MAINE STATE HOSPITALS
The State of Maine provides for the care and treatment of persons suffering from mental and nervous disorders, two large, modern and well-equipped institutions.
Augusta State Hospital
This institution, formerly known, as the Maine Insane Hospital, is located in the city of Augusta on the eastern bank State Hospital of the Kennebec River nearly opposite the State House, one and a half miles from the railroad station.
Provision for the hospital was made by the legislature March 8, 1834, by the appropriation of $20,000 upon condition that a like sum be raised by individual subscription within one year. Before the expiration of the time limit, Hon. Reuel Williams of Augusta and Hon. Benjamin Brown of Vassalboro contributed $10,000 each for the purpose. Subsequently Mr. Brown offered as a site 200 acres of land on the Kennebec in the town of Vassalboro which the legislature accepted, but which was not considered a suitable location, and the land with Mr. Brown's consent was sold by the state for $4,000, and the more suitable site in Augusta was purchased with $3,000 of this money.
Mr. Williams who was appointed commissioner to erect the hospital sent John B. Lord of Hallowell to examine similar institutions, and the general plan of the state hospital at Worcester, Mass., was adopted. During the year 1836 contracts were made and materials collected, but in March, 1837, Mr. Williams resigned as commissioner and John H. Hart-well was appointed, under whose supervision the work was carried on for another year. In March, 1838, a further appropriation of $29,500 was made to complete the exterior, and Charles Keene was appointed in place of Mr. Hartwell. In 1840 a further appropriation of $28,000 was made to complete the wings, and on the 14th of October the first patient was admitted. Since that time the institution has grown gradually to its present proportions. The original plant consisted of a central office building with three wings on either side joined together after the Kirkbride plan. Two pavilions, one for men, the other for women, were added in 1884. Two more pavilions were completed in 1890. On March 3, 1905, President Roosevelt signed an act authorizing the secretary of war to convey the Kennebec arsenal property situated in Augusta to the State of Maine for public purposes. The property comprised about 40 acres on which were several large stone buildings that were ultimately renovated
and converted for the use of patients. The state acquired in the same year from the United States the gift of Widows' Island in Penobscot Bay near North Haven. This property, now known as the Chase Island Convalescent
Hospital, is used during the summer months for the entertainment and recreation of patients from both hospitals,
The Criminal Insane
On March 6, 1907, the legislature appropriated money for the construction of a suitable building for the criminal
insane. This building was completed in 1908 and provides suitable accommodations for the criminal insane who were up to that time inadequately provided for in the state prison and in the wards of both hospitals.
Since the opening of the hospital in 1840, 15,438 patients have been admitted. The normal rated capacity is 942
patients. The number in the hospital Jan. 21, 1920, was 1,121; 573 men and 548 women.
The value of the hospital property, viz., real estate and buildings, is inventoried at 1,894,740; personal property,
viz., furnishings and equipment $202,133.66, making the total valuation of the entire plant $2,096,836.66.
The total area of the hospital property including the farm and grounds is approximately 600 acres, of which 450 acres are under cultivation.
Cost of Maintenance
For the year ending June 30, 1919:
Augusta Bangor Average gross weekly per capita cost $5,924 $6.92 Less income (sources other than appropriation) 876 .76 Average weekly per capita cost to the state 5.048 6.16
Bangor State Hospital
This institution, formerly known as the Eastern Maine Insane Hospital, is located in the city of Bangor and occupies a prominent site on the northern bank of the Penobscot River, east of the city, two miles from the railroad station.
In 1889 the legislature passed a resolution which was
presented by Hon. E. C. Ryder of Bangor, authorizing Governor Edwin C. Burleigh to appoint a commission to select an eligible site at or near the city of Bangor for a state hospital. Twenty-five thou-sand dollars was appropriated for the purpose, and Governor Burleigh appointed as commissioners Col. Joseph W. Porter, chairman; Col. Joseph Hutchins and Col. Daniel A. Robinson, M. D. This commission after a long and careful investigation of various sites, finally selected a site in the city of Bangor adjacent to the water works, which was approved by Dr. Bigelow T. Sanborn, superintendent of the hospital at Augusta.
The commissioners, accompanied by George M. Coombs of Lewiston, architect, who had been engaged to assist in the preparation of plans, visited many hospitals in other states in order to familiarize themselves with the latest ideas in modern hospital construction. The plans were submitted to the legislature, and a joint special committee was selected to consider a resolve for an appropriation to start construction, and adopted a resolution that a new commission of three be appointed by the governor to take immediate steps to erect a building on the site selected and that the sum of $200,000 be appropriated. This resolve failed to pass owing to strong opposition o in both branches of the legislature.
