Genealogy Trails History Group

Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States

State, Territories, Counties, Cities, Towns & Post Offices


Transcribed by Jeana Gallagher and Sandy Stutzman
for the exclusive use of Genealogy Trails

PT is post town; PV is post village; PO is post office, PB is post borough, CH is court house, T is town


One of the United States, popularly known as the "Old Dominion," is situated between 36°33' and 40°43' north latitude, and 75°25' and 83°40' west longitude from Greenwich; and is bounded north by Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland; northeast by Maryland, from which it is separated by the Potomac; east by the Atlantic; south by North Carolina and Tennessee; west by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Cumberland mountains and Big Sandy river; and northwest by Ohio, from which it is separated by the river Ohio.  Its superficial area is 61,352 square miles

Physical Aspect-- The face of the country of this state, though exhibiting but little grandeur, is greatly diversified, and in some parts is rich and pleasing, in the continued outline of hill, valley, river and plain.  The soil, too, is as varied as the surface, as every grade of fertility and sterility is to be met with, from the richest to the most barren.  Virginia may be divided into four zones, essentially differing from each other.  The first, which extends from the coast to the head of tide water, at Fredericksburgh, Richmond &c, over 100 miles, is low and flat, in some places fenny, in others sandy, and on the margin of rivers the soil is composed of a rich loam.  The second division extends from the head of tide water to the Blue ridge.  Near the former the surface is level; higher up the streams it becomes undulating and swelling; and as we approach the mountain, it is often broken and abrupt.  The soil is divided into sections, unequal in quality, running parallel to each other, and extending quite across the state.  The parallel of Chesterfield, Henrico, Hanover, &c, is thin and sandy, and except on the borders of the rivers, is unproductive.  That of Goochland, Cumberland, Prince Edward, Halifax &c, is generally fertile.  Fluvanna, Buckingham, Campbell, Pittsylvania, again are poor; and Culpepper, Orange, Albemarle, Bedford &c, are rich, though frequently consisting of a stony, broken soil, reposing on a substratum of tenacious and red colored clay.  The third division embraces the valley between the Blue ridge and the great North Shenandoah and Branch mountain, and the Allegany chain, which, with little interruption, extends from the Potomac to Carolina and Tennessee.  The surface of the valley in some instances is broken by sharp, solitary mountains, detached from the general chain, the flanks of which are nearly bare, or but thinly covered with stunted pines.  The soil in the valley consists of a rich mould, formed on a bed of limestone.  The fourth division extends from the Alleganies to the river Ohio, and is composed of a country wild and broken, in some parts fertile, but generally barren or poor.  The surface is uneven and hilly, but the soil of a great proportion of Randolph and the adjacent countries, in the northwest part of the state, is excellent, and well adapted for grazing.

Mountains-- The Allegany range, including its numerous ridges, covers the whole middle sections of the state.  Among the local names, besides the Blue ridge, may be mentioned the Cumberland, Great North Shenandoah, Branch, Great Flat Top, Iron and Cacapon mountains.

Rivers and Lakes-- The principal rivers are the Potomac, James, Shenandoah, Rappahannock, Pamunky, Mattapony, York, Rivanna, Elizabeth, Appomattox, Nottoway, Staunton, Meherrin, Ohio, Great Kanawha, Sandy, Little, Kanawha, Cheat and Monongahela.  Drummond lake lies in the Dismal swamp, which serves as a feeder to the main trunk of the Dismal Swamp canal.  The lower part of Chesapeake bay lies wholly in this state.  Among the lesser bays are the Pokomoke, Simepuxent and Mob Jack.

Islands-- Along the coast there is a long chain of low, flat islands, the chief of which are Wallop's, Matomkin, Cedar, Paramore's, Hog, Prout's and Smith's.

Climate-- The climate of the tide water region is generally healthy, except in the month of August, September and October, during which it is hot and moist, and bilious complaints or intermittents prevail.  As we approach the Blue ridge, the inhabitants are more robust and healthy than in any other part of the state.  West of the mountains, the climate is salubrious and cool.

Productive Resources-- The principal products of this state are horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, butter, cheese, wine, sugar, wax, silk, cotton, wool, hemp, flax, tobacco, rice, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes and Indian corn.  Of the fossil and mineral resources, gold, copper, iron, lead, coal, marble, limestone and salt, are the most important.  But the most valuable are iron, coal and salt.  The belt of country in which gold is found is in the county of Spottsylvania, and the regions adjacent.  The coal fields are very extensive, anthracite being found on the easterly side fo the Alleganies, and bituminous on the western.  Salt springs occur on the banks of the Great Kanawha, where salt is manufactured in great abundance.

