Michigan Genealogy Trails
Charlevoix County, MI
County History 

A history of northern Michigan and its people
Author: Powers, Perry Francis, 1857-1945.
Publication Info: Chicago : Lewis Publishing Co., 1912.
Page 264 - 292
Charlevoix county, northeast of Grand Traverse bay, is one of the most prosperous and progressive sections of Grand Traverse region, and has attained its standing through several channels. In fact, perhaps of all the counties in western Michigan none presents more diversified advantages than Charlevoix. It has a national fame as a resort for seekers after health and recreation and its Business houses feel the effects of the stimulation of the summer months throughout the entire year. Much of her permanent settlement has been derived from visitors who came only as transients but were charmed into lifelong residence.

County's Diverse Advantages

Boyne City, with its 5,000 people, and East Jordan and Charlevoix, each of about 2,500 population, are also industrial centers which turn out all kinds of lumber products, leather, cement, flour, beet sugar, agricultural implements, fruit packages, chemicals and various iron fabrications.

As a fruit-raising and an agricultural section Charlevoix county has taken her first steps, albeit she is far advanced in horticulture. With an area of 270,720 acres, 109,000 acres are already devoted to orchards and farms; and it is estimated, that another 100,000 acres are available for cultivation.

The surface of Charlevoix county is gently rolling, dotted here and there with beautiful lakes and veined with streams well stocked with fish. Its remaining timber is mostly hardwood, which supplies many of the factories with their raw material. Fruit growing can nowhere be carried on with better assurance of success, as the influence of the lake usually keeps frosts off until the beginning of winter, and as her harvests are later than those of Southern Michigan during the last of the seasons her pears, berries and apples bring unusually high prices. The county also enjoys good home markets, particularly in the warm seasons. Outside of fruits, the large and standard crops are potatoes and seeds of every variety, with sugar beets as close competitors. Dairying and poultry raising are also growing and already profitable industries.

All of which goes to prove the original statement, that perhaps the strongest characteristic of Charlevoix county is the diversity of her advantages.

Two organizations which are doing much for the development of the region are the County Chamber of Commerce and the Charlevoix County Agricultural Society. The former is an association of Boyne City, Charlevoix and East Jordan business men and farmers who work in harmony to inform the public as to the true "inwardness" of the county and all its institutions.

Organized in 1885, the Charlevoix County Agricultural Society has held a creditable fair each fall since, each annual exhibition increasing in variety, size and interest. Some years ago the society acquired forty acres of ground near East Jordan, and erected buildings which were then ample for the housing of the exhibits, but with the rapid progress in horticultural and agricultural matters of recent years in 1910 it was found necessary to erect the modern and up-to-date buildings which now stand upon the grounds.

The County Statistically

The best idea of the comparative wealth of the townships and cities of the county is obtained from the 1911 assessment of real and personal property.

The Pine Lake Region

The most marked physical feature of Charlevoix county is Pine lake and the adjacent country. It is also the birthplace of its history and the scene of the most interesting and exciting events of its early life. To add to its importance, locally, and to its wider fame it has been celebrated by many pens, both in prose and poetry, as one of the loveliest of the many beautiful regions of mingled water and land which adorn Northern Michigan.

At the center of the promontory between Grand and Little Traverse bays a small river used to wend its serpentine course into Lake Michigan. It was named See-pe-wa, or Green river. This stream was only about a quarter of a mile in length and came out of a small round lake, which was connected by a river about sixty rods in length with Long lake. Various names have been applied to these lakes and streams, such as Green lake, Mormon lake and finally Pine lake and Pine river and Pine lake region. The river has been made navigable for the largest vessels and Round and Pine lakes connected by an artificial channel.

Round lake is a park-like body of water, covering an area of about thirty acres, upon the shores of which is situated the beautiful little city of Charlevoix, although its business and civic centers are on the river about three-quarters of a mile away.

Pine lake stretches east and south some twenty miles. About five miles east it divides, South Arm extending, as its name implies, south to the distance of some five miles. Into the finger end of the south arm flows the Jordan river, the famous trout stream. East Jordan lies across the finger northeast of the river's mouth. The shores of Pine lake are bold and its waters deep; it embosoms some beautiful islands, is indented by numerous promontories separated by deep bays and harbors, and presents some really beautiful scenery.

In 1865, long before any one ever thought of locating a summer resort in this locality, Professor Winchell, then state geologist, in one of his published reports said: "Prom the foot of Pine lake a scene of surpassing loveliness presents itself. We land perhaps upon the wharf at the mouth of Pine river. Before us is a sandy slope, on the left of which we discover the usual features of a new settlement. Beyond is the forest. It is a pleasant October morning, however, and we follow the well-beaten road through the fresh clearings which stretch out for about a mile inland. We emerge from a screen of forest trees and find ourselves standing upon an elevated bluff overlooking as lovely a sheet of water as the sun ever shone upon. You feel almost a transport of delight in emerging so suddenly from the depths of the habitual forest into a prospect so vast, so gentle in its features, so delicate in its tints, and so glowing in the sunshine of a fair October morning. Far away to the southeast for fifteen miles stretches the placid, smiling surface of the water, its white and pebbly shore chasing the contour of the hills in all its meandering sinuosities. The verdant ridges rise on every side from the shining shore line and hold the lake in their enchanted embrace, while rounded hill tops bubble up in rapid succession across the retiring landscape, till hill, vale, and sky, green, purple and blue, dissolve together in the blended hues of the distant horizon." When Professor Winchell wrote these words Charlevoix consisted of little more than a dock, a rude store and a boarding house.

The name, the Boyne, was given by "Uncle" John Miller, a good Irishman and the first settler near its mouth, to the stream that empties into the head of Pine lake at the present village of Boyne. Next to the Jordan it is the most noted trout stream in this part of the state. It also affords a great variety of picturesque scenery.

Holy Island

Holy Island, situated in the south arm of Pine lake, about a mile and a half below Ironton, is historic and picturesque. It was set apart by the "Saints" as a place for holding the "Feast of First Fruits," in the summer of 1855. At that time it was an isolated spot where the feastings and revelries could go on undisturbed by Gentile settlers. The feast commenced on the first Sabbath after the full moon in August each year and generally continued several days. One of the principal articles of food was a roast ox or other animal, large enough to feed the multitudes assembled. James J. Strang, the Mormon King, explored the Pine Lake region, and his reports to the Northern Islander, the official Mormon newspaper on Beaver Island, gave the place great value in the eyes of the Saints, and Holy Island was to become sacred and devoted only to the worship of God. There was an evident intention to make it the future headquarters of a colony of Saints to be established on Pine lake. The death of Strang in 1856 prevented the realization of their ambitions in this locality as on Beaver island, the nucleus of the Mormon kingdom. Holy Island, which contains a trifle over eleven acres, is covered with evergreen and white poplar, and, commencing with the eighties various improvements have been attempted to convert it into a popular summer resort.

