Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States
State, Territories, Counties, Cities, Towns & Post Offices
Transcribed by Jeana Gallagher and Sandy Stutzman
for the exclusive use of Genealogy Trails
PT is post town; PV is post village; PO is post office, PB is post borough, CH is court house, T is town
One of the United States, popularly known as the "Old Dominion," is situated between 36°33' and 40°43' north latitude, and 75°25' and 83°40' west longitude from Greenwich; and is bounded north by Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland; northeast by Maryland, from which it is separated by the Potomac; east by the Atlantic; south by North Carolina and Tennessee; west by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Cumberland mountains and Big Sandy river; and northwest by Ohio, from which it is separated by the river Ohio. Its superficial area is 61,352 square miles
Physical Aspect-- The face of the country of this state, though exhibiting but little grandeur, is greatly diversified, and in some parts is rich and pleasing, in the continued outline of hill, valley, river and plain. The soil, too, is as varied as the surface, as every grade of fertility and sterility is to be met with, from the richest to the most barren. Virginia may be divided into four zones, essentially differing from each other. The first, which extends from the coast to the head of tide water, at Fredericksburgh, Richmond &c, over 100 miles, is low and flat, in some places fenny, in others sandy, and on the margin of rivers the soil is composed of a rich loam. The second division extends from the head of tide water to the Blue ridge. Near the former the surface is level; higher up the streams it becomes undulating and swelling; and as we approach the mountain, it is often broken and abrupt. The soil is divided into sections, unequal in quality, running parallel to each other, and extending quite across the state. The parallel of Chesterfield, Henrico, Hanover, &c, is thin and sandy, and except on the borders of the rivers, is unproductive. That of Goochland, Cumberland, Prince Edward, Halifax &c, is generally fertile. Fluvanna, Buckingham, Campbell, Pittsylvania, again are poor; and Culpepper, Orange, Albemarle, Bedford &c, are rich, though frequently consisting of a stony, broken soil, reposing on a substratum of tenacious and red colored clay. The third division embraces the valley between the Blue ridge and the great North Shenandoah and Branch mountain, and the Allegany chain, which, with little interruption, extends from the Potomac to Carolina and Tennessee. The surface of the valley in some instances is broken by sharp, solitary mountains, detached from the general chain, the flanks of which are nearly bare, or but thinly covered with stunted pines. The soil in the valley consists of a rich mould, formed on a bed of limestone. The fourth division extends from the Alleganies to the river Ohio, and is composed of a country wild and broken, in some parts fertile, but generally barren or poor. The surface is uneven and hilly, but the soil of a great proportion of Randolph and the adjacent countries, in the northwest part of the state, is excellent, and well adapted for grazing.
Mountains-- The Allegany range, including its numerous ridges, covers the whole middle sections of the state. Among the local names, besides the Blue ridge, may be mentioned the Cumberland, Great North Shenandoah, Branch, Great Flat Top, Iron and Cacapon mountains.
Rivers and Lakes-- The principal rivers are the Potomac, James, Shenandoah, Rappahannock, Pamunky, Mattapony, York, Rivanna, Elizabeth, Appomattox, Nottoway, Staunton, Meherrin, Ohio, Great Kanawha, Sandy, Little, Kanawha, Cheat and Monongahela. Drummond lake lies in the Dismal swamp, which serves as a feeder to the main trunk of the Dismal Swamp canal. The lower part of Chesapeake bay lies wholly in this state. Among the lesser bays are the Pokomoke, Simepuxent and Mob Jack.
Islands-- Along the coast there is a long chain of low, flat islands, the chief of which are Wallop's, Matomkin, Cedar, Paramore's, Hog, Prout's and Smith's.
Climate-- The climate of the tide water region is generally healthy, except in the month of August, September and October, during which it is hot and moist, and bilious complaints or intermittents prevail. As we approach the Blue ridge, the inhabitants are more robust and healthy than in any other part of the state. West of the mountains, the climate is salubrious and cool.
Productive Resources-- The principal products of this state are horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, butter, cheese, wine, sugar, wax, silk, cotton, wool, hemp, flax, tobacco, rice, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes and Indian corn. Of the fossil and mineral resources, gold, copper, iron, lead, coal, marble, limestone and salt, are the most important. But the most valuable are iron, coal and salt. The belt of country in which gold is found is in the county of Spottsylvania, and the regions adjacent. The coal fields are very extensive, anthracite being found on the easterly side fo the Alleganies, and bituminous on the western. Salt springs occur on the banks of the Great Kanawha, where salt is manufactured in great abundance.