Manufactures-- Iron ranks first among the manufactures of Virginia, embracing machinery, firearms, hardware, cutlery, &c.  Cotton and woolen manufactures rank next, in which about $2,500,000 is invested.

Railroads and Canals-- There are about 700 miles of railroad in operation in Virginia, and more in process of construction.  The most important canals in the state are, the James River and the Kanawha canal, reaching Richmond to Lynchburg, 146 miles, and the Dismal Swamp canal, 23 miles.

Commerce-- The foreign exports and imports of Virginia amount to about $5,000,000 annually.  The domestic exports and imports amount to about $25,000,000 annually.  The principal articles of domestic export are tobacco and flour.  The shipping owned in the state is about 60,000 tons.

Education-- The principal literary institutions of Virginia are, William and Mary college, at Williamsburg; Hampden Sidney college, in Prince Edward county; Washington college, at Lexington; the university at Charlottesville; Randolph college, at Boylstown; Emory and Henry college, at Glade Spring; Rector college, in Taylor county; Bethany college, at Bethany; and Richmond college, at Richmond.  There are also a military institute at Lexington; medical schools at Richmond, Charlottesville (attached to the university), and Winchester; law schools, attached to the university and William and Mary college; and theological seminaries in Fairfax and Prince Edward counties, and at Richmond.  There are also about 500academies and 2,500 common schools in the state.  The permanent literary fund of Virginia is over $1,500,000.

Population-- In 1790 was 748,308; in 1800 was 880,200; in 1810 was 974,642; in 1820 was 1,065,379; in 1830 was 1,211,405; in 1840 was 1,239,797 and in 1850 was 1,421,661.  Number of saves in 1790 was 203,427; in 1800 was 345,796; in 1810 was 392,518; in 1820 was 425,153; in 1830 was 469,757; in 1840 was 448,987 and in 1850 was 472,528.

Government-- The legislative power is vested in a senate of 50 members, chosen for four years, one half biennially, and a houe of delegates of 152  members, chosen biennially.  The executive power is vested in a governor, elected by the people, for four years, who is ineligible for the succeeding term; and a lieutenant governor, elected for a like term.  The legislature meets biennially, at Richmond.  A secretary of state, treasurer, and auditor, are elected by the assembly.  The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court of appeals, district courts, and circuit courts, all the judges of which are elected by the people.  The right of suffrage is extended to every white male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided two years in the state, and one year in the place where he offers to vote.  Votes, in all elections, are Viva Voce; dumb persons may vote by ballot.