Known Three Centuries Ago

Big Beaver island and the islands scattered farther north are now embraced in St. James and Peaine townships, although much nearer the coast line of Emmet county, to which they were formerly attached in a civil and political sense. The story of the founding, rise and fall of the Strang Kingdom therefore is a chapter in the history of Charlevoix county.

It is an accepted fact that a few years after Champlain founded the French colony at Quebec, in 1608, his operations had extended to Beaver island and that one of his trading houses was in operation at what is now St. James. Writing as late as 1883, Dr. M. L. Leach says; "Utensils left by them at different early periods are frequently found. Extensive fields which they cultivated are grown up to woods, and some remain in grass. But there are strong indications of the presence of civilization at a still earlier period. The French settlement in Canada dates in 1608, but there are extensive fields on Beaver which have been thoroughly cleared and cultivated; and some very fine garden plots remain with the beds, paths, and alleys as well formed as the day they were made, and laid out on an extended scale, on which trees have been cut of two hundred and four years' growth. Consequently these places have been abandoned, and grown up to timber, at least since 1608. But cultivated fields are generally several years abandoned before they grow to timber. These were too extensive and show too many signs of wealth and ease to have been the work of a few adventurers. There is room at least to believe that of the numerous European colonies which were planted in America and lost without their fate every being known, some one was carried captive to this recess of the continent, and allowed to remain in peace."

In 1688 Baron La Hontan passed the Beaver and neighboring islands on his voyage to the St. Peter's early river of Minnesota, and other travellers and explorers, both French and English, became familiar with them while navigating the lakes between Canada and the Illinois and Mississippi valleys. But it was King Strang who made them best known to the people of the United States and first brought them within the pale of civil government.

Rule of King Strang

James J. Strang, whose personality has already been introduced to the readers of this history, was an eccentric, but a strong and a remarkable man. He was born in New York and passed most of his life until manhood in Chautauqua county, where he gained a local reputation for his wonderful memory and his forensic skill. He borrowed and devoured every law book he could obtain, was admitted to the bar, taught school, edited a newspaper, and practiced his profession as he could, before he married and moved to Racine county, Wisconsin. Here he resumed practice and was recognized as an able lawyer with a substantial future, when he came under the influence of one of those Mormon missionaries who were being sent abroad by Joseph Smith from the Nauvoo Church of Latter Day Saints. In January, 1844, he visited Nauvoo and Joseph Smith, was baptized, and upon the death of the latter, at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hyrum Smith, Strang endeavored to supplant Brigham Young by every means in his power. But the Council of Twelve opposed him. Strang seceded and led his followers to the City of Voree, Wisconsin, "on the prairie on White river, in the lands of Racine and Walworth," which he proclaimed had been designated as the site of the future Zion by Joseph Smith shortly before his death. He challenged all the old leaders of Mormonism to debate with him as to the justice of his claims, but in vain, and with the fall of Nauvoo, the Mormon stronghold in Illinois, and the exodus of Brigham Young and his followers across the Mississippi, Strang's colony at Voree alone remained in the northwest of the thousands who had embraced the faith of Joseph Smith.

It soon became apparent to Strang that the same conditions which had driven the Mormons of Nauvoo to a trans-Mississippi wilderness, would endanger the permanency of his colony in the course of a few years. For the growth of a Mormon community isolation was essential; where Gentile influences controlled the vicinage, there the utter annihilation of Mormonism was but a question of time. In his wanderings he had caught a glimpse from a vessel's deck of the natural beauty and seeming fruitfulness of a cluster of islands near the door that divides the great inland seas of Huron and Michigan. Here was an ideal seat of power, remote from the obtrusiveness of civil officers whose views of laws might differ from his own; yet not so distant from the line of travel as to render profitable traffic impossible. The waters teemed with excellent fish; the forests would furnish an abundance of most excellent timber; the soil needed but to be scratched to yield in multiplied plenty. To this land of promise could be led his Saints, and here would they wax fat and strong.

If this was Strang's dream of empire, as subsequent events indicated, the beginnings were indeed humble. He is authority for the statement that he fixed on the islands in Lake Michigan as a place for a Mormon community in 1846. Nearly a year elapsed before his plans could be set in motion. With four companions he took passage on a little hooker, the captain agreeing to land them on Beaver island. They sold their blankets to pay their passage and on the 11th day of May stepped from the little sailing vessel upon the soil of the land which the leader prophetically declared would prove to them an inheritance. They were without a cent of money, but bad provisions enough to last two days. Their reception was inhospitable in the extreme. At neither of the two trading houses then on the island could five penniless men arrange for lodging, so they sought the shelter of the woods. Constructing a camp of hemlock boughs, they undertook a thorough exploration of the island. Leeks and beechnuts served for food while they were thus engaged.

Their perseverance brought its reward. They soon obtained employment, and it was not long before they had accumulated a store of provisions, built a log cabin and arranged for the use of a boat. Strang and two of the men returned to Voree to start the migration to the new land of promise. Winter locked upon the island a Mormon population of five men and thirteen women and children. The following winter the Mormons on the island numbered sixty-two, seventeen of them being men. In the summer of 1849 the Saints began to arrive in considerable numbers. Instead of confining their efforts to working for the traders at the harbor they now felt numerically strong enough to begin for themselves. Twelve elders went in various directions to summon the faithful to the new stake of Zion, and to seek additional converts. The islanders began the construction of a schooner, built a steam saw-mill and made a road to the interior, where the land was excellently adapted for agriculture. They manifested so much energy that the fisherman whose rude huts punctuated the coast here, as well as on the mainland opposite, took serious alarm. A land sale being held about this time, considerable friction occurred between Mormon and Gentile claimants of choice tracts. There arose an unpleasantness that later bore bitter fruit. It was claimed by the Saints that the fishermen induced the captains of vessels bearing Mormon emigrants not to land at the Beaver. Many were carried on to Wisconsin who had been ticketed from the east for the harbor of St. James, for so the Mormons had rechristened the horseshoe bend where vessels came to land, and where in stormy-weather they found a safe haven.

