Massachusetts

 


'Biographical History of Massachusetts, Biographies and Autobiographies of the Leading Men in the State'
Samuel Atkins Eliot, A.M., D.D., Editor-in-Chief;
Volume VI; With opening chapters on The Pulpit in Massachusetts,
By Rev. Paul Revere Frothingham,
Massachusetts Biographical Society, Boston, Massachusetts, 19l6


Submitted by Sara Hemp and Barb Ziegenmeyer


CONTENTS. VOL. VI.
BIOGRAPHIES AND FULL PAGE PORTRAITS ENGRAVED ON STEEL
THE PULPIT IN MASSACHUSETTS
NELSON ADAMS
OAKES AMES
EDWARD ANDERSON
SILAS REED ANTHONY
CHARLES ALBERT BABBITT
ALBERT LE ROY BARTLETT
WILLIAM FRANCIS BARTLETT
FREDERICK ORIN BASTON
JAMES ALEXANDER BILL
FREDERICK ADELBERT BISBEE
HENRY WALKER BISHOP
JOHN JOSIAH BRIGHT
ELISHA DEWEY BUFFINGTON
ALFRED BUNKER
WILLIAM JOHN BURKE
ALBERT WILLIAMS BURTON
EDWARD NAHUM CAPEN
THEODORE FRELINGHUYSEN CHAPIN
BENJAMIN PIERCE CHENEY
DWIGHT CHESTER
ALFRED CLARKE
AMOS SAWYER CRANE
ELLERY BICKNELL CRANE
FREDERICK AUGUSTUS CURRIER
MYRON BATES DAMON
ARTHUR ELMER DENISON
HENRY DEXTER
CHARLES FRANCIS DONNELLY
EBENEZER ALDEN DYER
AMOS MADISON EATON
CHARLES EDWARD FAXON
CARL FEHMER
DESMOND FITZGERALD
JAMES FREEMAN DANA GARFIELD
CHARLES EDWARD GARMAN
PATRICK GILBRIDE
HARRIS COWDREY HARTWELL
SAMUEL EDWARD HERRICK
GEORGE HINCHLIFFE
HARRY CLOUGH HOWARD
HARRISON WHITFIELD HUGULEY
WALDO WARNER JENCKES
WILLIAM SAMUEL JENKS
EDWARD DORR GRIFFIN JONES
JOHN KNEELAND
LOUIS KRONBERG
WILLIAM HENRY LEMON
JOHN MUNRO LONGYEAR
LOUIS PHILLIPPE McDUFFEE
ATHERTON PERRY MASON
DANIEL HOWE NEWTON
FRANK LOVELL OAKES
EUGENE WALTER ONG
BAILY LITTLE PAGE
CHARLES DANA PALMER
FRANKLIN PERRIN
WILLIAM JOHN QUINN
JOSEPH EVERETT REYNOLDS
CHARLES MAY ROBBINS
HENRY STURGIS RUSSELL
WILLIAM HENRY SAART
GEORGE SAMPSON
GEORGE PARMENTER SMITH
HENRY ROGERS SMITH
WILLIAM SIMEON SMITH
FRANCIS EDGAR STANLEY
ISAAC WILSON STETSON
GEORGE WENDELL TAPLEY
EVERETT TORREY
FRANK EMMETT TUTTLE
ANDREW GRAY WEEKS, SR,
WARREN BAILEY POTTER WEEKS
FRED WILLIAMS WELLINGTON
GEORGE ELLIOT WELLINGTON
ALBERT BATCHELLER WELLS
JOSEPH CUTLER WHITNEY
ALBERT LAFAYETTE WILBUR
HENRY AUGUSTUS WILLIS
SAMUEL HOBART WINKLEY
WILLIAM ELLIS WOOD



THE PULPIT IN MASSACHUSETTS

MASSACHUSETTS is justly proud of her splendid institutions, as she likewise is of the many famous men and women who have helped to make those institutions what they are. When mention is made, for instance, of the Bar in Massachusetts, the mind reverts at once to such names as Choate and Webster, Dana, Lowell, Otis, Joseph Story, Lemuel Shaw, and many others.
If Medicine is spoken of we recall such men as Bowditch and Bigelow, Warren and Waterhouse, Jackson and Hayward, and Oliver Wendell Holmes and Edward Hammond Clark and others of conspicuous fame, while in the spheres of literature, philanthropy and education the names are almost legion of those who have added to the luster of the State and the welfare and the progress of the Nation.
For many years, however, and for long and successive generations, the peculiar pride of Massachusetts was her pulpit. The colony having been settled with a spiritual purpose and by people who were driven from their homes by reason of their religious scruples, the government assumed the form, at first, of a practical theocracy. Its ministers in many instances were its magistrates, and what was spoken in the pulpit was often put into an order of the court. None but church members, in colonial times, were allowed to vote, and the churches were the literal meeting-houses of the people, - the only places, indeed, where for many years the people came together as a body. There they worshiped upon Sunday and there they voted upon week days.
To write the story of the great men who have stood in Massachusetts pulpits, and whose words of prophecy and power reached at times with lightning force and emphasis across the continent, would mean the telling of too long a tale for an introductory article like this. Beginning with John Cotton, who landed on these shores in 1633 - the Great Cotton, as he long was called, and of whom it was said -
"The lantern of St. Botolph's ceased to burn,
When from the portals of that church he came
To be a burning and a shining light
Here in the wilderness,"
the story would be long as well as brilliant, and it would hardly find an end with the life and history of Phillips Brooks, who was one of Cotton's lineal descendants.
The story, I repeat, would not be ended there, for the volumes of this history will contain the biographical sketches and portraits of men who are doing and have done a great deal to continue and keep alive the noble traditions of the Massachusetts pulpit. In many instances these men are worthy representatives indeed of the great men who preceded them, and the torch of inspiration which was handed them they propose to pass along in undimmed glory to the men who follow.
John Robinson, addressing the Pilgrims as they were on the point of setting sail from Delftshaven, said to them, as every one recalls, that doubtless "more light would yet break forth out of God's word." It was a broad and prophetic utterance for the time, and it sometimes seems as though that seed-like saying had been planted in the soil of Massachusetts men, and had taken root and flourished and brought forth constant and abundant fruit. At least the prophecy of Robinson has been the potency and power of the Massachusetts pulpit. Its preachers have been light-bringers from the early days to these. Let me call attention to a few great causes which have been particularly identified with the pulpit of our state.
In the first place came what is known in history as the Great Awakening. It began in 1734. There had come into the churches, says a writer, "a lack of spiritual vigor, a languor, a deadness of faith which were not in keeping with their position or their history. Out of this sleep they were awakened in a wondrous manner," and a great revival soon took place. The man to bring the change about, to arouse the sleeping energies and to stir the languid faith by his fervid, forceful, brilliant, and dogmatic preaching, was a Massachusetts man who was settled in a little country town in the western part of the State. I refer to Jonathan Edwards. It was Edwards who sounded the first clear note that led to the first religious revival in America. The movement which thus was set on foot was distinctly encouraged by the arrival on Massachusetts shores, in 1740, of a young and most remarkable English preacher. It was the first of many visits that he came to pay, and the Massachusetts churches were not large enough to hold the crowds that thronged to hear him. Whitefield took at last to Boston Common, where he spoke on one occasion, it is said, to more than fifteen thousand people, thrilling them with his fervor and arousing them to higher life. He died at Newburyport, in 1770, and was buried in a vault beneath the pulpit of a Congregational meeting-house in which he had often preached. There his bones, or the remains of them, may still be viewed by any who are curious to see the earthly remnants of one of the greatest revivalists who ever lived. The larger portion of his life was spent in England, where he was born and made his home, but Massachusetts claimed and kept him in his death.
As it was with "The Great Awakening," which was a somewhat reactionary movement, so it was with that more enduring and progressive cause which was led by Dr. Channing. The Unitarian movement in America began in Massachusetts and was headed by a Massachusetts man. Though a Rhode Islander by birth, Boston early came to be the home of William Ellery Channing, and he was pastor of the church on Federal Street for nearly forty years. Moreover, what was true of Channing and the Unitarian movement was equally the case of Hosea Ballou and Universalism. Ballou was born in New Hampshire, but for three and thirty years he preached in Boston, setting forth with vigor, freshness, and true genius those liberal truths which are still the strength and glory of the cause of Universalism. The names of Channing and Ballou are indelibly connected with the cause of religious progress in Massachusetts. Both were prophets of new faith, and both were brave and inspired champions of a purer, simpler form of Christianity. Both accordingly contributed in no small way to the breadth and tolerance that to-day are characteristic of the world.
When we come to the next great movement which commanded the attention of the world and awakened wide-spread comment, - if not at all times commendation, - the story is essentially the same. Massachusetts was the leader, and Massachusetts pulpits formed the background of the new development which received the name of Transcendentalism. Transcendentalism was a New England product, and it has been described with accuracy and felicity as the "New England Renaissance." Its fountain head was in Massachusetts, and its stream of influence had its rise in certain of the pulpits of the State. Emerson, to be sure, resigned his clerical charge and took the world of thought for his parish. He stepped from the pulpit on to the vantage ground of the platform. Nevertheless, there lingered about him to the last the flavor of the church. He was preacher and prophet in all things, whether in his essays, his lectures, or his poetry.
Moreover, his essential message, and indeed the truths of Transcendentalism in general, were thundered forth by Theodore Parker from his pulpit in Music Hall. The influence of Parker, especially in Anti-slavery matters was nation-wide. While many pulpits were complained of for their silence, and other preachers were condemned for condoning the great national sin, Parker spoke from week to week in no uncertain tone. His words in printed form were circulated far and wide, and were carried among other places to Springfield, Illinois. There they were read and re-read by a busy lawyer of the name of Lincoln; and Abraham Lincoln's immortal utterance in regard to "government of the people, by the people, and for the people" was based upon a saying of the Massachusetts preacher.
The influence, therefore, of the pulpit in our State from the earlier days to these has been wide as well as deep. In these later days it received fresh strength and glory from the spiritual zeal, the broad religious outlook, and consecrated life and words of Phillips Brooks. Nor is the story ended yet. The stream is borne along in the lives and hearts of many others, the record of whose services the volumes of this history in part contain. When Dean Stanley visited America in 1881 he said that wherever he went, and he heard many sermons, nothing but Emerson was preached. In the generation that has come since then there has doubtless been a change. However that may be, there can be no doubt of the shaping force upon the nation's life which the religious thinkers of our State have long exerted. More than all else, that inspiration, as we have clearly seen, is one for progress, growth, development - one of more light which yet shall break forth from God's word. The future is a mystery, but the past is well secured, and that past appears to lay upon us the necessity of forward looking life and work.