History-- The present state of Virginia embraces but a portion of the ancient "Virginia" as granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584, which included all the lands be should discover between thirty-third and fortieth degrees of north latitude, and which name became finally restricted to what now constitutes the state.  Under this charter, Raleigh planted a colony on the island of Roanoke; but, after repeated trials and disasters, the patent was vacated, and the country was again left to the quiet possession of the Indians.  The first permanent settlement in America, by the English, was made at Jamestown, in 1607, by 105 adventures.  A second charter was granted to the London company, in 1609, radically changing the constitution, and enlarging the territory of the colony along the coast, within the limits of 200 miles north and 200 miles south of Old Point Comfort; that is, from the southern limits of North Carolina to the northern boundary of Maryland, and extending westward from sea to sea. But so vague were the views of the company, or the adventurers, under this patent, that discord and wretchedness compelled the settlers to break up their establishment in 1610.  The year following, Sir Thomas Gates arrived with 300 immigrates, and assumed the government of the colony, which then numbered 700 men.  In 1612, a third charter was granted to the London company; but the colony remained under anarchy and tyranny until 1619, when martial law was abolished, and th first provincial assembly was convened at Jamestown.  In 1621, the company granted to their colony a "written constitution," which, with singular liberality, ordained that a general assembly, chosen by the people, should be convened annually, its acts to be subject to the supervision of the company in England.  The acts of the company, also, were not binding till ratified by the assembly.  It established the right of trial by jury.  These rights and privileges were ever after claimed by Virginia, and formed the basis of her civil freedom.  In 1622, a general massacre of the English was attempted by the Indians, and 347 of them perished.  The rest were saved by the timely warning of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the Indian king.  She was like a preserving angel to the feeble settlement.  In 1624, the London company was dissolved, and the colony was again subject to the crown.  In 1644, another general massacre of the whites was attempted, but without success, the blow having been fortunately averted by the skill, prudence, and courage, of Captain John Smith, one of the most efficient men in the colony.  During the commonwealth, under Cromwell, to the restoration of Charles II, in 1660, Virginia was left almost entirely to her own independence.  Her governors during this period were chosen by the burgesses, who were the representatives of the people.  In 1673, Charles II, granted to Lord Culpeper, and the  Earl of Arlington, "all the dominion of land and water called Virginia," for thirty-one years.  Within two years after this event the representative system was virtually abolished, and the liberties of the people were otherwise seriously abridged.  This together with the pressure of increasing grievances, resulted in open rebellion, followed by Indian aggressions, which continued for four years.  In 1677, Culpeper, after purchasing the rights of Arlington, was appointed governor over the colony for life, and Virginia became a proprietary government, which remained in force until 1684, when the grant was recalled, and Culpeper expelled from office.  The remaining portion of the history of this state is marked with few incidents of importance, down to the period of the Revolution, except those in the French and Indian war, between 1754 and 1763.  In 1786, that part of Virginia now constituting the state of Ohio was erected by act of Congress into the "Western Territory," the name of which was afterward changed to the "Territory northwest of the river Ohio."  The same year, the district of Kentucky was also set apart, by act of Congress, into a new territory, nut the separation from the "Old Dominion" did not take place before 1792.  The first constitution of Virginia was adopted in 1776, which was revised and amended in 1830, and continued in operation till October 1851, when a new one was adopted.  The constitution of the United States was ratified in 1788.  Motto of the seal, Sic semper tyrannis -- "So be it ever to tyrants" -- in allusion to the emblem on the seal of an Amazon, resting on a spear with one hand, and holding a sword in the other, with her foot on Tyranny, which is represented by a prostrate man, with a crown fallen from his head, a broken chain in his left hand, and a scourge in his right