It was not long before the Mormons bade fair to control the island. They but believed that they had come into their own, for this was the revelation given unto their seer and revelator long before their coining: "So I beheld a land amidst wide waters and covered with large timber, with a deep broad bay on one side of it; and I wandered over it upon little hills and among rich valleys, where the air was pure and serene, and the unfolding foliage, with its fragrant shades, attracted me till I wandered to bright clear waters scarcely ruffled by the breeze. And one came near unto me, and I said. What meaneth this? And he answered and said, Behold, here shall God establish His people. For He will make their arm strong, and their bow shall abide in strength, and they shall not bow to the oppressor, and the power of the Gentile shall not be upon them, for the arm of God shall be with them to support. It hath abundance in the riches of the forest, and in the riches of the earth, and in the riches of the waters. And the Lord God shall add possession unto the faithful, and give good gifts unto them that keep His law, and He will establish them therein forever."

To appreciate the spirit animating the Saints in thus taking possession, one must realize the fervor of their faith in the revelation of their seer. There were among them some who had in mind mere pelf and plunder, but the greater number of the misled people was no doubt inspired by fanatic zeal. The law of Moses was their law, supplemented by the doctrines of Mormon and the visions of Strang. To follow these injunctions was to do no wrong, no matter what laws of the land they violated. Like the children of Israel, they were going from the wilderness to a land overflowing with milk and honey. As the people led by Moses had ruthlessly slain the Amorites, the Amalakites and the Midianites, so they felt justified in smiting the Lamanitics, or Gentiles. There was this distinction, that they lived in an age when prudence forbade violent physical onslaught upon neighboring inhabitants, and legal strategy took the place of physical violence. This, at least, was the policy of the leaders, and they were implicity obeyed as a rule. The Mormons manifested their sense of ownership by giving new names to the physical distinctions of Beaver island. The beautiful land-locked harbor was called St. James. The cluster of houses that were reared on the ancient mounds along the shore—in the eyes of the Mormons the evidences of an extinct race alluded to in the Book of Mormon—they dignified by the name of City of St. James. A hill in the interior received the biblical name of Mount Pisgah. The river Jordan discharged into the lake the waters that poured into its bed from the Sea of Galilee. Thus did the nomenclature of the island receive the distinctive impress of its Mormon population.

Encounters between Mormons and Gentiles soon became frequent. The Mormons planned a large tabernacle. While some of them were cutting out the timber for the structure, they were set upon and soundly beaten. Doubtless there is much truth in the claim made by the Mormons that up to this time they were more sinned against than aggressors. Drunken fishermen invaded their homes and subjected the women to indignities; debating clubs were attended by uninvited guests, whose boisterous conduct prevented proceedings. Men from old Michilimackinac came in boats to raid outlying farmhouses. Families sent by the missionary elders were met at the wharf and told to return to the boat, as all the Mormons would soon be driven away or killed.

About the year 1850 the Saints began to retaliate in earnest. Their numbers had so increased that they could safely do so. The ambitions of Strang were about being realized. He had reorganized his community of Saints. The Book of the Law of the Lord, which he had "translated'' from plates dug out of the hill at Voree, had added another sacred book to the Mormon library, ranking in the faith of the Beaver islanders with the Bible and the Book of Mormon. "Written on metallic plates long previous to the Babylonish captivity," as Strang explained to his credulous followers, the Urim and Thummim brought to him by an angel's hand had enabled him to interpret the characters thereof. Thus had he restored to the chosen people the ancient manuscript long lost to the Jewish nation. The sacred book kept in the ark of the covenant and lost when the children of Israel were hurried into captivity, came back after all these centuries by revelation given to Strang.

And the Beaver island Mormons believed what he said. It was now open war between all the fishermen of the region, whether of Beaver and Mackinac islands, or the coasts of the Grand Traverse region, and the Mormons under Strang. Their energetic leader had announced the date of his coronation as July 8, 1850, and the opposition plotted to destroy his power and his budding kingdom before that decisive event should transpire. In May a general invitation was given by the Gentiles on all the fishing grounds to come to Whiskey Point, near the scene of the proposed coronation, and there celebrate the glorious Fourth—and "incidentally" to get into a fight with the Mormons who had called a general assembly at the same time and place. But the Mormons, under the alert Strang, had forestalled their intentions and provided themselves a real live cannon and heated balls, and their twelve artillerists were prepared to level all the shanties at Whiskey Point if they were molested in their legal services to be held in the unfinished Tabernacle near by. In a word, the plans of the Gentile fishermen quite miscarried. The threatened invasion having failed, the coronation occurred, according to programme, July 8, 1850. King Strang was now supreme on Beaver island, and bade fair to soon control the entire group of islands. His policy was to foster the fisheries as a source of profit to his colony and to use the power of political machinery to secure immunity for infractions of the law. As the population of the island multiplied and the power of the Mormons with it, the hatred of the traders and fishermen on the opposite coasts became more intense. The border feud became so bitter that the news- papers of Detroit. Cleveland, Buffalo and New York devoted considerable space to its incidents. As a rule, these accounts represented the Mormons as a band of pirates engaged in plunder and crimes of all kinds. The center of the hostile camp was at old Mackinac, and here plans were made for discomfiting the Mormons. It is difficult at this day to judge how far the Gentiles were in the wrong and in how far the Mormons. Doubtless there was much wrong on both sides.

At first the advantage was with the Gentiles at Mackinac, for they had the machinery of government in their hands. The sheriff aided them by arresting Mormons and taking them to Mackinac for trial. On one occasion Strang and a company of workmen had gone to Hog island to save from the wreck of a vessel a yawl boat frozen in the shoals. A man named Moore, who had been chased off Beaver for selling whiskey, went before a justice of the peace at Mackinac and swore out a warrant for the arrest of thirty-one men on the novel charge that they had "put him in fear of danger." Sheriff Granger, with a posse of thirteen white men and thirty-two Indians, went to the island, where the men were, seized the boat of the Mormons, and, believing their prey secure, proceeded to the camp of the Mormons a little past midnight. A wild Irish hurrah and an accompanying Indian war-whoop awoke the Mormons to a night of terror and suffering. Hatless and shoeless they rushed into the woods and sought the protection of a swamp, while the sheriff's men plundered the camp and divided the spoils of war. The Mormons found a leaky fish-boat at the opposite end of the island, and this launched. It was a cold April morning. According to the account they afterwards gave, "the lake was spotted with vast fields of drift ice. With a boat preserved from sinking only by the ice frozen in it, without sails or oar locks, and with three unsuitable oars; not half clothed, no provisions, without a line to tie their boat nor an ax to repair any accident, they set out on the broad blue waters for a place of safety." It took twenty-four hours for them to reach Gull island, and here they spent five miserable days in a fish shanty before they managed to repair the boat sufficiently to proceed. After this a price was set on Strang's head, and several hundred armed men. including Irish fishermen and Indians hunted for him weeks to earn the reward of $300 offered by the sheriff for the body of Strang, "dead or alive."

