Ira Aldridge was the greatest tragedian yet produced by the race.
Crispus Attucks spilt the first blood in defense of American liberty.
Dr. W.B. Derrick is nicknamed "the cyclone," because of the force of his oratory.
Samuel R. Lowry, of Alabama, is a silk culturist of extensive experience and ability.
Rev. Lott Carey was the first Afro-American missionary to Africa, and did faithful work.
Rev. A.A. Whitman and Mrs. Josie D. Heard, rank among the best of our rising poets.
Editor J.W. Cromwell is possibly the best authority of the race on facts and statistics of the race.
Frederick Douglass is the most popular of living American orators on questions involving manhood rights.
Hon. D.A. Straker, Hon. John P. Green, E.H. Morris and T. McCants Stewart, hold first rank among our lawyers.
Wiley Jones, of Pine Bluff, Ark., owns a street car railroad, a race track and park, and is worth $150,000.
Bishop J.W. Hood was the first colored man assistant superintendent of Public Instruction in the country.
"Blind Tom" hasn't a superior as a pianist in the realms of the universe, and yet he is entirely self-trained.
J.D. Baltimore, of Washington, D.C., is a chief engineer and mechanician; also a machinist and inventor.
Toussaint L. Ouverture was the greatest Negro soldier, statesman and martyr the race can boast of in modern times.
E.P. McCabe was the first colored man to be elected to a State Office in Kansas, being elected auditor of that
Geo. W. Williams published the most exhaustive and complete history of the Negro race ever prepared, about 1882.
Nat Turner and Denmark Veazie, both of Virginia, were the first colored men to strike the blow for the liberty
of the slaves.
Robert Brown Elliott was universally regarded as the ablest and most eloquent Negro who ever occupied a seat in
Bishop Alexander Walters is the youngest of Afro-American Bishops, and has done as much successful work as almost
any of them.
Dr. Alexander Crummell is put down as the most learned of Afro-American divines. He is an able, fluent writer and
William Still published the completest history of the abolition movement ever given to the public in the "Underground
Granville T. Woods is an expert electrician, mechanical engineer and manufacturer of telephones, telegraph and
Rev. Augustus Tolton is the first and only native American Catholic Priest of African descent through both parents,
on the continent.
Bishop H.M. Turner favors migration to Africa as a means of solving the race problem. He has been there to observe
the country and likes it.
Geo. T. Downing was the trusted and close friend of the great and able statesman, Charles Summer, and was beside
his bedside when he died.
J.M. Trotter, late Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, wrote and published an interesting volume on
"Music and Highly Musical People."
Judge M.W. Gibbs, of Arkansas, was the first colored judge in the United States, and Judge Geo. L. Ruffin, of Massachusetts,
the first in a Northern State.
Alexander Dumas is the most distinguished dramatist, novelist and play-wright the race has ever produced, and ranks
with the best in his line of any race.
Prof. J.M. Gregory was the first President of the National Association of Educators of Colored Youth. He is Professor
of Languages at Howard University.
Solomon G. Brown, of Smithsonian Institute, is an entermologist, taxedermist and lecturer on "Insects"
and "Geology." He is also a poet of considerable merit.
Inman E. Page won the prize oration at Brown University, and Garnett Morgan did the same thing at Harvard College.
Both are able though modest colored men.
Prof. Richard T. Greener is a chief civil service examiner, metaphysician, lawyer and scholar, and was for quite
a while secretary of the Grant monument fund.
Prof. W.S. Scarborough is the author of the only Greek Text Book by a colored man, and besides being a ripe scholar
and linquist, is a scientist and lecturer of rare merit.
T. Thos. Fortune, John Mitchell, Jr., Rev. G.W. Clinton, Robert Pelham, W. Allison Sweeney, H.C. Smith, Jr., Scott
Wood, R.R. Wright, J. Gordon Street, P.H. Murray, Dr. L.J. Coppin, W.H. Steward, Miss Ida Wells, Dr. Johnson, of
the Recorder and Rev. W.J. White, are among the brightest of Negro journalists.
Dr. J.C. Price is regarded as the most popular and eloquent Negro of the present generation. He was the first to
read a paper before the National Educational Convention.
Dr. William Wells Brown prepared, wrote and made compilation of the best history of the Afro-American in America
and the race at large ever prepared in this country up to that time--1874.
Benjamin Banneker published the first American almanac, and he was famed as well versed in astronomy, was quite
a philosopher, philanthropist and inventor, and a great friend of Benjamin Franklin.
Bishop Daniel A. Payne, next to Bishop Moore, is the oldest colored Bishop in active service. He is 81 years of
age and has been preaching 55 years. He was the founder of Wilberforce College.