Manufactures-- Iron ranks first among the manufactures of Virginia, embracing machinery, firearms, hardware, cutlery, &c. Cotton and woolen manufactures rank next, in which about $2,500,000 is invested.
Railroads and Canals-- There are about 700 miles of railroad in operation in Virginia, and more in process of construction. The most important canals in the state are, the James River and the Kanawha canal, reaching Richmond to Lynchburg, 146 miles, and the Dismal Swamp canal, 23 miles.
Commerce-- The foreign exports and imports of Virginia amount to about $5,000,000 annually. The domestic exports and imports amount to about $25,000,000 annually. The principal articles of domestic export are tobacco and flour. The shipping owned in the state is about 60,000 tons.
Education-- The principal literary institutions of Virginia are, William and Mary college, at Williamsburg; Hampden Sidney college, in Prince Edward county; Washington college, at Lexington; the university at Charlottesville; Randolph college, at Boylstown; Emory and Henry college, at Glade Spring; Rector college, in Taylor county; Bethany college, at Bethany; and Richmond college, at Richmond. There are also a military institute at Lexington; medical schools at Richmond, Charlottesville (attached to the university), and Winchester; law schools, attached to the university and William and Mary college; and theological seminaries in Fairfax and Prince Edward counties, and at Richmond. There are also about 500academies and 2,500 common schools in the state. The permanent literary fund of Virginia is over $1,500,000.
Population-- In 1790 was 748,308; in 1800 was 880,200; in 1810 was 974,642; in 1820 was 1,065,379; in 1830 was 1,211,405; in 1840 was 1,239,797 and in 1850 was 1,421,661. Number of saves in 1790 was 203,427; in 1800 was 345,796; in 1810 was 392,518; in 1820 was 425,153; in 1830 was 469,757; in 1840 was 448,987 and in 1850 was 472,528.
Government-- The legislative power is vested in a senate of 50 members, chosen for four years, one half biennially, and a houe of delegates of 152 members, chosen biennially. The executive power is vested in a governor, elected by the people, for four years, who is ineligible for the succeeding term; and a lieutenant governor, elected for a like term. The legislature meets biennially, at Richmond. A secretary of state, treasurer, and auditor, are elected by the assembly. The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court of appeals, district courts, and circuit courts, all the judges of which are elected by the people. The right of suffrage is extended to every white male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided two years in the state, and one year in the place where he offers to vote. Votes, in all elections, are Viva Voce; dumb persons may vote by ballot.
History-- The present state of Virginia embraces but a portion of the ancient "Virginia" as granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584, which included all the lands be should discover between thirty-third and fortieth degrees of north latitude, and which name became finally restricted to what now constitutes the state. Under this charter, Raleigh planted a colony on the island of Roanoke; but, after repeated trials and disasters, the patent was vacated, and the country was again left to the quiet possession of the Indians. The first permanent settlement in America, by the English, was made at Jamestown, in 1607, by 105 adventures. A second charter was granted to the London company, in 1609, radically changing the constitution, and enlarging the territory of the colony along the coast, within the limits of 200 miles north and 200 miles south of Old Point Comfort; that is, from the southern limits of North Carolina to the northern boundary of Maryland, and extending westward from sea to sea. But so vague were the views of the company, or the adventurers, under this patent, that discord and wretchedness compelled the settlers to break up their establishment in 1610. The year following, Sir Thomas Gates arrived with 300 immigrates, and assumed the government of the colony, which then numbered 700 men. In 1612, a third charter was granted to the London company; but the colony remained under anarchy and tyranny until 1619, when martial law was abolished, and th first provincial assembly was convened at Jamestown. In 1621, the company granted to their colony a "written constitution," which, with singular liberality, ordained that a general assembly, chosen by the people, should be convened annually, its acts to be subject to the supervision of the company in England. The acts of the