Flowing Wells and Municipal Water Supplies 1906 by Frank Leverett
Crawford County is situated on the high table-land in the northern end of the Southern Peninsula about midway between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, Grayling being the county seat. Its western side drains westward to Lake Michigan through Manistee River, but the major part of the county drains eastward through Au Sable River. Its glacial drainage, however, was westward past Portage Lake to Manistee River. This county, like Oscoda, is very largely occupied by sandy plains or by moraines of loose-textured drift. The principal part of the farming is in Maple Forest Township, in the northern part of the county, and three towns in that part of the county, Judge, Frederick, and Deward, are largely devoted to lumbering. There are several good farms in the southern end of the county a few miles northeast of Higgins Lake. The township in which Grayling is situated had a population of 1,716 in 1900, a large part of which are within the village limits.
The wells throughout the county appear to be to a water table in harmony with the inland lakes and streams, and tho drift so far as penetrated by them is mainly sand and gravel.
In Grayling, which is on a plain but little above Au Sable River, the wells are 20 feet in depth, and water stands within 13 feet of the surface.
At Judge the conditions are very similar to those at Grayling, wells being commonly from 16 to 20 feet deep, or about to the level of the north fork of Au Sable River. On moraines near Judge a depth of 135 feet is reached by the deepest wells.
At Frederick, wells are about 40 feet in depth with the water level perhaps 25 feet below the surface. On the moraine east of Frederick, in Maple Forest Township, wells are usually nearly 100 feet and in some cases about 200 feet in depth, with but a few feet of water in the bottom.
At Deward, in the valley of Manistee River, wells need to be driven only 10 to 20 feet.
In the southern part of the county near Wellington the wells range from 30 to 200 feet in depth, the deepest being on morainic ridges, and the shallowest in valleys. On most farms, however, wells are obtained at 50 to 100 feet.
The distance to rock, as determined by a boring at Grayling, is 365 feet, making the rock surface 775 feet above tide at that point. The drift here is largely sand and filled with water. This boring, which reached a depth of 2,750 feet, is discussed by Doctor Lane in the report of the State geologist for 1901. The highest points in the county are nearly 1,400 feet and the drift beneath them is liable to be over 600 feet, if we may judge by the altitude of the rock at the Grayling well.
At Roscommon, just south of the county line, a boring was made many years ago which is thought to have reached rock at about the same level as that at Grayling, but no accurate record is now to be obtained.
Copyright © Genealogy Trails