Fort Mims: Built in July 1813, as a wooden
stockade, enclosing nearly an acre, with a protected blockhouse on the Southwest corner, with two large gates-one
on the west wall and the other on the east wall. The Fort was stormed and taken by the Creeks on August 30, 1813.
Fort Griswold Battlefield State Park: This
is the historic site where, on September 6, 1781, British Forces, commanded by Benedict Arnold, captured the Fort
and massacred 88 of the 165 defenders stationed there. The Ebenezer Avery House which sheltered the wounded after
the battle has been restored on the grounds. A Revolutionary War museum also depicts the era.
Fort George: Built by the British in 1778.
British troops based here encountered Spanish forces in the Battle of Pensacola in 1781. After the Spanish victory
the fort was renamed to Fort San Miguel. The Spanish let it deteriorate and during the 19th century, prominent
citizens built their homes on much of the fort and in 1974 the City of Pensacola bought the only undeveloped parcel
to preserve it.
Fort Morris Historic Site: When the Continental
Congress convened in 1776, the delegates recognized the importance of a fort to protect their growing seaport from
the British. When the British demanded the fort's surrender on November 25, 1778, the defiant Col. John McIntosh
replied, "Come and take it!" The British refused and withdrew back to Florida. Forty-five days later,
they returned with a superior force, and on January 9, 1779, Fort Morris fell after a short but heavy bombardment.
Under the name of Fort Defiance, the Fort was once again used against the British during the War of 1812.
Tippecanoe Battlefield Park: The Tippecanoe
Battlefield Park preserves the location of the Battle of Tippecanoe fought on November 11, 1811. The sixteen acre
site of the battle was deeded to the State of Indiana by John Tipton, a veteran of the fight, on November 7, 1836,
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the battle.
Blue Licks Battlefield State Park: Blue Licks
is known as the site of the last Revolutionary War battle in Kentucky. On August 19, 1782, Kentuckians engaged
Indians and British soldiers near the Licking River. Outnumbered, Kentucky suffered great losses, including one
of Daniel Boone's sons. Boone's words, "Enough of honour cannot be paid," are inscribed on the monument
dedicated to the fallen soldiers in the Battle of Blue Licks.
Fort Edgecomb State Historic Site: War was
declared on June 18, 1812, and soldiers hoisted the colors and fired the guns at Fort Edgecomb signaling readiness.
Significant action did not begin until 1814. On June 22, 1814, English troops attacked on land, but as one observer
wrote: “They approached to within a few miles of the fort, with the avowed intention of coming to the wharves and
burning the shipping; but hearing our alarm guns and ringing of the bells, judged that we were prepared for them
and retreated to their ships at the mouth of the river, after robbing a few houses.”
Battle of Slippery Hill: On August 13, 1813,
American Videttes skirmished with approximately 300 British troops under the command of Col. Sir Thomas Sidney
Beckwith as they advanced on Queenstown along this road. Two British soldiers and Beckwith’s horse were killed.
Fearful of being cut off by a second British amphibious force, Maj. William H. Nicholson, commander of the Queen
Anne’s County militia, withdrew to Centreville.
Fort Phoenix: On May 13-14, 1775, the first
naval battle of the American Revolution took place off shore when the local militia, under the command of Nathaniel
Pope and Daniel Egery, captured two British sloops in Buzzard's Bay. Shortly afterward, the town petitioned for
the construction of a fort at Nolscot Point for the protection of the harbor. The original fort was built by Capt.
Benjamin Dillingham and Eleazer Hathaway between 1775 and 1777. The fort was attacked and destroyed when the British
raided the harbor on September 5-6, 1778, landing 4,000 troops in New Bedford. The British drove a small militia
from the fort, burned the barracks, broke up the gun platforms and smashed all but one of the cannons. When the
fort was rebuilt following the 1778 attack, it was named Fort Phoenix. Shortly before the War of 1812, Fort Phoenix
was enlarged under the supervision of Sylvanus Thayer, who later became the "Father of the Military Academy"
at West Point. In June of 1814, the fort helped repel an early morning attack by British in landing boats from
the HMS Nimrod. In 1973, Fort Phoenix was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Mackinac Island State Park:Fort Mackinac
was founded during the American Revolution. Believing Fort Michilimackinac at what is now Mackinaw City was too
vulnerable to American attack, the British moved the fort to Mackinac Island in 1780. Americans took control in
1796. In July 1812, in the first land engagement of the War of 1812 in the United States, the British captured
the fort. In a bloody battle in 1814 the Americans attempted but failed to retake the fort. It was returned to
the United States after the war.