company, also, were not binding till ratified by the assembly. It established the right of trial by jury. These rights and privileges were ever after claimed by Virginia, and formed the basis of her civil freedom. In 1622, a general massacre of the English was attempted by the Indians, and 347 of them perished. The rest were saved by the timely warning of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the Indian king. She was like a preserving angel to the feeble settlement. In 1624, the London company was dissolved, and the colony was again subject to the crown. In 1644, another general massacre of the whites was attempted, but without success, the blow having been fortunately averted by the skill, prudence, and courage, of Captain John Smith, one of the most efficient men in the colony. During the commonwealth, under Cromwell, to the restoration of Charles II, in 1660, Virginia was left almost entirely to her own independence. Her governors during this period were chosen by the burgesses, who were the representatives of the people. In 1673, Charles II, granted to Lord Culpeper, and the Earl of Arlington, "all the dominion of land and water called Virginia," for thirty-one years. Within two years after this event the representative system was virtually abolished, and the liberties of the people were otherwise seriously abridged. This together with the pressure of increasing grievances, resulted in open rebellion, followed by Indian aggressions, which continued for four years. In 1677, Culpeper, after purchasing the rights of Arlington, was appointed governor over the colony for life, and Virginia became a proprietary government, which remained in force until 1684, when the grant was recalled, and Culpeper expelled from office. The remaining portion of the history of this state is marked with few incidents of importance, down to the period of the Revolution, except those in the French and Indian war, between 1754 and 1763. In 1786, that part of Virginia now constituting the state of Ohio was erected by act of Congress into the "Western Territory," the name of which was afterward changed to the "Territory northwest of the river Ohio." The same year, the district of Kentucky was also set apart, by act of Congress, into a new territory, nut the separation from the "Old Dominion" did not take place before 1792. The first constitution of Virginia was adopted in 1776, which was revised and amended in 1830, and continued in operation till October 1851, when a new one was adopted. The constitution of the United States was ratified in 1788. Motto of the seal, Sic semper tyrannis -- "So be it ever to tyrants" -- in allusion to the emblem on the seal of an Amazon, resting on a spear with one hand, and holding a sword in the other, with her foot on Tyranny, which is represented by a prostrate man, with a crown fallen from his head, a broken chain in his left hand, and a scourge in his right
1850 Counties of Virginia
|County||Description||Area in sq miles||Courts held at||Pop in 1850|
|Accomac||eastern shore, between Chesapeake Bay and the ocean,||240||Drummond Town||17,890|
|Albemarle||central part on north side of James river||700||Charlotteville||25,800|
|Alexandria||east, formerly a part of DC west of Potomac river||36||Alexandria||10,008|
|Alleghany||central part, water by branches of James river||500||Covington||3,515|
|Amelia||southeast part, on south side of Appomattox river||300||Amelia||9,768|
|Amherst||central part, north side of James river||418||Amherst||12,699|
|Appomattox||southeast of central part on James river||blank||Clover Hill||9,193|
|Augusta||central part, drained by James & Shenandoah rivers||900||Staunton||24,610|
|Barbour||in north western part,||Phillippi||9,005|
|Bath||in central part, water by James, Cowpasture & Jackson rivers||900||Bath||3,426|
|Bedford||in southern part, between James & Stauton rivers||660||Liberty||24,081|
|Botetourt||central part, , on sources of James & Roanoke rivers||1,120||Fincastle||14,908|
|Brooke||extreme north part, between Ohio river & PA line||150||Willsburgh||5,054|
|Brunswick||south boundary, Nottoway river on north east side||676||Lawrenceville||13,994|
|Buckingham||southeast part, southern side of James river||680||Maysville||13,837|
|Cabell||northwest boundary, on southern side of Ohio river & crossed by Guyandott river||100||Barboursville||6,299|
|Campbell||southern part, between James & Roanoke rivers||576||Campbell courthouse||23,245|
|Caroline||eastern part, between Rappahannock & North Anna rivers||600||Bowling Green||18,456|
|Charles City||toward southeast part, between James & Chickahoming rivers||208||Charles City Court House||5,200|