Dr. Charles B. Purvis is a surgeon in charge of the Freedmen's Hospital at Washington, D.C., and Professor of Obstetrics
and diseases of women and children. He is a son of Dr. Robert Purvis the abolitionist.
Dr. Edward Wilmot Blyden, of Liberia, is generally conceded to be the most learned man of the race. He was President
of Liberia College, is Minister to England, magazine writer, Arabic professor, oriental scholar and linquist.
Major Martin R. De Laney was a splendid soldier, scientist, ethnologist and member of the International Statistical
Conference at London, May 15, '60, presided over by His Royal Highness, Albert, Prince Consort of England.
Bishop J.J. Moore is the oldest travelling Bishop of his race, and has preached more regularly and longer than
any other. He has been preaching 60 years, and is 85 years of age, and is still active, thoughtful, clear and eloquent.
John Jasper, of Richmond, Va., has gained world-wide fame as the author of the popular remark "the sun do
move." He is a man of strong common sense, and excellent uneducated preacher, and has a large congregation.
Bishop J. W. Hood declares that it was the Negro pulpit which has furnished the genius of the race, and fitted
men for the performance of duty along all lines of religious, political and educational work.
Hon. John M. Langston is a lawyer of wide reputation, was Minister to Hayti, President of the Va. N. & Collegiate
Institute, Dean of the Law Department of Howard University, and member of Congress from the Fourth Virginia District.
John Mitchell, Jr, of the Richmond Planet, is serving his second term as President of the National Press Association,
and he is as bold and uncompromising in denouncing wrong and injustice as ever. He is a brave knight indeed.
Editor T. Thomas Fortune does a greater amount of work we suppose than any man of the race who presumes to contribute
to the press. His ability is everywhere recognized and conceded, so that he stands at the forefront of Negro journalists.
His other newspaper work outside of his contributions to the Age, is enormous. He is both an agitator and hustler.
There is a greater proportion of colored Christians in the United States than of any other race. Out of a population
of about 8,000,000 quite five millions are pretty regular church attendants, while about 2,800,000 are actual church
members, 1,200,000 of these belonging to the various Methodist bodies, about 1,000,000 are Baptists, while the
remaining 600,000 are divided among the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans and other different
James Varick was the pioneer of Zion Methodism, laying the foundation stones in New York, while Richard Allen did
the same work for Bethel Methodism, by building solid his foundations in Philadelphia. Both started because of
race injustice and discrimination at the communion table of the white churches, and both builded more wisely than
they knew, as the superstructures which stand as monuments to their glory and wisdom and foresight, stand out in
bold relief as light houses to the mariner in time of storm.
Our Representation in Congress.
The Negro race has had twenty-one representatives in Congress since emancipation--two Senators and nineteen members
of the House. Had Governor Pinchback been given the seat to which he had been fairly elected, we would have had
three Senators--or even twenty-two representatives of the race.
The two Senators hailed from the State of Mississippi, and both are still living and leading most honorable lives--one
as a presiding elder in the M. E. Church, and the other Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia--ex-Senator
H. R. Revels and ex-Senator B. K. Bruce. One served a short term of four years and was succeeded by the latter
who served the full term of six years.
The representatives have all hailed from eight of the 42 States, viz: Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama,
South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida and Virginia. Of the nineteen South Carolina has furnished seven, namely,
Robert Brown Elliott, J.H. Rainey, Richard H. Cain, Robert C. De Large, A.J. Ransier, Robert Smalls and Thomas
E. Miller; Alabama furnished three, Mr.--Turner, Jere Haralson and J.E. Rapier; North Carolina furnished three,
John A. Hyman, James E. o'Hara and Henry Plummer Cheatham; Louisiana sent one, Mr.--Nash; Mississippi one, John
R. Lynch; Georgia one, Jeffrey C. Long; Virginia one, John Mercer Langston, and Florida two, J. Willis Menard and
Josiah T. Walls. Of these only Messrs. Elliott, Rainey, Cain, Smalls, Turner, o'Hara, Cheatham, Lynch and Walls
served more than one term. Only in one Congress since the first Negro took his seat has the race been entirely
The ability of these representatives, according to so competent an authority as Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts,
on the average has compared most favorably with the white representation in that body. Uniformly courteous, dignified,
able in argument, quick to understand intricate questions and problems of state, they have proven themselves foemen
worthy of the steel of the best of those who would meet them in open arena of debate. Geo. W. Murray, the representative
elect, makes our full representation to date, 22.
The race has every reason to be proud of its leaders who have graced the congressional halls.
Dr. J.C. Price and Rev. William D. Johnson were the first colored men to preach in Henry Ward Beecher's church,
Brooklyn, N.Y., the famous "Plymouth Church."
Judge J.J. Wright was the only colored man who ever sat on the Supreme Court bench of any State in this Union.
