Genealogy Trails

Revolutionary War

Commander-in-Chief Guards
List of known Guards of George Washington

Transcribed by J. Farnsworth
line


Name

Grade

Born-Died

Service

Regiment

NOTES

Adams, Asa Private 1757 - 1828 1778 - 1780 2nd Connecticut Regt.  
Albin, George Private 1758 - 1840 1777 - 1778 8th Virginia Regt.  
Allen, Thomas Private   1777 - 1780 15th Virginia Regt.  
Alling, Richard Private   1779 - 1780 Apptd to Guards Deserted 1780
Ames, Stephen Private 1762 - 1825 1783 - 1780 2nd New Hampshire Regt  
Arnold, John Sgt.   1777 - 1783 5th Pennsylvania Regt  
Ashby, David Private   1777 - 1777 Virginia Continental Line  
Bailey, Samuel Private 1756-1815 1780 - 1783 2nd New Jersey Regt.  
Baker, Amos Private 1764-1806 1783 - 1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Baker, Andrew Private 1756-1781 1778 - 1781 2nd CT Regt Killed in Action
Barham, Benjamin Private 1754-1822 1777 - 1778 4th Virginia Regt.  
Barnes, John Private   1776-1776   Arrested for treason in New York, Jailed, no details
Barton, John Private 1759-1795 1779 - 1783 14th Massachusetts Regt.  
Batchelder, William Pvt 1765-1840 1783-1793 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Bell, John Private   1777-1779 Virginia Continental Line  
Benjamin, Asa Private 1753-1825 1777-1779 9th Massachusetts Regt.  
Bennett, Rufus Private 1758-1842 ----   Penn. Pension Records
Berry, John Private 1757-1823 1778-1778 3d Penn. Deserted June 1778.
Berry, Nathaniel Private 1755-1850 1778-1780 14th Massachusetts  
Blair, James Private 1763-1783 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Blair, Robert Private 1762-1841 1778-1783 2nd New Jersey Regt.  
Blair, Thomas Private 1757-1833 1778-1779 8th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Bliss, Samuel Sgt.   1780-1780   No details,deserted June 7, 1780
Blundin, John Private 1747-1829 1776-1779 26th Massachusetts Regt.  
Bodine, John Private 1744-1822 1782-1783 12th Virginia Regt.  
Bonnel, Benjamin Private   1782-1783 1st New Jersey Regt.  
Bourn, Mills Private   1777-1780 Virginia Continental Line  
Boyd, William Private 1754-1828 1778-1779 1st Co. Maryland Rifles.  
Brackett, Nathaniel Pvt. ? 1777-1777   Enlisted into Guards - no details
Bradley, James Private ? 1778-1779 1st No. Carolina Regt.  
Brooks, James Private 1758-1832 1778-1780 2nd Connecticut Regt.  
Brown, Davis Sgt. 1756- ? 1778-1783 2nd Rhode Island Regt.  
Brown, Ebenezer Private 1751-1847 1778-1780 5th Connecticut Regt.  
Brown, Elias Fifer 1758-1843 1778-1783 5th Connecticut Regt.  
Brown, Jedediah Private 1754-1827 1780-1783 4th Conn. Regt, wounded Yorktown
Brown, Moses Private   1778-1778   No details
Brown, Zacharia Private   1778-1778   No details
Bullard, ____ Private   1783-1783 New Hampshire Line  
Bush, John Private 1756 - ? 1779-1783 Massachusetts Line  
Campbell, Lewis Private   1778-1784 4th New Jersey wounded Kings Brdg
Carleton, Ebenezer Pvt 1754-1836 1778-1783 3rd New Hampshire Regt.  
Carleton, Timothy Pvt 1753-1825 1778-1780 15th Massachusetts Regt.  
Caswell, Michael Pvt   1777-1779 3rd Reg. Cont Dragoon & 7th Mass Regt.  
Chapin, Oliver Pvt 1759-1811 1776-1779 5th Massachusetts Regt.  
Chapman, Nathaniel Pvt 1759-1819 1777-1780 23rd Massachusetts Regt.  
Chenoweth, Jonathan Pvt 1757-1834 1777-1777 VA Continental Line  
Chinn, Ralph Pvt 1754-1828 1777-1782 5th VA Regt. wounded  
Church, Benjamin Pvt   1776-1777 12th Massachusetts Regt.  
Clements, ____ Sgt.   1776-1776   Court Martialed, neglect of Duty - Rejoined Regiment
Coffin, John Pvt 1757- ? 1777-1779 12th Massachusetts Regt.  
Coffin, Lemuel Pvt 1755- ? 1776-1779 17th Mass. Reg & 3d Continental Dragoons  
Cole, John Pvt 1752-1820 1778-1783 Col. Samuel Drake's Regt., NY Militia  
Cole, Martin Sgt. 1758-1825 1777-1783 1st No. Carolina Regt.  
Colfax, William Lieut. 1756-1839 1778-1815 1st CT Regt. served 40 yrs. In the Army
Condel, William Pvt. ? 1778-1780 10th Massachusetts Regt.  
Connor, ____ Pvt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Cont. Line  
Cook, Daniel Pvt. 1757-1831 1778-1779 2nd N.H. Reg. Deserted July, 14, 1779.
Cooper, Wilmer Pvt. ? 1777-1779 15th Virginia Regt.  
Coram, William Sgt. ? 1777-1783 Virginia Continental Line.  
Coston, Ebenezer Pvt. 1765-1812 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Craig, James Pvt. ? 1780-1782 5th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Craig, Samuel Pvt. ? 1780-1782 5th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Crosby, Ebenezer Surgeon 1753-1788 1779-1781 Cambridge Army Hospital, Mass.  
Crosby, Joel Pvt. 1763-1833 1781-1783 6th Massachusetts Regt.  
Crumbie, Aaron Pvt. 1753-1818 1776-1783 7th Massachusetts Regt.  
Cull, Hugh Pvt. ? 1780-1783 6th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Cunningham, Nath'l Sgt. 1754-1832 1778-1779 1st Virginia Regt.  