signed: Paul Revere Frothingham



NELSON ADAMS
NELSON ADAMS was born at Hubbardston, Worcester County, Massachusetts, July 6,1831. He is the son of Elisha Adams (born August 16, 1787, died July 14, 1868), who married October 12, 1808, Betsey Dean, the daughter of Richard and Grace Parmenter Dean, of Oakham, Massachusetts. She died May 20, 1859. His grandfather was Elijah Adams, born in West Medway, Massachusetts, January 7, 1758, married April 14, 1774, Lizzie Morse, daughter of Ezekiel and Rebecca (cousins) Morse of Holliston who settled in Hubbardston, 1774. He died December 7, 1817. She died December 31, 1839. Elisha Adams was the seventh child of Elijah. He was a man of remarkable mechanical ability, he could make or repair anything that could be fashioned from wood, and was a good type of the old-fashioned farmer who did not have to call in outside assistance to do the many little jobs that are always occurring on the farm. Besides farming he made chairs from the abundance of suitable wood growing on his rough stony land. He allowed nothing to go to waste, the rough wood being made into charcoal. He was a descendant of Henry Adams who came from England and settled in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1633, the line being Henry 1, Edward 2, John 3, Obadiah 4, Nathan 5, Elijah 6, Elisha 7, Nelson 8. President John Adams and Samuel Adams belonged to the same family.
Nelson Adams lived on his father's farm until he was about eighteen years old, attending district school in the winter and assisting his father in his varied industries. He has always been thankful for his training on the farm in his early days, although at the time he had the boy's usual prejudice against the grindstone and the hand-power turning lathe.
Of his school days he mentions the particular delight he took in the teaching of Samuel Heywood who introduced him to Colburn's Mental Arithmetic and to the study of Astronomy. He also speaks of the excellent influence of his mother upon his moral and spiritual life. She was a skilful farmer's wife whose butter was renowned through the town. In fact he had just the training which they are now attempting to supply by the kindergarten and manual training schools, but it was of a much higher grade, for the boy was made to feel that he was of some use in the world and was not merely being taught something that might be of use. He speaks of his visits to the blacksmith shop, that center of town news, where he heard discussed the various events that were taking place in the wide world. From the farm he graduated at the age of eighteen and went to Fitchburg to work for some time in the chair factory of Alonzo Davis. But he did not like the confinement of the shop, and soon left it to engage hi a more congenial business. This was the life of a drover. At that time all cattle and other live stock for the Boston Market had to make the journey on foot. This life kept him continually out of doors and on horseback. He would collect cattle, sheep, hogs, and horses in the western part of New England and drive them to the great market at Brighton. In the spring he bought young hogs in Brighton and drove them west to be fed and fattened for the fall markets. He was engaged in this business from 1850 to 1855 when the course of trade began to change and cattle and other animals were brought to market on the cars.
In the winters of 1852 and 1853 he went to Boston and was employed in the bacon works and in the market. During this time he attended courses of the Lowell Institute. Thus he had a good schooling in the packing business. This was before the days of canned goods, and everything intended for future use had to be pickled or otherwise preserved. In 1855 he went to Fitchburg and entered into business with Mr. Francis Buttrick. Mr. Adams seems to have been early impressed with the importance of gathering up all the fragments that nothing might be lost. So when Mr. Buttrick went into the slaughtering business at Fitchburg he took charge of the by-products. He rendered the lard at first in open kettles and afterwards by steam. This produced considerable waste material which the health authorities compelled him to take care of, as slaughtering by the old methods was no longer permitted. In 1857 he saw what he considered a better opening for business at Fairhaven, Connecticut. Buying out a small establishment at that place, he removed the appliances to New Haven and went more fully hito the treatment of the butchers' refuse, sending his wagons all through the county gathering up fragments. He continued in his first establishment for two or three years when he hired a place at Beaver Pond where he continued for about twenty years. In speaking of his work at this place he says the great variety of by-products would not be apparent to the casual observer. Material which is useless before it is worked up was gathered and brought into the rendering plant, which also included curing among its processes. Tripe, pigs feet, and lambs' tongues were pickled and put up attractively long before the canning industry began sending out its products. Besides the provision branch of the business, the main product of the rendering plant was tallow. Bone was quite a resource and was separated into several different grades: the specially selected bone was sold to the novelty dealer, who made buttons, crochet needles, piano keys, handles for cutlery, and many other useful things. Some of the bone was made into bone black, for use in sugar refining, and some was used in the steel industry for case hardening steel. Tons of ground bones were used in fertilizers, being sent away by the vessel load to the fertilizer plants up and down the Atlantic coast. Hide trimmings and sinews were prepared for glue stock. Neatsfoot oil was made and clarified for the market.
At about the same time he went to New Haven, Mr. Adams became interested in another establishment at Bridgeport, although he did not take active charge of this till some years after. From 1859 until 1887 he was interested in a plant at Waterbury, and in 1865 he became heavily interested in a plant in New York City. Finding that he had too much on his hands he was able to dispose of his interests in New York in 1867. In 1867 he had a chance to buy a well equipped factory at Hartford and retained his interest in this till 1888.
Mr. Adams seems to have never been averse to extending his business when he saw a good opening, and in 1876 he bought out the Springfield plant of R. C. Taylor. This place was on leased premises and in an unsuitable situation. So he bought the D. B. Wesson place and put the establishment in charge of his nephew H. G. Thomas. The establishment was placed in Longmeadow. There he added the manufacture of poultry food and fertilizers to his other business.
Mr. Adams removed to Springfield about 1897 and still continues to reside there, content in a happy old age but by no means considering himself old.


OAKES AMES
OAKES AMES was born in Canton, Massachusetts, February 24, 1863. He died at bis home in Milton, Massachusetts, February 23, 1914. He was the son of Frank Morton Ames (born August 14, 1833; died August 23, 1898) and Catherine Hay ward (Copeland) Ames; and a grandson of Oakes Ames (born July 10, 1804; died May 8, 1873) and Evelyn 0. Gilmore Ames; and on his mother's side, of Hiram Copeland (born February 9, 1798; died July 13, 1861) and Lurana Copeland.
The ancestor of the family in New England was William Ames, who was born at Bruton, Somersetshire, England, in 1665, a great grandson of John Ames, who died in Bruton, England, in 1560. He settled in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1641, and died there in 1654. Mr. Ames' grandfather, Oakes Ames, was a Congressman from Massachusetts, and one of the chief promoters and builders of the Union Pacific Railroad. His uncle, Oliver Ames, was a former Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
His father, Frank M. Ames, was a prominent Massachusetts manufacturer, having been for many years the President of the Kinsley Iron and Machine Works at Canton, and was also President of the Lamson Store Service Company of Boston.
Oakes Ames had an aptitude for mechanics. In early life he took a great interest in athletics, being principally interested in baseball, in which he was locally celebrated as a pitcher, and in bicycle contests in which he took a number of prizes.
He attended the primary schools of Canton, was graduated from the Canton High School, and then entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the class of 1885. After two years at the Institute he entered upon the active duties of life with the Kinsley Iron and Machine Works of Canton, of which he eventually became President. Upon his father's death he became President of the Lamson Store Service Company and recognizing the great possibilities of pneumatic transmission he developed apparatus along this line. The Lamson Company became connected with the American Pneumatic Service Company of which he was elected Vice-President. At the time of his death he was, in addition to the above positions, President of the Martin Cash Carrier Company and the Air Line Carrier Company, Director of the Batcheller Pneumatic Company, Chicago Postal Pneumatic Tube Company, Boston Pneumatic Transit Company, International Pneumatic Service Company, Massachusetts Pneumatic Tube Company, New York Mail & Transportation Company and St. Louis Pneumatic Tube Company. He was also associated with gas and electric companies in several Massachusetts cities and with other corporations. He was a member of the Massachusetts Automobile Club, the Country Club, the Norfolk Country Club, the Hoosick Whisick, and the Engineers Clubs.
Mr. Ames was a Republican in his affiliations, but in the late division of the party, joined with the Progressive wing. He never aspired to political office, but was content to devote his energies to the promotion of the large interests with which he was connected.
Mr. Ames was married October 28, 1886, to Florence, daughter of Joshua S. and H. Amelia (Thurber) Ingalls of Detroit, Michigan, who survives him. Mrs. Ames is a granddaughter of Ira A. and Huldah (Clark) Thurber and of Simeon and Rhoda (Smith) Ingalls. Mr. Ames is also survived by their three children, Amelia C. Ames, who resides at home, Oakes Ingalls Ames, and Charles E. Ames, both students at Harvard University.
Mr. Ames died in the full tide of a life of great success. He did much, and made a point of doing well everything that he undertook. He was a leader among men, and used his executive ability in promoting financial ventures with a masterly hand. He never betrayed the confidence of those who followed his lead.
His interest in his college class was unusually strong, and his relations with his classmates were among his greatest pleasures. In a tribute to his memory one of his classmates says: - "It is twelve years since Death has entered the ranks of the class of '85. He could have taken no more loyal member, more steadfast friend or truer gentleman than Oakes Ames, whose memory we shall hold perennially fragrant in our hearts."