In 1893 another attempt was made to obtain from the legislature an appropriation which was successful, and Governor Cleaves appointed Albion E. Little of Portland, chairman, Samuel Campbell and Sidney M. Bird members of the commission, with Dr. Bigelow T. Sanborn, superintendent of the Augusta State Hospital, as an advisory member. They were directed to take immediate steps to erect not later than January 1, 1897, upon the site at Bangor already purchased by the previous commission fire proof buildings, after plans to be selected by them, for which purpose the sum of $75,000 was appropriated.
The commission after careful study, rejected the site selected by the previous commission and decided to erect the hospital on the top of the hill which made necessary a great amount of grading and blasting of ledge to obtain a level place large enough to accommodate the buildings. The plans were drawn by John Calvin Stevens, architect, of Portland who followed closely what is known as "The pavilion plan". The plant consists of a central administration building, kitchen, laundry and power house on a central axis which runs from north to south. On the east and west and connected to the central building by corridors are the wings containing the wards. The buildings were completed and opened for the reception of patients July 1,1901. The first patient was admitted June 26,1901. Two others had been admitted when on the first day of July a detail of 70 women patients was received from the hospital at Augusta, followed upon the sixth by 75 men from the same institution.
In 1907 an additional wing for women was added that provided accommodations for 150 patients and 19 nurses. The tuberculosis pavilion was added in 1910 which provides open-air treatment for 48 patients. In 1909 an appropriation of $175,000 was obtained for a new wing to accommodate 150 men and a bathing pavilion equipped with shower baths and dressing room. In 1913 a new cold storage plant and a new store room were constructed over which was constructed in 1916 and 1917 a congregate dining room to accommodate 500 persons.
The hospital has capacity for 600 patients. The number in the hospital on January 21, 1920, was 355 men, 329 women, a total of 684 patients; 3,614 patients have been admitted to the hospital since it was opened, in 1901.
The value of the hospital property, viz., real estate, including buildings is estimated at $956,882.48; personal property, viz., furnishings and equipment, $140,168.24, making the total value of the entire plant, $1,097,050.72.
The original hospital site consisted of 120 acres. The farm was enlarged by the purchase of 50 acres additional in 1905, and a second purchase of 50 acres in 1909. The farm now contains approximately 250 acres, of which about 100 acres are under cultivation.
Both institutions are managed by a single board of trustees consiting of seven members, the present personnel of which is Howard L. Keyser, president, Greene; Charles E. Smith, secretary, Newport; Albert J. Steams, Norway; James W. Beck, Augusta; John B. Hutchinson, Eastport; Frank E. Nichols, Bath; Mrs. Arthur F. Parrott, Augusta. The board meets monthly at each institution. The superintendent of the Augusta State Hospital is Dr. Forrest C. Tyson; steward and treasurer, Mr. Samuel N. Tobey. Dr. Carl J. Hedin and William Thompson occupy similar positions in the Bangor State Hospital.
Admission of Patients
The Bangor State Hospital receives patients who are residents of the five eastern counties as follows: Penobscot, Hancock, Washington, Aroostook and Piscataquis. Residents of all other counties are received at Augusta. Patients received in either hospital that have a residence in the district other than that assigned to the hospital may be transferred by order of the trustees. Patients are admitted to either hospital only on properly executed forms prescribed by statute. The blanks may be obtained on application from the superintendent.
Rate for Board
The rate for board established by the trustees January 1, 1920, is $6.00 per week. Economically, patients are divided into two classes: first, reimbursing patients who pay all, or part of the cost; second, state patients in which the state assumes the entire cost of maintenance. The expense of commitment and transference to and from the hospitals is borne by the town making the commitment. The private wards with special privileges for a certain class of patients have been abolished. A statement of facts relative to the financial ability of the patient or relatives for his support is required in each case.
All insane who are legal residents of a town are entitled to admission to the state hospitals. All persons should be committed in the regular manner by the municipal officers on the evidence of at least two reputable physicians given by them under oath. The complaint must be made in writing by any blood relative, husband or wife, or by any justice of the peace. At least 24 hours' notice must be given to the person alleged to be insane prior to the date of hearing. The commitment paper and the signed medical certificate must accompany the patient to the hospital. If the patient has no means or relatives liable for his support a certificate of inability should be filed at the same time. If a woman is committed she should be accompanied by a father, husband, brother or son. In the absence of these relatives by a woman attendant. All cases whenever possible should be accompanied to the hospital by relatives or friends. Officers of the law if obliged to accompany the patient in order to render assistance should dress in civilian clothes.