Currier, Abraham Pvt. 1764-1825 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Cutter, Moses Corp. 1760-1816 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Dady, James Pvt. ? 1777-1783 4th Connecticut Regt.  
Daley, Solomon Pvt 1754- ? 1778-1783 2nd R.I. Regt Wounded at Kings Bridge.
Darrah, William Pvt. ? 1776-1781 Col. Timothy Bedel's New Hampshire Rangers  
Davenport, Isaac Pvt. 1756- ? 1777-1778 36th Mass. Regt. Killed in action at Tappan.
Davis, Joseph Pvt. 1763-1820 1783-1783 2nd N.H. Reg. Deserted Oct. 22 1783
Daws, John Pvt. ? 1777-1779 14th Virginia Regt.  
Day, William Pvt. ? 1777-1777 VA. Continental Line  
Dean, Levi Pvt. ? 1778-1783 1st Connecticut Regt.  
Delano, Joseph Pvt. 1755-1781 1778-1780 2nd Massachusetts Regt.  
Dent, John Corp. 1757-1808 1779-1783 3rd Maryland Regt Lost eye at King's Bridge.
Desperate, Henry Pvt. ? 1778-1781 6th Penn. Regt. Deserted on March 22, 1782.
Disclow, Philip Pvt. ? ? 1777- ? 3d Regt. Continental Dragoons
Dodge, Antipas Pvt. 1760- ? 1778-1780 6th MA Regt. Deserted on Feb. 8th, 1780.
Dougherty, Charles Pvt. ? ? 1783-1783 1st New Jersey Regt.
Dougherty, George Pvt. ? ? 1778-1780 9th Pennsylvania Regt.
Dougherty, James Pvt. 1759-1849 1778-1783 12th Penn. Regt. Deserted Feb 1, 1783.
Dowther, John Pvt. ? ? 1778-1783 1st Pennsylvania Regt.
Drake, Cornelius Sgt. ? ? 1778-1778 2nd No. Carolina Regt.
Driskel, Jeremiah Pvt. ? ? 1779-1783 4th Massachusetts Regt.
Druce, John Pvt. ? ? 1777-1777 3rd Reg. Cont. Dragoons.
Dunn, William Pvt. ? ? 1777-1779 3rd Reg. Cont. Dragoons.
Dunton, Levi Pvt. 1756-1827 1778-1779 15th Mass. Regt. Deserted on July 4, 1779.
Dyer, Daniel Pvt. ? 1778-1780 31st Massachusetts Regt.  
Eakin, Robert Pvt. ? 1780-1782 6th Penn. Regt. Deserted on Feb 10, 1782
Eastman, Henry Pvt. ? 1783-1783 3rd New Hampshire Regt.  
Eaton, _____ Pvt ? 1783-1783 N.H. Cont. Line.  
Eaton, Benjamin Pvt. 1758-1843 1780-1783 4th New Jersey Regt. also War of 1812.
Eddy, Ephraim Corp. 1759-1841 1778-1782 14th Massachusetts Regt.  
Edge, John Pvt. 1753-1830 1777-1780 10th Virginia Regt.  
Edwards, Bildad Sgt. ? 1778-1780 1st Connecticut Regt.  
Elder, Clayborne Pvt. ? 1777-1777 6th Virginia Regt.  
Emery, David Pvt. 1754-1830 1778-1780 16th Massachusetts Regt.  
English, John Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Continental Line.  
Erwin, Jacob Pvt. ? 1778-1781 9th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Everett, Eliphalet Pvt. 1757-1815 1778-1780 7th Connecticut Regt.  
Fairbanks, Laban Pvt. 1755-1799 1778-1780 2nd Massachusetts Regt.  
Farmer, George Pvt. 1761-1793 1778-1781 4th New Jersey Regt.  
Fenton, John Drummer 1752-1839 1781-1782 2nd New Jersey Regt.  
Ferguson, William Pvt. 1762-1826 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Finch, John Pvt. ? 1782-1783 Penn. Cont'l Line.  
Finley, Robert Pvt. ? 1780-1783 2nd Penn. Regt.  
Fischer, George Pvt. 1758-1820 1782-1783 3rd Penn. Regt.  
Fisher, Elijah Pvt. 1758-1842 1778-1780 4th Mass. Regt. (Kept a Diary on the Guards)
Flemister, Lewis Sgt. 1748-1803 1777-1783 7th Virginia Regt.  
Forbes, Joshua Corp. ? 1778-1779 7th No. Carolina Regt.  
Forrest, Thomas Pvt. ? 1783-1783 4th Regt Continental Artill'y  
Foutz, Adam Pvt. ? 1782-1783 2nd Pennsylvania Regt.  
Frazier, James Sgt. ? 1778-1783 3rd Pennsylvania Regt.  
Frink, Theophilus Drummer ? ? 1780-1782 1st CT Regt. Deserted May 20, 1782
Gardner*, Carswell Sgt. 1755-1840 1776-1779 21st Massachusetts Regt.  
Garrett, William Pvt. ? 1777-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons  
Gavet, Charles Pvt. ? 1778-1779 3rd Regt. Cont. Dragoons  
Gibbs, Caleb Major 1748-1818 1776-1781 23rd Mass. Regt. Wounded at Yorktown
Gilbert, William Pvt. ? 1778-1780 2nd Massachusetts Regt.  
Gill, William Pvt. 1761-1816 1777-1781 4th Virginia Regt.  
Gillen, Thomas Pvt. 1757-1831 1780-1783 5th Maryland Regt.  
Goodrich, Jared Fifer 1760-1833 1779-1783 4th Virginia Regt.  
Gordon,, James Pvt. 1752-1844 1783-1784 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Green, William Drummer ? 1776-1776 26th Mass. Regt Courtmartialed, Treason 12/7/1776.
Griffin, Edmund Pvt. ? 1778-1779 1st No. Carolina Regt.  
Griffith, John Pvt. ? 1778-1779 1st No. Carolina Regt.  
Grimes, Benjamin Lieut. 1756-1803 1778-1779 Virginia Continental Line.  
Hagerty, Hugh Pvt. ? 1778-1779 Penn. Continental Line.  
Hall, Silvanus Pvt. 1759-1828 1777-1780 14th Massachusetts Regt.  
Hancock, Elihu Corp. ___ -1818 1778-1783 1st Connecticut Regt.  
Hanson, Samuel Surgeon 1756-1781 1778-1779   Son of John Hanson, Pres. Of Congress
Harmon, Thomas Pvt. 1762-1834 1778-1779 12th Massachusetts Regt.  
Harris, Thomas Sgt. 1759-1802 1778-1780 4th Connecticut Regt.  
Harris, Thomas Pvt. ? 1776-1777 38th Massachusetts Regt.  
Harris, William Pvt. 1754-1819 1778-1780 6th Massachusetts Regt.  