EDWARD ANDERSON
AMBASSADORS of the Prince of Peace are occasionally drafted into the Army, where carnal weapons are the acknowledged instruments of righteousness and where "the word preached" is to be that of surrender or death. So it seems to have been with Edward Anderson. His father, Rufus Anderson, D.D., LL.D., (1796-1880) married Eliza Hill (1804-1888) and their son Edward was born in Boston, November 19, 1833. His grandfathers were Rufus Anderson and Richard Hill. The Anderson line is traced back to James, who came from Londonderry, Ireland, to Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1719. Rufus, the father of Edward, was a Congregational clergyman of high repute and for many years was the distinguished Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. His tastes were scholarly and he wrote much upon missionary topics, being the author of a "History of Missions" in five volumes. The printer's trade attracted young Edward and he learned it, that he might, through it, get a better knowledge of practical literary work. There were no special obstacles or hardships in the path of his education, as he had the advantages of the Washington and Roxbury Latin Schools, and Phillips Academy, Andover. He did not have a collegiate opportunity. A godly and devoted mother exercised a blessed influence upon her son as she strove to develop in him the noblest likings and ambitions. The parents would see him a minister of the Gospel and to that end he studied theology with his father, and in 1858 was ordained into the ministry.
In a life of many vicissitudes he performed the ordinary duties of the pastorate in several churches, but his chief work has been in Army circles. He was Chaplain of the 37th Illinois Infantry, Colonel 12th Indiana Cavalry, and served through the Civil War. He was for several years editor and part owner of the Chautauqua (N.Y.) Democrat; a daily paper.
Colonel Anderson was "persona grata" in social and fraternal clubs and societies, being, among others, a member A. F. A. M., Knights of Pythias; A.O.U. W.; R. A., G. A. R.; M. O. L. L., U. S. He has held office in A. F. and A. M.; Commander J. M. Wells Post, Columbus, Ohio; and Chaplain of many other posts. He was chaplain-in-chief of the Grand Army of the United States.
He voted as he thought and talked - a Republican, and swerved not from that political faith. His ministry has been among the churches of the Congregational denomination principally, but he has been a servant at large in the Kingdom of God.
He is the author of one volume - "Camp Fire Stories," 1869.
As for amusement, he finds much satisfaction in the game of golf - as any man must whose life has been vigorously spent under the open sky.
In 1857, July 29, Mr. Anderson married Harriet F., daughter of Elijah G. and Florinda Shumway. Five children have been born to them, of which two - William G. and Henry S. - are respectively Professor and Instructor of Physics at Yale University. His daughter (Mrs. Kate Anderson Wadsworth) was, before her marriage, at the head of the Department of Physical Culture for Women in the Chicago University.
His advice to youth who would make themselves of most value in the world is, to be satisfied with nothing less than true worth of character, and to love work for its own sake.


SILAS REED ANTHONY
SILAS REED ANTHONY, banker and stock broker, partner in one of the most important banking houses of New England, member of the New York Stock Exchange, was born in Boston, August 5, 1863. He died there March 10, 1914. He was the oldest of five children of Nathan Anthony, born February 11, 1832, died June 12, 1881, and Clara James (Reed) Anthony, born April 16, 1840. His paternal grandparents were Edmund Anthony, born August 8, 1808, died January 24, 1876, and Ruth Adeline (Soper) Anthony, and his mother was the daughter of Silas Reed, born May 29, 1806, died in October, 1886, and Henrietta M. (Rogers) Reed.
The first of the Anthony family to arrive in America was John Anthony, a descendant from William Anthony, who was born in Cologne, Germany, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, and, coming to London, was chief graver of the mint and seals to King Edward VI and Queens Mary and Elizabeth. John Anthony emigrated from Hampstead, now a part of London, in 1634, settling in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Other ancestors of S. Reed Anthony included such men of distinction as Myles Standish, John Alden, Governor Thomas Dudley, Major-General Daniel Dennison, John Rogers, fifth President of Harvard College, Tristram Coffin and William Reed, of the Winthrop colony in Massachusetts.
Mr. Anthony prepared for college at the Roxbury Latin School, in which he ever afterwards showed an active and helpful interest, but upon the death of his father in 1881, he gave up his plans for college.
In December, 1881, at the age of eighteen, Mr. Anthony entered the employ of Kidder, Peabody & Co. He remained with this house more than ten years. Resigning in May, 1892, he formed a partnership with William A. Tucker, and they established the banking house of Tucker, Anthony & Company.
Mr. Anthony's tastes and business led him into many social and other organizations. He was a member of the Union, Algonquin, Athletic, Exchange, Essex County, New Riding and Country Clubs. He was interested in the history and progress of New England and the country at large, and belonged to the Bostonian Society, American Geographical Society, and Mayflower Society. He was also a member of the Eastern Yacht Club, New York Yacht Club, and the Boston Yacht Club; his favorite sports were yachting and driving. He was an Episcopalian, attending Emmanuel Church, Boston, of which he was one of the wardens. He was a constant adherent of the Republican party.
Mr. Anthony was married June 1, 1887, to Miss Harriet P. Weeks, daughter of Andrew G. and Harriet Pitts (Pierce) Weeks, granddaughter of Ezra and Hannah (Prince) Weeks, and of Charles and Harriet (Pitts) Pierce, and a descendant from Elder William Brewster who came to America on the Mayflower and Colonel Daniel Pierce, of Newburyport. Mr. and Mrs. Anthony's three children are : Andrew Weeks, Ruth and Reed Pierce.
Trained in business methods, and accustomed to weigh consequences before embarking upon any undertakings, an experience like Mr. Anthony's is especially instructive to those who would give heed to its lessons. These are the principles, habits and maxims that his career suggested to him as most helpful in achieving the highest and most satisfactory results in life: "Moral responsibility, steadiness of purpose and firm resolution. Be fair and honest in dealing with others. Live and let live."
Mr. Anthony wrote the above words for the readers of this work, and his own life shows that it was modeled along these lines. He said that the relative strength of influence of home, of school, of contact with men in active life, of private study, of early companionship, all in the order named were potent factors upon his own success in life.
Among the many tributes to the memory of Mr. Anthony, the Boston Transcript said: "S. Reed Anthony, the Boston banker, who died on Tuesday, was a successful man as measured by the usual standards, but the true record of his success is written not in ledgers, but in the hearts of those who were privileged to know him. It is so written because as boy and man he failed in no relationship and in no duty. By many lines of descent he was a Puritan, but in him the granite character of his Puritan ancestors had been refined to a character of transparent quartz through which all men might read, though its surface none might scratch; but it was a quartz warm and glowing like that which marks Emerson's grave in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery.
"To die at fifty years with one's larger plans still unfulfilled and leaving all that makes life good behind may seem to some the irony of Fortune, but to live for fifty years and earn honor from one's associates, devotion from one's friends, love and life-long remembrance from one's family is surely to achieve success. This is why so many men and women are to-day proud to have known S. Reed Anthony and happy in remembering him as 'That friend of mine who lives in God.'"
Speaking of Mr. Anthony, Mr. Henry M. Rogers said, "A good man has finished his work here. In the ripeness of a rich manhood, and with seemingly years of service still before him, he has been taken from us and the mystery of unexpected death remains to perplex us. To those who mourn him must be a faith that in the Providence of God there are no accidents and that he is needed elsewhere. His memory will long endure for he was entrenched in many hearts. He inherited integrity as a birthright. He was loving and gentle and kind. His monument was made daily. In every relation growing out of his manifold duties and responsibilities, he was simple and direct, with firm convictions, presented with sobriety of judgment, patience and firmness. He was reserved rather than demonstrative and in face and bearing could never be mistaken for less than a gentleman. He was pure in his life, loving in his household, generous to a degree, and a citizen, patriotic, wise and self-restrained.
"He never mistook assertion for performance of duty and was instinctively able to separate wheat from chaff in life. He cared most for the essentials of living - for truth - for manhood - for service. Many men will pass before our eyes whose names are praised and sounded to the echo, - but in the scales that will finally measure character, it is believed that Reed Anthony will be found among those designated by the Master as good and faithful servants. Had he lived for an hundred years what more could he have or we ask?"


CHARLES ALBERT BABBITT (Worchester county)
CHARLES ALBERT BABBITT, a prominent resident of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, was born in Barre, Massachusetts, March 11, 1851, and died suddenly, August 14, 1911, at his summer home at Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, after a severe surgical operation.
He was the son of Pliny H. Babbitt (1818-1908) and Lydia Perry.
His father was an Auctioneer, and for several years, Deputy Sheriff. His mother, who died when he was thirteen, left her strong impress, in the choice of things true and noble, upon her son.
He was early familiar with all kinds of farm work, and learned to be self-reliant and industrious. He knew what it was to "find a way or make one," amid the difficult problems which confronted him from his childhood, as from the age of sixteen he paid all his expenses in securing a coveted education.
He attended the Wilbraham Academy, the Westfield Normal School, and was graduated from Dartmouth College, in 1879 and from the Boston University Law School in 1881, with the degree of LL.B.
Beginning the practice of law in Orange, Massachusetts, in 1882, he removed to Fitchburg in 1887, where he resided during the rest of his life, and where he won honor and distinction in his profession.
Elected to the Common Council of his City, in which he served two years (one as its president), he was later called to the Mayoralty for two years. To that office he brought marked ability for its varied duties, and was by general consent, one of the most capable executives in the history of the city. He had special fitness for understanding and solving financial questions, and inaugurated many valuable reforms in the conduct of civic affairs. He led in the revision of the City Charter, and had much influence in the Legislature, though not a member of that body.
Having the courage of his convictions, he could not be swerved from those policies and plans he believed to be right. He heard and loyally obeyed what he thought to be the voice of duty.
In College, he was a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity; he belonged to the Masonic Order; Pay Club, to the Mayor's Club of Boston, and the Pitchburg Bar Association. In both the latter organizations he held the office of President.
Politically he was widely known through the Commonwealth as a Democrat, and was enthusiastic in support of the principles and candidates of that party.
Mr. Babbitt married, March 30, 1883, Addie P., daughter of Josiah and Marianna (Houghton) Packard. Their two daughters are Edith D., the wife of Isaac S. Hall of Medford, Massachusetts, and Ina P., unmarried. In his sixty years of active service, Mr. Babbitt showed how it is possible for a determined, faithful, and conscientious man to come, through his own efforts, to a high and useful position in the life of the community, and, departing, to leave a sense of general bereavement among all who knew him personally or by reputation. He was an excellent example of deserved success in this land of equal opportunity and obligation.


ALBERT LE ROY BARTLETT
ALBERT LE ROY BARTLETT was born in Haverhill, Essex County, Massachusetts, June 1, 1851. He is the son of Thomas Bartlett and Patience Hawkins. His father was a farmer, a man marked by industry and honesty, by his good humor and love of learning. His ancestor, Richard Bartlett, came from Sussex, England, to Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1635. He is descended also from John Winthrop and Thomas Dudley, Governors of Massachusetts, and from Lieut. Col. Thomas Bartlett and Gen. Joseph Cilley, who were officers in the War of the Revolution.
Albert Le Roy Bartlett had a good inheritance. His home was full of inspiring influences. He was fond of reading and enjoyed the country life. He had no difficulties in following his tastes and securing an education. He attended the Haverhill High School and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1872. He was Master of the Academy at Sherborn, Massachusetts in 1872; Sub-Master of the Haverhill High School 1873 to 1875 ; 1882-1888 ; Master of the Bradford High School 1875-1882; Superintendent of Schools in Haverhill 1888-1897. Besides this service he has been a lecturer in English in many summer schools. He was chosen a Trustee of the Public Library of Haverhill in 1888, and still holds that office. He has been a member of the Park Commission since 1901, and he has been Alderman and Mayor of Haverhill.
He has published several books in connection with his work as a teacher. He wrote a "History of the Haverhill Academy and High School" in 1890; "First Steps in English," 1900; "Essentials of Language and Grammar," 1900; "A Golden Way," 1902; "The Construction of English," 1903. He has also been a contributor to magazines.
His life has been an industrious one and of wide spreading influence. He has had ample opportunities to be of service in school and city, and by reason of his character, learning and experience he has served well.
In politics he has always been a Republican. He finds recreation in walking and riding, and in pedestrian tours, especially among the Alps.
His career has been one of quiet and permanent usefulness.


