Genealogy Trails History Group

Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States

State, Territories, Counties, Cities, Towns & Post Offices


Transcribed by Jeana Gallagher and Sandy Stutzman
for the exclusive use of Genealogy Trails

PT is post town; PV is post village; PO is post office, PB is post borough, CH is court house, T is town


One of the United States, so called from a tribe of Indians, formerly at Barnstable, or from Moswetuset, the aboriginal name of Blue Hill, a few miles south of Boston.  It lies between 41°23' and 42°52' north latitude, and 69°50' and 73°30' west longitude from Greenwich; and is bounded north by Vermont and New Hampshire; east by the Atlantic; south by Rhode Island and Connecticut; and west by New York.  Its Superficial area is 7,500 square miles.

Physical Aspects-- The surface of this state is greatly diversified, and the soil may be divided into three distinct zones -- mountainous in the western, hilly in the central and northern, and level in the southeastern sections.  Salt marshes are numerous on most of the maritime border. The soil is exceedingly varied.  In the southeastern part it is mostly light and sandy; interspersed, however, with numerous spots that are fertile.  In the middle and northern sections, particularly toward the seaboard, it is of much better quality, but distinguished more for its superior cultivation, than its natural fertility.  The more western parts, especially in the valley of the Connecticut river, have generally a strong, rich soil, excellent for grazing, and suited to most of the purposes of farming.

Mountains-- The Green mountain range passes through the western part of the state, from north to south.  The principal chain takes the name of Hoosac mountains, the highest summits of which are the Saddle and Taghkanic.  The other elevations, noted for their size and height are Wachusett, Mount Tom, Mount Holvoke, Mount Toby, Blue and Pow Wow hills.

Rivers and Bays-- The principal rivers are the Connecticut, Merrimack, Concord, Nashua, Pow Wow, Ipswich, North, Saugus, Charles, Mystic, Neponset, Taunton, Chickapee, Deerfield, Westfield, French, Miller's and the Housatonic.  Massachusetts bay lies on the easterly side of the state, between Capes Cod and Ann. Numerous other bays indent the coast, the principal of which are, Buzzard's, Barnstable, Plymouth and Cape Cod.

Islands-- The most noted of these are, Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, the Elizabeth islands (16 in numbers), Plum island and those in Massachusetts bay.

Climate-- The climate is generally favorable to health, though persons with feeble lungs, living near the seaboard, are liable to suffer from the ocean winds.  The air from the interior is generally dry, serene, and salubrious.  The summers are pleasant, but subject to excessive heat often followed by a depression of temperature , of 50° in a few hours.  The winters are generally rigorous, the thermometer often standing below zero.

Productive Resources-- The principal products are horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, eggs, butter, cheese, silk, wool, hay, fish, spermaceti, whale and other fish oil, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, orchard and garden fruits, and Indian corn. Among the fossil resources are marble, granite, freestone, slate, flagstone and various kinds of ochre and clay.  This state abounds in mines of iron ores, and has also some coal.

Manufactures-- Massachusetts is distinguished as a manufacturing state.  Water power for the supply of machinery is abundant in nearly every section of the state.  There are five or six hundred cotton and woolen factories.  Calico printing and carpet weaving are also largely carried on.  Boots and shoes, leather, wrought and cast iron, straw hats, cabinet work, paper and oil are extensively manufactured.  Fire arms are also manufactured at the national armory at Springfield.

Railroads and Canals-- Massachusetts has a greater number of railroads, in proportion to its area, then any other state in the Union.  There are, within the limits of the state, about 40 different roads, exclusive of their various branches, with a total length of over 1200 miles, and built at an aggregate cost of rising $50,000,000.  Their principal centres are Boston, Worchester, Springfield, Lowell and Fitchburgh.  The principal canals of Massachusetts, are the Middlesex 27 miles long, connecting the Merrimack river at Lowell with Boston Harbor; the Blackstone 45 miles long, from Worchester to Providence; and the Hampshire and Hampden 22 miles long, from the Farmington canal (now disused), on the Connecticut line to Northampton.

Commerce-- The commerce of Massachusetts centers chiefly at Boston, and is inferior only to that of two other states (New York and Louisiana) in the Union.  Its exports and imports in 1850 were over 40 million dollars.  Amounts of shipping owned within the state, 685,442 tons.

Education--  The university of Cambridge is the oldest and best endowed school in the United States; attached to it are schools of law, medicine, divinity and science.  William's college at Williamstown and Amherst college are also flourishing institutions.  At Andover, Newton and Worcester, theological seminaries are established.  Academies and common schools exist throughout the state.