In cases of emergency when immediate restraint and detention is necessary for the comfort and safety of the patient, the right of hearing may be waived and the patient may be received on the presentation of a copy of the complaint and physicians' certificate, which certificate shall set forth the reasons for the emergency. The municipal officers should proceed with the hearing, complete the commitment, and forward the certificate to the hospital within 10 days.
In addition to cases sent to either hospital for observation by the supreme court provision is made for other cases as follows: "If a person is found by two physicians qualified as examiners in insanity, to be in such mental condition that his commitment to an institution for the insane is necessary for his proper care or observation, he may be committed by any judge or any other officer authorized to commit insane persons to either of the state hospitals for the insane, under such limitations as the judge may direct, pending a determination of his insanity."
The superintendent in charge of either of the state hospitals to which an insane person may be committed may receive and detain therein, as a boarder and patient, any person who is desirous of submitting himself to treatment and who makes written application therefor, and whose mental condition in the opinion of the superintendent or physician in charge is such as to render him competent to make the application. Such superintendent shall give immediate notice of the reception of such voluntary patient to the board of state hospital, trustees. Such patient shall not be detained for more than ten days after having given notice in writing of his intention or desire of leaving the institution. The charges for support of such a voluntary patient shall be governed by the laws or rules applicable to the support of an insane person in such institution.
Provision is made for the temporary care of patients who by reason of sudden mental disorder need care pending other arrangements for the disposition of the case. It is applicable to transients and non-residents particularly, and in those instances when officials authorized to make commitments cannot be assembled immediately. The act is as follows: "The superintendent of either of the state hospitals, to which an insane person may be legally com-mitted, may, when requested by a physician, a member of the board of health, a health officer, a police officer of a city or town, receive and care for as a patient in such institution for a period not exceeding fifteen days, any person who needs care and treatment because of his mental condition. Such request for admission of a patient shall be in writing and filed at the institution at the time of the reception of the patient, together with a statement in a form prescribed or approved by the board of state hospital trustees, together with a statement giving such information as said board may deem appropriate. Such a patient who is deemed by the superin-tendent not suitable for such care, shall upon the request of the superintendent be removed forthwith from the institution by the person requesting his reception, and if he is not so removed, such person shall be liable for all reasonable expenses incurred under the provisions of this act, on account of the patient, which may be recovered by the institution in an action of contract. Such superintendent shall cause every patient to be duly committed according to law, provided he shall not sign a request to remain as a voluntary patient or to be removed therefrom before the expiration of such period of fifteen days. All reasonable expenses incurred for the examination of the patient, for his transportation to the institution and for his support therein, shall be allowed, certified and paid according to the laws providing for similar expenses in the commitment and support of the insane."
Parents and guardians of insane minors if of sufficient ability to support them in the hospital must within 30 days after an attack of insanity, without legal examination send them to one of the hospitals and give to the treasurer the bond required within this period.
The Medical Service
The medical service in both hospitals is under the direction of the superintendent who is assisted by a staff of trained physicians. The chief feature of the medical service is the daily staff conference at which all new cases are presented in turn by the assistant physicians for diagnosis and suggestions for treatment. Cases for parole or discharge are also considered.
All new cases are received by the assistant physicians in rotation. The record of examination contains the anamnesis obtained at the time or later, a general physical and neurological examination with urinalysis, vaccination, and an examination of the blood for the Wassermann reaction. Special tests are performed when indicated. The mental status is ascertained by a carefully recorded examination.
The patient is now presented at staff conference for classification. The subsequent clinical course of the case is noted from time to time on the record.
Special features in treatment consist of rest in bed, regulation of diet and bodily habits, judicious application of various hydrotherapeutic measures such as wet packs, douches, and con-tinuous warm baths, selected occupation under a trained industrial worker. The physically ill are cared for in sick wards where the principles of general medical practice are used.
Patients are entertained by weekly dances, moving pictures, concerts, lectures, athletics and various other outdoor activities.