WILLIAM FRANCIS BARTLETT
The emigrant ancestor of General Bartlett was Richard Bartlett, who came from England and settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1635. The family was one of note in the mother country. At the end of the fifteenth century a castle was granted to John Bartlett by Edward the Black Prince for efficient service in the capture of the castle of Fontenoy, in France, and with this grant of a castle was the right to keep swans in the river near by. From this privilege came the swan into the family crest. A great grandfather of General Bartlett's was a soldier at the siege of Louisburg in 1745, and another was an officer in one of the Massachusetts regiments in the Revolutionary War. Fondness and aptitude for military life was a strong family trait which found its most brilliant expression in the career of William Francis Bartlett.
He was the son of Charles Leonard and Harriett (Plummer) Bartlett, and was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 6, 1840. He was fitted for college at the Boston Latin School and at Phillips Andover Academy, and entered Harvard in 1858. He was not a close student, but was fond of athletics and outdoor sports, which strengthened his tall, slender form and laid the basis of the vigorous health which enabled him to endure the extraordinary hardships of his military service.
His early political views inclined him to the Southern side of the great controversy between the two sections of the Union, but when the clash of arms came he cast in his lot on the Union side. On April 17, 1861, the same day that he wrote to a friend that "it would be fighting rather against my principles to fight on the Northern side," he enlisted in the Fourth Battalion of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia commanded by Major, afterwards General Thomas Stevenson. The battalion was stationed at Fort Independence in Boston Harbor, and was mustered out on the 25th of May. This training was of great value to him and he said that he had thus learned more military tactics than he could have learned from books in a year.
At the completion of this service he returned to his college studies for the remainder of the academic year, but his mind and heart were elsewhere, for his taste of military life had stirred the latent forces inherited from his ancestors. When the Twentieth Massachusetts Regiment was organized he was offered a captaincy. He promptly accepted, and was made the senior captain of the regiment. His commission was dated July 10, 1861. He entered upon his new duties with all the ardor and earnestness of his nature, recruiting his company, and organizing and drilling it in the duties of the soldier. On the 4th of September, 1861, the regiment left the State for Washington, and soon after became attached to the division of General C. P. Stone, stationed on the Upper Potomac. On October 1st it had an active part in the disastrous battle of Balls Bluff. The Union forces were sent across the river only to find themselves in a trap with the enemy in great strength in front of them and the river behind. Six companies of the Twentieth Massachusetts, in all three hundred and eighteen men and twenty-two officers, took part in the fierce fighting that followed. The division lost heavily and Captain Bartlett, thinking he might as well fall advancing against the enemy as standing still, led his command up over the Bluff. In a letter to his mother he describes what he then saw. "The field began to look like my preconceived idea of a battle-field. Men were lying under foot, and here and there a horse struggling in death. The ground was smoking and covered with blood, while the noise was perfectly deafening. I went to the Colonel and he was sitting behind a tree perfectly composed. He told me that there was nothing to do but surrender and save the men from being murdered.'" Nevertheless Captain Bartlett led his men in a spirited charge, but the troops were hurled back and the retreat was ordered.
On reaching the river bank Captain Bartlett ordered all his men who could swim to swim the river. Those who could not swim, in company with seventy-five men from other regiments, Captain Bartlett led up the river, and finding an old scow sunk in the water, they raised it, and by this means he got all the men with him over in safety. The Colonel, Major, Adjutant and Surgeon of the regiment were captured and carried to Richmond. Only nine of the twenty-two officers got safely back across the river, and the six companies lost one hundred and forty-five men in killed, wounded, and missing. For his coolness, presence of mind, and resourcefulness in the management of his command, Captain Bartlett was awarded the warmest praise by his superior officers. The losses in the field and staff left him second in command of the regiment for some six months after the battle. He spent the remainder of the autumn and the following winter in drilling his men and in perfecting them in all the duties of the camp and field. He was a strict disciplinarian and an accomplished drill master. At the same time he was thoughtful of his men and watchful of their comfort and welfare. The men became strongly attached to him and acquired that confidence in his leadership so essential to the efficiency of a regiment in the field.
In the following spring, the Twentieth regiment was a part of the army which went to the Peninsula under General McClellan. The duty there was particularly disagreeable as well as hard and dangerous. The weather was bad and the regiment was largely engaged in picket duty at the extreme outpost of the Union line. On the 24th of April, 1862, while in command of the picket, Captain Bartlett was out on the extreme front and while kneeling down and watching through his glass the movements of the enemy, he was shot through the left knee, the ball destroying the knee joint and shattering the bone for six inches below the knee. His leg was immediately amputated four inches above the knee joint, and Captain Bartlett's active service in the Twentieth regiment was ended. He bore the operation with Spartan courage. His single remark to a comrade standing by was, "It's rough, Frank, isn't it?" This and nothing more.
Captain Bartlett was sent to Baltimore and later to his home in Massachusetts. He rejoined his Harvard class in June and received his diploma with the rest. Though still belonging to the Twentieth, in the following September he was offered the command of the military camp at Pittsfield, where the Forty-ninth regiment, a nine-months' organization, was being formed. He accepted the commission and entered upon the work of organizing and drilling the regiment with his usual energy. So thorough was his service and so great was the confidence he inspired that when the officers came to elect a commander of the regiment, he received every vote cast and was duly commissioned Colonel of the Forty-ninth.
The regiment left Massachusetts November 28, 1862, and on January 28th following was ordered to New Orleans to join the army of General Banks. It had an active part in the campaign against Fort Hudson. Colonel Bartlett had brought it to a high state of efficiency and notwithstanding his crippled condition he was its active commander and led it in all its marches and campaigns. On Wednesday, May 27th, General Banks made his first disastrous assault on Fort Hudson. The Forty-ninth was in General Augur's division and held the center of the Union line. In front of the division there was first about half a mile of felled timber and abattis, and between the edge of the abattis and the rebel works was clear open ground. Unwilling to let his regiment go into action without him, he led it on horseback, being the only mounted man in the assaulting columns. Colonel Bartlett had disapproved of the movement and foresaw its failure, but his fears did not deter him although he well knew that his own chances of escape were very small. His regiment had got two-thirds across the slaughter pen, and just as he was shouting to his men to keep closed up around the colors, he was shot in two places. A buck shot struck his right leg and glancing down passed out through the sole of his foot. At the same instant a ball struck the joint of his wrist, shattering the bones. He fell from his horse and was carried from the field. A few days later, under a flag of truce for burying the dead, the Confederate officers said to the Union commander in charge of the burying detail, "Who was that man on horseback? He was a gallant fellow, a brave man - the bravest and most daring thing we have seen done in this war," and when told it was Colonel Bartlett, they said, "We thought him too brave a man to be killed, and so we ordered our men not to fire at him." The wound in his wrist proved very painful and he came near losing his arm. Once, indeed, the surgeons decided on amputation. Before they got ready to operate it had become dark and Colonel Bartlett asked them if they could not wait until morning, to which they assented. In the morning the wound seemed better and they again deferred the operation and as the improvement continued, it was never performed. Eventually the wound fully healed, but the wrist was permanently stiffened, and the use of some of the fingers of the hand was impaired.
Colonel Bartlett was taken after the battle to Baton Rouge, where he remained about three weeks, and from there to New Orleans. On July 23rd he sailed for New York, which he reached on the 31st. Before he left the South he was offered the Colonelcy of a colored regiment, which General Andrews was then forming, but the offer was declined. The Forty-ninth reached Pittsfield on August 22nd and on September 1st its officers and men were mustered out of service, their term having expired.
From this time until the middle of April, 1864, Colonel Bartlett was in Massachusetts recovering his health. He was offered, by Governor Andrew, the Colonelcy of the Fortieth Massachusetts (colored) regiment, then at Folly Island, Charleston Harbor. Previous to his discharge from the Forty-ninth he had accepted a commission as Colonel of the Fifty-seventh Massachusetts Infantry, a three years' regiment, and one of the four veteran regiments of the State, which was then being raised. He was to recruit as well as command the regiment. Governor Andrew told him that Secretary Stanton had promised that he would be made Brigadier-General as soon as the Fifty-seventh was full, though Colonel Bartlett at this time was but little past twenty-three years old. By the middle of April, 1864, the regiment was ready to take the field, and on the 18th of April it left Worcester for Annapolis, Maryland, and became a part of the first brigade, first division, Ninth Army Corps, under command of General Burnside. The corps joined the army of the Potomac just prior to the Wilderness campaign. On the second day of the Wilderness fight, the 6th of May, while leading his men, Colonel Bartlett was wounded just above the right temple. He was stunned and taken to the rear and sent to Washington. It was two months before he returned to duty. In the meantime, on the 14th of June, 1864, he was commissioned Brigadier-General of volunteers. From the time of his return until July 30th he was with his division as the Brigadier-General commanding the first brigade of Ledlie's division, Ninth Army Corps. The troops, as well as the field and staff, were under constant fire and both regiments and headquarter officers lost heavily. At the battle of the Mine at Petersburg on the 30th of July, General Bartlett's brigade led the charge into the crater. His men met and broke the first and second lines of the enemy and held on to the ground acquired where they fought for an hour, the hostile lines being but only a few feet apart with only a breast work between them. But at last, to save further slaughter, and all hope of re-enforcement or rescue being gone, General Bartlett surrendered to General Mahone, the Confederate commander. A shell had knocked off a boulder of clay from the breast works which fell on to General Bartlett's wooden leg, crushing it and killing the man next to him.
He was carried prisoner in an ambulance to Petersburg, and the next day removed to Danville. He was without food, drink, or shelter for two days and part of the time delirious, such was his weakness and suffering. At Danville he was placed in the hospital where he was made more comfortable, but was still very ill. On the 7th of August he was sent to Richmond to be exchanged and was placed in the hospital in Libby Prison, where he remained until the 20th of September when he started for the North. His exchange was effected at the special request of the Secretary of War and was arranged for soon after his capture. The delay in leaving the rebel lines was occasioned by lack of transportation north.
General Bartlett reached home in a feeble condition, suffering not only from his wounds but from severe attacks of prison fever. He passed the winter and spring in Pittsfield. His health eventually so far improved that in April he applied for duty. Nothing came of it for some time and he applied again in May with a like result. In June, however, he was ordered to report to the commander of the Ninth Corps. In July his division was broken up, the troops being mustered out of service. On October 18, 1865, he sailed for Europe and did not return until the following June. In July, 1866, he was finally mustered out after a service of five years.
On October 14, 1865, he married Mary Agnes, daughter of Robert and Mary (Jenkins) Pomeroy. She is a lineal descendant of Eltweed Pomeroy, who came from England to Dorchester on the ship Mary and John in 1630. Six children were born of the marriage, of whom four survive, namely: Agnes Bartlett Francis, Carolyn Bartlett Kidd, Edwin B. Bartlett, and Edith Bartlett.
In the year following his retirement from the army General Bartlett purchased an interest in the paper mills at Dalton, Massachusetts, and went there to reside. In 1868 he was appointed treasurer and general manager of the Pomeroy Iron Works at West Stockbridge, and returned to Pittsfield. His close application to business and the exposure incident to the sudden changes from heat to cold in his business affected his health unfavorably and he was subject to attacks of diseases which had their origin in his army troubles. In 1872, he made a second trip to Europe, and was absent two months. On his return, he was placed in charge of the Powhattan Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia, an enterprise financed by Northern capital, and he lived in Richmond for three years, spending the summers in the North. He retained this position until his death. A severe cold contracted in Virginia in February, 1874, left him with a cough which was never cured. His health steadily declined, though his activities did not entirely cease until within a few months of his death.
On returning to civil life, General Bartlett began to take an active interest and part in public affairs. His early sympathies with the Democratic party disappeared amid the contests of the Civil War, and up to 1866 he acted with the Republican party, but he was not a radical and could not follow it in its Southern policy. Eventually both parties sought his alliance and influence. In 1866, he was urged to accept the post of Collector of the Port of Boston, but he refused, and the following year was named for United States Marshal for the district of Massachusetts, but the appointment was not made. He was also asked, in 1866, to accept a nomination for Governor by the Constitution-Union party, but refused to listen to the suggestion. The Republicans, in 1875, urged him to accept the nomination for Governor, but he declined this, and in the same year the Democratic party nominated him for Lieutenant-Governor even after he had refused the use of his name. This nomination he also declined. The only public position he appears to have held was in 1872 when he was a member of the Governor's staff. He did not act uniformly either with one party or the other, but held himself strictly independent, supporting that one which, for the time being, most nearly represented his political views. In the liberal Republican movement of 1872 he was deeply interested and his real party position at that time, and both before and after, was substantially the same as that of the men who led in that famous political episode.
While deeply absorbed in his business interests and closely watching the political life of the time, he was frequently called upon to serve as an orator on public occasions, particularly on occasions of a patriotic character or relating to events growing out of the war. He accepted these invitations, so far as his time and strength would permit, and rather unexpectedly discovered to his friends a remarkable gift of public speech. His addresses were thoughtful and able and set forth the highest ideals of patriotic citizenship.
General Bartlett's later years were filled with business care and responsibilities and they were years of suffering most gallantly borne. The disease which fastened itself upon him early in 1874 marched steadily forward and he died at Pittsfield December 17, 1876, of consumption, at the age of thirty-six years, six months and eleven days.
The military record of General Bartlett is hardly paralleled by that of any other soldier of the Civil War. He entered the army in April, 1861, a private, and he left it after five years a brevet major general. He was colonel of two different regiments, and at the age of twenty-four was a brigadier-general. He was wounded four times, lost a leg before he had been in service a year, and suffered all the pains and deprivations of prison life. Neither the hardships of the service, his intense suffering from wounds, imprisonment or disease, chilled his patriotism or dampened the enthusiasm with which he served his country. It was only when his command had been mustered out and the cause for which he fought had won sweeping victory, that he was ready to sheath his sword. He was the very highest type of the patriotic citizen soldier.
His was a well-rounded life though it fulfilled hardly more than half of the allotted three score years and ten. He died for his country as truly as if he had perished on the field of battle, and no words of the biographer can add to the impressive lessons, or exalt the high example which his life conveys.
In grateful remembrance of his eminent service to his country, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has placed in the Memorial Hall of the State House a fine bronze statue of General Bartlett, on the pedestal of which is the following inscription:
WILLIAM FRANCIS BARTLETT
A VOLUNTEER IN THE CIVIL WAR
MAJOR GENERAL AT THE AGE OF TWENTY FOUR
FOREMOST TO PLEAD FOR RECONCILIATION BETWEEN NORTH
AND SOUTH
BORN 1840 DIED 1876