|Charlotte||southern part, NE side of Staunton river||600||Marysville or Charlotte Court House||13,955|
|Chesterfield||southern part, between Appomattox & James rivers||456||Chesterfield Court House||17,486|
|Clarke||northeast part, crossed by Shonandoah river||225||Berryville||7,352|
|Culpepper||northern part, on southwest side of Rapahannock river||672||Culpepper Court House||12,282|
|Cumberland||southeast part, James river on the north||320||Cumberland Court House||9,751|
|Dinwiddie||southeastern part, Notaway river on south, Appomatox river on north||616||Dinwiddie||25,118|
|Doddridge||northwestern part||blank||West Union||2,750|
|Elizabeth City||southeastern part, Chesapeake bay on east & Hampton Roads on the south||64||Hampton||4,568|
|Essex||eastern part, Rappahannock river on northwest||280||Tappahannock||73,944|
|Fairfax||north eastern part, Potomac river on northeast side||450||Fairfax||10,682|
|Fauquier||north eastern part||720||Warrenton||20,808|
|Fayette||western part, crossed by Great Kanawba river||1350||Fayetteville||3,955|
|Fluvanna||central part, James river on south & crossed by Rivanna river||416||Palmyra||9,487|
|Franklin||southern part, with Roanoke river on the north||771||Rocky Mount||17,430|
|Frederick||north eastern part||660||Winchester||15,975|
|Giles||south western part, crossed by Great Kanawba river||675||Parishburgh||6,570|
|Gilmer||north western part, crossed by Little Kanawga river||blank||Glenville||3,475|
|Gloucester||eastern part, Chesapeake bay on east & York river of southwest||280||Gloucester||10,527|
|Goochland||eastern part, James river on south||336||Goochland||10,352|
|Grayson||southern boundary, crossed by New river, main branch of Great Kanawha||927||Greenville||6,677|
|Greenbrier||western part, crossed by Greenbrier river||1493||Lewisburgh||10,022|
|Greene||eastern part, Blue Ridge of Alleghany Mts on northwest||190||Stannardsville||4,400|
|Greenville||southern boundary, Nottoway river on north & crossed by Meherin river||325||Hicksford||5,639|
|Halifax||southern boundary, Staunton river on northeast, crossed by Dan river||759||Banister or Halifax CH||25,962|
|Hampshire||northern boundary, Potomac river on north, crossed by its southern branch||960||Romney||14,036|
|Hanover||eastern part, Pamunky river on northeast||630||Hanover||15,153|
|Harrison||north western part, crossed by west fork of Monongahela river||110||Clarksburgh||11,728|
|Henrico||eastern part, James river on southwest||291||Richmond||43,437|
|Henry||southern boundary, crossed by Smith's river||358||Martinsville||8,872|
|Isle of Wight||southeast part, James river on northeast & Blackwater river on southwest||400||Isle of Wight Court House||8,015|
|Jackson||northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest||480||Jackson Court House||6,554|
|James City||eastern part, York river on northeast, James & Chickahominy rivers on southwest||150||Williamsburg||4,020|
|Jefferson||north eastern boundary, Potomac river on northeast, crossed by Shenandoah river||225||Charleston||15,357|
|Kanawha||western part, crossed Great Kanawha river||2000||Charleston||15,353|
|King and Queen||eastern part||335||King & Queen Court House||10,319|
|King George||eastern part, Potomac river on northeast, Rappahannock river on southwest||254||King George Court House||5,9714|
|King William||eastern part, between Pamunky & Matapony rivers||270||King William Court House||8,779|
|Lancaster||eastern part, on west shore of Chesapeake bay, Rappahannock river on southwest||161||Lancaster Court House||4,708|
|Logan||western boundary||2930||Logan Court House||3,620|
|Loudon (or Loudoun)||north eastern boundary, Potomac river on northeast||460||Leesburgh||22,089|
|Louisa||toward eastern part||570||Louisa||16,691|
|Madison||toward northeast part||330||Madison||9,331|
|Marshall||northern boundary of western VA on Ohio river||350||Elizabethtown||10,138|
|Mason||northwestern boundary, Ohio river on northwest, crossed by Great Kanawha river||875||Point Pleasant||7,5398|
|Matthews||southeast part, bound on north, east and south by Chesapeake bay||80||Matthews Court House||6,714|
|Mecklenburgh||south boundary, crossed by Roanoke river||640||Boydton||20,630|
|Mercer||in southwestern part, Great Kanawha river on northeast||540||Princeton||4,222|
|Middlesex||eastern part, Rappahannock river on northeast||170||Urbana||4,394|
|Monongalia||north boundary, crossed by Monongahela river||560||Morgantown||12,387|
|Monroe||western part, Great Kanawha river on west||750||Union||9,827|
|Montgomery||southwest part, Great Kanawha river on west||600||Christiansburgh||8,559|