The arrest and trial of Strang and his followers in the spring and summer of 1853 have been described as the "first regular law case" in the Grand Traverse region. He was discharged and returned to his own, more autocratic than ever. Not a few of the Mormons themselves deserted the kingdom and joined the hostile fishermen on the small islands and mainland. King Strang conceived the idea of get- ting them back into the fold by strategy. A grand jury was therefore called at St. James and the Mormon sheriff and his posse went to Charlevoix (Pine river) to serve a summons on ex-Elder Savage, several other Mormons who had fled being also summoned as jurors or witnesses. When the papers were served on him Savage tore them in pieces and when the sheriff attempted his arrest a score of sturdy fisher lads attacked the Mormons, drove them to their boats and wounded several before they got out of reach. King Strang at once took steps to punish the colonists at Charlevoix, but the fisher boys and men had fled.

Another serious encounter occurred when a Mormon constable attempted to arrest Thomas and Samuel Bennett, Gentiles who lived on Beaver island. They resisted; Thomas Bennett was instantly shot dead and his brother had one hand nearly shot away.

Such episodes caused renewed activity in the Gentile strongholds among those who planned to sweep the Mormon settlements with fire and sword. Before their plans could be executed the king was assassinated by two of his rebellious subjects—Thomas Bedford and Alexander Wentworth. Bedford had been whipped by order of the king for some offense; he is said to have upheld his wife in disregarding the mandate to wear bloomers. Wentworth also had a grievance. About the middle of June. 1856, the "Michigan" steamed into the harbor, and by invitation of the captain King Strang proceeded to visit the vessel's officers. As he Mas about, to step on the pier, two pistol shots were fired from behind, both taking effect. He turned and recognized the assassins as they fired again. As he sank to the ground they struck him over the head and face with the weapons, ran aboard the steamer and gave themselves up. They were taken to Mackinac, where the murderers were received as heroes. They were never brought to trial. The wounds of Strang proved fatal. He called his ciders to his deathbed, gave them instructions for the government of his Mormon Kingdom, and as a last request asked to be taken to the city of refuge which he had founded in Wisconsin. There he died July 9, 1856, and there his bones rest in an unmarked grave.

The kingdom fell with him. The Gentile invasion came soon after his removal to Voree. The fishermen came with torch to destroy and with ax to demolish. His printing office was sacked; the tabernacle was reduced to ashes and the Mormons were exiled. On the islands of Green Bay and its adjacent peninsula a few of them built new homes; some sought the land whence they had followed the prophet; the rest were scattered to the four points of the compass. Like that of the prophet Joseph, the life of the prophet James ended in a tragedy and the exile and dispersion of his people.

The County and the County Seat

The settlement of Charlevoix or Pine river followed the founding of the Mormon Kingdom on Beaver island by several years: As early as 1852, and perhaps earlier, there were fishermen located about Pine river, and in the spring of 1853 quite a colony was collected there. Captain T. D. Smith had an establishment in the bay, southwest of the mouth of the river, between it and Pine River Point. There were four more west of Smith, between him and the point, three at the mouth of the river, and one-half a mile farther north. These were not simply bachelors' homes, but contained families of women and children. There were also two other families in the vicinity, and other fishermen.

At this time, in 1853, the counties of Emmet and Charlevoix were organized under the name of Emmet, and provision was made for organizing the town of Charlevoix to embrace the territory of the county. When Emmet county was reorganized in 1855 Charlevoix township held its first official meeting at the house of John S. Dixon, the "board" being represented by Galen B. Cole, sole supervisor. At the annual meeting in October of that year he created the towns of Evangeline and Eveline. Both the supervisor and George T. Preston, the clerk, were Mormons.

In the winter of 1869 a bill was passed by the legislature fully organizing the county of Charlevoix. Prior to that time its territory, except the townships of Hudson, Boyne Valley, Wilson and South Arm, was a part of Emmet county; three of its organized towns, Little Traverse, Bear Creek and La Croix, had been in Emmet county, and three also, Charlevoix, Evangeline and Eveline, in the county of Charlevoix. The county seat had been at Little Traverse, or Harbor Springs, until 1865, when the supervisors of Emmet county moved it to Charlevoix. The fight between Little Traverse and Charlevoix was taken up by Dennis T. Downing, Emmet county clerk, with such vigor that the bill was passed in 1869 which divided the territory, making Little Traverse the seat of justice for Emmet and Charlevoix, for the county by that name.

A union convention to nominate county officers was held April 17, 1869. William Harris was chairman and Willard A. Smith secretary. Delegates were present from the several towns as follows: Charlevoix, J. S. Dixon, A. Q. Aldrich, M. J. Stockman; Norwood, L. H. Pearl, Geo. Olney, Wm. Harris; South Arm, D. R. Cole, A. R. Struthers, Solomon Isaman; Evangeline, H. R. Miller, W. C. Fordham, E. R. Boynton; Eveline, S. Steele, J. Preston, Daniel Staley; Marion, L. W. Skinner, R. Williams, W. Vosburgh. A ticket was nominated as follows: Sheriff. Richard Cooper; treasurer, Jackson Ingalls; clerk, William Harris; register, M. J. Stockman; judge of probate, Philo Beers; prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner, Edward H. Green; superintendent of schools, John S. Dixon; coroners, L. W. Skinner and Solomon Isaman.

The first election in the county was the general election on the first Monday of April. The highest number of votes polled was 213. The county election was held on the first Monday of May. The highest number of votes polled was 175. The ticket nominated at the convention was elected with the addition of William Miller for surveyor.

In the organization of Charlevoix county, under the act of 1869, the south line of Emmet went through the middle of Bear Creek, and in order to get territory enough to make the new county of Charlevoix, the town of Hudson wras taken from Otsego county and Boyne Valley, Wilson and South Arm from Antrim county. That settled the fight between Emmet and Charlevoix counties, and everything was quiet on the county seat question for a time.