Government-- The executive power is vested in a governor, Lt governor and council; and the legislative power, in a senate of 40 members, and a house of representatives; all elected annually by the people on the second Monday in November, excepting the council, which is chosen by the legislature.  The judiciary is vested in a supreme court, court of common pleas and such other courts as the legislature may establish.  The judges are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices during good behavior.  The right of suffrage is enjoyed by every male citizen, 21 years of age (excepting paupers and persons under guardianship), who has resided in the state one year, and in the election district six months, and shall have paid a state or county tax (or been exempted there from) two years next preceding any election.

Population-- In 1790 was 378,717; in 1800 was 423,245; in 1810 was 472,040; in 1820 was 523,287; in 1830 was 610,408; in 1840 was 737,699 and in 1850 was 994,499.  Number of slaves in 1778 was 18,000.  Slavery was abolished in 1781.

History-- The coasts of Massachusetts after Cabot and Cartier's voyages, were annually visited for trade with the natives, and for fishing, yet little was known of the interior, until Captain Smith, the hero of Virginia, explored its shores from the Penobscot to Cape Cod, and penetrated its interminable forests.  It was Smith who gave that whole country the name of New England.  That region was not permanently settled until 1620, when a party of 101 Independents, who had fled from England to Holland, in 1608, in consequence of persecutions, obtained a grant of land from the Virginia Company, intending to settle within their jurisdiction.  But through accident or treachery, they reached the coast within the jurisdiction of the Plymouth Company* (see below), from whom they subsequently obtained a patent.  The great moral spectacle which this little company of emigrants presented, can not be passed unnoticed.  Deprived of the privilege of worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences and judgments, they left England, with their pastor, John Robinson, and became voluntary exiles in Holland.  They cherished the sentiment, however, "England with all they faults, I love thee still," and they felt a yearning to live where they might retain their language and laws in their purity and strength.  They therefore turned their thoughts toward the wilds of America, where no restraining power should interfere with their religious privileges; and obtaining a grant from London or Virginia Company, they left Delft Haven, in Holland, 01 Aug 1620, in the Speedwell.  They were joined at Southampton, England, by the May Flower bearing a number of business men of London, who had formed a partnership with those from Holland.  The Speedwell, however, proved unseaworthy, and the whole company, numbering in men, women and children, as before remarked, 101 souls, sailed from Plymouth in the May Flower on the 16 Sep.  They reached the American coast, and descried the bleak hills of Cape Cod, on the 19 Nov.  For a month they laid anchor, and in the meanwhile, they entered into a solemn political compact, and chose John Carver their governor for the first year.  Exploring parties were sent ashore to find a good place for settlement; and on the 21 Dec the harbor of Plymouth was sounded, and found for for shipping, and the shore well watered and wooded, and there they landed, and commenced a settlement.  They named the place New Plymouth, and soon afterward obtained a charter.

In 1628, the Plymouth council granted to a number of nonconformists, of Devonshire, the territory of New England, lying between the Merrimack and Charles rivers, and three miles beyond, and extending to the South sea.  A company of planters, with their families, were sent out, and founded the town of Salem.  In 1629, the patentees obtained a charter from Charles I, confirming the grant of the council, and incorporating then under the name of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay.  Subsequently to this period, other grants and accessions were made, and the colony of Massachusetts extended its jurisdiction over the present state of Rhode Island, a part of Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine and Acadia.  In 1641, the settlements of New Hampshire were incorporated with Massachusetts.  In 1643, the four colonies, Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven, entered into articles of confederation, under the title of the "United Colonies of New England."  In 1652, Maine placed itself under the protection of Massachusetts, called the county of "Yorkshire," and remained a part of her territory, with some modifications, until it became a sovereign state. In 1686, the charter government of Massachusetts Bay was taken from her, and a president placed over the dominion from Narraganset bya to Nova Scotia.    The same year, Sir Edmund Andros arrived at Boston, with a commission as royal governor of all New England.  Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhoda Island, immediately submitted to his jurisdiction.  A few months after, Connecticut was added, and in 1688, his power was further extended over New Jersey and New York.  In 1689, Plymouth was united to Massachusetts by royal order, and its old charter confirmed.  In 1691, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Maine and Acadia, were formed into one royal colony, under the name of "Massachusetts." In 1699, New Hampshire and Massachusetts were placed under the jurisdiction of New York, but were again reunited in 1702, and thus continued until 1741, when a final separation took place.  Inconformity to the original grant of the Plymouth Company, Massachusetts claimed an indefinite extent of country westward, which was adjusted with New York, by ceding all her territory west of a line, running north and south, one mile east of Geneva, and was known as the "Genesee Country."  In 1776, on the declaration of independence, Massachusetts formed a state constitution, which went into operation in 1780, and with the exception of the amendment in 1820, is the same as the one of the present day.  In 1778, it ratified the constitution of the United States.  The motto of the seal is Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem -- "By his sword he seeks the calm repose of liberty."