|Morgan||northeastern boundary, Potomac river on north||350||Bath||3,557|
|Nansemond||south boundary, James river on northwest, Dismal swamp covers eastern part||444||Suffolk||12,283|
|Nelson||central part, James river on southeast||490||Livingston||12,598|
|New Kent||east part, York & Pamunky rivers on northeast, Chickahoning river on southwest||225||New Kent Court House||6,064|
|Nicholas||west part, Great Kanawha river on southwest, crossed by Gauley river||1430||Summersville||3,963|
|Norfolk||south boundary, principally covered with Dismal swamp||544||Norfolk||25,115|
|Northampton||east shore, Atlantic ocean on east & Chesapeake bay on west||320||Eastville||7,498|
|Northumberland||eastern part, Potomac river & Chesapeake bay on east.||240||Heathsville||7,346|
|Nottoway||south eastern part||290||Nottoway Court House||8,437|
|Ohio||northwest corner, Ohio river on northwest||125||Wheeling||18,006|
|Orange||eastern part, Rappahannock river on north||380||Orange Court House||10,067|
|Page||toward north eastern part, south fork of Shenandoah river on northwest||160||Luray||7,600|
|Pendleton||toward northern part||999||Franklin||5,795|
|Pittsylvania||south boundary, Dan river on the south||891||Pittsylvania Court House||28,786|
|Pocahontas||toward the western part||710||Huntersville||3,598|
|Powhatan||towards east part, James river on north & Appomattox on south||300||Scottsville||8,778|
|Preston||on north boundary, crossed by Cheat river||201||Kingwood||11,708|
|Prince Edward||southern part||375||Prince Edward Court House||11,857|
|Prince George||south east part, James river on north||305||Prince George Court House||7,596|
|Princess Ann||southeast corner, Atlantic on east||374||Princess Ann Court House||7,669|
|Prince William||on eastern boundary, Potomac river on east||370||Brentsville||8,129|
|Pulaski||southwestern part, crossed by New river||350||Newbern||5,118|
|Putnam||west part, crossed by Great Kanawha river||blank||blank||5,335|
|Randolph||northern part, crossed by Cheat river||2060||Beverly||5,248|
|Rappahannock||toward northeast part||100||Washington||9,782|
|Richmond||eastern part, Rappahannock river on southwest||200||Warsaw||6,448|
|Ritchie||northwest part||blank||Ritchie Court House||3,902|
|Roanoke||toward southwest, crossed by Roanoke river||370||Salem or Roanoke Court House||8,447|
|Rockbridge||in central part, crossed by James river||680||Lexington||16,055|
|Rockingham||toward northeast part, crossed by Shenandoah river||833||Harrisonburgh||20,294|
|Russell||southwest part, crossed by Clinch river||1370||Lebanon||11,929|
|Scott||southern boundary, crossed by Clinch river||624||Estillville||9,829|
|Shenandoah||toward northeast part||410||Woodstock||13,768|
|Smyth||in southwest part||480||Marion||8,161|
|Southampton||south boundary, crossed by Nottoway river||648||Jerusalem||13,521|
|Spottsylvania||eastern part, Rappahannock river on northeast||408||Spottsylvania Court House||14,911|
|Stafford||eastern boundary, Potomac river on east, Rappahannock river on southwest||355||Stafford||8,044|
|Surry||in southeast part, James river on northeast||324||Surry Court House||5,679|
|Sussex||in southeast part, crossed by Nottoway river||465||Sussex Court House||9,820|
|Taylor||northern part, crossed by east fork of Monongahela river||blank||Pruntytown||5,367|
|Tazewell||southwest part||1600||Jeffersonville or Tazewell Court House||9,942|
|Tyler||on northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest||855||Middlebourne||5,498|
|Warren||in northeastern part, crossed by Shenandoah river||200||Front Royal||6,608|
|Warwick||in southeast part, James river on southwest||95||Warwick Court House||1,546|
|Washington||on south boundary||764||Abington||14,612|
|Wayne||on western boundary, Ohio river is northern border & Sandy river is western border||350||Wayne Court House||4,738|
|Westmoreland||on northeast boundary, Potomac river on northeast, Rappahannock river on southwest||316||Westmoreland||8,080|
|Wetzel||northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest||blank||New Martins||4,184|
|Wirt||northwest part, crossed by Little Kanawha river||blank||Elizabethtown or Wirt Court House||3,353|
|Wood||on north western boundary, Ohio river on northwest, crossed by Little Lanawba river||1233||Parkersburgh||9,450|
|Wythe||in southwest part, crossed by New river||700||Wytheville||12,024|
|York||on southeast boundary, York river on northeast, Chesapeake bay on east||150||Yorktown||4,460|
Jamestown is 44 miles south east of Richmond and 114 miles from Washington on the James river. The first English settlement in America, and founded by Captain John Smith in 1607. It is now in ruins and nearly depopulated.
