A deputation of Indian chiefs attended by Col. Benjamin Hawkins, agent for the Unites States, from the upper and
lower Creek nations, are on their way to the city of Washington for the purpose of treating for the extension of
the boundary line of the state of Georgia, to the Oakmulgee river. The upper Creeks are believed to be favorable
to the cession, and the lower ones opposed to it, but the agent's opinion is that the land may be obtained.
"It will afford pleasure to a benevolent mind, (says the Augusta Herald) to know that the efforts of Col.
Hawkins to ameliorate the condition of the savages, and to bring them into something like a social state have been
greatly successful and that they are almost daily, though slowly, making advances in civilization. There were in
the Creek nation, when the agent left it, 12 looms employed, 3 of them, if we recollect aright were made by
the Indians, and are worked by Indian women, who also spin the cotton which they weave. Ploughs and hoes are now
also in general use among them, they are becoming attached to property, and being acquainted with the comforts
and advantages of agricultural improvements, they are losing very considerably, that predeliction for the chase
and hunting life, which almost universaly characterises savage nations. The agent has introduced among them weights
and measures, and made many of them acquainted with figures, so that they are able to weight out their own articles
for sale, and to calculate the amount with great accuracy; and the advantages they discover to arise from these
glimmerings of science, is gradually exciting to desire to extend their knowledge and will doubtless prepare the
way for the establishment of schools among them, and will create an order for future improvements. From the advances
already made in the arts of civil life, there can be little doubt that a foundation is laid for an entire change
in the disposition and habit of those tribes." [Sprig of Liberty, November 21, 1805; Sub. by N. Piper]
Extract of a letter from Fort Mitchell, (Creek Agency) 30th March.
The detachments of the 1st and 4th Regiments of Infantry stationed in the Creek Nation have received orders from
the War Department to vacate their encampments and march to Pensacola, preparatory to their futher movement to
An inference has been drawn from this movement that the President of the United States is firmly persuaded of the
adjustment of all its difficulties with the Creeks and with Georgia; and of the complete restoration of tranquility
on that border. – Richmond Enquirer. [Republican Compiler (Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania) April 26, 1826]
The Creek Treaty
The new Treaty of cession and purchase, made in Washington with the deputies of the Creek nation of Indians in
January last and submitted to the Senate by the President on the 31st of that month was ratified and confirmed
by the Senate on Friday last together with the supplemental article subsequently agreed on, by which it is understood
the wishes of the State of Georgia have been so fully met as to induce the hope that all the dissatisfaction felt
in that state at the abrogation of the former treaty will be dissipated. We have reason to believe that the efforts
of the Executive and especially of that officer of it, (the Secretary of War,) to whose province the management
of the affair particularly belonged were never directed with more zeal and assiduity to any object than to the
satisfactory adjustment of the embarrassing difficulties which grew out of the former treaty. These efforts produced
the Treaty of January by which about nine tenths of the territory in question was obtained for Georgia.
For the further concession obtained by the supplemental article, the friends of peace and harmony – the country
at large – are indebted, it is said, to the exertions and influence over the Indians delegates of Mr. Benton of
the Senate. The following is the vote on the advice and consent of the Senate to the Treaty:
YEAS – Messrs. Barton, Bell, Benton, Bouligny, Branch, Chambers, Chandler, Chase, Clayton, Dickerson, Eaton, Edwards,
Findlay, Haper, Harrison, Hendricks, Johnson, Ky, Kane, Lloyd, Marks, Mills, Noble, Randolph, Reed, Rowan, Seymour,
Smith, Tazewell, Thomas, Wiley – 30.
NAYS – Messr. Berrien, Cobb, Hayne, King, Macon, White, Williams – 7. – Nat. Intel.
The first article annuls the treaty concluded at Indian Springs on the 12th Feb. 1825.
By the second article the Creeks cede to the United States an immense extent of territory in Georgia.
By the third, the United States agree to pay immediately 217,000 dollars “to be divided among the chiefs and warriors
of the nation.”
By the fourth, the United States agree to pay the nation at additional perpetual annuity of 20,000 dollars.
The fifth article declares “that difficulties which have arisen in the nation shall be amicably adjusted.”
By the sixth article, the United States engage to provide a place of residence for the friends of M’Intosh, west
of the Mississippi.
By the seventh article, provision is made for the removal of the emigrant party within 24 months. The United States
are to pay the expense of their removal and to furnish them with subsistence for a term not exceeding twelve months
after their arrival at their new residence.
Eighth. An agent, a sub-agent and an interpreter is to reside with them and a blacksmith and wheelwright are to
be furnished by the United States. Such assistance also is to be rendered to them in their agricultural operations
as the President shall think proper.
Ninth. In consideration of the sufferings and exertions of the M’Intosh party, 100,000 dollars are to be divided
among their chieftains and warriors, if such party shall amount to 3000 persons and in that proportion for any
Tenth. The pecuniary damage sustained by the friends and followers of M’Intosh, in consequence of the difficulties
growning out of the treaty at Indian Springs, is to be regularly assessed on the nation and the amount paid out
of their annuity.
Eleventh. Improvements on the lands ceded are to be appraised and the amount thus ascertained paid to the parties
owning such improvements.
Twelfth. Possession of the ceded country to be yielded on the first of January next.
Finally a supplementary article extends the lines mentioned in the second article so far as to include in the cession
all the land at present held by the Creeks within the chartered limits of Georgia. [Republican
Compiler (Gettysburg, Pa) May 10, 1826]
We are glad to learn officially through the Georgia papers that the Commissioners of the States of Georgia and
Alabama will meet at Fort Mitchell on the first Monday in July next for the purpose of fixing the boundary between
the two States. It may so happen the decision of these Commissioners will put an end at once to the ferment of
politics in Georgia so far as it is caused by the Creek affairs. It will so happen if it turns out that the State
of Georgia, by the second Creek Treaty, obtains all the land within her borders. We should rejoice at such a result.
