The Mary and John
Contemporaneously with the sailing of the Winthrop Fleet a party of emigrants embarked at Plymouth, Devon, in the ship Mary and John, on March 20, bound for the same destination in Massachusetts Bay within the bounds of the territory of the Company headed by Winthrop.
While not having any defined connection with the Winthrop Fleet, yet their destination presupposes a cooperative agreement and a common purpose.
In his last letter to his wife, before leaving Southampton, Winthrop notes the departure of this vessel and her passengers, indicating his knowledge of their destination in the limits of the Massachusetts Bay Patent and by inference an approval of them as fellow emigrants under his jurisdiction.
The Mary and John was owned by Roger Ludlow, one of the Assistants of the Massachusetts Bay Company, who sailed in her, as did Edward Rossiter, another Assistant, as leaders of this Company, and thus further confirmation is given to it as an integral, though separated part of the Great Emigration. It seems, therefore, desirable to relate briefly the story of this group which on arrival settled on Dorchester Neck and soon became politically merged in the fortunes of the various groups which reached our shores in that year.
The Reverand John White, Vicar of Dorchester, England, who has been generally and rightfully acclaimed as the sponsor of the earliest Massachusetts settlement (Plymouth excepted), was the inspiration of a movement which culminated in the gathering of neary one hundred and fifty persons in the counties of Dorset, Somerset and Devon and their agreement to emigrate in a body to Massachusetts whither he had sent other groups in the previous six years.
White was a Conforming Puritan who believed that the religious unrest of the period could be better composed by a liberal attitude of all factions within the Established Church. He was strongly against separation and the creation of independent religious bodies and severely condemned the subsequent action of Winthrop and Cotton who were promoting religious intolerance in Massachusetts.
His influence in the West Country was widespread and in this, his latest effort to encourage colonization in New England, he not only secured recruits in his own city and county but in the adjoining counties of Devon and
the remote parts of Somerset. In describing this Company he said that scarce a half-dozen of them were personally known to each other prior to their assembling at the place of embarkation in Plymouth. (Planter's Plea, 37.) There they first came to a personal acquaintance with those who were to be their companions on the voyage and neighbors in the New World during the rest of their days. It may be assumed that these people, from many parishes scattered over three counties, were moved by the same urge to emigrate which animated those of the Winthrop Fleet, but it is safe to say that the tales of 'religious persecution' of these people was not a factor in their pilgrimage. The West Country was free from it.
With them were two clergymen of the Established Church, one the Reverend John Maverick, at that time, Vicar of Beaworthy, Devon, son of a clergyman and then in his fifty-eighth year. Already his son, Samuel Maverick had been a resident of Massachusetts for seven years and was living in what is now Chelsea. This probably explains his emigration with the Mary and John Company, bringing with him his large family to be near his eldest son. There is nothing in any existing record to indicate that Maverick was unfaithful to his oath at ordination to conduct himself conformably and follow the prescribed ritual of the Church service. Like White he was a conformist, though liberal in his attitude on controverted subjects.
The other clergyman, the Reverend John Warham, was fourteen years the junior of Maverick, and of a different quality. He was a native, probably, of Crewkerne, Somerset, born about 1592; had taken holy orders and came under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Laud, then Bishop of Bath and Wells. It is not necessary to state that this famous church official, later to be Archbishop of Canterbury, was a strict disciplinarian in matters of conformity to canon law, and Warham soon fell under his displeasure for some contumacy and was sus- pended. He removed to Exeter, where under the more liberal Bishop Hall he was given the parish of Saint Sidwell, a living which he held until his emigration. He was an agressive theologian.
The intending emigrants having assembled at Plymouth were met by White and by courtesy of the Reverend Matthias Nicolls, Master of the New Hospital, an old friend of the 'Patriarch of Dorchester,' they gathered in the chapel where services were conducted and a farewell sermon was preached by him as sponsor of the movement. This was on Saturday,
March 20, and at its conclusion they embarked to set sail for the distant shores of an unknown country. The Mary and John made a good passage and arrived at Nantasket May 30, 1630 without casualty. These one hundred and forty passengers are generally known as the Dorchester Company, from the place chosen for their settlement, and as they remained a distinct body of colonists, and there are contemporary records to identify most of them, it has been possible to compile a tentative list of those who came on this pioneer ship.