1850 Counties of Virginia

County Description Area in sq miles Courts held at Pop in 1850
Accomac eastern shore,  between Chesapeake Bay and the ocean, 240 Drummond Town 17,890
Albemarle central part on north side of James river 700 Charlotteville 25,800
Alexandria east, formerly a part of DC west of Potomac river 36 Alexandria 10,008
Alleghany central part, water by branches of James river 500 Covington 3,515
Amelia southeast part, on south side of Appomattox river 300 Amelia 9,768
Amherst central part, north side of James river 418 Amherst 12,699
Appomattox southeast of central part on James river blank Clover Hill 9,193
Augusta central part, drained by James & Shenandoah rivers 900 Staunton 24,610
Barbour in north western part,   Phillippi 9,005
Bath in central part, water by James, Cowpasture & Jackson rivers 900 Bath 3,426
Bedford in southern part, between James & Stauton rivers 660 Liberty 24,081
Boone western part blank Ballardsville 3,237
Botetourt central part, , on sources of James & Roanoke rivers 1,120 Fincastle 14,908
Brooke extreme north part, between Ohio river & PA line 150 Willsburgh 5,054
Brunswick south boundary, Nottoway river on north east side 676 Lawrenceville 13,994
Buckingham southeast part, southern side of James river 680 Maysville 13,837
Cabell northwest boundary, on southern side of Ohio river & crossed by Guyandott river 100 Barboursville 6,299
Campbell southern part, between James & Roanoke rivers 576 Campbell courthouse 23,245
Caroline eastern part, between Rappahannock & North Anna rivers 600 Bowling Green 18,456
Carroll southern boundary blank Hillsville 5,909
Charles City toward southeast part, between James & Chickahoming rivers 208 Charles City Court House 5,200
Charlotte southern part, NE side of Staunton river 600 Marysville or Charlotte Court House 13,955
Chesterfield southern part, between Appomattox & James rivers 456 Chesterfield Court House 17,486
Clarke northeast part, crossed by Shonandoah river 225 Berryville 7,352
Culpepper northern part, on southwest side of Rapahannock river 672 Culpepper Court House 12,282
Cumberland southeast part, James river on the north 320 Cumberland Court House 9,751
Dinwiddie southeastern part, Notaway river on south, Appomatox river on north 616 Dinwiddie 25,118
Doddridge northwestern part blank West Union 2,750
Elizabeth City southeastern part, Chesapeake bay on east & Hampton Roads on the south 64 Hampton 4,568
Essex eastern part, Rappahannock river on northwest 280 Tappahannock 73,944
Fairfax north eastern part, Potomac river on northeast side 450 Fairfax 10,682
Fauquier north eastern part 720 Warrenton 20,808
Fayette western part, crossed by Great Kanawba river 1350 Fayetteville 3,955
Floyd southern part 525 Jacksonville 6,458
Fluvanna central part, James river on south & crossed by Rivanna river 416 Palmyra 9,487
Franklin southern part, with Roanoke river on the north 771 Rocky Mount 17,430
Frederick north eastern part 660 Winchester 15,975
Giles south western part, crossed by Great Kanawba river 675 Parishburgh 6,570
Gilmer north western part, crossed by Little Kanawga river blank Glenville 3,475
Gloucester eastern part, Chesapeake bay on east & York river of southwest 280 Gloucester 10,527
Goochland eastern part, James river on south 336 Goochland 10,352
Grayson southern boundary, crossed by New river, main branch of Great Kanawha 927 Greenville 6,677
Greenbrier western part, crossed by Greenbrier river 1493 Lewisburgh 10,022
Greene eastern part, Blue Ridge of Alleghany Mts on northwest 190 Stannardsville 4,400
Greenville southern boundary, Nottoway river on north & crossed by Meherin river 325 Hicksford 5,639
Halifax southern boundary, Staunton river on northeast, crossed by Dan river 759 Banister or Halifax CH 25,962
Hampshire northern boundary, Potomac river on north, crossed by its southern branch 960 Romney 14,036
Hancock northern part blank blank 4,050
Hanover eastern part, Pamunky river on northeast 630 Hanover 15,153
Hardy northern part 1156 Moorefield 9,543
Harrison north western part, crossed by west fork of Monongahela river 110 Clarksburgh 11,728
Henrico eastern part, James river on southwest 291 Richmond 43,437
Henry southern boundary, crossed by Smith's river 358 Martinsville 8,872
Highland central part blank Monterey 4,227
Isle of Wight southeast part, James river on northeast & Blackwater river on southwest 400 Isle of Wight Court House 8,015
Jackson northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest 480 Jackson Court House 6,554
James City eastern part, York river on northeast, James & Chickahominy rivers on southwest 150 Williamsburg 4,020
Jefferson north eastern boundary, Potomac river on northeast, crossed by Shenandoah river 225 Charleston 15,357
Kanawha western part, crossed Great Kanawha river 2000 Charleston 15,353
King and Queen eastern part 335 King & Queen Court House 10,319
King George eastern part, Potomac river on northeast, Rappahannock river on southwest 254 King George Court House 5,9714
King William eastern part, between Pamunky & Matapony rivers 270 King William Court House 8,779
Lancaster eastern part, on west shore of Chesapeake bay, Rappahannock river on southwest 161 Lancaster Court House 4,708
Lee southwest corner 512 Jonesville 10,267
Lewis northwest part 1600 Weston 10,031