Harris, William Pvt. 1752-1848 1777-1780 10th Virginia Regt.  
Harrison, Andrew Pvt. ? 1778-1779 2nd Virginia Regt.  
Hendee, Caleb Pvt. 1756-1839 1776-1779 20th Massachusetts Regt.  
Henussey, William Pvt. ___? -1798 1782-1783 1st Pennsylvania Regt.  
Herrick, John Corp. ? 1778-1783 4th Mass. Regt. Court-martial - 6/28/1778 100 lashes.
Hersey, Daniel Pvt. 1754-1794 1777-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Drag'ns  
Hetfield, Stephen Pvt. 1759-1824 1780-1783 3rd New Jersey Regt.  
Hickey, Thomas Sgt. __ - 1776 1776-1776   Courtmartial - Treason, Hanged June 28, 1776.
Hill, Spencer Pvt. 1762-1852 1778-1781 VA Continental Line  
Hilton, Joseph Pvt. ? 1778-1781 2nd Pennsylvania Regt.  
Hincher, William Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Enlisted Directly into Guard.  
Holden, Levi Lieut. 1754-1823 1781-1783 6th Massachusetts Regt.  
Holland, Thomas Corp. ? 1777-1777 5th Virginia Regt.  
Holt, Daniel Sgt. 1744-1813 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Holt, Joel Corp. 1764-1848 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Holt, Peter Pvt. ? 1780-1783 Conn. Continental Line.  
Holt, Philip Pvt. ? 1777-1777 VA Cont. Line.  
Howe, Bezaleel Capt. 1755-1825 1779-1783 1st N.H. Regt. 2nd U.S. Infantry 1790  
Howell, Isaac Pvt. 1762-1833 1778-1780 5th Penn. Regt. Captured 1780 - escaped.
Howell, Thomas Pvt. ? 1777-1780 Virginia Continental Line.  
Hughes, James Pvt. ? 1780-1783 Penn. Continental Line.  
Hunter, William Sgt. ? 1780-1783 4th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Hurring, John Pvt. ? 1778-1778 1st Mass. Regt. Court-martial - Hanged
Huston, Samuel Pvt ? 1777-1777 3d Regt Cont. Dragoons.  
Hutchinson, ____ Pvt ? 1783-1783 N.H. Continental Line.  
Hymer, Daniel Pvt. ? 1778-1783 4th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Isbell, Pendleton Pvt. 1757-1829 1777-1780 1st VA Regt. Deserted February 1, 1780.
Ives, John Pvt. 1760-1808 1778-1780 5th Connecticut Regt.  
Jackson, Zachariah Pvt. ? 1778-1779 1st No. Carolina Regiment.  
Janet, Solomon Pvt. ? 1778-1779 2nd No. Carolina Regt.  
Johnson, Asa Pvt. ? 1777-1779 2nd R.I. Reg. Deserted December 1, 1779.
Johnson, James Pvt. ? 1777-1779 Virginia Cont. Line.  
Johnson, James Fifer ? 1776-1776   Courtmartialed - Jailed.
Johnson, Levi Pvt. ? 1777-1780 3d New Jersey Regt.  
Jones, Ephraim Pvt. 1760 - ____ 1778-1781 1st Massachusetts Regt.  
Jones, John Sgt. ? 1777-1779 Virginia Cont. Line.  
Jones, Joseph Pvt. ? 1778-1779 11th Massachusetts Regt.  
Jones, William Pvt. ? 1777-1782 VA Cont. Line Discharge, Philadelphia Hospital.
Justice, John Sgt. ? 1780-1781 10th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Kenney, John Pvt. ___ -1820 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Kernahan, William Pvt. 1750-1820 1777-1783 1st Pennsylvania Regt.  
Kidder, Isaac Pvt. 1752-1825 1777-1779 13th Massachusetts Regt.  
Kidder, John Pvt. 1752- ___? 1778-1779 13th Mass. Regt. Deserted September 16, 1779.
King, Charles Sgt. 1756-1832 1776-1779 6th Massachusetts Regt.  
King, John Pvt. 1758-1817 1776-1780 14th Virginia Regt.  
Knox, James Pvt. 1755-1839 1776-1779 Maj. Gen. Artemus Ward's Guard  
Landon, Laban Pvt. 1759-1828 1778-1783 2nd New Jersey Regt.  
Lane, Garland Pvt. 1764- ___? 1781-1781 VA Cont. Line GA soldier in RW 1808
Langley, Jasper Pvt. ? 1778-1780 3rd New Jersey Regt.  
Law, Joseph Corp. 1752-1835 1778-1780 8th Connecticut Regt.  
Lawell, Abraham Pvt. ? 1777-1777 3d Reg. Cont. Dragoons.  
Lawrence, Elijah Pvt. 1763-1809 1782-1783 Col. Seth Warner's Vermont Regt. a Prisoner 2 years.
Layard, John Pvt. ? 1777-1779 3rd Regt. Cont. Dragoons.  
Leary, John Pvt. 1754 -- ___ 1776-1778 5th Massachusetts Regt.  
Lester, Benjamin Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Cont. Line.  
Leverich, Samuel Pvt. ? 1777-1779 3rd Reg. Cont. Dragoons.  
Lewis, George Lieut. 1757-1821 1776-1783   Geo. Washington's nephew.
Linton, Hezekiah Pvt. ? 1778-1781 2nd No. Carolina Regt.  
Linton, Jesse Pvt. ? 1778-1779 2nd No. Carolina Regt.  
Livingston, Henry Capt. 1760-1804 1777-1779   Enlisted Directly in the Guard
Logan, William Pvt. ? 1777-1778 Virginia Continental Line.  
Lothrop, Simeon Pvt. 1760-1808 -1779-1782 13th Mass. Reg. Deserted 5/7/79 - rejoined.
Lovejoy, John Pvt. 1743-1778 1778-1778 11th Mass. Regt. Killed by horse, Oct 17, 1778.
Lovell, Seth Pvt. ? 1778-1780 4th Massachusetts Regt.  
Low, Jeremiah Pvt. ? 1777-1778 3rd Regt. Cont. Dragoons, Killed at Monm____.
Lucas, Ephraim Pvt. ? 1776-1777 18th Massachusetts Regt.  
Lynch, Michael Pvt. ? 1776-1776   Courtmartialed - Jailed.
Macomber, Zenas Pvt 1754-1831 1776-1779 25th Mass. Wounded at Tappen  
Manning, Diah Fifer 1760-1815 1776-1783 19th Mass. Reg. Promoted to Drum Major