Then Boyne City and East Jordan got into the controversy and in 1885 the latter secured the prize. Boyne City held it from 1886 to 1897, when it returned to Charlevoix. How the last removal came about is told by Hon. William Harris, the old settler and prominent public citizen of Norwood township:

"The final and successful attempt was made," he says, "at the meeting of the board in January, 1897. Petoskey, which had grown much faster than Harbor Springs, began to lay wires for the removal of the county seat to that place. The towns of Bear Lake, Spring Vale and Resort were near Petoskey and they wished to be set off into Emmet county. This Petoskey favored and of course Little Traverse, or Harbor Springs, opposed. Now if these towns could be let go to Emmet, they would vote for removal from Boyne City to Charlevoix. "At the same time there were bills pending in the legislature to disorganize Manitou county and attach the Manitous and Fox island to Leelanau county and the Beavers either to Emmet or Charlevoix county. Charlevoix did not ??? the Beavers very badly, thinking it not a very good trade to take the Beavers in place of territory let go to Emmet county. But while at the spring election there was u majority in favor of the removal of the county seat to Charlevoix, two or three of the towns whose supervisors bad voted for removal had been defeated at the spring election and men who would oppose removal elected, and Boyne City would have a majority on the board. Former experience had shown what a majority of the supervisors meant in a county seat fight.

"The bills pending in the legislature were passed and Beaver island, composed of three townships, was attached to Charlevoix county; Resort, Bear Lake and Springvale went to Emmet county; and the county sent went back to Charlevoix after an absence of about thirteen years.

Organization of Towns

The organization of the towns of Charlevoix. Evangeline and Eveline have already been noted. South Arm, previous to the creation of Charlevoix county formed a part of Antrim, and was organized by the board of supervisors of the latter in March, 1868. The town of Norwood was set off from Marion in April, 1869; Boyne Valley was organized at the January session of the board in 1873. and the town of Wilson ut the same session; Hudson, at the October meeting of the county board in 1876; Hayes at the same times: Melrose, in October. 1877. "and Chandler in July, 1880.

Charlevoix as a Village

The early events which transpired at Pine river have already been narrated, and we come to the starting point of Charlevoix as a village. The narration of events already given show that the site of Charlevoix village is historic: ground. The Mound builders have left their traces and the character of the location would be sufficient evidence of its being a favorite resort of Indians. From the purchase of the land by John S. Dixon in 1854, until the beginning of the operations of Fox & Rose in 1864 nothing occurred that is connected with Charlevoix as a village.

In the course of the summer of 1864 Mr. Dixon completed arrangements with the firm of Fox & Rose, of North port, by which they were to come here and build a dock to a sufficient depth of water for the accommodation of steamboats. H. 0. Rose, of Petoskey, arrived and assisted in measuring the ground they were to have, which included all convenient dock sites around the month of the river. It was also arranged that Mr. Dixon was to take charge of n stock of goods which he was to dispose of in exchange for wood, and that winter was begun the propeller wood trade at the mouth of the river. "Work on the dock wax pushed as rapidly as possible, and before the close of navigation one was partially completed and everything was ready to receive wood. About the 25th of October there came a heavy northwest blow, the severest that had been known on the lakes for many years and carried away about a hundred feet of the dock, doing considerable damage to what was left.

This disaster was an unfortunate one, but did not discourage the firm which was composed of pioneer business men who had already been in the same kind of business at Northport for several years. Early in the spring they repaired the damages and completed the dock. When the goods were first shipped to Pine river in the fall an old block building was used, but during the winter of 1864-5 they brought lumber and put up a store.

Returning to the spring of 1869 we find the activities of the little settlement directed toward building up a village. A spirit of improvement pervaded the place and the people who were there seem to have been determined to make their surroundings as attractive as possible. The question of opening a channel through to Pine lake began to be agitated, and in June steps were taken to carry out the project. Messrs. Redington, Nelson & Company built a dock near their mill on Round lake, and in July the new store of Fox & Rose on the south side of the river was filled with goods, and Archibald Buttars arrived from Northport to take charge of the mercantile business. The style of the firm was changed to A. Buttars & Company. Mr. Buttars became a leading business man of the place and afterward represented this senatorial district in the state senate.

In Communication with Lake Michigan

The improvement of Charlevoix harbor and the opening of a channel through to Pine lake were of incalculable advantage to Charlevoix county; in fact, without this improvement the county could not have attained its present state of development.

The whole region of Pine lake was cut off from the commerce of Lake Michigan by a narrow sandridge that separated it from Round lake, and Pine river was a shallow stream coursing through the sand and emptied into the lake some fifteen rods south of its present outlet. There was a series of rapids with water from eighteen inches to two feet in depth. Only canoes and Mackinac boats entered and the latter were towed along the south banks with great difficulty. In 1868 a survey of Pine river was made by Major Wheeler, who reported insurmountable obstacles in the way of making a harbor and that a harbor refuge was not necessary at this point, owing to its proximity to other good harbors. His conclusions were based upon the fact that the River Improvement Company had commenced making a cut at the mouth of the river and owing to lack of funds had discontinued work.

When the dredge arrived at the bridge Colonel Mansfield of the United States corps of engineers arrived and at once saw the erroneous judgment of Major Wheeler's report. He immediately made a favorable report upon his recommendation and an appropriation was obtained from the government. Colonel Mansfield's report is dated August 26, 1873, and from it we make the following extracts: "A cursory examination satisfied me that no further survey was needed to project a plan of improvement. The stream connecting Round and Pine lakes with Lake Michigan is only about 1,200 foot in length and from 75 to 100 feet in width. Its course where it entered into Lake Michigan at the time the survey was made, had been changed to a straight cut, and the depth of water at the time of my visit was about six feet, while the rapids spoken of had almost entirely disappeared, owing in some measures doubtless to the unusually high water in Lake Michigan. The current, however, was swift but did not indicate a difference in level of the lakes of over three inches.

"I found a dredge at work in the river near the bridge making eleven feet water, the intention being to carry the depth entirely through with one cut of thirty-five feet width. No stone boulders had been met. The material dredged was chiefly sand, with coarse gravel and small stone. In making the cut at the mouth of the river, no boulders were met with to interfere with the work as had been feared; the bottom through the water here appeared to be composed of pebbles and small rounded stone or shingle, no stone larger than your fist. The bed and banks of the river throughout showed only a material that could easily be removed with the dredge, it being sand, marl, gravel and clay mixed. A crib pier was built on the north side about 460 feet in length last fall, and during the winter two cribs eighty feet over all were placed in on the south side.

"The direction of the piers seems to be admirably well chosen. The physical formation of the shore here—the mouth of the river before any improvements wore attempted being almost closed about 450 feet south of the present outlet indicates clearly the direction of the severe blows, namely, from the north and northwest. No storms from a direction south of west can have any injurious effect upon the mouth of the river, as it is thoroughly protected by a jutting headland, a short distance off, in a direction nearly due west, therefore, in any improvements to be made here the north pier is, and will be the weather pier. The place seems, therefore, readily susceptible of improvement and at small expense.

