New Madrid Earthquakes
Picture and story courtesy of USGS
Shortly after 2 o'clock on the morning of December 16, 1811, the Mississippi River valley was convulsed by an earthquake
so severe that it awakened people in cities as distant at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Norfolk, Virginia. This
shock inaugurated what must have been the most frightening sequence of earthquakes ever to occur in the United
States. Intermittent strong shaking continued through March 1812 and aftershocks strong enough to be felt occurred
through the year 1817. The initial earthquake of December 16 was followed by two other principal shocks, one on
January 23, 1812, and the other on February 7, 1812. Judging from newspaper accounts of damage to buildings, the
February 7 earthquake was the biggest of the three.
Landslide trench and ridge in the Chickasaw bluffs, east of Reelfoot Lake, resulting
from the New Madrid Earthquake. Obion County, Tennessee.
Some of the most dramatic effects of the earthquakes occurred along rivers. Entire islands disappeared, banks caved
into the rivers, and fissures opened and closed in the river beds. Water spouting from these fissures produced
large waves in the river. New sections of river channel were formed and old channels cut off. Many boats were capsized
and an unknown number of people were drowned. There are some graphic eyewitness descriptions in contemporary newspapers
made by the boatmen caught on the Mississippi River near Little Prairie, not far from the present-day town of Caruthersville,
[Picture courtesy of USGS]
In the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys the earthquakes did much
more than merely awaken sleepers. The scene was one of devastation in an area which is now the southeast part of
Missouri, the northeast part of Arkansas, the southwest part of Kentucky, and the northwest part of Tennessee.
Reelfoot Lake, in the northwest corner of Tennessee, stands today as evidence of the might of these great earthquakes.
Stumps of trees killed by the sudden submergence of the ground can still be seen in Reelfoot Lake.
Uplift of over 3 meters was reported at one locality several hundred kilometers to
the southwest of the epicentral zone where a lake formed by the St. Francis River had its water replaced by sand.
Numerous dead fish were found in the former lake bottom. Large fissures, so wide that they could not be crossed
on horseback, were formed in the soft alluvial ground. The earthquake made previously rich prairie land unfit for
farming because of deep fissures, land subsidence which converted good fields to swamps, and numerous sand blows
which covered the ground with sand and mud. The heavy damage inflicted on the land by these earthquakes led Congress
to pass in 1815 the first disaster relief act providing the landowners of ravaged ground with an equal amount of
land in unaffected regions.
Trees tilted by New Madrid earthquake, Chickasaw bluffs east side of Reelfoot Lake. Note twist of
trees into upright position.
[Picture courtesy of USGS]
Graphic courtesy of USGS
1811, December 16, 08:15 UTC. Northeast Arkansas - Magnitude ~8.1
The Mississippi River valley earthquakes of 1811-1812 rank as some of the largest in the United States since its
settlement by Europeans. The area of strong shaking associated with these shocks is two to three times larger than
that of the 1964 Alaska earthquake and 10 times larger than that of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
The first and second earthquakes occurred in Arkansas (December 16, 1811 - two shocks) and the third and fourth
in Missouri (January 23, 1812; and February 7, 1812).
The first earthquake caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mainly because of the sparse population
in the epicentral area. The extent of the area that experienced damaging earth motion is estimated to be 600,000
square kilometers. However, shaking strong enough to alarm the general population occurred over an area of 2.5
million square kilometers.
At the onset of the earthquake, the ground rose and fell - bending the trees until their branches intertwined and
opening deep cracks in the ground. Landslides swept down the steeper bluffs and hillslides; large areas of land
were uplifted; and still larger areas sank and were covered with water that emerged through fissures or craterlets.
Huge waves on the Mississippi River overwhelmed many boats and washed others high on the shore. High banks caved
and collapsed into the river; sand bars and points of islands gave way; whole islands disappeared. Surface rupturing
did not occur, however. The region most seriously affected was characterized by raised or sunken lands, fissures,
sinks, sand blows, and large landslides that covered an area of 78,000 - 129,000 square kilometers, extending from
Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowleys Ridge to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee.
Although the motion during the first shock was violent at New Madrid, Missouri, it was not as heavy and destructive
as that caused by two aftershocks about 6 hours later. Only one life was lost in falling buildings at New Madrid,
but chimneys were toppled and log cabins were thrown down as far distant as Cincinnati, Ohio; St. Louis, Missouri;
and in many places in Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee.
Large waves were generated on the Mississippi River by fissures opening and closing below the surface. Local uplifts
of the ground and water waves moving upstream gave the illusion that the river was flowing upstream. Ponds of water
also were agitated noticeably.
It was reported that more than 200 moderate to large earthquakes occurred on the New Madrid fault between December
16, 1811, and March 15, 1812
1811, December 16, 14:15 UTC, Northeast Arkansas
On the basis of the effects reported at the same locations, the intensity of this earthquake has been inferred
to be similar to that of the earlier shock at 08:15.
