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Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States

State, Territories, Counties, Cities, Towns & Post Offices

1850


Transcribed by Jeana Gallagher and Sandy Stutzman
for the exclusive use of Genealogy Trails




PT is post town; PV is post village; PO is post office, PB is post borough, CH is court house, T is town

Indiana

Indiana, one of the United States, situated between 37°45' and 41°52' north latitude, and 84°12' longitude west from Greenwich; and is bounded north by Michigan lake and state, east by a small portion of Michigan, Ohio and a small part of Kentucky, southeast by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and west by Illinois, from which it is separated in part by the Wabash river.  Its superficial area is 34,000 square miles.

Physical Aspect--In features, soil and climate, Indiana forms a connecting link between Ohio and Illinois.  It is more hilly than the latter, but contains no mountains.  A range of high land, called the "Knobs", extends from the falls of the Ohio to the Wabash, which in many places produces a broken surface.  Bordering on all the principal streams, except the Ohio, are belts of "bottom" and prairie. Between the Wabash and Lake Michigan the country is generally level, abounding alternately in woodlands, prairies, lakes and swamps.  A range of hills runs parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth of the Great Miami to Blue river, alternately approaching to within a few rods, and receding to the distance of two miles.  Immediately below Blue river the hills disappear, and the country immediately becomes level.  The prairies of this state are of two kinds, the "river", and the "upland."  The former are bottoms, Destitute of timber; the latter are from 30 to 100 feet or more in elevation, and are far more numerous and extensive.  The soil of these plains, or tablelands, are often as deep and fertile as the best bottoms.  The prairies bordering on the Wabash are particularly rich, varying from 2 to 25 feet in depth.  In truth, no state in the Union can show a greater extent of fertile land, in one body, than Indiana.

Rivers & Lakes--The principal rivers are, the Ohio, which flows along the entire southern boundary; the Wabash, which bounds the state partly on the west; the Patoka, Tippecanoe, Eel, Salamanic Plein, Theakiki, St Mary's, St Joseph, White, Whitewater and Kankakee, a branch of the Illinois.  Besides Lake Michigan, there are English and Beaver lakes, all of which lie at the northwestern part of the state.

Climate--The climate is generally healthy and resembles that of Ohio and Illinois.  In all places situated near stagnant water or sluggish streams, fevers and bilious attacks prevail during the hotter months of the year.  The Wabash is generally closed in the winter, and may be safely crossed on the ice.  In the central and southern parts of the state snow seldom falls to a greater depth than 6 inches; but in the northern parts it is sometimes from an foot to eighteen inches deep.

Productive Resources--The staple productions of this state are horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, butter, cheese, wax, furs, skins, wool, sugar, wine, hops, hay, hemp, flax, tobacco, wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat, oats, potatoes and Indian corn.  Among the mineral resources may be mentioned, iron, coal and Epsom salts.

Manufacturing--In 1850 there were in Indiana, 4,326 manufacturing establishments, which produced $500 and upward each annually. The total amount of manufacturing in the state was over $7,000,000, having more than doubled since 1840.

Railroads & Canals--Indiana has about 1,000 miles of railroad already completed, and in successful operation, and new lines projected.  The principal canal in Indiana is the Wabash and Erie, 459 miles long, connecting the waters of Lake Erie with those of the Ohio river; next in importance is the Whitewater canal, extending from Lawrenceburg to Cambridge, 76 miles.

Commerce--Indiana has no direct foreign commerce, its exports being shipped at the ports of other states.  Its river and lake trade is considerable, and increasing.

Education--The collegiate institutions of Indiana are, the State University, at Bloomington founded in 1827; Hanover College at South Hanover in 1829; Wabash College at Crawfordsville in 1833; Franklin College at Franklin in 1837; Indiana Asbury University in 1839; St Gabriel's College at Vincennes in 1843.  A law school is attached to the State University and medical schools at Laporte and Indianapolis.  There are about 100 academies and high schools in the state.  The common school fund is nearly a million dollars.

Government--The legislative authority is vested in a senate and house of representatives; the senate is not to exceed 50 members, elected for 4 years.  The representatives, not to exceed 100 in number, are chosen for 2 years.  The executive power is vested in a governor, elected by the people for 4 years, but not eligible the next four years. A lieutenant-governor is also chosen in the same manner, and for the same term.  The elections are held once in tow years, on the second Tuesday in October. All elections by the people are by ballot, and decided by a plurality of votes; all elections by the legislature are viva voca.  The legislature meets biennially, at Indianapolis, the first Monday in January.  The judicial power is vested in a supreme court of not less than three, nor more than five judges, elected by the people at large, for a term of 6 years; in circuit courts, the judges of which (one in each) are elected by the people in each judicial circuit for a term of 6 years; and in such inferior courts as the legislature may establish.  The right of suffrage extends to every white male citizen of the United States, of the age of 21 and upward, who shall ahve resided in the state during the six months immediately preceding an election.