Each hospital maintains a training school for nurses under the direction of a superintendent who is a registered graduate nurse. The course is of three years' duration. Applicants must be over 19 years of age and present satisfactory references as to good moral character and physical health. Preference will be given to those candidates for the training school who are high school graduates or who have acquired more than a common school education. Pupil nurses are assigned to positions offering the best opportunities for experience in nursing all forms of nervous and mental diseases, as well as acute medical and surgical cases. The reception wards have adequate modern equipment for giving prolonged baths, packs, and other hydrotherapeutic treatment. While the hospitals are mainly for nervous and mental diseases they are large enough to give ample opportunities for experience in general medical and surgical nursing. The training school opens in October and closes in June. Lectures are given by the physicians. Practical instruction and demonstrations are given daily on the wards bj- the superintendent of nurses, supervisors, and charge nurses. In addition to the theoretical instruction the physicians also give practical demonstrations in the ward clinics, laboratory, dispensary, and autopsy room. The Augusta training school affiliates with that of the Maine General Hospital in Portland, the Bangor training school with Bellevue hospital in New York city. The affiliated course is of not less than six months' duration after which the graduate is eligible for registration in Maine.
No patient can be received at either hospital until correct commitment papers are presented.
Patients' relatives are requested to furnish a good supply of plain, suitable clothing.
Money, jewelry and other valuables should not be brought with patients, and the hospital will not be responsible for anything left later
in possession of patients. Things necessary or suitable for patients can be left with hospital officers.
Visiting daily from 9 to 11.30 a. m.; from 1 to 5 p. m. Definite times for visiting are required to avoid serious interference with hospital work. Visiting on Sundays not allowed except in cases of critical illness, or by pre-arrangement.
Visitors are requested to ask for any desired information concerning patients of the physicians at the office.
Inquiries by telephone, concerning patients should be made, if possible, between the hours of 1 and 2 p. m. The persons making call should always give the name of patient for whom inquiry is to be made, and not call for the physicians. This will insure prompt reply and the proper person will be notified to answer call.
Written inquiries should always contain name of patient, name and address of writer, with relationship, if any, to patient. Keply stamp should be enclosed.
Letters and express packages sent to patients should be directed to them in care of the hospital.
The name and address of sender should be given on outside of package in order that acknowledgment of same may be made. To insure delivery, all charges must be prepaid.
All letters concerning patients should be addressed to the superin-tendent.
All letters concerning the financial condition of the patient should be referred to the treasurer.
The public is entitled to the benefits of the knowledge and resources of the state hospital organization which should be extended to the community through the services of mental clinics and after care agents. Both hospitals conduct mental clinics in Portland, Lewiston and Bangor. Social service workers are employed to visit the homes, obtain and impart information, and help in restoring paroled and discharged patients to economic independence. The requirements of such extra institutional activities in general are as follows:
First: The supervision of patients who have left the institution with a view to their safe care at home, suitable employment and self-support under good working and living conditions, and prevention of their relapse and return to public dependency.
Second: Provision for informing and advising any indigent person, his relatives or friends and the representatives of any charitable agency as to the mental condition of any indigent person, as to the prevention and treatment of such condition, as to the available institutions or other means of caring for the person so afflicted, and as to any other matter relative to the welfare of such person.
Third: Whenever it is deemed, advisable the superintendent of the institution may cooperate with other state departments such as health, education, charities, penal, probation, etc., to examine upon request and recommend suitable treatment and supervision for
(a) Persons thought to be afflicted with mental or nervous disorder.
(b) School children who are nervous, psychopathic, retarded, defective or incorrigible.
(c) Children referred to the department of juvenile courts.
Fourth: The acquisition and dissemination of knowledge of mental disease, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy and allied conditions, with a view to promoting a better understanding and the most enlightened public sentiment and policy in such matters. In this work the department may cooperate with local authorities, schools and social agencies.
SCHOOL FOR THE FEEBLE-MINDED
The Maine School for Feeble-Minded was established by an act of legislature of 1907. In accordance with this provision, the state purchased about 1200 acres of land in the towns of New Gloucester, Gray, North Yarmouth and Pownal, in Cumberland County. The institution is located one mile from Maine Central Railroad and one mile from Grand Trunk Railroad, Gray and Pownal being respectively their nearest stations. The school is twenty miles distant from Portland, and sixteen miles from Lewiston.
Who are the Feeble-Minded?
In the group called feeble-minded, we include all those individuals who are mentally deficient from birth, or early childhood; and whose defect is due rather to an arrest of development, than to a disease process in later life. These individuals are incapable of managing their affairs with ordinary prudence under ordinary circumstances.