FREDERICK ORIN BASTON
FREDERICK ORIN BASTON for many years identified with the financial interests of the town of Natick, Massachusetts, was a native of Bridgeton, Maine, where he was born January 14, 1852. He died August 11, 1913. His father was Hiram Baston, born November 22, 1811, died December 13, 1883. His mother was Mary H. Thompson. His grandfathers were Archibald Thompson and Jason Baston, and his grandmother was an Emerson, cousin of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The profession of his father was a wheelwright and in later years a wool dealer. His marked characteristics were humor and high sense of honor. The family is of English origin, the family name upon the other side being Boston.
Like many of the substantial men of New England Mr. Baston's early life was passed upon a farm and his earliest occupations were those connected with farm life. He was fond of telling the story that when he was but ten years of age he sawed and split ten cords of wood, hauled it to the shed and piled it up unaided.
That his religious education was not neglected is shown in the fact that before his tenth birthday anniversary he had read his Bible through in course. His fondness for reading clung to him through life. Very early he read Irving's "Life of Washington" and the heroes of the American Revolution were very real persons to him.
He attended the public schools and the Academy at Bridgton, Fryeburg Academy and Bowdoin College, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1875. Three years later he received the Master's degree. At once, upon graduation, he began a career as an educator in the capacity of principal of the High School in North Berwick, Maine. From this place he came to Massachusetts, settling at Natick where for three years he was the principal of the High School. Then for five years he occupied a similar position in the High School of Wellesley.
The year 1886 closed his career as an educator, for in that year he became the assistant cashier of the Natick National Bank. After three years in this position he became the Treasurer of the Natick Five Cents Savings Bank in which position he continued to the time of his death. He occupied a seat in the School Committee of Natick for six years, and for nearly a score of years was a Trustee of the public library of the town, known under the name of the Morse Institute, and for a number of years was its Treasurer.
While not classed as a club man Mr. Baston was connected with several organizations. In college he was a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. He retained his college affiliations through membership in the Bowdoin Club of Boston. He was a member of the Appalachian Mountain Club of Boston and of the Heal Estate Exchange, of which last named organization he was a member of the executive committee. His religious affiliations were with the Congregational Church. In his summers Mr. Baston was fond of returning to his native State of Maine and engaging in the sport of fishing in the streams which flow through the thick woods of those regions.
July 7, 1884, Mr. Baston was united in marriage with Mary Olive, daughter of Foster T. and Mary (Jones) Hobbs, of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Baston have no children.
From his own experience and observation Mr. Baston offered this suggestion to young Americans as to the principles, methods and habits which he believed would contribute most to the strengthening of sound ideals in our American life, and will most help young people to attain true success in life : "Greater respect for parenthood and a deeper affection for home life which should be made surely as attractive as the outside world has to offer."
Mr. Baston's more private life kept in pace with his public efforts. He mingled with his fellows in all the relations of a friendly neighbor and a good citizen. He was enterprising in endeavor, practical and sound in judgment, conscientious and painstaking in all his actions, and cordial in his intercourse. He was a friend unflinching, faithful and helpful. He gave to his family life the best type of a loving and devoted husband.
Death came suddenly upon him when he was at the fullness of his strength, and in the height of his usefulness, yet the life which he lived was completed. His work was well done, for he was a good and faithful servant.