**In 1606, James the First of England, claiming all the territory lying between the latitude of Cape Fear on the south, and of Halifax on the north, divided it into two nearly equal districts. One, extending from the 41st to the 45th degree, he called North Virginia; the other, extending from the 34th to the 38the degree, he called South Virginia.  On the 20 Apr 1606, he issued a charter to a "company of knights, gentlemen and merchants," of the west of England, called the Plymouth Company, granting to them the right of settlement of the territory of North Virginia.  At the same time a similar charter was granted to like persons residing in London, and called the London Company for the settlement of South Virginia.  It was stipulated that neither should form a settlement within a hundred miles of the other.

1850 Counties of Massachusetts

County Description Area in sq miles Courts held at Pop in 1850
Barnstable in extreme eastern part, whole of Cape Cod & Elizabeth Island.  Atlantic on south & East, Cape Cod bay on north & Buzzard bay on west 325 Barnstable 35,276
Berkshire on western side 1,400 Lenox 49,591
Bristol southeast part, on Buzzard's bay & Rhode Island line 600 New Bedford & Taunton 74,577
Dukes southeastern part, comprehends Martha's Vineyard, Chippequiddick, Noman's Land & Elizabeth islands in Atlantic ocean 120 Edgarton 4,540
Essex northeast corner, Atlantic ocean & Massachusetts bay on east, crossed by Merrimac river not given Ipswich, Salem & Newburyport 131,300
Franklin northern boundary, crossed by Connecticut river 650 Greenfield 30,870
Hampden southwest part, water by Connecticut river 585 Springfield 51,281
Hampshire western part, crossed by Connecticut river 532 Northampton 24,084
Middlesex eastern part, Massachusetts bay on east, crossed by Merrimack river 800 Cambridge, Lowell & Concord 161,383
Nantucket an island, situated off the southeast part of the mainland in the Atlantic ocean 50 Nantucket 8,454
Norfolk south eastern part, Massachusetts bay on east 400 Dedham 57,983
Plymouth in southeast part, Cape Cod bay on east 600 Plymouth 55,697
Suffolk east part, at head of Massachusetts bay, comprising Boston, Chelsea & the adjacent islands 116 Boston 144,507
Worcester in central part 1500 Worcester 130,789

Boston City, MA

    The capital of ME and seat of justice of Suffolk Co, occupies a peninsula and other adjacent points, at the head of Massachusetts Bay.  The original town was confined to the peninsula, but this, although enlarged by artificial means, has long since proved too narrow for the growing city, which, passing the barriers thrown around it by nature, one embraces, independently of the populous towns and villages that are its offspring, the triple division of "Old Boston", "South Boston" and "East Boston".  The "Neck" was formerly the only avenue from the town to the main land, bit it is now united by bridges and other avenues. to Charlestown, Cambridge, South Boston and other surrounding points.  From the west side of the city, Western avenue is continued to Brookline on the opposite side of Charles river bay, by a costly dam, one mile and a half in length, and 100 feet broad.  Proceeding from the middle of this, on which are several tide mills, a second dam divides the bay into two spacious basins.  Several of the Boston railroads also enter the city, by bridges built expressly for that purpose.

    The harbor extends from Nantasket to the city, and spreads from Chelsea and Nahant to Hingham, containing about 75 sq miles. It is studded with upward of 50 islands, or rocks, ad receives the waters from the Mystic, Charles, Neponset and Manatticut rivers, with several other smaller streams.  One of the most remarkable features connected with the harbor, is the costly and splendid wharves.  These marks of commercial enterprise and prosperity are about 100 in number, and of various dimensions.  Long Wharf is 1800 ft long & 150 ft wide; Central Wharf is 1397 ft long & 150 ft wide; India Wharf is 980 ft long & from 246 to 280 ft wide; and Commercial Wharf is 1100 ft long & 160 ft wide.  These, like most of the others, are lined with extensive and magnificent warehouses, constructed f the most substantial materials. 