He was Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina.
James H. Harris, of North Carolina, was first colored man nominated for Congress in this Nation, but he declined
the nomination after he had been so honored. He was a great political orator and leader.
J. Willis Menard, of Florida, was the first colored man elected to the National Congress. He is still living, and
has given much time to literary pursuits, being a poet and editor of recognized merit and ability.
Hon. Robert Brown Elliott was the only colored man who ever resigned his seat in Congress. He did so to accept
the speakership of the South Carolina legislature with a view to entering the National Senate, but failed.
Dr. William Howard Day is President of the School Board of Harrisburg, Pa, the only position of the kind held by
any member of the race in the country. He is also General Secretary of the A. M. E. Zion Connection.
Hon. John H. Collins was the first colored solicitor elected in the United States--having been elected in the Second
Judicial District of North Carolina. Hon. Geo. H. White succeeded him and is still serving in that capacity.
Hon. H.P. Cheatham is the only colored member of Congress who has ever quieted the turbulent waves of rancor and
turmoil in that body, by rising in his place and pleading for peace, and promising the introduction of a bill that
would settle the whole difficulty. In this way not a little child, but a despised Negro, led this august body into
paths of peace.
The late Bishop Singleton T. Jones, D. D., was justly regarded as one of the finest pulpit orators of his time,
his eloquence being of the ornate and overmastering kind such as would sway, convict and convince the masses anywhere.
Five members of the race have represented the United States at Port-au-Prince, Hayti, as follows: Hon. E. D. Bassett,
who served eight years; Hon. Jno. M. Langston, who also served eight years; Dr. John E. W. Thompson, Hon. Frederick
Douglass and Editor John Durham, who still fills the position.
The United States contain 70,000 lawyers, 11,000 of whom are in New York city, making the proportion there about
one to every 160 of the population. France, with a population of 40,000,000, has but 6,000 lawyers, and Germany
has only 7,000 out of a population of 50,000,000.
John R. Lynch is the first and only colored man who ever presided over a national political convention as temporary
chairman. He wielded the gavel too with rare parliamentary skill and thereby evoked warm tributes of praise. Mr.
Lynch was thrice elected to Congress, and is Fourth Auditor of the Treasury.
Hon. Frank D. Dancy was the first colored mayor of an important town in this country. A deadlock was kept up for
a long time between a white Republican and a Democrat, and Dancy was finally made the compromise candidate and
served his term to the general satisfaction of the best people in the community.
Hon. Frederick Douglass had the most distinguished audience to hear him when the Lincoln monument was unveiled
at Washington, that ever listened to a colored orator. President Grant and his cabinet, the Chief Justice and Associate
Justices of the Supreme Court, the members of the United States Senate and House of Representatives, the Diplomatic
Corps and distinguished men from all parts of the world heard him gladly, and at his best, as he reviewed the life
and character of the immortal martyr-President.
The following persons have served as President of the Afro-American Press Convention which was organized with John
Q. Adams as its President, viz: John Q. Adams, Wm. A. Pledger, H. Price Williams, Wm. J. Simmons and John Mitchell,
The late Robert Brown Elliott was the most brilliant colored man who ever entered the United States Congress. His
reply to Alexander H. Stephens on the "Civil Rights Bill" was the ablest and most withering in its sarcasm
delivered during that session of Congress. He was an orator of great power, and as a debater he had but few if
any superiors in Congress.
The following states and territories forbid marriages between white and blacks: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North
Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and West Virginia.
There have been seven Afro-American Ministers Resident and Consuls General to Liberia, three of whom died from
the fever and four survived it. Those who died of these appointed were Dr. Henry Highland Garnett, Moses A. Hopkins
and Alexander Clark. Those who survived the fever are C.H.J. Taylor, John H. Smythe, Ezekiel E. Smith and William
D. McKoy, the present incumbent.-- N. Y. Age.
The following leading colored institutions are manned and controlled by members of the race, and have colored Presidents,
namely: Livingstone College, Dr. J. C. Price, President; Biddle University, Dr. D. J. Sanders, President; Bennett
College, Dr. C. N. Grandison, President; Wilberforce University, Prof.--Mitchell, President; Paul-Quinn College,
I. M. Burgan, President; Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School, Booker T. Washington, Principal; Virginia Normal
and Collegiate Institute, James H. Johnston, President; Allen University, J. W. Morris, President; State University,
Louisville, Ky., first President, the late Rev. Wm. J. Simmons; Alcorn University, John H. Burrus, President.
Bishop J. W. Hood, Bishop A. W. Wayman and Bishop J. P. Campbell are the first three colored men who have presided
over Ecumenical Council of the Methodists of the world. In the same gathering Dr. J. C. Price first became world
famous, and Bishop Arnett gained fresh laurels for himself. Colored men, too, discussed and read papers and enjoyed
all the honors and privileges of the body. John C. Dancy is the first colored layman to read a paper in said body.