Population--In 1800 was 2,640; in 1810 was 24,520, exclusive of Indians; in 1820 was 147,178; in 1830 was 343,031; in 1840 was 685,866 and in 1850 was 988,416

History-- This state embraces a part of the ancient territory of Upper Louisiana, as held by the French prior to 1763, when it was ceded to England, together with Canada and Acadia.  The first permanent settlement was made at Vincennes, in about the year1690.  At the close of the Revolutionary War, and by the treaty of 1783, the country was claimed under the charter of Virginia, and held by that state until ceded to the United States, in 1787.  It was then made a part of the territory northwest of Ohio river.  When Ohio was made a separate territory, in 1800, Indiana and Illinois remained united, and continued under one government until 1809, when each became a distinct territory.  In 1816 Indiana was admitted into the Union as an independent state.  A new constitution was adopted in 1851.

1850 Counties of Indiana

County Description Area in sq miles Courts held at Pop in 1850
Adams east side near Wabash & Mt Mary's rivers 336 Decatur 5,797
Allen northeast part, water by St Joseph & St Mary's rivers, they form Maumee & Wabash rivers to Erie Canal 650 Fort Wayne 16,920
Bartholomew in southeasternly part, crossed by Driftwood fork of White river 480 Columbia 5.763
Benton in western part 520 Oxford 1,144
Blackford NE part, water by Salamanic river 182 Blackford 2,860
Boone central part 408 Lebanon 11,631
Brown southern part 310 Nashville 4,846
Carroll towards northwest part, crossed by Wabash river 380 Delphi 11,015
Cass north part, crossed by Wabash river 415 Logansport 10,998
Clarke southeast boundary, on northwest side of Ohio river 400 Charleston 15,828
Clay western part 360 Bowling Green 7,947
Clinton central part 432 Frankfort 11,869
Crawford southern part 300 Fredonia 6,356
Davies southwest part, between forks of White river 420 Washington 10,354
Dearborn eastern boundary, northwest side of Ohio river 380 Lawrenceville 20,168
Decatur southeast part 340 Greensburgh 15,107
De Kalb east boundary, crossed by St Joseph's river 365 Auburn 8,251
Delaware eastern part 384 Muncietown 10,843
Dubois southern part, east fork of White river on north 432 Jasper 6,321
Elkhart northern boundary, crossed by St Joseph's river 460 Goshen 12,690
Fayette eastern part, crossed by White river 200 Connersville 10,216
Floyd southern part, Ohio river on southeast 144 New Albany 14,875
Fountain western part, with Wabash river on the west & northwest 390 Covington 13,262
Franklin eastern boundary, crossed by White Water river 540 Brookville 5,768
Fulton northern part 350 Rochester 5,981
Gibson western boundary, Wabash river on west 450 Princeton 10,771
Grant eastern part 415 Marion 11,092
Greene southwest part, crossed by west fork of White river 456 Bloomfield 11,424
Hamilton central part, crossed by west fork of White river 400 Noblesville 12,683
Hancock eastern part 310 Greenfield 9,698
Harrison southern part, Ohio river on south 470 Croydon 15,286
Hendricks near the center, water by Eel river, White Lick & Mud creeks 400 not listed 14,083
Henry eastern part 380 Newcastle 17,604
Howard no description blank Kokomo 6,657
Huntington north eastern part, crossed by Wabash river 384 Huntington 7,850
Jackson southern part, crossed by east fork of White river 500 Brownstown 11,048
Jasper west boundary, crossed by Iroquois river 980 Rensselaer 3,540
Jay east boundary 370 Jay 7,065
Jefferson southern boundary on Ohio river 360 Madison 23,914
Jennings southeast part 380 Vernon 3,422
Johnson south part 320 Franklin 12,101
Knox western boundary, Wabash river on west & White  river on southeast 540 Vincennes 11,084
Kosciusko northern part 567 Warsaw 10,243
La Grange northern boundary, water by Fawn, Pigeon & Little Elkhart rivers 380 La Grange 8,537
Lake northwest corner on Lake Michigan 468 Lake Court House, Crown Point 3,991
La Porte north boundary, with Lake Michigan on northwest 460 La Porte 12,145
Lawrence toward southern part, crossed by east fork of White river 438 Bedford 12,097
Madison toward east part 390 Andersontown 12,369
Marion in center, crossed by West Fork of White river 400 Indianapolis (State Capital) 24,100
Marshall northeastern part 440 Plymouth 5,348
Martin southern part, crossed by east fork of White river 300 Mount Pleasant 5,941
Miami northern part, crossed by Wabash river 380 Peru 11,304
Monroe southern part 390 Bloomington 11,285
Montgomery western part 504 Crawfordsville 18,094
Morgan central part, crossed by west fork of White river 453 Martinsville 14,479
Noble northeastern part 432 Noble & Albion 7,946
Ohio no description blank Hartford 5,308
Orange southern part 378 Paoli 10,809
Owen toward western part, crossed by west fork of White river 380 Spencer 12,118
Parke western part, Wabash river on west 450 Rockville 14,966
Perry southern boundary, Ohio river on south 400 Troy 7,268
Pike southwest part, White river on north 325 Petersburgh 7,720
Porter northern boundary, Lake Michigan on north, Kankakee river on south not listed Valparaiso 5,234
Posey at the southwest corner, Ohio river on south, Wabash on west 450 Mount Vernon 12,550
Pulaski northwestern part, crossed by Tippecanoe river 342 Winamac 2,595
Putnam toward west part 486 Green Castle 20,614
Randolph east boundary 440 Winchester 14,725
Ripley southeast part 400 Versailles 7,198
Rush toward east part 400 Rushville 16,466
St Joseph on north boundary, crossed by St Joseph river 468 South Bend 10,954
Scott in southeastern part 200 Lexington 5,855
Shelby toward southeast part 432 Shelbyville 15,502
Spencer on southern boundary, Ohio river on south 400 Rockport 8,620
Stark in northwestern part, crossed by Kankakee river 432 blank 557
Steuben northeast corner 225 Angola 6,104
Sullivan on west boundary, Wabash river on west 430 Sullivan Court House 10,143
Switzerland on southeastern boundary, Ohio river on southeast 216 Vevay 12,890
Tippecanoe western part, crossed by Wabash river 204 La Fayette 19,377
Tipton central part blank Tipton 3,532
Union on eastern boundary 224 Liberty 6,944
Vanderburg on southern boundary, Ohio river on southwest 225 Evansville 11,414
Vermilion on west boundary, Wabash river on east 280 Newport 8,661
Vigo west boundary, Wabash river on west 400 Terre Haute 15,283
Wabash toward northern part, crossed by Wabash river 415 Wabash 12,138
Warren on west boundary, Wabash river on southeast 350 Williamsport 7,387
Warrick on southern boundary, Ohio river on south 360 Booneville 8,811
Washington in southern part 540 Salem 17,040
Wayne on east boundary 420 Centreville 25,321
Wells in east part 372 Bluffton 6,152
White in northwestern part, crossed by Tippecanoe river 530 Monticello 4,761
Whitley northeast part 324 Whitley Court House 5,190