"The work already done is the result of the commendable spirit and energy of the people who seem to be thoroughly in earnest. In addition, the difficulty attending the navigation of the narrow tortuous and shallow stream connecting the waters of Round lake and Pine lake has been surmounted by a straight cut at the head of Round lake through a narrow neck of sand, gravel and marl. The banks are not revetted and notwithstanding the rapid current are not disturbed." Upon the strength of the report work rapidly progressed and resulted in placing Charlevoix in direct water communication with the ports of the Great Lakes.

The Charlevoix and Chicago Resorts

The Charlevoix resort was established in 1878, and its history is substantially as follows: The idea of establishing a resort at this point was first suggested by the organization of the Bay View Association and the location of the grounds at Petoskey. Hearing that certain Presbyterians contemplated a similar resort, several citizens of Charlevoix made an effort to induce them to locate at this point. Before this project was fully matured, a location near Harbor Springs was decided upon. While looking after the interests of this enterprise, the Charlevoix gentlemen succeeded in interesting H. W. Page, of Kalamazoo, in this location, and through his instrumentality the organization of the association was brought about.

The articles of association and call for the first meeting were filed with the county clerk of Kalamazoo county, May 23, 1878, and with the secretary of state on the following day. On June 21, 1878, the first regular meeting of "The Charlevoix Summer Resort" was held at No. 63 Lovel Street, Kalamazoo.

During the summer of 1878 six cottages were erected, and a substantial pier, with fourteen feet of water at the front, was built. Other improvements were made, such as the building of a bath-house, and the sinking of a well from which is obtained an abundant supply of delicious water, cold as ice. The amount expended in these improvements was $1,600. The number of persons who visited Charlevoix that summer because of the establishment of this resort, and who occupied the cottages or lived in tents, or found board in private families, and who considered the grounds of the resort as their headquarters, was considerably above one hundred. In 1879 a commodious boarding-house was built upon the grounds, in order to accommodate many visitors who desire temporary quarters. In May, 1880, the association purchased all the land directly north of the original twenty-acres deeded by M. J. Stockman, and lying between it and the channel and Round lake. In October, twenty-five acres more were purchased, giving the resort water front on Pine lake.

The Chicago resort was located upon the north shore of Round lake, and upon an elevation commanding a magnificent view of the lakes and country around it. This resort was founded by a stock company of wealthy Chicago gentlemen for a private summer retreat for their families and their friends. The origin of this resort was related by a Chicago paper in the fall of 1880, as follows: "During the past summer a company of Chicago gentlemen desirous of taking a breathing spell during the hot July and August days, took a trip up in the region of the 'fishing line.' They visited Mackinac, Petoskey and Charlevoix. At the latter place they stayed several days, charmed by its surroundings, its cool nights, pleasant breezy days, pure air and the absence of the dust and heat of the city, all of which combined to make their stay very pleasant. One of the gentlemen, liking the place so well, secured a piece of land intending it for a summer residence lot. The three other gentlemen, meeting sometime after and comparing notes and opinions regarding Charlevoix, agreed to purchase a large tract of land and set it apart for a summer resort. This has been done, and a stock company formed, a charter obtained and enrolled under our state laws as the 'Chicago Summer Resort Company.' From these two first "resort associations" developed "Charlevoix" reputation as an ideal place for out-of-doors recreation, and they largely advanced the prospects of the settlement on Pine river. The resorts and the village corporation were almost twins.

Charlevoix as a Corporation

Early in the year 1879 the question of obtaining a village charter pressed upon the minds of the people with considerable force, and early in February a public meeting was held to consider the subject. A resolution was adopted to the effect that it was the sense of the meeting that Charlevoix should be incorporated. A committee consisting of Messrs. Buttars, Eaton and Bell were appointed a committee to determine the boundary lines of the proposed incorporation. A petition was forwarded to the legislature, and the bill was passed and approved April 3d. The act reads as follows:

"That all those tracts of land situated in the township of Charlevoix, in the county of Charlevoix, and state of Michigan, which are known and described as follows, to-wit: Lots numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26 and lot numbered 1, and the northeast fraction and the north half of the southeast quarter of section 27, all in township 34 north, of range 8 west, be and the same are hereby constituted a village corporate by the name of the village of Charlevoix.

"The first election of officers for said village shall be held on the second Monday in April, 1879, at the town hall in said village, notice of which shall be posted in three public places by the board of registration, hereinafter appointed, at least the days previous thereto.

"Byron See and Robert Miller are hereby constituted a board of registration for the purpose of registering voters for the first election to be held in said village, and said board of registration are hereby required to meet on the Saturday preceding the second Monday of April, 1879, aforesaid, and register all persons presenting themselves for registration, and having the qualifications of voters at annual township meetings.

"The bridge now built and all that may hereafter be built across Pine river, within the territory described in section 1 of this act, shall be built, and maintained, as heretofore, by the township of Charlevoix, or the county of Charlevoix, and all moneys raised by general high- way tax in the village of Charlevoix shall be expended under the direction of the highway commissioners of the township of Charlevoix, for the benefit of the highways of said township and village in the same manner as though said village was not incorporated.

"The said village of Charlevoix shall in all things not herein otherwise provided be governed by and its duties and powers defined by an act entitled: 'An act granting and defining the duties and powers of incorporated villages,' approved April 1, 1875, and such amendments as may be made thereto.

"In case the said officers are not elected at the time designated in section 2 of this act, an election for officers may be had at any time within one year from the time designated in said section 2 of this act, on notice being given as provided in said section."

In 1881 the charter was amended so as to leave the grounds of the Kalamazoo resort outside the village limits, and to accomplish that section 1 was amended so as to read as follows: "That all those tracts of land situated in the township of Charlevoix, in the county of Charlevoix and state of Michigan, which are known and described as follows, to-wit: Lots numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26, and lot numbered 1, and the northeast fraction and the north half of the southeast quarter of section 27, all in township 34 north, of range 8 west, excepting that portion of the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26 aforesaid, known and described as follows, to-wit: Commencing at the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of section 26, thence west along the east and west quarter line of said section 26, eleven rods and two feet to the north and south quarter line of section 26 aforesaid, thence due north along said quarter line to the place of beginning, be, and the same are hereby constituted a village corporate by the name of the village of Charlevoix."

The city of Charlevoix was really founded on three corporate summer resorts and it has never lost its distinctive feature. There is no city in Michigan of its size which has more perfect hotel accommodations, and it is safe to say that during the summer season its population is increased on an average by ten thousand people. By no means, however, is Charlevoix prosperity temporary or spasmodic. Its settled population is nearly three thousand; its retail and wholesale trade is large; its stores, public buildings and residences are substantial and attractive; its streets broad and finely paved; its sidewalks well built and well kept, and its industries firmly established and growing. Among Charlevoix leading manufactures are lumber, shingles, boats, flour, cement and beet sugar, her fisheries still being active and productive. The Western Michigan Sugar Company, Charlevoix Rock Products Company and the Charlevoix Lumber Company are all leaders in its industrial growth, its fisheries being largely controlled by the Butell Fish Company and the Booth Packing Company. The shipments from Charlevoix include lumber and fish, wood bark, ties and cedar posts, beet sugar and flour, rock products and cement. The city is far from being simply a fashionable summer resort.