Number of Feeble-Minded
On the basis of one feeble-minded person in three hundred of the population, which is a conservative estimate, there are, according to the census of 1910, 2,226 feeble-minded persons in Maine, and 275,844 in the United States.
The act establishing the School for Feeble-Minded provided for the care and education of the idiotic and feeble-minded six years of age upward. The law has since been amended, so that at present only males between the ages of six and forty, and females between the ages of six and forty-five are eligible for admission to the School for Feeble-Minded.
Feeble-minded persons, are committed to the school by judges of the probate court, after they have first been examined by two physicians who certify that they are fit subjects for the School for Feeble-Minded.
Maine School for Feeble-Minded was opened for inmates in 1908, and is under the general management and supervision of the hospital trustees, who also have charge of the two insane hospitals. One or more of the trustees must visit the institution as often as once in each month. The board of trustees must have an annual meeting, and present a yearly report to the governor and his council, containing the history of the school for the year, and a detailed report of all accounts and disbursements.
The School for Feeble-Minded accommodates 282, and has a waiting list of 180 applicants. Applicants for admission must first apply to the board of trustees, and are accepted for admission from the various counties in the state in proportion to their population. The approximate total expenditure for permanent construction and buildings up to date is $275,000. The average per capita cost for maintenance, including board, clothing, care and medical treatment, and training is $4.00 per week.
On admission, the inmates are given a physical and mental examination, and classified according to their physical and mental condition. All teachable and trainable boys and girls are grouped in classes according to their mental age and given instruction and training adapted to their mentality. The higher grades are taught to read, write-and do simple number work. In the manual training and industrial rooms they are taught to work at various simple occupations. The many household duties and the large farm furnish many of the boys and girls with asef ul occupations.
Care of the Feeble-Minded
Every feeble-minded child should have an opportunity to learn whatever he is capable of learning and thereby be able to think better, do better, and be able to live a happier and more useful life.
All feeble-minded cases who show criminal tendencies, sex offenders, and those who distribute venereal infection, live in filth and tend to degrade the neighborhood, should be provided for in an institution.
Every feeble-minded woman between the ages of fifteen years and forty-five years of age, who cannot look out for her own moral welfare, should be segregated in an institution. There are probably more than five hundred of these child-bearing mentally defective women in Maine, who are rapidly multiplying the feeble-minded variety of the human race.
STATE SCHOOL FOR BOYS
The State School for Boys is located in South Portland, about four miles from Portland City Hall. The nearest trolley line is at Stroudwater, one and one-half miles from the school building. The post office address is 264 Westbrook Street, South Portland, Maine.
The school was established by act of the state legislature of 1853, and after a careful investigation by a legislative committee appointed to select a site the present location was most happily chosen, and by the liberality of the City of Portland a farm of 160 acres was purchased at a cost of $9,000 and presented to the state to be used for purposes connected with the institution, which was then known as the State Reform School.
The purposes for which this institution was established were to provide a place of detention and education for boys between the ages of eight and sixteen years who had become unruly and delinquent in the communities of the state in which they lived and were deemed to be in need of restraint and correction during those earlier years when it is to be presumed that character is being formed, and who were believed to be capable of receiving instruction and training that would enable them to become good men and desirable citizens. Boys who are mentally defective to the extent of being feeble-minded or insane, and those who are deaf, dumb or blind, are not considered subjects for commitment to this school. Nor is the school to be deemed a place of punishment for crimes or misdemeanors committed, but rather for the education and upbuilding of youthful offenders who have by their conduct subjected themselves to the penalties of the statutes.
Many years after its foundation the name of the institution was changed by legislative act from the State Reform School to the State School for Boys, and with this change in name came also the adoption of a change in discipline and even broader and more liberal administration of the affairs of the school. Up to that time the system of living had been only partially what is known as the cottage, or colony, system of school families. A large number of the boys still lived in what is known as the congregate system which prevailed at the opening of the school and which confined the inmates to one large building with adjoining yards for exercise and play. With the adoption of this new legislation, the cottage system was completely inaugurated by the erection of two additional large cottage buildings, and from that time on the boys of the state school have lived in colonies or families of about forty boys under the direction and care of a cottage master, a matron and a school teacher, representing the family idea of father, mother, elder sister and brothers.
Recreation and Health
By way of recreation, all sorts of out-door games-particularly base ball -are encouraged, and in the hall provided for this purpose there is a moving picture machine, and frequent entertainments of interesting character are presented.