1812, January 23, 15:00 UTC, New Madrid, Missouri
This is the third principal shock of the 1811-1812 sequence. The first earthquake of this series on December 16,
1811, was located in northeast Arkansas. It is difficult to assign intensities to the principal shocks that occurred
after 1811 because many of the published accounts describe the cumulative effects of all the earthquakes. Using
the December 16 earthquake as a standard, however, a comparison between it and the shock on January 23 indicates
that the intensities were about equal at similar locations. The meizoseismal area was characterized by general
ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks.
1812, February 7, 09:45 UTC, New Madrid, Missouri
This is the fourth earthquake of the 1811-1812 series. Several destructive shocks occurred on February 7, the last
of which equaled or surpassed the magnitude of any previous event. The town of New Madrid was destroyed. At St.
Louis, many houses were damaged severely and their chimneys were thrown down. The meizoseismal area was characterized
by general ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks.
Newspaper Accounts of the Earthquakes
16th of December, 1811
At New Madrid, (Louisiana Territory) the shocks have been uncommonly violent – throwing down chimnies and houses,
and compelling one-third of the inhabitants to remove from the place to the adjacent hills, and the remainder to
encamp in tents in open fields. The earth was so convulsed, as to tender it difficult for one to keep their perpendicular
position, the motion being estimated at about 12 inches, to and fro. The shocks were accompanied with a partial
darkness, a tremendous noise and sulphureous smell.
Sixty-seven shocks have been witnessed, in all, which have split and cracked the earth in an hundred places in
the neighborhood. During the violent shocks, the people, their yells and shrieks, discovering their extreme alarm,
and upon one of those occasions, a lady was known to fait and never recover!
The face of the country below, about Little Prairie, has almost entirely changed; large lakes having been converted
into dry land, and fields into lakes – the banks of the river fallen in – mills destroyed, and the earth cracked
in every direction. The St. Francis was, at one time very low – at another overflowing the surrounding country.
At Little Prairie, the Mississippi is said to have formed an eddy and resented a rerregade motion, and in 15 or
20 minutes afterwards resumed its course, and rose about 5 feet.
SEVEN Indians are said to have been swallowed up in one of those apertures in the earth, one of whom only made
his escape, who states, that this calamity was foretold by the Shawanne Prophet, for the destruction of the whites.
– Lexington Statesman. [Taken From the Centinel, Gettysburg, PA, February 12, 1812; contributed by Nancy Piper]
Ashville, N.C., December 19
To the Editors of the Raleigh Star.
Gentlemen, - I take the liberty to transmit the following account of an earthquake, which happened on the night
between the 15th and 16th instant. For several nights previous, the Aurora Borealis brilliantly illuminated the
the sky with its trembling coruscations; the late appearance of a splendid comet, and the blondlike colour of the
sun for several days, had alarmed a great many superstitious people. They taled of war, and when the news of governor
Harrison’s dear bought victory arrived, it brought to their recollection all those appearances, which are still
believed (as these are now) to have been the awful precuriers of that bloody war, by which we gained our independence.
On Monday morning, about one o’clock, the inhabitants of this place were routed from their peaceful slumbers by
a dreadful sound. Some waggoners, who were up at the time it began, said it resembled, but was louder, than if
100 waggons were driven at full speed down the mountain. This gave us a considerable alarm: The timid took to prayer,
expecting every moment (as they lay) to hear the sound of the last trumpet. The more courageous ventured to open
their doors, to discover what occasioned the noise. – A sudden trembling of the earth caused fresh terror and alarm,
from which we had not time to recover, when we felt a violent shock, which lasted about three minutes, and was
attended with a hollow rumbling noise, and ended with a dreadful crash, leaving behind a strong sulphurous stench.
For the remainder of the night all was still and calm, but was spent by us in trembling anxiety. When the wished
for morning came we were happy to find no lives were lost; but while some of us were in the street, congratulating
each other on our happy escape we were again alarmed by a much louder noise than we had heard before. It was quickly
followed by a more violent shock, which gave the earth an undulating motion, resembling the waves of the sea. Two
of those who were standing with me were thrown off their feet, the rest of us with difficulty kept from falling,
while two or three cows that were near us were unable to stand, and testified their fears by their loud bellowing,
which with the cries of the women and children, and the terror that was depicted in the countenances of the men,
presented a scene of horror I am unable to describe.
It is somewhat strange that its effects were more violent in the valley than on the mountains; a graveyard in a
valley near this place had several vats displaced – the edges of some were raised three feet above their former
level, others were moved partly round, and let in a zigzag manner. It would far exceed the bounds of this letter
to describe all the phenomenon produced by this awful convulsion of nature; rock moved, hills shook, houses shattered,
A wonderful change has taken place in the manners of the people. I believe so many fervent prayers never were put
up in this place as on that fearful night and morning. I hope what has been done may product a revival in religion.
I have just seen a gentleman from Knoxville, who passed Sunday night with Mr. Nelson at the warm springs: from
his account, his situation was more terrifying than ours. For several hours previous to the shock, the most tremendous
noise was heard from the neighbouring mountains. At intervals it was quiet, but would begin with so much violence,
that each repetition was believes to be the last groan of expiring nature. The shock at that place did but little
damage, except to a few huts that were built near the springs for the accommodation of invalids. The fulminating
of the mountains was accompanied with flashes of fire seen issuing from their sides. Each flash ended with a snap,
or crack, like that which is heard on discharging an electric battery but so times as loud. This induced him to
believe the Earthquake was caused by the electric fluid.