Five years later a great majority of them removed to Windsor, Connecticut, under the leadership of Warham.
The following list shows the names of heads of families and the number in each family sailing in this ship. It gives the county of origin and the place of settlement after arrival, with other notes of identification. The list shows that fifteen came from Somerset, fifteen from Dorset, six from Devon and three are of undetermined origin. The total number thus listed makes one hundred and thirty-four out of the one hundred and forty who came over. The figures after each name indicated the number of persons in the emigrant's family.
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Stiles History of Windsor, Conn.
Blake History of Dorchester, Mass.
Pope Pioneers of Massachusetts
M.C.R. Massachusetts Colonial Records
Clapp Memoirs of Roger Clapp
BASKOM, Thomas (1)
Dorset. Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
COOKE, Aaron (1)
Dorset. A minor, stepson of Thomas Ford (see below). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
CLAPP, Roger (1)
Devon. Settled at Dorchester. Freeman 14 May 1634. (M.C.R., I, 368); Died 2 Feb 1690/1 (Clapp).
DENSLOW, Nicholas (3)
Dorset. Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
DYER, George (4)
Somerset. Settled at Dorchester; constable 1630. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Died 1672 (Blake).
DRAKE, John (6)
Devon. Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
DUNCAN, Nathaniel (4)
Devon. Settled Dorchester. Freeman 6 May 1635. (M.C.R., I, 370); died 1668 (Pope).
FORD, Thomas (6)
Dorset. Applied freeman 19 Oct 1630 (M.C.R., I, 81). freeman 18 May 1631 (ibid., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
GAYLORD, William (4)
Somerset. Juror 1630. Freeman 18 May 1631. (M.C.R., I, 366). Deacon of church. Removed to Windsor (Blake, Stiles).
GALLOP, Humphrey (2)
Dorset. Settled Dorchester (Pope).
GALLOP, John (4) Dorset. Settled Boston.
Freeman 1 April 1634. (M.C.R., I, 368).
GIBBS, Giles (7)
Dorset. Freeman 4 March 1632/3 (M.C.R. I, 367). Removed to Windsor where he died 1641 (Stiles).
GILLETT, Jonathan (1)
Somerset. Freeman 6 May 1635 (M.C.R.I, 370) Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
GREENWAY, John (7)
Origin undetermined. Applied freeman 19 Oct 1630 (M.C.R., I, 80); Freeman 18 May 1631 (ibid., I, 366). Settled Dorchester and died there about 1652 (Gen. Reg., IX, 348; XXXII, 55).
HANNUM, William (1)
Dorset. Removed to Windsor where he died 1677 (Stiles).
HILL, William (2)
Dorset. Freeman 5 Nov 1633 (Pope).
HOLMAN, John (1)
Dorset. Settled Dorchester. No record as freeman. Died 1652 (Gen.Reg.).
HOSKINS, John (4)
Origin undetermined. Freeman 18 May 1631. (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Pope).
HULL, George (4)
Somerset. Freeman 4 March 1632/3 (M.C.R., I, 367). Removed to Windsor (Blake).
LOVELL, William (2)
Somerset. Captain; settled Dorchester (Pope).
LUDLOW, Roger (6)
Wiltshire. Assistant of the Massachusetts Bay Company; Deputy Governor of Massachusetts. Removed to Windsor and later to Virginia (Pope).
MAVERICK, Rev. John (7)
Devon. Applied freeman 19 Oct 1630 (M.C.R., I, 180); Freeman 18 May 1631 (ibid., I, 366). Settled Dorchester. Died 3 Feb 1635/6 (Pope).
MOORE, John (1)
Origin unknown. Settled Dorchester. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
PHELPS, George (1)
Dorset. Freeman 6 May 1635 (M.C.R., I, 371). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
PHELPS, William (6)
Dorset. Juror 1630. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
PINNEY, Humphrey (2)
Somerset. Freeman 14 May 1634 (M.C.R., I, 369). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
POMEROY, Eltweed (3)
Somerset. Freeman 4 March 1632/3 (M.C.R., I, 367). Removed to Windsor (Pomeroy Gen.).