City, seat of justice of Norfolk Co, VA. Situated on Elizabeth river, opposite Portsmouth, 32 miles from its entrance through Hampton Roads into the ocean, 106 miles southeast of Richmond and 230 miles from Washington. This town is more remarkable for its deep and spacious harbor, than for its appearence. The ground is low and marshy, the Great Dismal Swamp covering a large portion of Norfolk Co. The streets are generally irregular and the houses not splendid, though some of the principal avenues are wide, straight, and neat. Hampton Roads are the basin formed by James and Elizabeth rivers before passing into the Atlantic. The entrance to these from the ocean, is defended by strong fortifications. At Gosport, near Portsmouth, on the west side of Elizabeth river, is a navy yard, with a dry dock built of hewn granite.
The Seaboard and Roanoke railroad connects Portsmouth with Weldon, on the route of the Washington and Wilmington line. The commerce of Norfolk exceeds that of any other place in Virginia, and several hundred thousands dollars are invested in manufactures.
The population in 1810 was 9,193; in 1820 was 8,478; in 1830 was 9,816; in 1840 was 10,920 and in 1850 was 14,326
City, Dinwiddie Co, VA, a port of entry, on the south bank of Appomattox river, 12 miles from its entrance into the James, 23 miles south of Richmond, and 140 miles from Washington. The houses, which are principally of brick, have risen on the ruins of about 400 less elegant ones that were destroyed by fire, in 1815. Like Richmond it is situated at the foot of falls in the river, which afford valuable water power; while the barrier that they present to navigation has been surmounted by a canal, passing around the falls, and admitting boats to navigate the river 80 miles above. Vessels of 100 tons anchor at Petersburgh; those of larger burden come to the City Point, at the confluence of the Appomattox with the James. A railroad connects the two points; and the Washington and Wilmington railroad line communicates with the place.
The population in 1810 was 5,668; in 1820 was blank; in 1830 was 8,322; in 1840 was 11,136 and in 1850 was 14,010.
City, seat of justice of Henrico Co, and capital of Virginia, situated on the north side of James river, 150 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake bay, and 120 miles south of Washington. In trade, manufactures and population, it is the principal city of the state. Directly above it, the river has a descent of about 80 feet in six miles, forming a natural barrier to navigation, which has been overcome by a canal around the falls, and extending 176 miles farther up the river. Through these channels, Richmond has become the entrepot of a fertile region, and receives large quantities of flour, tobacco and coal. Vessels of 10 feet draught pass the bar, six miles below the city, and those of 14 feet navigate the river below this point. The location of the city is pleasant and healthful, and is situated on two hills, though not densely built, and in the valley between them runs Shockeo creek, a rapid stream. Many beautiful mansions are scattered on these elevations, and on the level top of the westerly one, stands the statehouse, a chaste and beautiful building, in the centre of an open square. Near this is the city hall, a large and elegant edifice of Grecian architecture. In 1811, a theatre was burned on the site where an Episcopal church now stands, and a large number of respectable citizens, including, the governor of the state, perished. To commemorate this sad event, the Monumental church was erected on the spot where it took place. Near the city is a penitentiary, extending with its grounds over an area of several acres.
The manufactures of Richmond are varied and valuable, the neighboring streams affording fine water power which has been extensively supplied. Here are cotton factories, flouring mills, nail and iron works, and numerous other prosperous establishments. Besides the canal before noticed, the city is connected with Norfolk, New York, and other points, by steamboats and sailing packets. Two bridges extend over James river to Manchester, a flourishing suburb of Richmond, upon one of which the Washington and Wilmington railroad enters the city, whence it traverses Virginia and North Carolina. The Virginia Central railroad begins at Richmond, and penetrates the interior of the state.
The water works, by which Richmond is supplied, raise the water, by hydraulic power, into three reservoirs, each containing a million of gallons, and from these lead off to all parts of the city. The spot on which this large and fine city stands was first visited by white men in 1609, when "Master West" penetrated to the falls in search of provisions for the young colony at Jamestown, but found nothing edible except acorns. Richmond was founded in 1742, and made the capital of the state in 1780, since which it has been steadily increasing.
The population in 1800 was 5,537; in 1810 was 9,735; in 1820 was 12,046; in 1830 was 16,060; 1840 was 20,153 and in 1850 was 35,482.
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