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MICHIGAN
The American Year Book and Register 1869

Capital - Lansing / Area, 56,451 Square Miles / Population 1864 - 803,745

This State was settled in 1670, by the French, at Detroit. At the peace of 1763, it came under the dominion o Great Britian. It was a part of the territory ceded to the US by Virginia; was set off from Indiana, and erected into a separate territory in 1805, and admitted into the Union as a State, January 26, 1837

GOVERNMENT

OFFICE NAME RESIDENCE SALARY
Governor Henry P. Baldwin Detroit $1,000
Lieutenant Governor Morgan Bates Grand Traverse $4.00 day/Session
Secretary of State Oliver L. Spaulding St. Johns $800
Treaurer Eben O. Grosvenor Jonesville $1,000
Auditor General William Humphrey Adrian $1,000
Com. Land Office Benj. D. pritchard Allegan $800
Attorney General Dwight May Kalamazoo $800
Sup.Public Instruction Oramel Hosford Olivet $800
Sec. Board of Agri. Sanford Howard Lansing $1,500
Adjutant General John Robertson Detroit  

The above officers are chosen by the legal voters every two years, on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday in Novembe. Senators, 32 in number, and Representatives, not exceeding 100 in number, constitute the Legislature of Michigan. They are chosen eveyr second year at the general election in November. The Legislature assembles in regular session, on the first Wednesday in January biennially, in the odd years 1869, 1871 etc. To qualify a resident to vote, he must be above the age of 21, must have resided in the State 3 months and in his election district 10 days. SUbject to these qualifications, eveyr white male citizen, and every white male inhabitant residing in the State on the 24th of June, 1835, or on the 1st of January, 1850, who shall have legally declared his intentions and every civilized male Indian not a member of any tribe, is entitled to vote.

JUDICIARY

The Judicial power is vested in one Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, Probate Courts, and in Justices of the Peace. The Supreme Court has a general superintending control over all inferior courts. It has power to issue writs of error, habeas corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, procedendo, and other original and remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same. In all other cases it has appellate jurisdiction only. The court consists of four judges, chosen at an election held for the purpose on the first Monday in April. The Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, not prohibed by law and appelate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals. They have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, certiorari, and other writs necessary to carry into effect their judgements and to give them general control over inferior tribunals within their jurisdiction.

The Judges of the Supreme Court hold their offices for eight years, on judge retiring ever second year unless re-elected. The clerk of the county holding the court, is clerk of the Supreme Court. Judges of the Circuit Court are chosen by the people of their districts, at the elections held in April, to hold office for six years. Prosecuting officers are elected by the people of each county, to hold office for two years.

UNITED STATES COURTS
Circuit Judge, Noah H. Swayne
District Judge - Eastern District, Ross Wilkins/Western District, Solomon L. Withey
District Attorney Eastern District, Alfred Russell/Western District Augustus D. Griswold
Marshals - Eastern District N.S. Andrews/Western District - James Henry
Clerk of Circuit Court - Eastern District William D. Wilkins/Western District Isaac H. Parish
Clerk of District Court Eastern District John Windere; Western District, Isaac H. Parish

SUPREME COURT

Chief Justice, Thomas M. Cooley, Ann Arbor, elected in 1867
Assoc. Justice, James V. Campbell, Detroit; Benj. Graves, Niles; Isaac P. Christiancy, Monroe Salaries $2,500 each

CIRCUIT COURTS
Judges: Salaries - $1800 each
1st Circuit, Franklin Johnson Monroe
2nd Circuit, Nathaniel Bacon, Niles
3rd Circuit, Jared Patchen, Detroit
4th Circuit, Edwin Lawrence, Ann Arbor
5th Circuit, George Woodruff, Marshall
6th Circuit, James Dewey
7th Circuit, Josiah Turner, Owosso
8th Circuit, Louis S. Lovell, Iona
9th Circuit, FlaviusJ. Littlejohn, Allegan
10th Circuit, Jabez G. Sutherland, Saginaw
11th Circuit, D. Goodwin, Detroit
12th Circuit Clarence E. Eddie
13th Circuit J.G. Ramsdell
14th Circuit M.B. Hopkins

TERMS OF SUPREME COURT
At Lansing on the Tuesdays succeeding the first Monday in Manuary and July; and at Detroit on the Tuesdays succeeding the first Monday in April and October.