Logan western boundary 2930 Logan Court House 3,620
Loudon (or Loudoun) north eastern boundary, Potomac river on northeast 460 Leesburgh 22,089
Louisa toward eastern part 570 Louisa 16,691
Lunenburgh south part 40 Lewiston 11,692
Madison toward northeast part 330 Madison 9,331
Marion northern part blank blank 10,551
Marshall northern boundary of western VA on Ohio river 350 Elizabethtown 10,138
Mason northwestern boundary, Ohio river on northwest, crossed by Great Kanawha river 875 Point Pleasant 7,5398
Matthews southeast part, bound on north, east and south by Chesapeake bay 80 Matthews Court House 6,714
Mecklenburgh south boundary, crossed by Roanoke river 640 Boydton 20,630
Mercer in southwestern part, Great Kanawha river on northeast 540 Princeton 4,222
Middlesex eastern part, Rappahannock river on northeast 170 Urbana 4,394
Monongalia north boundary, crossed by Monongahela river 560 Morgantown 12,387
Monroe western part, Great Kanawha river on west 750 Union 9,827
Montgomery southwest part, Great Kanawha river on west 600 Christiansburgh 8,559
Morgan northeastern boundary, Potomac river on north 350 Bath 3,557
Nansemond south boundary, James river on northwest, Dismal swamp covers eastern part 444 Suffolk 12,283
Nelson central part, James river on southeast 490 Livingston 12,598
New Kent east part, York & Pamunky rivers on northeast, Chickahoning river on southwest 225 New Kent Court House 6,064
Nicholas west part, Great Kanawha river on southwest, crossed by Gauley river 1430 Summersville 3,963
Norfolk south boundary, principally covered with Dismal swamp 544 Norfolk 25,115
Northampton east shore, Atlantic ocean on east & Chesapeake bay on west 320 Eastville 7,498
Northumberland eastern part, Potomac river & Chesapeake bay on east. 240 Heathsville 7,346
Nottoway south eastern part 290 Nottoway Court House 8,437
Ohio northwest corner, Ohio river on northwest 125 Wheeling 18,006
Orange eastern part, Rappahannock river on north 380 Orange Court House 10,067
Page toward north eastern part, south fork of Shenandoah river on northwest 160 Luray 7,600
Patrick southern boundary 541 Taylorsville 9,609
Pendleton toward northern part 999 Franklin 5,795
Pittsylvania south boundary, Dan river on the south 891 Pittsylvania Court House 28,786
Pocahontas toward the western part 710 Huntersville 3,598
Powhatan towards east part, James river on north & Appomattox on south 300 Scottsville 8,778
Preston on north boundary, crossed by Cheat river 201 Kingwood 11,708
Prince Edward southern part 375 Prince Edward Court House 11,857
Prince George south east part, James river on north 305 Prince George Court House 7,596
Princess Ann southeast corner, Atlantic on east 374 Princess Ann Court House 7,669
Prince William on eastern boundary, Potomac river on east 370 Brentsville 8,129
Pulaski southwestern part, crossed by New river 350 Newbern 5,118
Putnam west part, crossed by Great Kanawha river blank blank 5,335
Raleigh western part blank Raleigh 1,765
Randolph northern part, crossed by Cheat river 2060 Beverly 5,248
Rappahannock toward northeast part 100 Washington 9,782
Richmond eastern part, Rappahannock river on southwest 200 Warsaw 6,448
Ritchie northwest part blank Ritchie Court House 3,902
Roanoke toward southwest, crossed by Roanoke river 370 Salem or Roanoke Court House 8,447
Rockbridge in central part, crossed by James river 680 Lexington 16,055
Rockingham toward northeast part, crossed by Shenandoah river 833 Harrisonburgh 20,294
Russell southwest part, crossed by Clinch river 1370 Lebanon 11,929
Scott southern boundary, crossed by Clinch river 624 Estillville 9,829
Shenandoah toward northeast part 410 Woodstock 13,768
Smyth in southwest part 480 Marion 8,161
Southampton south boundary, crossed by Nottoway river 648 Jerusalem 13,521
Spottsylvania eastern part, Rappahannock river on northeast 408 Spottsylvania Court House 14,911
Stafford eastern boundary, Potomac river on east, Rappahannock river on southwest 355 Stafford 8,044
Surry in southeast part, James river on northeast 324 Surry Court House 5,679
Sussex in southeast part, crossed by Nottoway river 465 Sussex Court House 9,820
Taylor northern part, crossed by east fork of Monongahela river blank Pruntytown 5,367
Tazewell southwest part 1600 Jeffersonville or Tazewell Court House 9,942
Tyler on northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest 855 Middlebourne 5,498
Warren in northeastern part, crossed by Shenandoah river 200 Front Royal 6,608
Warwick in southeast part, James river on southwest 95 Warwick Court House 1,546
Washington on south boundary 764 Abington 14,612
Wayne on western boundary, Ohio river is northern border & Sandy river is western border 350 Wayne Court House 4,738
Westmoreland on northeast boundary, Potomac river on northeast, Rappahannock river on southwest 316 Westmoreland 8,080
Wetzel northwest boundary, Ohio river on northwest blank New Martins 4,184
Wirt northwest part, crossed by Little Kanawha river blank Elizabethtown or Wirt Court House 3,353
Wood on north western boundary, Ohio river on northwest, crossed by Little Lanawba river 1233 Parkersburgh 9,450
Wyoming no description blank Ginseng 1,645
Wythe in southwest part, crossed by New river 700 Wytheville 12,024
York on southeast boundary, York river on northeast, Chesapeake bay on east 150 Yorktown 4,460

