrison OH 09 Feb 1773 1841 68 --- 04 Apr 1841 68
10 John Tyler VA 29 Mar 1790 1841 51 4    
11 James Knox Polk TN 02 Nov 1795 1845 49 4 15 Jun 1849 54
12 Zachery Taylor LA 24 Nov 1784 1849 64 1 02 Jul 1850 66
13 Millard Fillmore NY 07 Jan 1800 1850 50 3    
14 Franklin Pierce NH 23 Nov 1804 1853 48 in office    

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