– Nat. Intel. [Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) June
From the Tuscumbia (Alabama) Telegraph, November 28: On Sunday last about seven hundred and fifty Indians, (Creeks
of the McIntosh party,) consisting of men, women and children, arrived at this place on their way to Arkansas,
conducted by Col. Brearley. They profess an entire willingness to the exchange and appear to be in fine spirits.
We are informed that a large party, (between two and three thousand,) will by order of the Government, rendezvous
immediately at some point near the Tennessee river, and as soon as Col. Brearley returns from Arkansas, take up
the line of march for the same destination. [Republican Compiler,
Gettysburg, PA, January 2, 1828 - NP - Sub. by a FoFG]
We are truly gratified that the controversy between Georgia and the Creek
Indians, which has heretofore threatened such serious consequences, is a length amicably and finally terminated.
The Macon (Georgia) Telegraph informs us that a full Council of the Creek Nation of Indians assembled at their
Council ground on Monday the 31st ult. and continued for several days. At this Council the Treaty made by Col.
M’Kenney with the Chiefs, for the purchase of their remaining strip of land in the boundaries of Georgia, was laid
before them by the Agent, and received their full assent. The Government is to pay them $47,490- - being $5000
more than was mentioned by Col. M’kenny in his letter to the Secretary of War. – Balt. Amer. [The Republican Compiler, Gettysburg, PA, January 30, 1828 - NP - Sub. by a FoFG]
Nashville, Tenn. June 17
Died at the Hermitage on the morning of the 1st instant of a pulmonary complaint, and in the 16th year of his age,
Lyncoya, the orphan son of a chief of the Creek Nation.
On the 3d of November, 1813, after the battle of Talulshatche was gained, an Indian child, about ten or twelve
months old was found by an American soldier in the bloodiest part of the field, sucking at the breast of its dead
mother, who had been killed, unfortunately, in action. The child was brought to General Jackson, who heart was
immediately interested in its preservation. As many squaws had been taken and some of them had children at the
breast, he applied to these to suckle it, offering a reward to anyone who would preserve it. They all refused saying
that as its father and mother had been killed the best way would be to kill it also.
At that time the army was destitute of provisions and the only sustenance that could be got for the infant captive
was made of a small quantity of brown sugar and the crumbs of biscuits scraped from the chinks of a barrel. These
mixed in water, composed a diet which he seemed to relish and with the General and his faithful servant Charles
kept him alive until an opportunity occurred for sending him to Huntsville.
The General then committed his foundling to the care Colonel Leroy Pope of that place, who was requested to take
charge of him until he could be conveyed to Mrs. Jackson. Colonel Pope humanely received the little “Indian boy;”
and his amiable daughter, Maria bestowed upon him the tenderest care. She gave him the name of Lyncoya and affectionately
detained him at her father’s until the close of the Creek war; when General Jackson on his return march to Tennessee
took him home, delivered him to Mrs. Jackson and adopted him into his family.
In his first years he was feeble and sickly, a consequence probably of his want of a mother’s care and nourishment;
a want which nothing can supply. But after a time he became healthy and grew finely. At the age of five he began
to discover an inclination for solitude and a turn for mechanical employments. At this age he made a bow fashioned
after the manner of the Indians, the first of the kind that had ever been seen on the General’s farm. This excited
much surprise in the family as he had no intercourse whatever with Indians, except on one or two occasions when
a few chiefs called to visit to take but slight notice of him. But whether from immediate instinct or from a predisposition
to imitate Indian manners, he was in the habit of dressing his head with all the feathers he could pick up in the
yard and amusing himself constantly with his little bow – differing in this particular from civilized children
who change their amusements and toys with a sort of capricious variety.
At eight years of age the General sent him to a good day school in the neighborhood but he was very averse to learning
and not even master of the alphabet in the course of a whole year. At 10, however, his intellectual faculties
seemed to awaken. He became found of learning and advanced in it rapidly, giving evident signs of genius. The
General then proposed having his education completed at West Point and securing him a station in the army; and
had made know his wishes on the subject to President Monroe, who promised his countenance and favor.
But before Lyncoya’s education was sufficiently advanced to give him admission at West Point, Mr. Adams and Mr.
Clay came into power under circumstances which prevented any application for a warrant on the part of General Jackson.
He therefore proposed to Lyncoya that he should indulge in his mechanical turn and learn some profitable trade.
He said he preferred being a saddler, and in 1827, his English education being sufficient, he was bound to a saddler
During last winter he caught cold which fixed on his lungs and reduced him to such weakness that he got leave of
absence and returned, as he said, “home,” to the Hermitage. There he was treated with the greatest kindness and
care. His diet was attended to – medical aid was called in and exercise in a carriage and on horseback afforded
him. I have frequently seen him accompanying Mrs. Jackson in short excursions taken for his benefit and that amiable
and benevolent lady, learning that Liverwort was esteemed salutary in consumptive cases, procured it and administered
it to the Indian orphan.
But all was in vain; he declined with a progress daily visible and after very severe sufferings, which he bore
with the uncomplaining fortitude of his race, expired under the roof of the hero who had conquered his nation,
but who followed his remains to a decent grave and shed a tear as the earth closed over him forever. [Republican Compiler, Gettysburg, PA, August 20 1828 - NP - Sub. by a FoFG]