Fort Constitution Historic Site: In 1791 the
state of New Hampshire gave the United States the neck of land on which Fort William and Mary and a lighthouse
were situated. The fort was repaired, renamed Fort Constitution and garrisoned with a company of United States
artillery. Renovations which included a wall twice as high as that of the colonial fort and new brick buildings
were completed in 1808. It is the ruins of this fort that are seen today. The fort was used during the War of 1812.
Monmouth Battlefield State Park: For several
long, hot, and exhausting hours during the afternoon of June 28, 1778, the largest land artillery battle of the
American Revolution raged. The Continental artillery won the battle forcing the British artillery to withdraw.
General Washington moved fresh troops forward to resume the battle at dawn, but during the night, British forces
slipped away, ending the last major battle of the north.
Newtown Battlefield State Park: On August
29, 1779, the peace and tranquility of this forested hill was broken by the boom of cannons, the crack of musket
fire, and the yells of Iroquois warriors. The Continental Army was engaged in battle with the British regulars,
Loyalist rangers and 1000 Iroquois Indian warriors. The battle of Newtown was the decisive clash in one of the
largest offensive campaigns of the American Revolution. This expedition, known as the Sullivan-Clinton Campaign,
had been regarded as punishment to several tribes among the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy who had sided
with the British in the war and had attacked frontier settlements.
Fort Johnston: Erected in the 1740s. During the Revolutionary War Capt. John Collet
was commander of Fort Johnston when royal governor Josiah Martin fled there for protection from rebellious colonials
in May 1775. He called Fort Johnston "a contemptible thing." In July 1775 Martin was forced to flee to
a British ship patrolling the coast when the North Carolina militia stormed the fort and burned it down.
Fort Laurens: Fort Laurens was built in late
November, 1778, on the banks of the Tuscarawas River near what is now Bolivar, Ohio. General McIntosh named the
fort in honor of the President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. Fort Laurens was an active American
military post from November of 1778 through August of 1779. During that time, the fort was clearly perceived by
the British and their Indian allies in the northwest as a very serious threat. This was evident from the numerous
attacks on the fort by Indians, Loyalists and British soldiers. These attacks resulted in the death of more than
20 American soldiers, who were later buried a short distance from the fort, near the fort hospital.
Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site: The
Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site brings to life the largest engagement of the Revolutionary War, fought on
September 11, 1777, between the Continental Army led by General George Washington and the British forces headed
by General William Howe.
Butts Hill Fort: The site was a key position
during Rhode Island's only major Revolutionary War land battle, August 29, 1778. Old redoubts still discernible
and marker tells of the battle in which Generals Lafayette, Hancock, Greene and Sullivan participated.
The Battle of Eutaw Springs: Eutaw Springs
is the site of the last major battle of the Revolution in South Carolina which took place on September 8, 1781,
when the armies of General Nathanael Greene and Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart met near these limestone springs.
Technically a British victory, the American forces decimated the British ranks forcing them to retreat once again
to Charleston. One month later Lord Charles Cornwallis, commander of the British forces in America, surrender at
Yorktown, Virginia. The springs are under the waters of Lake Marion today, but most of the battleground is still
above water. Part of the site is maintained as a park. Major John Marjoribanks, British hero of the battle, is
buried on the park grounds.
(Fort Watauga) Sycamore Shoals State Historic Park: Fort
Watauga became a refuge for the settlers in the summer of 1776. A band of warriors under Old Abram of Chilhowee
struck against Fort Watauga and besieged the Fort for approximately two weeks, but when the garrison there failed
to surrender, the Indians departed. A reconstruction of Fort Watauga, based on archeological and historical research,
stands near the Sycamore Shoals river crossing. The original location was approximately 1,500 yards to the southwest.
Mount Independence State Historic Site: In
1776, the military complex at Mount Independence was one of the largest communities in North America. During that
historic summer, 12,000 soldiers built a massive fort to defend against an anticipated British attack from the
north. By spring of 1777 new troops arrived but not enough to properly garrison the forts. On July 5th they evacuated
the site when British General John Burgoyne’s forces overwhelmed the area. British and German forces remained at
Mount Independence until November when they burned and destroyed the site after learning of Burgoyne’s surrender
at Saratoga. Today, several trails at Mount Independence connect well-preserved remains of the Revolutionary War
Fort Randolph: Built in November 1774 and
named initially named Fort Blair, after John Blair, by Captain William Russell who was both the designer and builder.
Captain Russell evacuated the fort June, 1775 and it was destroyed. Captain Mathew Arbuckle was ordered to rebuild
the fort in May of 1776 and he named it Fort Randolph in honor of Peyton Randolph. It was in this fort that the
murder of Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief, occurred. The fort was evacuated in 1779 and was burned by the Indians.
Probably in 1785, another fort was erected for the protection of the inhabitants during the Indian Wars.