FINANCES
Balance of cash in the treasurey Nov. 30, 1865 --- $579,007.32
Amount received during the fiscal year -----1,697,390.32
Amount disbursed during the fiscal year --- $1,694,283.68
Showing balance Nov. 30, 1867 $582,113.96

EDUCATION

The University of Michigan enjoys a high degree of prosperity. The course of instruction is broad, embracing such a wide range of elective studies, that the requirements of all may be met. The University has three departments, viz; Literature, Medicine and Law and the Literary Department has six parallel courses of study. The number of students in 1867 was greater than ever before, and greater than in any other American College.

The superintendent of Public Instruction in his report for 1867, gives an account of five other colleges, all prosperous.

The Agricultural College has been obliged to refuse many applicants for want of room.

The State Normal School at Ypsilanti, opened in 1854. The course of study embraces a Normal Training course and a Higher Normal course. The Model or Experimental School, has four departments in which the pupils practice in actual teaching, during their studies. The Sup. of Pub. Instruction has the general supervision of public education in the State. The system of Township school inspection was abolished in 1867 and County Superintendents substituted. The new system has operated favorably.

A series of Teachers' Institutes is held in the spring and autumn, under the direction of the State Superintendent. County Superintendents also hold Institutes in a few of the counties. The State has three school funds -

Primary School Fund 7 % -- $2,149,350.15
Primary School Fund 5% -- $151.824.15
University Fund 7% -- 557,883.00
Normal School Fund 6% -- 66,636.69

CHARITABLE & PENAL INSTITUTIONS
The Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, organized in 1854 has more pupils than ever before.

The Asylum for the Insane opened in 1859. The grounds comprise 167 acres; the buildings first erected were croweded with patients in 1866, but additional accommodiations have been provided.

The number of convicts in the Penitentiary which were 630 in January 1861, decreased until May 1865, when there were only 262, but in Nov. 1867 there were 582, an increse of 302. The convicts are employed principally in the manufacture of cabinet work, agricultural tools, cigars and in finishing leather. The earnings of the prisoners in 1867 amounted to $57,866.58 under the old contract prices.

The State Reform School founded in 1853 - opened in 1856.

The Detroit House of Corrections though not strictly a State Institution received persons from any part of the State convicted of offences punishable by imprisonment in county jails, and employs them in making chairs, under the direction of the prison officers.

POPULATION, WEALTH AND INDUSTRY

1810 -   4,762
1820 -   8,765
1830 -  31,639
1840 - 212,267
1850 - 397,654
1860 - 749,113
1864 - 803,745

The State is divided by Lake Michigan into two peninsulas; the northern is 316 miles long and from 36 to 12 miles broad, and the southern 416 miles long and from 50 - 300 miles broad. The northern peninsula is undulating, broken, and much of it densely timbered; the southern is nearly level, and better adapted to agriculture.

The climate is less severe than that of other portions of the country between the same parallels of latitude, being softened by the immense fresh water surface on the borders of the State.

The State is productive in most of the grains, potatoes, beans, hay and in fruits. The yield of maple sugar, sorghum molasses and honey is abundant and increasing. Tobacco is cultivated to some extent, and large quantities are imported for manufcture. Wool raising is an important branch of husbandry. The lumber trade is of great value and extent and salt exists in considerable quantities. The US has over 5 million of acres of land in the State yet to be disposed of.

The mineral resources are chiefly in the northern peninsula. The great copper deposits are located in the Keweenaw peninsula, but the beds extend along the lake fron Ontanagon to Schoolcraft, in greater or less quantities. The yield of copper has risen to an annual average of 8,000 tons. The opening of the St. Mary's canal, and the clearing of the entrance into Portage lake, have given fresh impetus to his branch of mining industry. Silver has been found in connections with the copper, in the proportion of from 25 to 5%.

The rich deposits of iron are found chiefly in Marquette COunty, but iron is also in Delta, and some in Berrien and Branch counties. In the production of this mineral in 1863, Michigan was second only to Pennsylvania, having produced 273,000 tons of ore. Bituminous coal is found in some parts of the State.

The State has a Lake shore line of 1,400 miles, and its position is advantageous for commerce, of which it has a considerable share, having lines of trade with Liverpool.

Upwards of 800 miles of railroads have been completed, at a cost of about $35 Million and 600 mile smore are in course of construction.

In 1860 there were 3,348 manufacturing establishments with a capital of $23,808,226; cost of labor and material, $24,370,658; total value of products, $32,625,356; surplus over cost of labor and material, $8,287,698 or nearly 35 per cent ont he working capital invested.

There were in 1868, 42 National Banks with a paid up capital of $5,210,010, owning real estate to the amount of $224,874; value of real and personal estate is equalized by the State Board of Equalization for 1866, $307,965,842.

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