Schools and Churches

In the fall of 1861 a small log house was erected on the bank of Pine lake about fifteen rods south of where the Belvidere House afterward stood, on the Charlevoix resort grounds, and in the following winter Mrs. M. J. Stockman, who lived on the south side of Round lake, opened it as the first school in the village. Her salary was one dollar per week. In the fall of 1867 the first frame schoolhouse was built at the corner of State and Antrim streets to accommodate the children of the dozen white families which the village and vicinity then embraced. In 1873 a good building for the Union school was erected, and from that time on the public system of education, both of village and city, has developed along modern lines. Charlevoix at the present time has a handsome Central school and two well built ward schools.

Religious life had its birth in Charlevoix long before the village had a corporate existence. Its first Sunday school was organized in the fall of 1859 by Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Dixon. Their children attended it, as well as those of S. F. Mason, Medad Thompson and Hugh Miller—ten scholars in all. Meetings were held in the Dixon log house near Pine lake.

The Methodists organized their first class at A. D. Brady's, town of Marion, in the summer of 1867, and in the fall of that year the village of Charlevoix was made the head of a circuit. In January, 1868, a class of seventeen was formed in the village of Charlevoix, and a church building was completed in August, 1877.

The Congregationalists got together in 1866-7 and in the fall of 1879 commenced to hold regular services under Rev. N. L. Otis in the schoolhouse. The cause was weak for a time but revived in 1882, and the church organization has since been continuous.

Church activities at Charlevoix are now represented by societies of Congregationalists, Methodists, Baptists, Catholics and Episcopalians.


The Bank of Charlevoix, established in September, 1882, was the first institution of the kind founded in the county. For some years the business was carried on by Lewis Reynolds and "W. P. Brown, under the firm name of Reynolds & Brown.

In July, 1883, the Merchants and Farmers Bank was established by the firm of Buttars, Upright & Company, with A. Buttars as president, A. R. Upright vice-president and G. S. Thomas cashier. In the following year the bank was reorganized under state laws and has since been known as the Charlevoix County Bank. Its assets are $250,000; responsibility, $100,000; and officers: John Nicholls. president; Harry Nicholls, vice-president and A. Buttars, cashier. The Charlevoix State Savings Bank was established in 1905. Present officers: R. P. Foley, president; O. C. Geiken and H. S. Harsha, vice-presidents, and W. J. Rachow, cashier. Its total resources amount to $203,885; paid-in capital stock, $25,000; surplus and undivided profits, $4,886; deposits, $173,992.73.

Boyne City

Boyne City is a stanch little municipality of five thousand people, lying at the head of Pine lake and the mouth of Pine river, having railway connections through the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena line. It was incorporated in 1907, is lighted by electricity and has a perfect natural drainage supplemented by a fine sewerage system. Boyne City has well paved streets, lined with substantial business houses and residences, and a natural-gravity system of water works which furnishes an abundant supply for both domestic and industrial purposes. In the hills north and south of the city are the flowing wells and living springs from which are drawn the splendid water supply through sixteen miles of mains connected with two reservoirs. The mean pressure for the ordinary water supply is twenty-seven pounds to the square inch; for fire purposes a special reservoir is provided, which, when connected with the mains, raises the pressure to one hundred and fifteen pounds. The industries of Boyne City are various and many of them important. Its hardwood lumber mill, shingle plant, chemical works, sole leather tannery and brick yards are leading manufactories, and the car shops of the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena Railroad add to the still growing list of establishments. Flooring, veneer, boxes and baskets and wooden ware are also made and shipped.

The industries and trade of Boyne City are financially handled through two banks. The First National is the only national institution of the kind in Charlevoix county. It is capitalized at $50,000; has a surplus of $10,000; and is officered by W. II. White as president, W. S. Shaw, vice-president and S. C. Smith, cashier.

The People's Bank, established in 1907 is a private institution whose responsibility is placed at $500,000.

The settlement of what is now Boyne City commenced when John Miller took up land for a farm at the head of Fine lake in 1856. In 1869 the postoffice of Boyne was established and Mr. Miller was appointed postmaster. The office was kept at his house; the mail route at that time extended from Traverse City to Cheboygan.

About the year 1871 Messrs. Esterly & Co. purchased the tract of land at the mouth of Boyne river with the intention of laying out a town. Circumstances prevented them from doing so and the site remained unoccupied, with the exception of one log house, until the original part of the Pine Lake House was built in 1874.

In 1879 Messrs. Nicholls & Morgan platted a large addition, called South Boyne, which was afterward incorporated into the village. It was in this section that the Cobb property was situated. During the years 1879 and 1880 the place began to develop, and almost the entire growth of the village has been since that time. Developments came so rapidly and continuously that the village was incorporated in 1885. In the meantime both educational and religious forces had entered into the development of the growing community. The first school was opened in a board shanty on Hugh R. Miller's farm and School Fractional No. I was organized in 1870 with that gentleman as director. In 1871 Miss Mariette Hicks commenced to teach the first public school in that building. In 1874 the school was moved to a log building near the shore of the lake, in what was afterward South Boyne. This property, including fifty-eight acres of school land, was sold in 1879 to a Mr. Cobb who made the purchase in order to establish a summer resort there. After the property was sold to him a good frame schoolhouse was built, which was replaced by the first brick structure devoted to school purposes in 1883. It was a two-story building and was pronounced at the time as "by far the finest school building in Charlevoix county.'

With a fine Central and High school and abundant provision to accommodate pupils in the four wards of the municipality, Boyne City would now smile over this enthusiastic statement.

The church history of the city commences with the organization of the South Arm charge by the Methodists in September, 1873, with Rev. A. G. Wiggins as pastor in charge and Robert Thompson leader. Meetings were held at Mr. Thompson's house until 1875, when, under the care of Rev. Thomas Pierce, they were transferred to a log house in the village of Boyne. The present Boyne charge was formed in 1876 by Rev. D. H. Pierce. Presbyterian services were first held at Boyne by Rev. J. Beardsley in 1878. Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Catholics and Evangelical denominations are now part of the religious life of Boyne City.