Manning, Roger Drummer 1758-1780 1778-1780 1st CT Regt. died shortly after discharge
Mapes, Phineas Pvt. ? 1778-1783 Col. Wm. Spencer's Regt.  
Martin, Peter Pvt. 1759-1820 1778-1780 11th Mass. Regt & 2nd Mass. To end of war  
Martin, William Pvt. 1760-1807 1779-1783 4th N.Jersey Regt. Neck Wound - King's Bridge
McCarthy, Thomas Pvt. ? 1777-1777 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
McCown, William Pvt. ? 1781-1782   Enlisted directly into the Guard.
McCulloch, Alexander Pvt. ? 1777-1777 3d Regt Continential Dragoons.  
McDonald, James Pvt ? 1781-1782 7th Maryland Regt. Deserted March 22, 1782
McIntire, William Sgt. 1753-1826 1777-1779 2nd Virginia Regiment.  
Milsom, James Pvt. 1758-1826 1780-1783 Col. Silas Newcomb's N.J. Regt.  
Mitchell, Reaps Sgt. ___ -1803 1778-1783 2nd virginia Regiment.  
Montgomery, John Pvt. 1756-1829 1777-1783 10th Pennsylvania Regt.  
Moor, Hezekiah Pvt. 1754 - ___? 1776-1776 Deserted June 17, 1776.  
Moore, Jonathan Pvt. 1754-1853 1777-1783 3d N. Jersey Reg.- son died at the Alamo
Moriarity, Dennis Pvt. ? 1780-1783 1st Pennsylvania Regt.  
Morrill, ____ Pvt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Continental Line.  
Morris, John Sgt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Continental Line.  
Morrison, David Pvt. 1763-1831 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Name not known Private 1764 - 1806 1783 - 1780 1st New Hampshire Regiment  
Nicholson, John Lieut. 1757-1836 1777-1778 1st Virginia Regt.  
Norris, ____ Pvt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Continental Line.  
Nott, Jesse Pvt. ? 1778-1778 1st N.H. Regt. died White Plains, July 15, 1778.
Odell, Rueben Pvt. ? 1778-1779 12th Virginia Regiment.  
Odiorne, Samuel Fifer 1758-1835 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
O'Neil, William Pvt. ? 1778-1779 Virginia Continental Line. Deserted May 3, 1779.
Pace, William Sgt. ? 1777-1783 14th Virginia Regt.  
Paddington, John Pvt. ? 1781-1782 14th Mass. Regt. Deserted July 13, 1782.
Palmer, William Pvt. ? 1777-1780 15th Virginia Regt.  
Parker, Joseph Pvt 1756-1821 1777-1779 11th VA Regt. (Col. Daniel Morgan's Riflemen)  
Parks, Frederick Fifer ___ -1818 1779-1783 4th Connecticut Regt.  
Patton, John Pvt. 1754-1841 1780-1783 1st Pennsylvania Regt.  
Pease, John Pvt. ? 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Perry, Henry Pvt. ? 1778-1780 Virginia Continental Line.  
Phillips, John Sgt. 1756-1833 1777-1778 2nd Massachusetts Regt.  
Pierce, Benjamin Pvt. 1762-1847 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Pillar, John Pvt. ? 1778-1779 Penn. Continental Line Deserted Nov 14, 1779
Pinkstone, Shadrack Pvt. 1750-1795 1777-1779 11th VA Regt. (Col. Daniel Morgan's Riflemen)  
Piper, Thomas Pvt. 1756-1787 1778-1780 3rd New Hampshire - Deserted Deserted April 1, 1780.
Pitcher, Abner Pvt. 1754-1832 1777-1778 1st Connecticut Regt.  
Pollock, Elijah Pvt. 1757-1824 1777-1782 4th Connecticut Regt.  
Pope, ____ Pvt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Continental Line.  
Potter, Nathaniel Pvt. ? 1777-1779 3rd. Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Prentiss, Thomas Sgt. 1755-1838 1776-1776 21st Massachusetts Regt.  
Preston, Robert Pvt. 1748-1827 1776-1780 2nd VA Regt. Captured. Paroled May 12, 1780.
Price, William Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Continental Line.  
Pritchett, Andrew Pvt. ? 1777-1777 5th Virginia Regt.  
Pullen, Henry Pvt. ? 1777-1781 5th Virginia Regt.  
Pushee, Nathan Pvt. 1758-1838 1777-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Putnam, John Pvt. 1763-1837 1781-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Randolf, Henry Corp. 1755-1825 1777-1778 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Raymond, Samuel Pvt. 1756-1823 1776-1779 21st Massachusetts Regt.  
Redington, Asa Corp. 1761-1845 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Reed, Daniel Pvt. ? 1778-1778   No details, listed as "sick-Absent"
Reeves, Samuel Pvt. 1753-1834 1778-1778 4th No. Carolina Regt.  
Reid, Samuel Pvt. 1756-1832 1776-1777 Gen. Henry Knox's Continental Artillery  
Reiley, William Pvt. ? 1778-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Reynolds, Samuel Pvt. ? 1777-1779 3rd Regt Continental Dragoons  
Rice, David Sgt. 1750-1810 1777-1778 Virginia Continental Line.  
Richards, Peter Sgt. ? 1776-1776 6th Mass. Regt. Court-martialed for Striking Major Gil_____?
Richmond, Zebulon Pvt. 1758-1832 1776-1777 Major Gen. Charles Lee's Guard.  
Ricker, Timothy Pvt. 1753-1820 1777-1779 2nd N.H. Regt. Deserted April 1, 1779
Roach, William Sgt. ? 1777-1781 3rd Virginia Regiment.  
Robinson, Dixon Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Continental Line.  
Rodamer, Christopher Pvt. 1750-1828 1777-1783 3rd Penn. Regt. Sabre Wound, Yorktown.