The health of the boys is under the care of a regularly appointed physician who is not a resident of the institution but whose visits are made promptly upon call. A comfortable building on the grounds has been made over for use as a hospital with hot and cold water, electric lights, baths, operating room, and has accommodations for twenty patients.
Cottages are most conveniently arranged with school rooms, play rooms, kitchens and dining rooms, and the dormitory system of sleeping. Sanitation and bathing are adequately provided for, and apartments are provided in each cottage for the private life of the master and matron and teacher. Details of heating, lighting and the admission of sunlight in all the apartments have been carefully considered. The school of letters is graded according to the plan in use in the public schools of the state, and teachers are required to have normal school experience and state certificates.
The religious preferences of tho boys are about equally divided between the Catholic and Protestant faiths. There is a regular Catholic pastor who visits the school on the first and third Sundays of each month celebrating the mass on the first Sunday and giving religious instruction and catechism on the third Sunday. All the boys assemble for religious service every Sunday afternoon, and the preachers are volunteer clergymen who take a very keen interest in their service here.
The operation of the school farm and the raising of livestock and poultry give interesting occupation constantly to a certain number of boys, and other industrial activities are provided for in a wood-working shop where general repairs are made and in the school bakery, laundry, kitchens and dairy.
The government of the school is vested in a board of six trustees, each holding a term of six years and one appointment made each year by the governor of the state. The trustees select a superintendent to act for them and under their direction in the daily administration of the affairs of the school. The regular meetings of the board of trustees are held on the fourth Fridays of January, March, May, July, September and November, and a visiting member is appointed at each meeting to make a personal inspection of the school as often as once a month at least. Further supervision of the institution is made by a committee of the governor's council to which is added a lady visitor whose duty it is to make frequent calls at the institution and inquire carefully into the welfare of its inmates.
Commitment of boys between the ages of eight and sixteen to the school is made by magistrates of competent jurisdiction for the term of the boys' minority, unless otherwise disposed of by the trustees and superintendent. This form of commitment amounts virtually to an indeterminate sentence, and leaves to the discretion of the governing officers the time when the boy through the merit of his own good conduct and by reason of the opportunity which may be presented shall leave the institution, the average period of deten-tion being about two years.
THE STATE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
This institution bore the name of the Maine Industrial School for Girls from the time it was established till March 22, 1915, when by act of the legislature it was changed to The State School for Girls.
The history of the school goes back to 1867. In the latter part of January, 1867, a girl, fifteen or sixteen years of age, was convicted in the police court of Augusta of petty larceny, fined, and in default of payment, was committed to the county jail. This incident suggested the necessity of a reform school for girls in the State of Maine. The next morning in the legislature, then in session, Hon. John L. Stevens of Augusta introduced a resolution providing for the appointment of a commission to investigate the subject of reform institutions for girls and their success where already in operation, and report to the next legislature. Hon. George B. Barrows of Fryeburg, was appointed commissioner, and made a report in 1868. This report was referred to the legislature of 1869; and the subject at two subsequent sessions was referred to "the next legislature."
At the session of 1871 nearly a thousand ladies of Portland petitioned the legislature "to make like provisions for the reform of girls as had been made for boys." As a result of this petition a commission was appointed consisting of Hon. Benj. Kingsbury, Jr., of Portland, Hon. E. R. French of Chesterville, and Hon. Samuel Garnsey of Bangor, which reported in 1872 a bill for the incorporation of a private association for the establishment and administration of the proposed institution. This bill was passed and such an association was incorporated.
Meantime, unaware of what was already in progress, Mrs. Mary H. Flagg of Hallo well was moved to provide for vagrant and outcast girls, and first made her intentions known to some friends in April, 1872. She interested also Mrs. Almira C. Dummer of Hallowell; and in December of that year the two offered to the governor, the former $10,000 in money and the latter a building site in the city of Hallowell valued at $2,000. These proposals were made known by the governor in his annual message to the legislature of 1873. The private corporation accepted these proposals.
The first building erected, Flagg-Dummer Hall, was dedicated January 20, 1875. Erskine Hall was opened January, 1886; and Baker Hall in December, 1898.
While the institution received a good deal from private charity the state also made substantial appropriations annually.
The legislature of 1899 enacted a law to put the school wholly under state control. The conditions of this act were accepted by the corporation, and its whole property valued, for its purposes, at $40,000 was conveyed by deed to the state.