    Another valuable acquisition is Boston Common, a pleasant park of about 50 acres, situated at the south westerly slope of Beacon Hill.  It is pleasantly diversified with knolls, Avenues, fountains, a small lake or pond and tress, some of the latter being interesting relics of colonial and revolutionary times.  The common is surrounded by a iron fence, over one mile in extent.  Between the common and the Charles river bay, lies the Botanic Garden, a beautiful and tasteful enclosure.  On the north side of the common, and at the summit of the hill stands the statehouse, an elegant structure, 173 ft in length, 61 ft in depth and 120 ft in height.  The top dome is 230 ft above tide water.  The view from the top of the statehouse is very extensive and variegated; perhaps nothing in the country is superior to it.  To the east appears the bay and harbor, interspersed with beautiful islands; and in the distance beyond, the wide ocean. To the north the eye is met by Charlestown, with its interesting and memorable heights of Bunker Hill, crowned with the monument, 220 ft in height, and the Navy-yard of the United States;  the town of Chelsea, Malden, and Medford and other villages, and the natural forests mingling in the distant horizon,  To the west is a fine view of the Charles river and bay, they city of Cambridge, rendered venerable for the university, now about 200 years old; of the highly cultivated towns of Brighton, Brookline and Newton; and to the south is the city of Roxbury, which seems to be only a continuation of Boston, and which is rapidly increasing Dorchester, a rich, agricultural town, with Milton and Quincy beyond; and further south, the Blue hills at the distance of 8 miles, which seem to bound the prospect.

    Faneuil Hall, which is justly styled the "cradle of American liberty" was originally built in 1740, for a town-hall and market home.  It has been enlarged and beautified on several occasions, and will always be a place of historical interest to the lovers of liberty.  Adjoining it on the east is Quincy Market, one of the most splendid and commodious edifices of the kind in the country.  It is constructed of granite, or sienite, 540 ft in length, 50ft wide and 2 stories high.  The courthouse, merchants' exchange, post office, custom-house, Massachusetts general hospital, the old south meeting house, Park street, Brattle street, and Trinity churches, the Tremont house, Revere house, the Athenaeum, the jail, Society of Natural History, the house of industry, correction and reformation, are among the objects of interest.  The water-works may be regarded as one the most important of the recent improvements.  By a series of pipes and reservoirs, water is conveyed at all parts of the city proper, and East and South Boston, from Long Pond or Lake Cochituate, a distance of nearly 20 miles.  It will supply 10,000,000 gallons of water daily, and cost about $5,000,000.

    Railroads diverge from this city in various directions, connecting it with Plymouth, New Bedford, Fall River, Providence, Stonington, New York (via Worchester, Springfield, Hartford & New Haven); with Albany, via Worchester & Springfield.  With Vermont via Fitchburg, also with Lake Winnipisiogee and the White Mountains.  In NH via Nashua, Concord and Meredith Bridge: also via Lowell and Manchester: with Augusta, ME, via Salem, Newburyport, Portsmouth, Portland and Bath.

Boston is pre-eminently distinguished for its efforts in behalf of education.  Its public schools are unrivalled in excellence, and its numbers among its citizens some of the most munificent patrons of learning, literature and science: which, with its many eminent literary and philosophical societies, has led to its being honored with the title of the "Athens of America".

Mount Auburn, a beautiful cemetery, belonging principally to Boston, is picturesquely near Cambridge, about 5 miles distance.  Within this interesting "city of the dead" rest the remains of many of the illustrious sons of New England.

Populations: 1700 was 7,000; in 1722 was 10,567; in 1765 was 15,520; in 1790 was 18,033; in 1800 was 24,937; in 1810 was 33,250; in 1820 was 43,298; in 1830 was 61,392; in 1840 was 93,383 and in 1850 was 136,657

Cambridge, MA

Seat of justice, together with Concord and Lowell of Middlesex Co, MA. 3 miles northwest of Boston.  Watered by Charles river.  In the old part of the city, stands Harvard university, the most ancient and wealthy collegiate institution in America.  This includes a theological, medical and law school, and has a library of about 100,000 volumes, the largest in the Union.  Merchants and others doing business in Boston, reside in this city, and some of the dwellings are costly and splendid.  At Cambridge, were the entrenchments of the American army when besieging Boston under Washington.  Glass and other manufactures are extensively produced.  From its proximity to Boston, the railroads and other lines of travel are common, to both places.  One mile west of the college is Mount Auburn cemetery, consecrated by nature and by art to the holy purpose to which it is devoted.