JAMES ALEXANDER BILL
JAMES ALEXANDER BILL, for more than a quarter of a century prominently identified with the Business, Social, Political, and Educational life of Springfield, Massachusetts, was born April 16, 1852, at Lyme, Connecticut. He died at his home in Springfield, Massachusetts, July 15, 1909. He was the son of James Alexander Bill, born March 30, 1817, died February 1, 1900, and Ann Seiden Lord.
His paternal grandfather was Judge Lodowick Bill, born October 9, 1784 ; he lived over four score years and died in Lyme, Connecticut. The maternal grandfather was Joseph Lord of Lyme, Connecticut. His paternal grandmother was Betsey Geer of Ledyard, Connecticut. His maternal grandmother was Phœbe Burnham of Lyme, Connecticut.
James A. Bill's ancestors were of English origin, the name being among the oldest in all England. It can be traceable in Shropshire County alone for a period of 500 years. The first of the family of whom we have special account was Doctor Thomas Bill, born in Bedfordshire in 1490. He was an attendant physician upon Princess Elizabeth, and was one of the physicians to Henry VIII and Edward VI. The most conspicuous member of the family in England was William Bill LL.D., born in Hertfordshire about 1505. Many honorary degrees were conferred upon him. In June, 1560, he was installed the first dean of Westminster, and was the only person who ever held at the same time, the three important positions of Master of Trinity, Provost of Eton, and Dean of Westminster. He died in July, 1561, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, where to-day his altar tomb can be found, and an inscribed tablet to his memory. In 1613 there appeared in London one John Bill, a printer for King James I. He published a collection of the works of the King himself, of which only one copy exists in this country, and it can now be seen in the New York City Library. He printed Bibles and Prayer Books, and copies of the New Testament. A number of these Bibles can be found in the American Bible House in New York City, carefully preserved in a prívate room, under lock and key. It is supposed he was the father of John Bill, who with his wife, Dorothy, and several small children, emigrated to this country before 1635. They settled in Boston where the records show that John Bill died in 1638.
Their oldest son, James, was born in England in 1615. After the death of his father, the mother lived with him and together they bought, in 1639 or 1640, a house and garden of Robert Means on land which must have been on or near Sudbury Street, and there they made their home. James Bill was buried in Copps Hill Burying Ground, and when the history of the Bill family was written, his gravestone was still standing. During the period of revolutionary history, the descendants of this family distinguished themselves in the patriot cause.
James Alexander Bill, was born and reared in a country town, his father having a large farm on which he raised fancy stock, which he exhibited at State and County fairs. The boy received his early education in the public school which he supplemented by much home reading and study. He had a strong desire to study law and would have done so had he been able. Beside law and history, he was much interested in finance and began the study of bookkeeping as a home study. This was the beginning of his becoming an expert accountant in later years.
His home influences and surroundings tended toward frugality, honesty and self-reliance. To stimulate these, the father gave the boy in early life, hard manual tasks to perform on the farm, obliging him to assume considerable responsibility in directing and leading the men in his employ. In this way the youth early learned habits of industry, faithfulness to duty, tactfulness in dealing with men, and the value of money in its use. The father strongly believed in giving the growing boy regular tasks to perform, increasing in responsibility with his years and also encouraging the habit of self-reliance in the matter of providing his own spending money.
When nineteen years of age, he was engaged as clerk and purser on a freight and passenger steamer running daily on the Connecticut River between Hartford and Saybrook Point. He continued this for four summer seasons thus earning the money to enable him to attend Poughkeepsie Business College from which he graduated in the spring of 1874.
The following year Mr. Bill came to Springfield as freight agent of the Connecticut Central Railroad at the time the road was opened to traffic.
A year later he entered the employ of the Union Envelope Company as bookkeeper. When the Union Envelope Company was consolidated in 1878 with the National Papeterie Company Mr. Bill became bookkeeper of the combined companies. He was a man of marked persistency and exceptional business ability. Consequently he gradually rose to a position of importance in the company.
When P. P. Kellogg retired from the firm Mr. Bill was made a member of the firm and later became treasurer and manager of the corporation when it removed to its present location at Orleans and Quincy Streets.
Mr. Bill sold his interests in the National Papeterie Company with the intention of retiring from business, but he could not reconcile himself to inactivity, and he became interested in the Springfield Knitting Company, holding the office of Secretary, Treasurer and Manager at the time of his death. He was also Secretary of the Blake Manufacturing Company and was interested in the Rush Cutlery Company till it was dissolved.
Mr. Bill was an ardent worker in the Royal Arcanum, being a member of Pynchon Council of Springfield, but as a whole, he was not a club man and preferred to make his home his club.
In politics he was a Democrat and one always in accord with the best interests of his party; a conservative rather than a radical. He was unanimously indorsed for the common council from Ward 2 by Democrats and Republicans and held a seat in the council for five consecutive years. During his term of service, he was the means of the City Government appropriating money to make the use of the City Library free to all residents. He was offered the mayoralty nomination of his party several times, as he was offered other offices, but declined, not caring for high office. He was a member of the fire commission for three years and was for three years on the School Board. He was a tireless worker in everything he undertook.
Mr. Bill was a member of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Aid Committee, organized at the time of the Spanish-American War, for the purpose of collecting and distributing money and needed supplies for the use of the 2nd Regiment on their return from the war, and while in temporary encampment at Montauk Point. Mr. Bill spent several days with the soldiers, doing all in his power to relieve the sickness and suffering among them. Upon their return he also cared for them and their families, when necessary.
Mr. Bill was an attendant of the State Street Baptist Church giving freely of his time and means, and was frequently one of the teachers of the young men 's Bible class.
Mr. Bill was married October 2, 1879, to Ella Beckwith, daughter of Alfred P. and Sarah C. Beckwith, of Lyme, Connecticut, and granddaughter of Andrew and Nancy (Hudson) Beckwith, also of Lyme.
The Beckwith family originated in Scotland by the marriage of Sir Hercules de Malabisse, a descendant of one of the Norman followers of William the Conqueror, and Lady Dame Beckwith Bruce, daughter of Sir William Bruce, who inherited a title and lands from his ancestor, Sir Robert Bruce, the progenitor of the royal Bruces of Scotland.
Lady Beckwith Bruce inherited an estate called "Beckwith" and because of a desire to perpetuate this name, the husband was obliged to change his name for it, by a marriage contract dated 1226.
One branch of the family emigrated to this country in 1687 and settled in Maryland. One Mathew Beckwith, a descendant of another branch, came to this country in 1635 and settled at Saybrook Point, at the mouth of the Connecticut River. He is the ancestor of by far the larger number of the American Beckwiths, and his descendants are to be found in every State of the Union and Canada. Mrs. Bill descended from this line, direct. Mr. and Mrs. Bill had one son, Raymond R. Bill, who is married and lives in Springfield.
In summarizing Mr. Bill 's business and political career, sagacity was manifest in all concerns in which he was called to act a part.
In speaking of Mr. Bill, his wife said : - "Upon his death, there was a passage of Scripture which fastened itself upon my mind, as a thoroughly fitting eulogy, namely : -
"I have fought a good fight,
I have finished my course,
I have kept the faith."


FREDERICK ADELBERT BISBEE
In the village of Nunda, Livingston County, New York, on February 28, 1855, Frederick Adelbert Bisbee was born. His ancestors were English and one Thomas Besbedge (Bisbee) was a passenger from England on the ship Hercules, which landed at Scituate Harbor in 1634. Some twenty-six of Dr. Bisbee's ancestors fought in the War for Independence. His father, Hiram Alonzo Bisbee, was born July 12, 1826, died July 11, 1896. His mother's maiden name was Mary Jane Hand. His grandfather Nahurn Bisbee was born July 14, 1790, died August, 1864. The names of his grandmothers prior to marriage were Maria Hollenbeck and Mary Jacoby.
His father was a miller and his most marked characteristics honesty of purpose and work, and gentleness of spirit. The things which interested Frederick as a lad were literature, nature and sports. His early life was spent on a farm and he grew up amid the varying activities incident to rural employment. He was "chore boy" in those early years, filling out the full meaning of the phrase from day to day. His mother exercised a strong influence upon him and he owes much to her counsel and inspiration in the forming of his character. In pursuing an education, young Bisbee had many difficulties to encounter, the most emphatic being sickness and poverty. He persevered until he gained for himself a place among thinking men, a wide information and literary aptitude of no mean order. He read with avidity books of travel and exploration and, so far as possible, journeyed himself through this and other lands, thus adding to his book knowledge the knowledge which comes from observation and contact.
The public schools of New York State opened the door for his educational career and later he pursued a special professional course in Tufts Divinity School, graduating in 1877 with the degree of B.D. Twenty years afterwards his Amia Mater conferred upon him the honorary degree of S.T.D.
At the age of fifteen, he learned the trade of printing and became a reporter on the Binghamton, New York "Daily Times." Later he entered the ministry of the Universalist Church, and was settled in the pastorates of Spencer, Massachusetts, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. New church edifices were built in both places during his ministry. He also edited the monthly magazine "Today" 1894-1896 and became editor-in-chief of the Universalist Leader at Boston, Mass., in 1898, thus entering the field of journalism which for years had been his ideal lifework and from which he had never allowed his mind to wander. Though the duties of these various industries were many, he has found time to take interest in affairs affecting the community in which he has lived. He has been Library Commissioner at Spencer, 1879-1881, Chairman Finance Commission 1906-1908, Chairman School Board 1909-1910, Arlington, Massachusetts, Secretary Universalist State Convention, Pennsylvania, 1885-1897; Member Executive Committee International Council of Religious Liberals, 1907.
He has written one book, "A Summer Flight," an illustrated volume of travel, also various booklets: "The Gospel for Today;" "What is Universalism?" "Key to the Kingdom of Heaven;" "Why I am a Universalist," and "What It is All for."
In social and fraternal orders he has held membership as follows: - Masonic order, Religious Education Association, International Peace Union, Boston Press Club, Philadelphia Contemporary Club, Tufts College Club, American Academy of Social Science, National Liberal Club of London (Honorary), and the National Geographical Society.
In politics he is a Republican, though he has voted independently when in his judgment candidates have not represented the Republican party.
Dr. Bisbee was first married to Hannah T. Bradley 1880. From this union one child was born, Marion. Mrs. Bisbee died in 1886. In 1891, the 28th of June, Dr. Bisbee was married to Matty, the daughter of James and Martha James Gaily, granddaughter of Judge George and Martha Abbot James, and of John and Jane Gaily. Two children were born to them - John Bancroft and Eleanor, both of whom are living.
The advice which this successful minister and journalist offers to young Americans is this: "Know some trade well. Read much, write much and work hard. Have for your ideals personal purity, honesty, patriotism and religious convictions." If the youth of America should follow this we need have no fear of American manhood in the days to come.