Rundlett, Jonathan Pvt 1763-1825 1783-1784 2nd New Hampshire Regiment.  
Sanborn, ____ Pvt. ? 1783-1783 New Hampshire Continental Line.  
Sanderson, Elnathan Pvt 1759-1831 1778-1780 8th New Hampshire Regiment.  
Sargent, Abel Pvt. 1767- ___ 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regiment.  
Savory, John Pvt. ? 1778-1780 8th Connecticut Regiment.  
Schriver, Jacob Pvt. ? 1778-1783 4th New York Regiment.  
Sherman, Samuel Pvt. 1756- ___ 1776-1779 12th Massachusetts Regiment.  
Sherwood, Micajah Pvt. ? 1778-1780 4th New York Regiment.  
Shipman, Joseph Pvt. 1757-1828 1778-1780 1st New Jersey Regiment.  
Shorey, John Pvt. 1755-1842 1778-1780 13th Massachusetts Regiment.  
Simmons, William Pvt. ? 1780-1781 11th Pennsylvania Regiment.  
Simpson, William Drummer 1764-1828 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regiment.  
Slocum, John Pvt. 1755-1828 1778-1783 2nd R.I. Regt. Shot at Conn. Farms.
Smith, Francis Pvt. ? 1780-1781 9th Pennsylvania Regiment.  
Smith, Jesse Pvt. 1756-1844 1776-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Smith, John Pvt. ? 1777-1779 Virginia Continental Line. Deserted 1779 (Sept 2nd?)
Smith, Luther Pvt. 1764-1846 1781-1815 1st N.H. Regt.- Bayonet Kings Bridge
Smith, Randolph Pvt. ? 1780-1783 2nd Rhode Island Regiment.  
Smith, Robinson Pvt. 1763-1828 1783-1784 2nd New Hampshire Regiment.  
Smith, Samuel Pvt. 1757-1853 1778-1783 1st New Hampshire Regiment.  
Smith, Timothy Pvt. 1758-1820 1777-1783 1st Conn. Regt Captured/Prisoner, Jersey
Snow, Henry Pvt. ___? -1779 1778-1779 1st New Hampshire - died PA 1/10/1779.
Sparks, Henry Corp. 1753-1836 1777-1780 6th Virginia Regiment.  
Standard, John Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Continental Line.  
Stockdell, John Pvt. ? 1777-1779 Virginia Continental Line.  
Stow, Simeon Pvt. ? 1777-1777 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Stratton, Nehemiah Sgt. 1759-1843 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regiment.  
Stripe, Joseph Pvt. ? 1777-1777 Virginia Continental Line.  
Sturm, John Sgt. ? 1777-1779 12th VA Reg. Deserted April 18, 1779
Sturtevant, Seth Corp. 1760-1852 1778-1780 9th Massachusetts Regiment.  
Summersett, Thomas Pvt. 1754-1834 1778-1778 Armand's Legion wounded at Monmouth.
Sutton, Michael Pvt. ? 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regiment.  
Talbot, Levi Corp. 1752-1820 1777-1778 2nd Virginia Regiment.  
Tanner, William Pvt. 1760-1793 1778-1783 2nd Rhode Island Regiment.  
Thompson, Daniel Pvt. 1754-1832 1777-1780 2nd New York Regiment.  
Thompson, Reuben Pvt. ? 1780-1783 2nd Rhode Island Regiment.  
Thurston, Ezekial Pvt. 1765-1809 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regiment.  
Timberlake, Joseph Sgt. 1752-1841 1777-1783 7th Virginia Regiment.  
Tipper, John Pvt. ? 1778-1778 4th North Carolina Regiment.  
Titcomb, Michael Pvt. 1750-1819 1777-1779 3rd Regt. Continental Dragoons.  
Townsend, Solomon Pvt. ? 1778-1781 10th Pennsylvania Regiment.  
Trask, John Pvt. 1759- ___ 1779-1780 Massachusetts Continental Line.  
Tubbs, Simon Pvt. 1756-1824 1778-1780 7th Connecticut Regiment  
Tullis, Michael Pvt. 1749-1832 1776-1776 Capt. Stephen's Berkeley Co. of VA Riflemen  
Van, Abraham Pvt. 1757-1831 1778-1780 12th Virginia Regiment.  
Vibbart, Jesse Pvt. 1759-1830 1780-1790 Col. Webb's Regt. Conn. Cont. Line.  
Vinal, Joseph Pvt. ? 1778-1783 10th Massachusetts Regiment  
Wadsworth, Robert Pvt. 1750- ____? 1777-1780 8th Virginia Regt. - his son killed in War of 1812
Wakelee, Henry Pvt. 1750-1829 1782-1783 Col. Warner's Vermont Regt. Captured - Paroled
Walton, Moses Pvt. 1747-1831 1778-1778 4th Mass. Regt. Courtmartialed - death sentence; escaped
Ward, Benjamin Pvt 1760 - ____ ? 1783-1783 1st New Hampshire Regt.  
Warner, Daniel Pvt. 1757-1822 1776-1777 6th Massachusetts Regt.  
Warrington, William Pvt. 1755-1851 1777-1778 9th Virginia Regiment.  
Washington, George A. Ensign 1763-1793 1777-1783 Virginia Regt. George Washington's nephew
Weed, Edward Pvt. ? 1781-1783 3rd Maryland Regt. Wounded at King's Bridge
Wells, Enock Corp. ? 1778-1783 3rd Pennsylvania Regt.  
Whelan, Edward Pvt. ? 1780-1782 11th Penn. Regt. Wounded at King's Bridge
Whitmarsh, Samuel Pvt. 1760-1854 1780-1780 Col. Henry Jackson's Regt, a Mass. Troop  
Wiley, Edward Pvt. ? 1778-1783 2nd New York Regiment.  
Williams, John Pvt. ? 1778-1778 4th Conn. Regt. Deserted Aug 17, 1778.  
Wilson, Cornelius ? ? 1782-1783   Enlisted directly into the Guard.
Wilson, John Sgt. 1755-1823 1776-1776 20th Massachusetts Regt.  
Winch, Joseph Pvt. ? 1783-1783 2nd New Hampshire Regt.  
Wood, Francis Sgt. ? 1776-1777 16th Massachusetts Regt.  
Wortman, Samuel Corp. ? 1777-1783 1st New Jersey Regt.  
Wyman, William Pvt. 1752-1809 1778-1780 15th Massachusetts Regt.  
Young, Frederick Sgt. ? 1777-1779 2nd Virginia Regiment.  