RICHARDS, Thomas (6)
Probably Somerset. Settled Dorchester. Freeman 13 May 1640 (M.C.R., I, 377). Removed to Weymouth where he died 1650 (Blake).
ROCKWELL, William (4)
Somerset. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Deacon of church. Removed to Windsor (Rockwell Gen.).
ROSSITER, Brian (1)
Somerset. Freeman 18 May 1631. (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Clapp).
ROSSITER, Edward (4)
Somerset. Assistant of Massachusetts Bay Company. Died 1630 (Pope).
SOUTHCOTE, Richard (1)
Devon. Captain. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Returned to England.
SYLVESTER, Richard (1)
Somerset. Applied freeman 1630 (M.C.R., I, 80). Settled Dorchester. Freeman 1 April 1634 (ibid., I, 368). Removed to Weymouth. Died 1663 (Pope).
TERRY, Stephen (3)
Dorset. Nephew of Reverend John White. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Terry Gen.).
TILLEY, John (2)
Somerset. Settled Dorchester. Freeman 4 May 1634/5 (M.C.R., I, 370). Died soon (Blake).
UPSALL, Nicholas (1)
Dorset. Settled Dorchester. Juror 1630. Freeman 18 May 1631 (M.C.R., I, 366). Died August 1666 aged about 73. (Pope).
WATHAM, Rev. John (4)
Devon. Applied freeman 19 Oct 1630 (M.C.R., I, 80). Freeman 18 May 1631 (ibid., I, 366). Removed to Windsor where he died 1 April 1670 (Stiles, Blake).
WAY, Henry (6)
Dorset. Settled Dorchester. No record as to freeman. Died 1667 (Blake).
WILLIAMS, Roger (2)
Somerset. This person is not to be confused with the famous clergyman of the same name. Freeman 18 May 1631. (M.C.R., I, 366). Removed to Windsor (Pope).
WOLCOTT, Henry (8)
Somerset. Applied freeman 19 Oct 1630 (M.C.R., I, 79). Freeman 1 April 1634 (ibid., I, 368). Removed to Windsor (Stiles).
Note: From the above tabulation it appears that of the 40 heads of families who came in this ship 13 remained permanently in Dorchester; 23 removed to Windsor, Connecticut with Warham, in the migration of 1635/36, and four settled elsewhere in Massachusetts.
[end Appendix B]
The Ship Lyon
Appendix C p.106-107
The Ship Lyon, 1630
This ship was famous in the history of the early emigration to Massachusetts, and her Master was equally noted for his skillful seamanship and his sympathy with the policy of the Puritan leaders. In 1630, 1631 and 1632 she made four voyages hither in quick suc-cession under his command with the regularity and safety of a ferry, and on one of them saved the settlement from starvation and death by her timely arrival with provisions and anti-scorbutics.
The official connection of the Lyon with the Winthrop Fleet is of the same character as related of the Mary and John, as both were doubtless approved by the Governor and Assistants. In his letter of March 28, 1630 to his wife, written from the Arbella, off the Isle of Wight, after noting the sailing of the Mary and John, Winthrop wrote: 'and the ship which goes from Bristowe (Bristol) carrieth about eighty persons.' (L.L.W., I, 388). This is the Lyon and she probably sailed from that port to accommodate passengers living in the West Counties - Lancashire, Cheshire, Warwick, Gloucestershire and Somerset. That they were authorized to settle in the limits of the Bay Patent seems assured, as there is no evid-ence to the contrary following their arrival. The date of her departure is not known (probably in March) but her arrival at Salem is reported 'in the latter part of May' (Brad-ford, II, 67), some time before the Arbella reached that port. The identity of this ship is not established as there were several of her name in existence at that period. In view of her valuable services to the Colony it is to be hoped that the necessary search may be made to fix her home port, previous history, tonnage and ownership.