The population in 1840 was 2,333: in 1820 was (blank); in 1830 was 6,071; in 1840 was 8,409; and in 1850 was 17,417

Fall River, MA

postal town in Bristol Co, MA, 51 miles south of Boston.  It lies on the outlet of Watuppa pond, a considerable body of water, which passes through Fall river into the Taunton, affording a good and constant water power.  Along this stream are numerous mills and factories of cotton, wool, machinery &c, which produce articles to a large amount.  Having a good harbor at the entrance of Taunton river into Bristol bay, its commerce is considerable.  Ships of a large class, engaged in both the whale-fishery and foreign trade, anchor at its wharves.  Besides manufactories, the town contains churches, banks, hotels, and school of a superior order.  There is a line of splendid steamboats running daily between this place and New York, and the Fall River railroad connects it with Boston.

Population in 1840 was 9,000, in 1850 was 11,524

Lowell, MA

City, seat of justice, together with Cambridge and Concord, of Middlesex Co, MA, is situated at the confluence of Concord and Merrimac rivers, 25 miles northwest of Boston.  From an insignificant village, in 1822, it has sprung up into a wealthy and populous city, celebrated over the world for its unrivalled manufactories of cotton and woolen fabrics, by which it has gained the title of the "Manchester of America".  The secret of its prosperity lies in the vast water power, which enterprise and skill have turned in to available channels.  By a canal which connects the Merrimac below Pawtucket falls, with Concord river, water is conveyed to the town, and distributed to the various factories.  About 30 are employed in the manufacture of cotton; a number of others produce woolen fabrics of various kinds, as carpets, broadcloths, cassimere, calicoes, machinery for railroads &c.  About $20,000,000 are invested in these operations.  Lowell is pleasantly situated, and is laid out with broad streets, and the inhabitants are distinguished for industry and good morals.  The operatives in the factories, are far above the ignorance and degradation which belong to those similarly employed in other countries.  The "Lowell Offering" a periodical composed of communications from the young women of the :mills," is an instance of the truth of this remark.  The principal public buildings are the court house, city hall, mechanics hall ( the latter of which is devoted to literary and scientific intelligence, and furnished with a museum and library), and the public school, which receive a very liberal support.  Lowell is connected with Boston by the Middlesex canal, and by railroad;  there is also railroad communication with all the principal towns of the surrounding country.

The population; in 1822 was 100 or less; in 1830 was 6,474; in 1840 was 20,796 and in 1850 was 27,463

New Bedford, MA

Seat of justice together with Taunton of Bristol Co, MA, 58 miles south of Boston; from Washington 434 miles.  The town is built on a bold elevation, contains many fine buildings, and appears with advantage from the harbor.  A bridge across the Acushnet leads to Fairhaven, on the opposite side.  No other place in the country is engaged so exclusively and extensively in the whaling business as this.  About $5,000,000 of capital and 200 vessels are employed.  The New Bedford and Taunton railroad joins the Boston and Providence railroad at Mansfield, and communicates with this place.

The population in 1810 was 5,651; in 1820 was 3,947; in 1830 was 7,5925; in 1840 was 12,087 and in 1850 was 16,443.

Newburyport, MA

City, seat of justice, together with Salem and Ipswich, of Essex Co, MA, situated on the south bank of Merrimack river, three miles from its entrance into the ocean, and 30 miles north of Boston.  It embraces about one mile square with regular streets, those parallel with the river rising one above the other, after the manner of terraces. That nearest the water is occupied by stores and warehouses, and the higher ones by neat and commodious dwellings, which command a beautiful prospect of the harbor and ocean.  A road and bridge lead to Plumb island, at the mouth of the river, which is pleasant summer resort.  A suspension bridge and a railroad bridge extend across the Merrimack to Salisbury.  The harbor is ample and is protected by a breakwater, but is obstructed by a sand bar at its entrance.  Newburyport has been and is still extensively engaged in commerce and fisheries; and although of late its maritime trade as diminished, its population and general prosperity has increased.  The town contains a custom house of rough granite with a Grecian Doric portico, churches, a courthouse, jail, market and other public buildings.  The Eastern railroad from Boston and Salem, enters the place, and unites it to the Portsmouth, Portland and  Saco railroads.