East Jordan

A flourishing and growing village of more than twenty-five hundred people, at the extremity of the South Arm of Pine lake on its eastern shores, East Jordan is one of the three leading centers of population in Charlevoix county.

W. F, Empey was the first settler at this point. lie was born in Canada in the year 1840. fu 18(it> he came to Michigan, although he had previously been in the states. For several years he was connected with the lumbering interests and had traveled over this part of the state locating pine land for a Toledo firm. In 1874 he built a store on the eastern shore of the South Arm, and the following year began putting up the first building on the present site of East Jordan for a store. About this time a blacksmith named John Vote came along and Mr. Empey induced him to locate here. He built a block building for a shop upon a lot opposite the future site of the Jordan River House, but he only remained a short time.

In June, 1877, a postoffice was established and Mr. Empey was appointed postmaster. When the office was about to be established the question of a name for the settlement came up. Mr. Empey sent a number of names to the department, but they were rejected on account of there being other offices having the same; at last he sent among others that of East Jordan, which was adopted. Mr. Empey carried on his store also handled wood and bark and engaged in farming. In the fall of 1883 his store building was destroyed by fire.

The lumber mills of East Jordan "made the town." The first to be established there was that of Joseph C. Glenn, in 1870, and it was the pioneer mill above Charlevoix on Pine lake. It was small, but successful because it had the right man behind it. Soon after its establishment W. P. Porter bought an interest in both mill and general store, and the business was thus conducted until 1888, when Mr. Glenn sold all his interests to Ames & Frost of Chicago. Thereupon was organized the East Jordan Lumber Company, which has been a never-failing source of strength and prosperity to the community. It has not only aided in the local advancement, but the corporation has been the means of developing fine fruit and farming lands in the county and the Grand Traverse region generally. It operates two sawmills and a large maple flooring plant at East Jordan and draws its lumber supplies from large tracts of both soft and hardwood lands which it owns in Charlevoix, Antrim, Kalkaska and Otsego counties. The East Jordan Lumber Company is one of those up-to-date concerns in Northern Michigan which has had the foresight to push the sale of its cleared lands for farming and fruit-raising purposes.

The original plant of the East Jordan Lumber Company was erected on the west side of the South Arm, and in the eighties other sawmills followed its example. Stoppel & Company and Empey & Palmiter installed plants in that locality. In 1890 the sawmill of the former concern was purchased by the East Jordan Lumber Company and became its B mill. Later the Empey mill was moved away and on its site the East Jordan Company put up a plant for sawing cedar shingles. On the west side. also. John Monroe, Sr., erected a sawmill which was purchased and operated by the South Arm Lumber Company until it burned in 1902. The Willson Hoop Company also operated at East Jordan for a number of years what was then the largest hoop factory in the country, but the lack of elm stock caused it to discontinue about ten years ago.

What is now known as Rust Jordan Station was formerly the village of South Arm, on the west side of the Arm. Its first industry was the lumber mill carried on by Nelson, Redington & Company. The name of Nelsonville was given to this locality, and in May, 1869 a postoffice was established about a mile from the present site of the village, and Mr. D. C. Nettle ton, now of Charlevoix, was postmaster. At an early day Amose Williams, a character already mentioned, had squatted in this vicinity. Mr. Nettleton kept the postoffice a short time, and then removed to Charlevoix. The office was removed to Intermediate. At this time Charlevoix county was just beginning to be settled. Pine river was only a diminutive settlement, and the "head of the Arm" was far away in the wilderness.

The present industries of East Jordan are flourishing and their future assured. The East Jordan Lumber Company continues to be in the foreground. As the headquarters of the East Jordan & Southern Railroad, which commenced operation in October, 1891, there are well-equipped machine and car-repair shops at this point. There are also cooperage and box factories and planing mills; flour mills and chemical works and enterprises are under way and likely to result in the establishment of several iron and brass foundries.

The State Bank of East Jordan was Hie first financial institution organized in the village, having been founded by George B. Martin as a private enterprise in 1886. In 1891 .Mr. Martin was succeeded by R. R. Glenn, who conducted it. with Alex Bush until the former's death in 1895. This organization was succeeded by Glenn & Company in 1897, Mr. Bush retiring and being succeeded by George G. Glenn. In July, 1901, the bank was reorganized as a state institution with a capital of $20,000. with Joseph C. Glenn president. W. L. French vice-president and George G. Glenn cashier. The building which the hank occupies was erected in 1899. In 1909 the capital was increased to $50.000 as at present. Its surplus and undivided profits amount to $5,000; its total resources. $306,543; deposits, $251,460.

The People's State Savings Rank of East Jordan was established in October, 1910. It has a capital stock of $25,000 and its surplus and undivided profits amount to $1,622. W. P. Squier is its president and R. O. Bisbee, cashier.

East Jordan owns its water works, the municipal plant, which is under the control of the mayor and two commissioners, having been erected in 1896. The village is furnished with light and power by a good plant operated by a private company. As will be correctly inferred from the above. East Jordan is having its initial experience of the commission form of municipal government, having been incorporated as such in July, 1911. Its commissioners are heads of three departments comprising (1) Public Utilities, (2) Streets and Sewers and (3) Finance, Health and Sanitation.

The public system of education embraces a Central school, in which is the High school, and the West Side and Jordan River buildings. Hast Jordan has a number of churches, the leading religious organizations being St. Joseph Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian and Norwegian Lutheran. There are also societies of Episcopalians and Latter Day Saints.

The secret and benevolent societies of the place flourish in the shape of large lodges of Masons, Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows, with numerous minor organizations.

Other County Communities

Boyne Falls, the second incorporated village in the county, was brought into existence by the construction of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. The town of Boyne Valley was organized in 1873 and in the spring of 1874 the railroad commenced operations. Boyne Falls was incorporated as a village in 1893. It is located on the Boyne river and has railway accommodations through the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena and the Grand Kapids & Indiana railroads. A good graded public school, three churches, a well organized public bank and a growing trade with the surrounding country, describe the status of this little village of three or four hundred people.

Norwood, on the shore of Grand Traverse bay in the township by that name, and Ironton, on Pine lake in Eveline township, are small shipping centers, but rather interesting historically. Norwood, eleven miles southwest of Charlevoix was settled as early as 1866. A dock and sawmill were built and at one time it promised to become quite a lumber point. I ronton, on the other hand, did develop into a lively industrial place in the early eighties, through the operations of the Pine Lake Iron Company. Operations were commenced in 1879, but actual manufacturing was not realized until 1881. A few years afterwards the company were employing over two hundred men; but lack of support and transportation facilities and distance from profitable markets caused the enterprise to fail and 1 ronton to disappear as an industrial community.

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