HENRY WALKER BISHOP
HENKY WALKER BISHOP was born in Lenox, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, June 2, 1829. He died at Sea-bright, New Jersey, September 28, 1913. He was a son of Henry W. and Sarah (Bulkeley) Bishop. His father was a lawyer of note and for many years was Judge of the Court of Common Pleas; he died at a ripe old age on April 13, 1871. His grandparents were Nathaniel Bishop and Betsey Taintor. Henry W. Bishop, Junior's mother was a daughter of Captain Charles Bulkeley. She was a woman of high ideals whose influence for good was very strong upon the moral and spiritual life of her family.
Henry W. Bishop spent his boyhood in Lenox, attending the public schools of the town and later becoming a student at the Lenox Academy where he fitted for college. He entered Williams College and after remaining there a short time changed to Amherst College where he graduated in 1850. He then attended the Harvard Law School and later continued the study of law with his father, Judge Bishop. In 1856 he removed to Chicago, Illinois, where he entered upon the practice of law, continuing his residence and professional duties in that city for upwards of half a century.
Not long after Mr. Bishop settled in Chicago, Judge David Davis, then the presiding judge of the Federal Circuit, appointed him Master in Chancery for Chicago, and he continued to hold this office until his death in 1913. It was a position of honor and responsibility, requiring great judicial acumen and thorough knowledge of law, and the fact that Mr. Bishop administered the official duties of the office continuously for nearly fifty years is ample proof that he was well fitted to hold the position.
Mr. Bishop was twice married. By his first marriage he had a son, Henry Walker Bishop, 3rd, whom he almost idolized. The son entered Williams College, and died while a student there, in 1885. His second marriage was to Miss Jessica, daughter of Colonel Robert Pomeroy, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Mrs. Bishop survives her husband, also their daughter, Jessica, now Mrs. Spencer Turner of New York City.
After his marriage to Miss Pomeroy, Mr. Bishop bought the site of the Pomeroy Homestead in Pittsfield. Later he purchased an estate nearby and built a fine country seat which he and his family occupied every summer.
Mr. Bishop always kept up his interest in his native town and was a member of the Lenox Club until his death. Pittsfield received many benefits from his becoming a summer resident there. Soon after the death of his son he built the Henry W. Bishop, 3rd, Memorial Training School for Nurses. The structure was completed in 1889 and presented to the House of Mercy Corporation of Pittsfield. During the twenty-five years of its existence, this useful and valuable memorial gift has proved of ever increasing service to the citizens of Pittsfield and adjacent towns.
During his long residence in Chicago, Mr. Bishop was a well known man in social, literary and professional circles. He was a member, and during the World's Fair was President, of the Chicago Club and for some years was a Director of Crerar Library of Chicago. Mr. Bishop superintended the building of the Union Club of Chicago and was its President for the first seven years.
The last year of Mr. Bishop's life was a year of well earned rest.
Among the many tributes to his memory the following from Honorable William W. Gurley is here quoted:
"It was my privilege to be intimately acquainted with Mr. Bishop for nearly forty years and I knew him as one man rarely knows another.
''His estimable qualities of mind and heart appealed to me from the very beginning of our acquaintance.
"He was a gentleman under all circumstances and all aggravations. He was courteous, gentle and kind, without indecision of character. He was frank and upright and no one ever doubted the sincerity of his convictions, however unpopular they for the moment might be. Time in almost every instance vindicated those convictions. He was always just, and although there passed through his hands an enormous volume of business involving the most diversified interests and values running annually into millions of dollars, no one ever suspected that he was influenced by any other consideration than the desire that justice should be done to all. Another distinguishing characteristic was his infinite patience, which never failed him.
"He occupied, for nearly half a century, a high position of trust as Master in Chancery appointed by the United States Circuit Court for the Northern District of Illinois, and for many years was sole Master in Chancery in the Northern Division of that District During that period thousands of cases were referred to him for report upon both the facts and the law and with very rare exceptions his reports were uniformly accepted and approved by the courts and, what is still more rare, were almost always accepted as right and just by the defeated as well as the successful party.
"I do not think Mr. Bishop ever lost a friend whom he made, and his friendships were legion, as the conduct of his office brought him in contact with thousands whom the citizen in private life would not meet. He had the absolute confidence of the judges of his court. He stood high in the community in which he lived and his reputation for integrity, ability and conscientiousness was excelled by none. Mr. Bishop had the faculty, not vouchsafed to many, of attracting to himself the respect, admiration and love of those with whom he was brought in contact. He was dignified without being stiff or harsh. He detested hypocrisy and sham, but never forgot the frailty of human nature and the sympathy due to weaknesses and misfortune. He took a lively interest in the well-being and welfare of others and every impulse with him was a kindly one.
"His life was an exceedingly busy one and so continued until within a year of the time of his death.
"The example furnished by his industry, devotion to duty, absolute integrity and courteous treatment accorded to all alike, has fixed a high standard which his successors may well emulate and which none will be able to surpass. That example, especially to the young men of his profession, for whom his sympathy was deep and toward whom his aid was constant and helpful, has been and will continue to be of incalculable benefit. The beneficent influence of his life will not terminate with his peaceful repose in the quiet cemetery at Lenox."


JOHN JOSIAH BRIGHT
JOHN JOSIAH BRIGHT is one of the Directors of the Boston Elevated Railroad Company and has had experience in many different occupations in life, which have given him that knowledge of men and affairs so necessary for such a position.
He was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1832, his father being a farmer and ice-dealer who was highly respected for his industry and perseverance. His immigrant ancestors may be traced back to Joseph Bright, who came over from England about 1639 and settled in Watertown.
As a boy he worked on his father's farm both before and after school and received his education at the Hopkins Classical School of Cambridge and in the Comers Commercial College. He began the active work of life in Philadelphia as the Manager of the Carpenter Ice Company, a choice to which he was naturally led by his experience obtained in his father's business. He has had some experience in newspaper work, having served on The New York Mirror as a reporter, and has served in the militia for twenty years as a private.
His politics are Independent Democrat. He is associated with the Unitarian denomination and finds his chief relaxations in hard work and reading the newspapers.
The influence of his mother was particularly strong on both his intellectual and spiritual life and he believes that the work he did in school days was helpful in forming his character.
"HONESTY, TRUTH AND PERSEVERANCE," "EARLY TO BED AND EARLY TO RISE" is the counsel he gives to young Americans who would achieve true success in life.
He was married on November 20, 1862, to Julia M., daughter of Captain Samuel and Julia Sargent, and to them eight children were born.
A varied business experience extended over a series of years has enabled Mr. Bright to grasp the details of many a business problem readily as well as to act promptly when such action is needful, when duties relating to a directorship in the Boston Elevated Railroad Company are under consideration.


ELISHA DEWEY BUFFINGTON
Born of strong New England stock in Swansea, Massachusetts, on November 4, 1836, Elisha Dewey Buffington was the sixth in descent from Thomas Buffington, who came from Scotland to America probably soon after 1650, and settled at Salem. Thomas married Sarah Southwick, the daughter and granddaughter of a Quaker. They seem to have escaped persecution and lived a very quiet life at Salem. Benjamin, their son, moved with his wife to Swansea about 1700. Family tradition has it that about fifty families went from Salem to Swansea and bought the titles to the land of the Indians as was the custom of the Quakers. Benjamin Buffington had a deed which is now in the possession of the family, and shows that he bought 300 acres of land of Mr. Marcy, who was the only one of the settlers not a Quaker.
Eliaha Dewey Buffington was born and brought up on the old Buffington homestead, originally purchased of King Philip and which has been in the possession of the family for 200 years. One of the family writes: - "The Buffingtons have all been Quakers down to E. D. Buffington of Worcester, and he was a thorough Quaker in principle, although a few years before his death he joined the Unitarian Church, to which his wife belonged."
Elisha Buffington had the early training which came to all New England farmers' sons of his generation. Performing the usual round of work on a large farm, made him strong in body, self-reliant in spirit, and gave him a sense of responsibility. He went to the district school in his native town, and later, while still a boy, worked on his father's farm in the summer, and attended the Academy at Warren, Rhode Island, in the winter, walking four miles to school and back every day.
At the age of eighteen, in 1854, he went to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama. His stay in California was short, and he returned home by way of Lake Nicaragua. We soon find him teaching school in Lansing, Michigan, and at the same time studying for the practice of medicine. As a summer excursion he walked from Michigan to Pike's Peak and back.
Finding himself not perfectly fitted for the profession of medicine, he left Lansing, and returning to Massachusetts, he entered a druggist's store in Fall River, where he learned the business, which this time proved to be congenial, and one in which he was to achieve success.
In 1862 he bought the drug store of William H. Goulding, in Worcester, Massachusetts, where Buffingtons' store is at present, and started in the drug business for himself.
He married, November 4, 1867, Charlotte Eaton Walker, daughter of Benjamin and Charlotte (Eaton) Walker. Her father was born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, but lived most of his life in Worcester. Her mother, daughter of Nathaniel Eaton, belonged to one of the best of the old Worcester families. Mr. and Mrs. Buffington had no children. Mr. Buffington died November 19, 1900, after a short illness at his home in Worcester.
In politics he was a stanch Republican, and was a member of the Home Market Club of Boston. He was fond of travel and had the means to gratify this taste. He made many trips abroad, and brought home many artistic and interesting souvenirs of his travels. His house is fitted with treasures collected on his trips to other parts of the world. He was a liberal contributor to the Worcester Art Museum Corporation. He was also a member of the Society of Antiquity, the Tatnuck Country Club, the Worcester Club, the Commonwealth Club, and a Director of the Worcester Safe Deposit and Trust Company.
Mr. Buffington was attracted to outdoor life from boyhood and was an enthusiastic sportsman, especially in fishing. He was a member of the Oquosic Angling Club, composed of enthusiastic and regular anglers in the Rangeley Lakes. He was practically the founder of the hatchery of the Fish Commission at Wilkinsville, and had an earnest desire to have Lake Quinsigamond properly stocked with fish. In 1893 he was appointed a member of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Commission, was very active in propagating and preserving fish and game, not only in Worcester County, but throughout the State and was serving his third term on the State Commission at the time of his death.
There could be no better or more appreciative tribute to the character of Elisha Dewey Buffington than that published in the Worcester Spy of November 20, 1900, from the pen of one of his closest and dearest friends, Col. E. B. Stoddard: - "He belonged distinctly to that class of men, who, without early advantages of education, have by their own native intelligence and energy made their way to recognized positions of prominence and influence in the community. Mr. Buffington began at the bottom of the ladder, so far as worldly advantages are concerned, but was not destined to stay there. He was gifted with rare common sense and quick insight, and easily took in the essential conditions of any situation. Success was no accident with him. He saw the path to it, and followed it with the necessary self-denial and persistence to accomplish his object. Whether in the accumulation of property or the keeping of it by judicious investment, his judgment was always of the soundest. But though he thus acquired a large competence, he was by no means a mere money getter. He knew not only how to get it, but how to spend it. He always looked upon money as a means, not as an end. He had a large range of interests and was constantly engaged in making investigations into many subjects. His knowledge of nature of plants and animals especially was wide and accurate. Perhaps no man in this community had a better command of everything relating to game, not only the haunts and habits, but the game lanes and usages and the best method of propagation and protection. He had also a genuine interest in art, not merely of American and European art and artists, but various forms of art in the East, where he traveled extensively and observed intelligently. His large collection contains not only pictures of unusual merit and high value, but also tapestries, ceramics and other objects of rare excellence. His taste in this direction was fully shared and greatly assisted by his accomplished wife. Even in his recreations, as whist and chess, he was not content with any superficial practice of the game, but always wanted to go to the bottom of it and find its underlying mathematical principles. Above all, Mr. Buffington was a steadfast friend and genial companion, and it is his cheerful, loyal and affectionate disposition that will be longest remembered by those who knew him best."