A Brief History of the Commander-in-Chief's Guards
by Donald N. Moran

With the fortification of Dorchester Heights on March 4th, 1776, the eleven month stalemate around the besieged City of Boston was at an end. General George Washington, commanding the American Army, knew that the British, under the command of Lieutenant General, Sir William Howe, had but two choices - risk another costly battle, probably with more casualties then he suffered during the attack on Breed's Hill (Bunker Hill), and possibly be driven out of Boston, or endure the humiliation of an evacuation. If Howe choose the later, with a force of 11,000 troops and 150 ships, he was certain to not abandon North America, but rather invade the Country elsewhere.

While Howe was considering his options, George Washington was planning for the campaign he knew was about to start. He had already sent Major General Charles Lee, his second in command, to raise troops to defend New York City, the likely target of Howe's next move. New York City controlled the Hudson, or North River, and that River was the key to the continent.

At the same time Washington realized that the entire complexion of the War was about to change. No longer would he be commanding an army maintaining a static siege line, but a mobile army, marching to meet the next British threat. With movement came additional dangers - there were a number of Tories spread over the countryside that were determined to assist the British and of course there was the British Army itself. Therefore, a surprise raid on his headquarters was a serious possibility. To counter that possibility Washington decided to form a personal guard.

On March 11th Washington issued the following orders:

"Head-Quarters, Cambridge March 11, 1776
The General is desirous of selecting a particular number of men as a guard for himself and baggage. The Colonel or Commanding Officer of each of the established regiments, the artillery and riflemen excepted, will furnish him with four, that the number of wanted may be chosen out of them. His Excellency depends upon the Colonels for good men, such as they can recommend for their sobriety, honesty and good behavior. He wishes them to be from five feet eight inches to five feet ten inches, handsomely and well made, and as there is nothing in his eyes more desirable than cleanliness in a soldier, he desires that particular attention be made in the choice of such men as are clean and spruce. They are to be at headquarters tomorrow precisely at 12 o'clock at noon, when the number wanted will be fixed upon. The General neither wants them with uniforms nor arms, nor does he desire any man to be sent to him that is not perfectly willing or desirous of being in this Guard. - They should be drilled men."

The next morning Washington selected Captain Caleb Gibbs of the 14th Massachusetts Continental Regiment to command the Guard and George Lewis, his nephew, as the Lieutenant. He entrusted them with the details of organizing the unit.

The Commander-in-Chief's Guard, officially designated "His Excellency's Guard," or "The General's Guard," was popularly called by the soldiers "The Life Guards, "The Washington Life Guards," or "Washington Body Guard." On April 15th, 1777 Congress decreed that these appellations were improper and ordered the practice stopped. Gibb's frequently signed his correspondence as "Commandant C-in-C Guards," while Washington referred to them as "My Guards."

Unfortunately, the first detailed account of the C-in-C Guards involved a plot to assassinate General Washington. Briefly, on May 24th, 1776, The C-in-C Guards set up camp near Richmond Hill on Manhattan Island. Anticipating Washington's arrival, a group of New York Tories (Loyalists to the British Crown) formed a secret organization on May 13th. Their primary objective was the assassination of George Washington. The plot was uncovered and the Provincial Congress took immediate action. Several Tories, including the City's Mayor, David Matthews, were arrested. Simultaneously, Washington, with Captain Gibbs and a party of hand-picked men arrested some forty alleged conspirators. Among them were C-in-C Guards Sergeant Thomas Hickey; Drummer William Green; Fifer James Johnson; Privates John Barnes and Michael Lynch.

At the Court Martial the testimony given was enough to send Hickey to the gallows. Hickey was Irish born, but had deserted from the British Army and enlisted in the Guard. He was hanged on June 28th in front of an estimated 20,000 spectators.

It is ironic that the first American soldier to be executed in the Continental Army was a member of the C-in-C Guards. The fate of the other four members of the Guard is unclear; there is no record of any further hangings.

The strength of the Guard at this time was about 50 men. They accompanied Washington to White Plains and participated in the battle fought there on October 28th, taking up their position on Chatterton Hill. The following day the entire Army retreated to New Jersey.

With their terms of enlistment up, Washington gave twenty of the Guards their discharges on the condition they would reenlist in the troop of cavalry being raised by Lieutenant Lewis, who had been detached from the Guard for that purpose.

The balance of the Guard participated in the capture of the Hessian Garrison at Trenton, New Jersey on the day after Christmas. During this hard fought victory, the Guard, although, small, distinguished themselves. We can find no record of what exactly transpired, we do know the Captain Gibbs was offered a Regimental Command immediately after the battle as a reward for his actions.

The men of the C-in-C Guards enlistment expired on December 31st, 1776, but they agreed, to a man, to serve for an additional six weeks at the personal request of Washington. As a result they participated in the Battle of Princeton.

On January 6th, 1777, the Army reached winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. General Washington established his headquarters at the tavern owned by Captain Jacob Arnold of the New Jersey Militia. We do not know when the remaining members of the C-in-C Guard were finally discharged, however, a receipt for a musket returned by Private Samuel Reid of the Guard is dated February 10th - probably the approximate date of the departure of the first members of the Guard.

With most of the old C-in-C Guard gone, their enlistment's expired, except for a few loyal volunteers, General Washington set about establishing a new one.

On April 22nd, 1777, General Washington wrote Captain Gibbs, who was on leave in Philadelphia, regarding the acquisition of new uniforms and arms for the men who were forming the "new" Guard.


"22 April 1777 Headquarters
Capt. Caleb Gibbs,
Dear Sir;
I forgot before you left this place to desire you to provide clothing for the men that are to compose my Guard, but now desire that you will apply to the Clothier-General, and have them forwarded to this place, or headquarters as soon as possible.
Provide for four Sergeants, four Corporals, a drum and fife, and fifty rank and file. If blue and buff can be had, I should prefer that uniform, as it is the one I wear myself, if it cannot, Mr. Mease and you may fix upon any other, red excepted
George Washington"


Gibbs was successful in securing blue and buff uniforms, but contrary to General Washington's expressed orders, Gibbs, for some unknown reason, probably the lack of an alternative, chose red waistcoats (vests). These waistcoats became symbolic of the C-in-C Guard for the duration of the war. He also procured leather helmets with a bear skin crest, in lieu of the traditional tricorn hats. These apparently were captured by a privateer and were bound for the British 17th Dragoons. He had the red cloth binding removed and replaced with medium blue, and a white plume, tipped in blue placed on the left side. This unique headgear was to add to the distinctive appearance of the Guard. In 18 century armies, each regiment had individual buttons, for the most part made of pewter. Generally these buttons contained the Regiment's designated number. But, the C-in-C Guards did not have a number. Gibbs decided on a new cipher for the Guards - "USA." As far as is known, the C-in-C Guard were the first unit to use this cipher, which is still used today.

Six days later General Washington requested men from several of the Virginia Regiments. He expressly requested that "none but native soldiers be furnished him", obviously remembering the treacherous foreign elements of the first Guard. The men were also issued the traditional hunting shirt, common to the whole Army, and tricorn hats. These were to be worn while on fatigue duty. However, there are ample surviving records that show the men preferred their 'special' helmets, and consistently wore them.

The Guards moved with the army, protecting the person of the Commander-in-Chief, the headquarters staff, and the army's records throughout the rest of 1777. No record of there being any casualties among the members of the Guard at either the battles of Brandywine or Germantown leads us to believe that they did not actively participate in these engagements. Lieutenant Lewis was successful in raising a troop of calvary. On May 1st, now a Captain, Lewis and his troop were designated the Third Regiment and were assigned to the Commander-in-Chief's Guards. They served in that capacity until September 26th, 1778. The Cavalry uniform consisted of a white regimental coat, faced with medium blue, medium blue waistcoats and white breeches. Two silver buttons were on each cuff and six buttons, arranged two-by-two on each of their lapels. This distinctive uniform was set off with a black leather helmet, bound with red, and fox tail for a crest.