The State School for Girls is not a house of correction, but is designed as a home for girls between the ages of six and twenty-one years, who, by force of circumstances or associations, are in manifest danger of becoming outcasts of society. It is not a place of punishment, to which its inmates are sent as criminals-but a home for the friendless, neglected and vagrant children of the state, where, under the genial influence of kind treatment, physical, mental and moral training, they may be won back to ways of virtue and respectability, and fitted for positions of honorable self-support and lives of usefulness.
Girls committed to the school become wards of the state. By the act of commitment fathers and mothers lose their parental rights and responsibilities and the board of trustees, with the superintendent, officers and teachers, in behalf of the state, become as parents to the children.
Girls are admitted to the school between the ages of 6 and 16. This age limit will doubtless be changed at the next legislature to 9 to 17 years. When once admitted, they are under the control of the trustees until 21 years of age, unless sooner discharged by vote of the trustees. Girls may be committed through court procedure for truancy, for "leading an idle or vicious life", or for "being found, in manifest danger of falling into habits of vice or immorality", by the municipal officers, or any three respectable inhabitants of any city or town where she may be found.
The government of the State School for Girls is vested in a board of trustees, six in number, known as "Trustees of Juvenile Institutions". They have charge also of the State School for Boys at South Portland. One trustees must visit each institution every month, the board meetings being held once a month alternating at each school.
The Plant and Inventory Value
The plant consists of four cottages, one central school building with a dormitory, an administration building, two farm cottages, a barn, and a pumping station. The present inventory value of buildings and equipment, together with trust funds valued at $10,819.15, is now $222,945.22.
The present enrolment is 212 girls, 129 resident and 83 non-resident (or parole).
School of Letters
A graded system of schools is maintained, including the first three years of high school work. Several girls are always in outside high and grade schools:
those in the former working their board in families, and the latter having their board paid by the institution.
BATH MILITARY AND NAVAL ORPHAN ASYLUM
The asylum was founded near the close of the Civil War in 1864 by Mrs. Sara A. Sampson of Bath, a returned army nurse, widow of Col. Charles A. L. Sampson of the Third Maine Volunteers. It was started as a local institution, Mrs. Sampson gathering together a few of the more needy soldiers' orphans and establishing them in a small comfortable house with a competent housekeeper. She interested citizens generally in the enterprise, and an organization was formed with Ex-Mayor John Patten as its president. Besides looking after its immediate maintenance, a fund was started to provide for its permanent support as a local institution.
So many applications for admission were received from orphans in other towns, that in order to widen the scope of its usefulness, the home was incorporated as a state institution on February 23, 1866, "for the purpose of rearing and educating, gratuitously, in the common branches of learning and ordinary industrial pursuits, the orphans and half orphans of officers, soldiers, seamen and marines who have entered the service of the government from Maine during the war for the suppression of the rebellion and have died while in said service, or subsequently, from wounds received or injuries or disease contracted while in said service."
Conditions of Admittance
Under provisions of the several acts amendatory of the original the asylum at the present time is open to the following classes:
First: Descendants of veterans of the Civil War who resided in the state and served on the quota of Maine.
Second: Orphans or half orphans of veterans residing in the state, although not serving on the quota of Maine.
Third: Children or grandchildren of veterans of the Civil War, when they have been deserted by either of their parents.
Fourth: Orphans of any citizens of Maine, should the capacity of the home at any time be more than sufficient to care for orphans and others eligible for admittance under the several preceding provisions of the act.
Children of both sexes are received between the ages of four and fourteen. Good homes are provided for them or they are returned to relatives by the time they have reached sixteen years of age. They have careful diet, plain food, wholesome and in plenty. Frequent bathing, a large amount of outdoor exercise and strict sanitary regulations are enforced.
The home physician makes regular visits and responds promptly to any calls for treatment.
The children attend the public schools of Bath on equal footing in every respect with citizens' children, without distinguishing marks or dress. Free textbooks are furnished by the city. Those of suitable age and school rank attend the Manual Training School and Bailey School of Industries, and are graduated from the junior high school if remaining long enough in the home. Some enter the senior high school and several have been graduated with honors.
Quite a number have settled in Bath, are good mechanics, and have good homes and families. Others are filling various stations in life, both business and professional and are making good records. One of the earlier inmates, resident in the state but having his business interests in Boston, was recently a member of the board of trustees, appointed by the governor.
While necessarily under somewhat restrictive rules and regulations, the children are allowed quite general freedom of action, being put upon their honor as to deportment and seldom is the confidence abused. The object is to give them family home life so far as it can reasonably be done.