Indianapolis, IN

A city, seat of justice of Marion Co and capital of Indiana, situated in the centre of the state, and on the east side of White river, in the midst of a rich and rapidly populating country, 108 miles northwest of Cincinnati, and 573 miles from Washington.  Thirty years ago, a dense forest occupied the site of this city.  In 1821, it became the seat of the state government, and has since continued to increase in population and prosperity.  It is laid out with ingenuity and beauty.  A circular street surrounds an open space, with the governor's mansion in the middle.  From this diverge several streets, intersecting, diagonally, the others, which are rectangular.  Besides a number of churches, mills and factories, the city contains a splendid statehouse, 180 feet long, 85 wide and 45 feet high, adorned by Ionic porticoes and columns, and surmounted by a dome.  The courthouse is also a conspicuous edifice.  White river is here spanned by an elegant bridge.  The whole is an interesting specimen of industry, enterprise and thrift, and bids fair to become one the principal cities of the west.  When high, the river is navigable to this point for steamboats. Indianapolis is connected by railroad with Madison, on the Ohio, 86 miles distant, and railways also extend toward Peru, as well  as toward Bellefontaine in Logan Co, OH.

Population-- in 1830 was about 1,200; in 1840 was 2,692 and in 1850 was 8,090

New Albany, IN

City and postal town, seat of justice of Floyd Co, IN, located on the north bank of the Ohio river, 4 miles below Louisville, and 2 miles below the falls, 121 miles southerly from Indianapolis, and 600 miles from Washington.  Like most other favorably situated western towns, its population has rapidly increased within ten years, and exhibits all the signs of enterprise and prosperity.  Here steamboats and other vessels are extensively built, and carry on a brisk trade with the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi

Population: in 1830 was about 1,900; in 1840 was 4,226 and in 1850 was 6,418.

 



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