The C-in-C Guards along with the entire Army arrived at Valley Forge on December 18th, 1777, and set up winter camp. The Guard was posted behind the Isaac Potts House, which General Washington selected for his Headquarters. Today there are excellent reproductions of the Guard's huts built on the exact site of the originals.

In March of 1778, at the request of newly appointed Inspector General, the Baron Frederick von Steuben, the Guard was to enter a new era. It would emerge as the model for and the pride of the "new" Army. Von Stueben selected the Guard to be his demonstration company for the new American Drill. After personally training the men of the Guard, they were sent throughout the entire Continental Army training each and every regiment. Not only did this new drill convert the ragtag Continentals into an effective fighting force, but it established the Commander-in-Chief's Guards as the elite unit of the Army.

The first record of the Commander-in-Chief's Guards having their own unit banner is mentioned at Valley Forge, along with General Washington using his personal Headquarters Flag. The Commander-in-Chief's Guards flag is depicted below:

The size of the Guard was increased on March 1, 1778. In addition to Captain Caleb Gibbs, who remained Commandant, Lieutenant Henry Philip Livingston was selected to permanently replace Lieutenant George Lewis. 1st Lieutenant Benjamin Grymes of Grayson's Continental Regiment, 2nd Lieutenant William Colfax of the 1st Connecticut Regiment, and Surgeon Samuel Hanson, son of Continental Congress President John Hanson, were assigned to the Guard. The rank and file included four Sergeants and three Corporals, two drummers, a fifer and 136 privates. Under the watchful eye of General von Stueben, these men were trained to rival the best in Europe. In a General Order issued May 16th, 1778, the Guard was not to pay any honors except to the Commander-in-Chief. The records do not explain why this action was necessary, but obviously it was important enough to address in the General Orders.

Today we think of a headquarters detachment as a collection of clerical types, usually noncombatants. Such was not the case of the C-in-C Guards. General Washington frequently employed them as light infantry. In May of 1778 Washington attached Gibbs and 100 Guards to the force led by Major General, the Marquis de Lafayette. The combined force numbered 2,400 men. Their primary mission was to gather intelligence on the British positions around Philadelphia. Several severe skirmishes resulted, and the Guard proved their worth in the line of battle.

With the defeat and loss of the entire British Northern Army commanded by General John Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga, General Howe felt he did not have sufficient forces necessary to keep either New York City or Philadelphia from being overwhelmed by the Americans. He simply couldn't defend both cities. He, therefore, ordered Philadelphia evacuated. Howe elected to march across New Jersey to New York City. Washington ordered the entire Continental Army at Valley Forge to pursue, overtake and defeat the rear guard and 1,500 wagon baggage train of the retreating British. On June 23rd, Washington ordered Colonel Daniel Morgan "to take the most effectual means of gaining the enemy's right flank and giving them as much annoyance as possible in that quarter." General Washington ordered Captain Gibbs and eighty men of the Guard to support Morgan's riflemen.

A detachment of Morgan's riflemen and the C-in-C Guards, under joint command of Captain Gabriel Long of the "Rifles" and Captain Gibbs of the Guards encountered a unit of British Grenadiers near Squaw Creek. The Guards attacked, killing and wounding severa1 and taking 39 prisoners. Hearing the musket fire, a large force of British Light Infantry attempted the rescue of their captured comrades. A pursuit through the swamp ensued, but the British were unable to catch the Americans. Arriving back at Colonel Morgan's position, prisoner's still in tow, it was recorded in a private soldier's journal: . . . ." the elegant Life Guards had been splattered with mud as they dashed through the swamps and then Morgan indulged himself in a stentorian laugh that make the woodlands ring."

A few days later, General Charles Lee commanding the vanguard of the American Army, ordered a retreat at the first signs of battle. General Washington arrived with the rest of the Army, and by shear weight of his presence rallied the retreating Continentals. To do so, he was riding up and down in front of the line of battle that was being formed. The British Army was closing fast, and the General was between the two antagonistic forces. Fearing for his safety, his Aides-de-camp and Captain Gibbs rode through the American lines to make General Washington retire to the rear.

The advancing British regulars were discharging volley after volley as they approached. Lt. Colonel Alexander was the first to fall, severely injuring his leg as his horse was shot out from under him; next came Lt. Colonel John Fitzgerald, with a musket ball to his shoulder; Lt. Col. Richard Meade, went down, his black mare shot out from under him and in the spill rolled over him causing a painful injury; then Captain Caleb Gibbs, as his horse was shot dead; lastly was Lt. Colonel John Laurens, whose father was President of the Continental Congress, went down with what proved to be a minor wound. General Washington personally supervised the soldiers that helped his entire staff to safety - as for General Washington - not a scratch. To their credit none of these wounded, battered and bruised officers left the field of battle!

The Guards were involved in some of the heaviest fighting that day, and unfortunately sustained casualties. Among them Sergeant John Wilson was wounded in the right arm. The good Sergeant tried to stay with the Guard but by December it was clear that his arm would not properly heal and was discharged.

For a full year following the Battle of Monmouth Court House, the Guards and the Army stood ready for the assault on New York City - that attack never came. We were never strong enough to successfully attack the well defended city.

On December 4th, 1779 the Army arrived at Morristown, New Jersey for their winter camp. General Washington selected the stately home of Mrs. Jacob Ford, the widow of Colonel Jacob Ford, as his headquarters. The Guard set up its winter camp in the meadow southeast of the mansion. Today, that site is marked by a simple plaque. The winter of 1779 proved to be the severest in the memory of anyone living at the time; accordingly, the season passed relatively uneventfully, as everyone was "snowed in."

On June 7th General Washington received intelligence that a large expeditionary force led by Hessian General the Baron Wilheim Knyphausen, had crossed from Staten Island to Elizabeth, New Jersey and was proceeding inland. Washington ordered the whole of the Continental Army to march and meet the challenge.

The local New Jersey Militia had been fighting an effective delaying action all the way to Connecticut Farms, near Springfield. The dreaded Hessian "Jaegers" were making headway against the stubborn American defenses. As the Continentals approached, Washington ordered Gibbs, now a Major, and the Rhode Island Regiment forward to form a line of defense and to hold until the main army could get into position. Gibbs moved forward with the entire 152 man C-in-C Guards. Smartly uniformed and well disciplined, they formed their line of battle, concealed by the smoke of the battle. Gibbs waited until the Hessians were right on top of them and launched a bayonet charge. The Hessians immediately broke. They had been fighting militia and the last thing they expected was to encounter "regulars" and bayonets. The Guards then delivered eight volleys into the fleeing Hessian. The mark of the Hessian advance into New Jersey was the position held by the Commander-in-Chief's Guards!