Children follow the religious preferences of the parents if they have any. All are required to attend church once on Sunday as well as Sabbath School. Daily services are held in the home under the direction of the matron or her assistant.
The management of the asylum is vested in a board of seven trustees four of whom are appointed by the governor and three annually elected by the local association. Seven lady visitors from various parts of the state are also annually elected by the local association, whose duty it is to visit, the asylum and report to the trustees the result of their investigations, together with any suggestions for their betterment.
For many years it has been the custom of the several governors to appoint as one of its trustees, the Department Commander of the G. A. R. whosoever he may be, feeling that the old soldiers may thereby be kept in closer touch with the needy descendants of their former comrades in arms.
There are in all ten care-takers:-matron, housekeeper, two seamstresses, two laundresses, two cooks, housemaid and janitor. The present site of the home was purchased by the state in 1870. Additions to the building and lot have since been made.
Number in Home
The total number cared for in the home since its incorporation to January 1, 1918, has been 982. In the last twenty-five years the state has appropriated for maintenance of children and upkeep of property a total of $227,756.64, averaging about $162.68 per child.
MAINE SCHOOL FOR DEAF
The Maine School for the Deaf was established in 1876 as part of the Public Schoo1 system of the city of Portland, and in 1897 it was taken over by the state and became a state institution. It is a public school for the instruction of children who, because of deafness, cannot be educated in the schools of the towns in which they live. Tuition and board are furnished free to children whose parents or guardians are residents of the State of Maine. The plant consists of an up to date school building of ten well-furnished school rooms, with a fully equipped gymnasium on the third floor and playrooms in the basement. In the industrial building the older pupils are taught printing, carpentry, glazing, cabinet-making, basketry, chair-caning, sewing, dressmaking, weaving, cooking, ironing, etc. Three other buildings provide a dormitory for boys, a dormitory for large girls and dormitory for small girls and a hospital. There are usually in attendance about 100 pupils, representing every part of the state. Thirty persons employed. Appropriation for maintenance for 1918 was $31,862.30.
STATE TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIUMS
In round numbers one thousand people in Maine die every year of tuberculosis, a curable disease. Much has been done for the help of those afflicted with this disease, through private agencies, such as the Maine Anti-Tuberculosis Association, but more needs to be done. In 1915 the legislature provided for the care and treatment of tubercular persons by an act authorizing the establishment of one or more sanatoriums at which patients were to be treated at a charge based on their financial condition. An appropriation of seventy-five thousand dollars was made to accomplish this. The Board of Trustees for Tuberculosis Sanatoriums was organized the same year and immediately went to work.
Western Maine Sanatorium
The appropriation was, of course, inadequate to equip and furnish such institutions as were needed. Through the iberality of the directors of the Maine State Sanatorium at Hebron this plant was offered to the state for $15,000, though the net worth of the land, buildings and equipment was over two hundred thousand dollars. There were also vested funds of about eighty thousand dollars which were turned over to the state. There are about
480 acres of land connected with this institution. The buildings consist of the Chamberlain Building for administration purposes, the reception cottage, the women's cottage, the men's cottage, central heating plant, creamery, etc. The capacity is one hundred. In 1919 the legislature provided that new buildings should be erected for tubercular soldiers, sailors and marines, and it was decided to locate them at Hebron.
Central Maine Sanatorium
Under the conditions named in the deed to the Hebron property only the so-called curable cases can be treated at Hebron. It was, therefore, necessary to acquire a second sanatorium for the treatment of advanced cases of tubercu-losis. The Chase Memorial Sanatorium at Fairfield was offered to the state for $15,000, and as this property was already equipped it seemed best to purchase it. The Central Maine Sanatorium at Fairfield is the receiving station, and patients are transferred as their condition seems to warrant. The capacity has been increased to one hundred and twenty-five. Cottage A is considered one of the most satisfactory buildings in New England for its purpose. The Chase Memorial Building has been remodeled to provide for the increased needs. A building for the accommodation of children is at present under way.
Northern Maine Sanatorium
In 1917 the legislature made an appropriation for the erection and maintenance of a sanatorium in Aroostook County, and a site was given to the state just outside Presque Isle. This institution will be ready for occupancy in April of 1920.
In addition to these state sanatoriums there are three private or semi-private sanatoriums at Parsonfield, Bangor and Andover. Lewiston has a local or county sanatorium. Many hospitals have tuberculosis wards, but even with these accommodations the state institutions have long waiting lists, and patients are sometimes obliged to wait two or three months for admittance.