ALFRED BUNKER
ALFRED BUNKER, an eminent teacher in the public schools of Boston, after a devoted service of forty-five years in that city, the last twenty-five years of which period he was master of the Quincy School, having reached the age limit, was retired in 1909, and became "Master Emeritus."
He was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on the 14th of February, 1838. His father was James Madison Bunker (1811-1873), a lawyer who had been a teacher for several years, and who was a Register in Bankruptcy for Bristol County and Judge of Probate in Nantucket. The immigrant ancestor, was George Bunker, who came from England some time between 1640 and 1650, and settled in Topsfield, Massachusetts. This George Bunker was a son of William Bunker (Bon Coeur) of Nantes, France, who was driven to England by religious persecution.
The mother was Sarah West, daughter of Paul West. Other immigrant ancestors were Thomas Chase, who settled in Hampton, New Hampshire, in 1638; Peter Folger, Martha's Vineyard, 1635; Christopher Hussey, Lynn, 1632; and Tristram Coffyn, Newbury, 1642; all from England. Both grandfathers, Paul West (1778-1862) and Reuben Bamsdell Bunker (1775-1855), were distinguished for their enterprise and success as captains of whale ships, in the days when the whaling industry was most prosperous in Nantucket.
As a boy, Alfred Bunker, displayed no special tastes or interests which appear to have had any marked influence on the course of his later life. An active, observant lad living with well-to-do parents in a busy seaport town has the best of opportunities for training in practical things; and these opportunities young Bunker did not neglect He had, as he says, an early bent for a mechanical occupation a bent which he did not wholly outgrow, which very likely accounts for the fact that, when manual training became a part of the regular school work in Boston, this new branch of instruction was more heartily appreciated and more intelligently managed in his school than it was in many others. In boyhood and youth he enjoyed the advantages of the very excellent schools of Nantucket. After finishing courses in the High School and in the Coffin School (an endowed academy in Nantucket) he became a teacher for a short time in a private school; and then entered the State Normal School at Bridgewater to prepare for his chosen profession. After graduation he taught town schools in Attleboro, West Bridgewater, North Bridgewater, Chilmark, Hingham, and Quincy. Five years of such experience as this, gave him a good preparation for a submasterahip in the Boston schools. As sub-master, Mr. Bunker served twenty years (1864-1884) in the Quincy School and in the Comins School; with a short interval of service in the High Schools of Weymouth and Somerville and as Master twenty-five years in the Quincy School, retiring in 1909.
He maintained high ideals of thoroughness and accuracy in school work, exercised a vigorous but just discipline over his school, and evoked the loyal support of his corps of assistants by evincing an ever ready spirit of helpfulness to them in their difficulties and trials. The feeling of his teachers and associates towards Mr. Bunker were pleasantly demonstrated by a banquet and presentation at. the time of his much regretted retirement.
Aside from his unstinted devotion to his school, Mr. Bunker has displayed untiring industry in the promotion of the professional interests of teachers. He was for six years the Secretary, and for six years the Treasurer of the Massachusetts State Teachers' Association. He was indefatigable in his efforts, with others, to secure the enactment of the law creating the Boston Teachers' Retirement Fund Association; and since the organization of that association, in 1900, has been the industrious Secretary of its Board of Trustees.
Mr. Bunker lives in Roxbury, is the senior deacon of the First Church there, and consequently is a Trustee of the Roxbury Latin School. He is a life member of the American Unitarian Association, a member of the Unitarian Club, a member, and for three years President of the John Eliot (Church) Club, a member of the Massachusetts Schoolmasters' Club, a member and for three years President of the Sons and Daughters of Nantucket, a member and for two years President of the Chase-Chase Family Association, a Vice President of The Massachusetts Civic Alliance, a Director of the John Howard Industrial Home for Discharged Prisoners, a member of the Unitarian Temperance Society, and a member of various other philanthropic and civic associations.
He has always been a Republican in politics, and an active participant in local affairs.
He married, August 15, 1864, Cordelia Mitchell, daughter of John Simpkins and Lydia (Samson) Barker, a descendant from Robert Barker, who came from England some time between 1640 and 1650, probably. Of three children born to them, the one now living is Clarence Alfred Bunker, A. B. (Harvard, 1889), A.M., LL.B., a Boston lawyer.
Mr. Bunker's earnest words of advice to young Americans are: "I would urge upon all young Americans to set a high value upon personal character founded upon high principles followed with unswerving integrity, to mark their lives with indomitable industry even amid discouragements, to manifest a generous public spirit; if employed, to be thoroughly loyal to the interests of their employers, and if employers, to be heartily considerate of the interests of those whom they employ."


WILLIAM JOHN BURKE
WILLIAM JOHN BURKE was born November 18, 1837, in St. John, New Brunswick. His parents were passengers on a sailing ship bound from Ireland to the United States. The ship was forced to make a harbor at St. John through stress of weather. While still an infant, his parents moved to Boston, where, after receiving an elementary education, he obtained employment first in a sawmill, then as a teamster, and soon after was an apprentice in a boiler shop. As he gradually acquired a knowledge of the practical part of boiler construction, he realized the necessity for an education if he were to master his trade, and while still in his teens began a systematic study of mathematics and mechanical drawing. How well he succeeded not only in his studies but in his work is shown by the fact, that at the age of twenty-one years he was made foreman over 200 men in the Charlestown Navy Yard. In 1868 he accepted a position as foreman of the Erie Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, New York, remaining there until 1869, when he accepted the position of Superintendent of the Boiler Department for the Woodruff & Beach Iron Works, Hartford, Connecticut, at that time one of the largest concerns of its kind in the United States. There he remained until 1872, when he engaged in business for himself, retiring, however, after a few years, on account of the great business and financial depression of that period.
For many years thereafter, he was engaged in the grocery and provision business in East Boston, relinquishing the business to other members of his family to accept the position of Inspector of Elevators and Buildings for the City of Boston. Here he labored until 1887, when the Directors of the East Boston Ferries prevailed upon him to accept the office of Superintendent of the East Boston Ferries. The new duties which he assumed were executed and his work performed with the same high degree of honesty, care, skill and efficiency, which had marked all his previous endeavors. He retired in 1895.
Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Burke led a very active and buqy life in his various charges, he still found time to interest himself in public affairs. In 1876 he was elected a member of the Boston Common Council, and served in that capacity three terms. In 1879, '81, and '82, he served as a Representative to the General Court from East Boston, speaking on many important measures and earning the confidence and respect of all, regardless of political belief. In early life, he showed a decided fondness for oratory and literature, and was an omnivorous reader. For many years he spoke throughout the Commonwealth in the interest of political candidates, and was widely known as an eloquent and convincing speaker. During the formative period of the old Irish Land League in Massachusetts, he gave unselfishly of purse, time, and voice, in behalf of the movement, and was instrumental in establishing many new branches of the League.
Having rounded out a long life in the exercise of those virtues which win the generous regard of our fellow-citizens, he passed away, leaving behind him a legacy of simple faith, of unbroken loyalty to duty, of conscientious tolerance for the sincere convictions of others, even when opposed to him, of unfaltering belief in the effectiveness of lofty ideals, of tireless service for the welfare of the city he loved, and of generous help in all movements that helped either to lighten the burdens of the bread-winner or to brighten the pathway of the toiler.


ALBERT WILLIAMS BURTON
ALBERT WILLIAMS BURTON was a man whose usefulness as a citizen has made him worthy of commemoration. The men who in the prime of manhood were active in the heroic period when the nation was struggling for its very existence, especially deserve that a lasting record should embalm their names and tell the story of their lives.
Albert Williams Burton was born in Foster, Rhode Island, December 19, 1831, and died at Buttonwood, Rhode Island, July 24, 1909. He was the oldest child of Elliot Lee and Bernice (Williams) Burton. His father was born in Hopkinton, Rhode Island, October 20, 1803, and his mother at Foster, Rhode Island, November 8, 1806. His mother had for her pioneer ancestor no less a personage than Roger Williams. The subject of this sketch, therefore, was a descendant, in the eighth generation, of the founder of Rhode Island and first and foremost exponent in America of the theory of the absolute freedom of the individual in matters of religion.
In his childhood Mr. Burton's educational opportunities were limited to the district school three months in summer and three months in winter until he was twelve years of age, and for four years thereafter to the winter terms only. When sixteen years of age his parents moved to East Killingly, Connecticut, where for six months he worked in the cotton mills, and then on a farm, in Gloucester, Connecticut.
At the age of eighteen he shipped on a whaling voyage, bound for the Arctic seas, on the ship Ocean, Captain Smith. On this voyage he encircled the globe, his ship touching at the Azores, Sandwich Islands, Hong Kong, and Japan. He spent altogether thirteen years at sea, making numerous voyages along the Atlantic coast. At the close of his experience as a sailor he was mate of the ship Mary J. Mifflin, engaged in carrying supplies for the army of General McClellan.
Leaving the sea, he enlisted in the Fourteenth Massachusetts Battery, at Wrentham, February 20,1864, and saw much hard and honorable service. He participated in the battles of the Wilderness, New River, Spottsylvania, North Anna River, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Deep Bottom, the Crater and Trenches at Petersburg, Fort Steadman, and at the fall of Petersburg. He received an honorable discharge, July 15, 1865, and was mustered out at Readville. At the close of the war he returned to his home, and engaged with the jewelry manufacturing business of H. F. Barrows, at North Attleboro, Massachusetts.
Acquiring a thorough mastery of this trade, he went to Plainville, Massachusetts, and for two years was in the employ of Lincoln, Tiffany & Bacon. In 1872 the Plainville Stock Company was organized for the manufacture of specialties in jewelry, and Mr. Burton was one of the incorporators. This company was a success from the beginning, and never more so than at the time when Mr. Burton retired, March 26, 1909, to enjoy the rest called for by his advancing age.
He attended the Methodist Church at Plainville and gave liberally to its support. The organ of this church was his gift. He was a member of George H. Mantein Post, No. 133, G. A. R., and served as senior and vice-commander, and as quartermaster many years. He married at Wrentham, June 22, 1857, Mary Ellis, daughter of Edward Renouf and Susanna Dale Bennett, and granddaughter of Isaac and Elizabeth Randall. Of their five children, three are living, vis.: Albert Edward, who is a jeweler; Maria Lincoln (Burton) Noble, and Bernice Elliot (Burton) Hatch. Mr. Burton was genial and lovable as a man. He knew how to bring comfort and relief to many a poor heart and aching mind and body. His life was a noble one. It had earned for itself ample appreciation before it closed, and it ended in honor. He left a record of good deeds which will remain always a fond and living memory in the hearts of all who knew him.

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