When the charging Guards erupted through the smoke of battle, what General Knyphausen saw was soldiers as well uniformed and trained as any in Europe.

Unfortunately, the Guards suffered causalities. Jacob Ford, Jr. son of the late Colonel, received two musket balls through the thigh. Private Solomon Daley, Stephen Hetfield and William Jones were slightly wounded. Sergeant John Slocum received a musket ball in the knee. Later that day his leg was amputated.

Arriving back at headquarters the next morning, Gibbs reported to General Washington: "I had the happiness to give the Hessian lads a charge just before sunset and drive them thoroughly. We gave them after they gave way about eight rounds." As a result of the Battles of Monmouth Court House and Connecticut Farms, Sir William Howe was reluctant to confront Washington's Army. He turned his attention to the Southern States and holding onto New York City.

The situation in New York City was not good. Almost all supplies had to be brought from England. One report stated that there was not a single tree standing on Manhattan Island, as all had been chopped down for fortification or firewood. It was necessary for the British to launch large scale forging parties into the "no-mans land."

On July 3rd 1781, General Washington, accompanied by an escort of fifty Guards was reconnoitering the British fortifications near king's Bridge. They encountered one of the British forging parties, consisting of 1,500 men! The British immediately attacked. The Guards made a stand at the bridge and were determined to hold until General Washington was safely back to the American lines. The bridge, just ten feet wide, prohibited the overwhelming or the flanking of the small, but determined Guardsmen. The battle for the bridge was ferocious. Braving volley after volley from the Guardsmen, the British charged with bayonets and were met by bayonets and forced back with heavy losses. It became painfully clear to the British that they would endure severe casualties and the most they could attain was a limited objective. When American Reinforcements came into view, the British broke off the action.

Lieutenant Levi Holden was in command of the Guards that fateful day and on the 11th of that month filed his official report. Unfortunately he did not write the descriptive accounts as did Major Gibbs. His report simply read:

"11 July 1781
To Captain Pemberton:
Returned of killed, wounded and missing of His Excellency's Guard in them late skirmish at King's Bridge. One Lieutenant and one sergeant wounded; fourteen rank and file wounded, one missing and three of the wounded since dead.
Levi Holden, Captain, C-in-C Guards"

From the surviving reports on the wounded, recounted in the attached roster of men who served in the Guard, the injuries conjure up an image of close combat with bayonets being much employed.

On August 14th, General Washington and the majority of the Northern Army left the Hudson Highlands and marched toward Yorktown, Virginia. They arrived there on September 28th, and started the siege.

On October 14th, General Washington assigned the Marquis Lafayette's Division of Light Infantry to assault the two key defensive positions of Lord Cornwallis' line, fortification number 10. The French would simultaneously assault fortification number 9. If these fortifications could be overtaken, Cornwallis' position would be hopeless. A night attack, bayonets only' was ordered. Colonel Alexander Hamilton, formerly an Aide-de-Camp to General Washington, would lead the assault on fortification number 10. Lt. Colonel John Laurens, also an Aide-de-Camp, would lead a party to maneuver behind the fortification and cut off any possibility of retreat.

No surviving record tells us that the Commander-in-Chief's Guard was selected to 'go in with the Light Infantry' however, the causalities lists show members of the Guard as having been wounded at Yorktown. Major Gibbs received a slight musket ball wound to his ankle and one of the Guardsmen, a sabre cut to his face, and two other men "wounded." Fortification number 10 was the only hand-to-hand combat experienced by the American Army at Yorktown, therefore we can safely concluded the Guard was there - participating in the final assault. That victorious night assault forced Cornwallis to surrender - directly leading to ending the war and American Independence.

Following the surrender of Lieutenant General, Lord Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, Washington and the Army returned to the Hudson Highlands, arriving at Newburgh on March 22nd, 1782. There they spent the remaining two years of the war containing the British in New York City, but ever on guard in case the British, now Commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, elected to dispute control of North America.

With the peace negotiations concluded and the Treaty of Paris awaiting ratification, Congress on, May 26th, 1783, instructed General Washington to grant furloughs to non-commissioned officers, enlisted men and a proportionate number of officers, including the Commander-in-Chief's Guards. Washington issued the General Orders on June 2 and on June 6th, the entire Guard was furloughed.

From that date forward the men of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard were furnished by the various Regiments stationed in and around Newburgh. Lieutenant William Colfax, who had served in the Guard since Valley Forge and Commanded the Guard since Caleb Gibbs was promoted to Brevet Lt. Colonel and transferred to the 2nd Massachusetts Regiment of the Continental Line. Colfax was later replaced by Captain Bezaleel Howe, of the New Hampshire Battalion, who was destined to command the Guard on it's last mission.

"Rocky Hill
November 9th, 1783 Instructions to Capt. Howe, Sir;
You will take charge of the Wagons which contain my baggage, and with the escort proceed with them to Virginia, and deliver the baggage at my house, ten miles below Alexandria. . . .
George Washington"

The letter went on to detail instructions and was three pages long. Twelve Guardsmen were assigned to protect the Commander-in-Chief's six wagons of baggage. It should be noted that much of the materials being transported were the official records of eight years of war!

The Guard delivered everything, without incident on December 20th, 1782. And with this act, the famed Commander-in-Chief's Guards were committed to history.

Some years after the war, George Washington Park Curtis, Washington's adopted son, was to recall the delivery to Mount Vernon and also remembered that ". . .the Guard was wearing a blue coat with white facings, white waistcoats and breeches, black stock and black half gaiters, and a round hat with blue and white feathers." He was describing the uniform of the New England Continental Line. The men assigned to this detail were from a New Hampshire Regiment temporarily transferred to the C-in-C Guards. This understandable error has caused considerable confusion regarding the uniform of the Guards. What is unclear is the "round hat," which was a term used to describe the leather helmets. In the 18th century a helmet was defined to be made of metal. Is it possible that when assigned to the C-in-C Guards the men were issued the famed C-in-C helmet to distinguish them and their special assignment?

It is very unfortunate that so many records of the American Revolution have been lost or destroyed. Major Gibbs realized the importance of protecting these records. With General Washington's permission, he gathered up the records of the C-in-C Guard, carefully placed them in a trunk, given to him by General Washington for this purpose.

When Gibbs finally left the Army, on June 20th, 1784 he took the trunk with him. He stored the records at the Charlestown Navy Yard, where he was employed after the war, only to see them destroyed in a fire 31 years later.

Among the records lost in that 1815 fire, were the muster rolls of the C-in-C Guards. A few copies of monthly returns have been found, but the vast majority of these irreplaceable documents are lost forever.


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