Of Captain William Peirse, her Master, more particulars are known. He had sailed to Plymouth in 1623 as Master of the Anne of London, bringing the last lot of passengers to the Pilgrim settlement. He was then a resident of Ratcliffe, parish of Stepney, London, and at that date was about thirty-one years old. He made a voyage to Salem in 1629 as Master of the Mayflower (not the Pilgrim ship) and thereafter he was in constant traffic in passengers and merchandise across the Atlantic. He took up his residence in Boston in 1632 and was admitted Freeman 14 May 1634 (M.C.R., I, 369). His wife, Bridget, joined the church 2 February 1632/3; perhaps a second wife, as a William Peirce, mariner of White-chapel, was licensed in 1615 to marry Margaret Gibbs. Whitechapel and Stepney are adjoin-ing parishes. He became a Town and Colony official and was engaged in coastwise shipping thereafter. He compiled an Almanac for New England
which was the second issue in 1639 from the Daye Press at Cambridge. In 1641 he was killed by the Spaniards while on a voyage to the island of New Providence, Bahamas Group, whither he was taking passengers for settlement.
The names and identities of the eighty passengers who sailed in the Lyon from Bristol to Salem have not been investigated, as they were soon amalgamated with the existing settle-ment there and it would require long and special study to segregate them from the 'Old Planters' and the more recent emigrants who came with Endicott.
The Master of the Admiral of the Winthrop Fleet who successfully led this flotilla to its destination deserves particular mention as an actor in the drama of early emigration to New England, as Christopher Jones, the Master of the Mayflower of 1620, has been acclaimed for bringing the Pilgrims in safety to Plymouth.
Peter Milburne was a resident of London in the parish of St. Katherine by the Tower, but beyond this, little information about him or his family has come to light. He was probably of London origin, as the family name is found there before 1600, and his residence on the water-front seems to confirm this suggestion. Stepney, the sailors' parish, was the next neighboring one on the east, and there he married on August 3, 1615, the widow Jane Coulter of Wapping, a hamlet of Stepney. Presumably he was master of the Eagle when she was bought for the voyage overseas, and the name changed to Arbella. That he was not only a skillful, but a popular sea-captain is evident from the testimony of Governor Winthrop. In a letter to his son after arrival here he sent this message:
'We had a comfortable passage and I found that love and respect from Capt. Milbourne our master, as I may not forget. I pray (if he be returned before you come hither,) take occasion to see him and remember my kind salutations to him and his wife.' ('Life and Letters of John Winthrop,' II, 40).
It is not known whether he or his vessel ever returned to these waters, nor anthing of his later career, but it may be hoped that some future chronicler will be able to add to this brief record the full story of the life of the senior captain of this Fleet, so pleasantly remembered by the senior official of the Massachusetts Bay Company.
MRS. ANNE (____) POLLARD
This passenger, according to her own story, came with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630 in one of the ships that arrived at Charlestown. She was then about nine or ten years of age and described herself as 'a romping girl' of the type who would be the heroine of the special in-cident which will be her title to enduring local fame. She is credited with being the first female, of all the passengers, to set foot on the peninsular of Shawmut, now the city of Boston, and for that reason deserves special notice in this story of the Great Emigration.
Taking one of the ship's boats, with a party of young people, she went over to Shawmut in search of fresh water, as the springs at Charlestown gave a brackish, unpalatable and in-adequate water supply. As the boat touched the shore, she was the first to leap out, and her claim to priority of landing in Boston has been of record for more than a century.
She became the wife of William Pollard, innholder of Boston, by whom she had a large family and at her death, December 6, 1725, she had nearly reached the great age of one hundred and five years. Franklin's 'New England Courant' in a short obituary notice of this centenarian stated that she was born in Saffron Walden, Essex, but with this clue it has not been possible, up to the time of the issue of this volume, to identify her among the many children baptized 'Anne' in the years calculated from her age at death.
None of the various parents of all these Annes can be recognized as coming to Boston with her, either by name or connected with her by will here or in England, after extensive in-vestigation by one of the leading genealogists of London. The matter is still being followed up. Her portrait, painted when she became a centenarian, is in the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society and a reproduction may be seen in Bolton's 'Portraits of the Founders.'
-- END --
[Source: The Winthrop Fleet of 1630 by Charles Edward Banks 1854-1931, published Boston 1930; Transcribed by Janice Farnsworth]
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