Jamestown, VA

Jamestown is 44 miles south east of Richmond and 114 miles from Washington on the James river.  The first English settlement in America, and founded by Captain John Smith in 1607.  It is now in ruins and nearly depopulated.

Norfolk, VA

City, seat of justice of Norfolk Co, VA.  Situated on Elizabeth river, opposite Portsmouth, 32 miles from its entrance through Hampton Roads into the ocean, 106 miles southeast of Richmond and 230 miles from Washington.  This town is more remarkable for its deep and spacious harbor, than for its appearence.  The ground is low and marshy, the Great Dismal Swamp covering a large portion of Norfolk Co.  The streets are generally irregular and the houses not splendid, though some of the principal avenues are wide, straight, and neat.  Hampton Roads are the basin formed by James and Elizabeth rivers before passing into the Atlantic.  The entrance to these from the ocean, is defended by strong fortifications.  At Gosport, near Portsmouth, on the west side of Elizabeth river, is a navy yard, with a dry dock built of hewn granite.

The Seaboard and Roanoke railroad connects Portsmouth with Weldon, on the route of the Washington and Wilmington line.  The commerce of Norfolk exceeds that of any other place in Virginia, and several hundred thousands dollars are invested in manufactures.

The population in 1810 was 9,193; in 1820 was 8,478; in 1830 was 9,816; in 1840 was 10,920 and in 1850 was 14,326

Petersburgh, VA

City, Dinwiddie Co, VA, a port of entry, on the south bank of Appomattox river, 12 miles from its entrance into the James, 23 miles south of Richmond, and 140 miles from Washington.  The houses, which are principally of brick, have risen on the ruins of about 400 less elegant ones that were destroyed by fire, in 1815.  Like Richmond it is situated at the foot of falls in the river, which afford valuable water power; while the barrier that they present to navigation has been surmounted by a canal, passing around the falls, and admitting boats to navigate the river 80 miles above.  Vessels of 100 tons anchor at Petersburgh; those of larger burden come to the City Point, at the confluence of the Appomattox with the James.  A railroad connects the two points; and the Washington and Wilmington railroad line communicates with the place.

The population in 1810 was 5,668; in 1820 was blank; in 1830 was 8,322; in 1840 was 11,136 and in 1850 was 14,010.

Richmond, VA

City, seat of justice of Henrico Co, and capital of Virginia, situated on the north side of James river, 150 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake bay, and 120 miles south of Washington.  In trade, manufactures and population, it is the principal city of the state.  Directly above it, the river has a descent of about 80 feet in six miles, forming a natural barrier to navigation, which has been overcome by a canal around the falls, and extending 176 miles farther up the river.  Through these channels, Richmond has become the entrepot of a fertile region, and receives large quantities of flour, tobacco and coal. Vessels of 10 feet draught pass the bar, six miles below the city, and those of 14 feet navigate the river below this point.  The location of the city is pleasant and healthful, and is situated on two hills, though not densely built, and in the valley between them runs Shockeo creek, a rapid stream.  Many beautiful mansions are scattered on these elevations, and on the level top of the westerly one, stands the statehouse, a chaste and beautiful building, in the centre of an open square.  Near this is the city hall, a large and elegant edifice of Grecian architecture.  In 1811, a theatre was burned on the site where an Episcopal church now stands, and a large number of respectable citizens, including, the governor of the state, perished.  To commemorate this sad event, the Monumental church was erected on the spot where it took place.  Near the city is a penitentiary, extending with its grounds over an area of several acres.

The manufactures of Richmond are varied and valuable, the neighboring streams affording fine water power which has been extensively supplied. Here are cotton factories, flouring mills, nail and iron works, and numerous other prosperous establishments.  Besides the canal before noticed, the city is connected with Norfolk, New York, and other points, by steamboats and sailing packets.  Two bridges extend over James river to Manchester, a flourishing suburb of Richmond, upon one of which the Washington and Wilmington railroad enters the city, whence it traverses Virginia and North Carolina.  The Virginia Central railroad begins at Richmond, and penetrates the interior of the state.

The water works, by which Richmond is supplied, raise the water, by hydraulic power, into three reservoirs, each containing a million of gallons, and from these lead off to all parts of the city.  The spot on which this large and fine city stands was first visited by white men in 1609, when "Master West" penetrated to the falls in search of provisions for the young colony at Jamestown, but found nothing edible except acorns.  Richmond was founded in 1742, and made the capital of the state in 1780, since which it has been steadily increasing.

The population in 1800 was 5,537; in 1810 was 9,735; in 1820 was 12,046; in 1830 was 16,060; 1840 was 20,153 and in 1850 was 35,482.

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