The greatest race ever run in this country was that from New York to Louisiana between Governor P. P. S. Pinchback
and Governor Warmoth. Pinchback was purposely delayed on the way, and Warmoth was enabled to catch him before he
reached the State. He started 24 hours ahead of his wily antagonist, but was beaten by the railroads conniving
with Warmoth to delay him. Had he won that race he would have saved Louisiana to the Republicans by signing an
important document by virtue of his authority as Governor, the real Governor Warmoth being out of the State and
The African Methodist Episcopal (Bethel) church has been superintended by the following named Bishops: Richard
Allen, Morris Brown, Edward Waters, Wm. Paul Quinn, Willis Nazrey, Daniel A. Payne, A. W. Wayman, J.P. Campbell,
Jas. Alexander Shorter, Thos. M.D. Ward, John M. Brown, Henry McNeal Turner, Wm. F. Dickerson, Richard Harvey Cain,
Richard Randolph Disney, John Wesley Gaines, Benjamin Wm. Arnett, Benj. Tucker Tanner, Abram Grant, B.F. Lee, M.B.
Salters and J.A. Handy. The youngest elected was Wm. F. Dickerson, who was elected at the age of 38.
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion church has been superintended since its organization by the following named
Bishops: James Varick Christopher Rush, Wm. Miller, G.A. Spywood, S.T. Scott, Geo. Galbraith, J.W. Loguen, John
Tapin, J.D. Brooks, W.H. Bishop, James Simmons, J.J. Clinton, S.D. Talbot, John Jamison Moore, Singleton T. Jones,
James W. Hood, J.P. Thompson, Thos. H. Lomax, W.H. Hillery, C.C. Pettey, Cicero R. Harris, Alexander Walters and
Isham C. Clinton. The youngest elected was Rev. Alexander Walters, who was 34 when ordained.
The race has furnished two Collectors of Internal Revenue, one in Mississippi, Jas. H. Hill, and one in Alabama,
James E. Rapier. It has had two Naval Officers--both at the Port of New Orleans, namely, Governor P.P.S. Pinchback
and the present incumbent, Mr. J.T. Patty. It has five Collectors of Customs, namely, N.W. Cuney, at Galveston,
Texas; Joseph E. Lee, Jacksonville, Fla.; J.H. Devaux, Savannah, Ga.; Gen. Robert Smalls, Beaufort, S.C., and John
C. Dancy, Wilmington, N.C. Of positions at Washington, Hon. Frederick Douglass was Marshal of the District of Columbia
and Recorder of Deeds; Hon. B. K. Bruce was Register of the Treasury and is Recorder of Deeds; Hon John R. Lynch
is Fourth Auditor of the Treasury; William H. Smith was for years Assistant Librarian of Congress: James M. Townsend
was Commissioner of the Land Office, and was succeeded by Mr. Roberts; Robert H. Terrell is First Assistant to
the Fourth Auditor. "We are rising."
The leading institutions of learning for the education of the colored race are: Howard University, Washington,
D.C.; Livingstone College, Salisbury, N.C.; Lincoln University, Chester Co., Pa.; Shaw University, Raleigh, N.C.;
Biddle University, Charlotte, N.C.; Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga.; Clark University, Atlanta, Ga.; Fisk University,
Nashville, Tenn.; Wilberforce University, Xenia, Ohio; Bennett College, Greensboro, N.C.; Allen University, Columbia,
S.C.; Brainerd Institute, Orangeburg, S.C.; The Petersburg State Industrial and Collegiate Institute, Petersburg,
Va.; Wayland Seminary, Washington, D.C.; Jones University, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; St. Augustine Normal and Collegiate
Institute, Raleigh, N.C.; Kittrell's Normal and Industrial School, Kittrells, N.C.; Payne Institute Augusta, Ga.;
Hampton Normal and Industrial School, Hampton, Virginia; Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School, Tuskegee, Alabama;
Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn.; Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tenn.; The Laney High School, Augusta,
Ga., and Scotia Seminary, Concord, N.C. Colored students are also received at such well known institutions as Harvard,
Yale, Princeton, Amherst, Oberlin, Cornell, Columbian College and Wesleyan University.
Richard T. Greener, Charles H. Moore, R.H. Terrell,-- DuBois, W.H. Lewis, Garnett Morgan, Inman E. Page, Rev. B.F.
Wheeler, Rev. G.L. Blackwell and Mrs. Anna J. Cooper and others, received special training at these latter institutions.
Dr. Alexander Crummell graduated from Cambridge, England, and was a friend and classmate of the distinguished prelate