Population in 1810 was 7,634; in 1820 was 6,852; in 1830 was 6,375; in 1840 was 7,161 and in 1850 was 9,532

Plymouth, MA

Plymouth is seat of justice of Plymouth Co, MA, 38 miles south east of Boston; from Washington 447 miles.  Watered by Eel and Wonkinqua rivers, numerous brooks and ponds, and Cape Cod bay.  Celebrated as the first landing place of the Pilgrims in 1620, and the earliest built town in New England.  The rock on which they first landed consists of the larger part of a boulder, and was conveyed, in 1774, to the centre of the town, where it is now protected by a strong iron fence.

Population in 1820 was 4,348; in 1830 was 4,751; in 1840 was 5,281 and in 1850 was 6,026

Quincy, MA

Norfolk Co, MA, 9 miles south of Boston; from Washington 449 miles. Watered by Neponset river, and Boston bay.  Celebrated for its extensive quarried of sienite, as the birth place of the Presidents Adams, and for the first railroad constructed in the United States.  At the north part of the town is a bold promontory called Quantum, a pleasant summer resort.

Population in 1830 was 2,192; in 1840 was 3,486 and in 1850 was 5,017

Salem, MA

City, Seat of justice, together with Ipswich and Newburyport, of Essex Co, MA, 14 miles northeast of Boston, and 454 miles from Washington.  The tongue of land on which it is situated, is nearly surrounded by water, and comprises the oldest and most irregular part of the town.  Two bridges over each inlet of the sea connect this with the more modern parts.  The position of the city is low, and its harbor shallow; but here, as elsewhere, obstacles seem to have stimulated rather than prevent effort.  Next to Plymouth and Weymouth, Salem is the oldest town in Massachusetts, and from an early period it has been distinguished for the extent of its maritime operations.  Its ships and sailors were active in the Revolution, and since that period it has celebrated for its East India trade.  At present, through other towns more favorably situated have outstripped it in commerce and population, its vessels are as numerous as ever, and visit every quarter of the globe.  Several millions of dollars in capital are invested in the manufacture of machinery, useful and precious metals, &c.  In the centre of the city is a park, or "Common" of about nine acres.  The streets are not very regular, but some of the houses are Handsome.  The most noted public buildings are the Athenaeum, East India museum, city hall, courthouse, hospital, customhouse, jail and about 20 churches of various denominations.

The population in 1790 was 7,921; in 1800 was 9,457; in 1810 was 12,613; in 1820 was 12,721; in 1830 was 13,886, in 1840 was 15,082 and in 1850 was 20,264

Salisbury, MA

Postal town, 42 miles northeast of Boston, from Washington 477 miles.  Water by Merrimack and Powow rivers, and the Atlantic ocean.  At the westerly end of this town is a small district cut off from the body of the town by Amesbury, called "Little Salisbury."  The village of Amesbury and Salisbury Mills lies partly in this town.

Population in 1830 was 2,519; in 1840 was 2,739 and in 1850 was 3,100.

Springfield, MA

City, PT and seat of justice of Hampden Co, MA, situated on the east side of Connecticut river, 91 miles southwest of Boston, and 363 miles from Washington.  It principally occupies a single street, parallel with the river, and contains many handsome buildings.  Pleasant alluvial meadows gradually rise from the river into a region of less fertility.  A bridge here spans the river to West  Springfield.  Manufactures of various kinds are largely produced, and give to the place its prosperity.  The most important establishment is the United States arsenal, which, built on an elevation above the village, presents within and without an imposing spectacle.  Small arms are made at the factory, one mile distant, on Mill river.  The Western railroad, between Albany and Boston, and the chain of railways through Connecticut river valley to Hartford, New Haven, and New York, concentre at this point.

The population in 1810 was 2,767; in 1820 was 3,914; in 1830 was 6,784; in 1840 was 10,985 and in 1850 was 11,766.

Worcester, MA

City, seat of justice of Worcester Co, MA, 42 miles west of Boston; from Washington 425 miles.  It is situated in a pleasant valley, surrounded by gentle hills, laid out with regularity and taste, its streets animated by industry, and beautified by nature with shady trees and pleasant gardens.  It is, in fact, a New England village.  Here, as veins at the heart, concentre railroads from Boston, Providence, Norwich, Springfield, Hartford and New Haven, New York, the valley of the Hudson, New Hampshire, and Vermont, which discharge their burdens, and bear away as swiftly the productions of Worcester and the fruitful region which surrounds it.  The Blackstone canal, 45 miles long, forms another channel of communication with Providence.  The state lunatic asylum, and the hall of the American Antiquarian Society, are the most prominent public buildings.

The population in 1810 was 2,577; in 1820 was 2,962; in 1830 was 4,172; in 1840 was 7,497 and in 1850 was 17,049

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