In the morning it was observed that a large stream of warm warm (temperature by Feh. 142 degree) issued from a
fissure in a rock, on the side of the mountain, which had been opened the preceding night. While they wre examining
it, another shock was felt, which lasted two minutes. Although a perfect calm, the tops of the trees appeared to
be greatly agitated, the earth shook violently, and the water of the warm springs, at that time overflowed by French
Broad River, was thrown up several times to the height of thirty or forty feet.
Several masies of stone were loosed from their ancient beds, and precipitated from the summits and sides of the
mountains. One in particular, well known to Western travelers by the name of the Painted Rock, was torn from its
base, and fell across the road that leads from hence to Knoxville’ it has completely blocked up the passage for
wagons. A great many people, who were moving westerly, are to a pitiable situation at this inclement season, being
unable to proceed until a new road is made round the rock, (no easy task). In this they are cheerfully assisted
by the neighbors.
I have been for three months in these dreary regions, examining a mine of Cobalt. The ore is rich. It abounds with
Arsenick. In May we intend to calcine the ore and prepare it for exportation, or perhaps manufacture it into Smak.
The mine is within a few miles of Mackeysville. [contributed by Nancy
Extract of a letter to the Editors of the Baltimore Federal Republican, dated West River, Jan. 23
This morning at about 9 o’clock a friend of mine captain Franklin, Miss Webster and myself had just sat down to
breakfast, when Capt. F. observed "What’s that! An Earthquake!" at the same instant, we felt as if we
were in the cabin of a vessel, during a heavy swell. This sensation continued from one to two minutes, possibly
longer, - For although I had the presence of mind to take out my watch, I felt too sick to observe accurately its
duration. The feeling was by no means tremulous, but a steady vibration. A portrait about four feet in length,
suspended from the ceiling by a hook and staple, and about five eights of an inch from the side wall, vibrated
at least from eighteen inches to 2 feet each side, and so very steady, as not to touch the wall.
My next neighbour and his daughter felt the same sensation about the same time. The latter supposed it a gout in
his dead. The daughter got up and walked to a window, supposing the heat of the fire had caused what she considered
a faintness. Two others that I have seen, mentioned to have felt the same, but none of them had thought of an earthquake.
The two last being mechanics and up late, mentioned that they were much alarmed about 11 o’clock last night, by
a great rumbling, as they thought, in the earth, attended with several flashes of lightening, which so lightened
their house that they could have picked up the smallest pin – one mentioned that the rumbling and light was accompanied
by a noise like that produced by throwing a hot iron into snow, only very loud and terrific, so much so, that he
that he was fearful to go out to look what it was, for he never once thought of an earthquake.
I have thrown together the above particulars, supposing an extract may meet with corroborating accounts, and afford
some satisfaction to your readers.
P.S. – The lightening and rumbling noise came from the fourth. I have just heard of its being felt in several other
houses, but not any particulars more than related. [contributed by
Chillicothe, Feb. 1
On Monday last another slight trembling of the earth was felt at this place. These frequent concussions have caused
very considerable alarm in the town and neighbourhoods; and are considered, by many, to forebode some awful calamity.
The shock which was severely felt here, on the 23rd ult., has, we believe, been as extensively felt as those on
the 16th and 17th of December. At Marietta and Washington (Ky.) it was accompanied by a rumbling noise. The Courier,
printed at Louisville, (Ky) states, that several chimnies were broken off, the clocks stopped, glasses thrown off
the tables, and it is said, by some, that fissures, in the ground, several yards long, and an inch and an half
wide, were discovered in the street, near the market house. [contributed
by Nancy Piper]
The New Madrid Earthquake, 1811
From the "Annals of St. Louis: and a Brief Account of its Foundation
and Progress, 1764-1928", ©1930
"I was present at the earthquake which lately occurred above and below the mouth of the River Ohio on both
sides of the river. We set out from St. Louis November 8th. It was chilly. I do not remember that there were clouds
in the sky. After supper, we went to sleep. I was awakened by a crash like thunder, and the boat turned on its
side so that the man who slept by me was thrown on me and both of us fell against the side of the boat. It was
very dark, about three o'clock in the morning. When I could see, the trees on the shore were falling down and great
masses of earth tumbling into the river. Lamel cut the rope that tied us to a log that was there, and in a moment
so great a wave came up the river that it carried us back north upstream for more than a mile and the water spread
out on the banks three or four miles inland. Everywhere was a noise like thunder. The ground was shaking. The air
was thick, as though it were full of smoke. There was much lightning. We thought we should die. The priest gave
us absolution. One of the other boats was never seen again. There were two shocks, about half an hour apart, and
many small ones between. The water rose so high that a tree on the bank, whose top must have been thirty feet above
the water, was covered all over. There was much rumbling that frightened us. The sound was in the ground, muffled
and groaning, and sometimes there were cracks like thunder, as though great sheets of ice had been broken. We saw
dead bodies floating down the river." [contributed by K. T.]