HISTORIC MICHIGAN
Land of the Great Lakes
Author: George Newman Fuller (1873-1957)
In Two Volumes edited by George N. Fuller
Transcribed by Debi Hanes

Also a History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Volume III
Including -- Alger, Baraga, Chippewa, Delta, Dickinson, Gogebic, Houghton, Iron, Keweenaw,
Luce, Mackinac, Marquette, Menominee, Ontonagon and Schoolcraft

Published by the National Historical Association Inc.
and dedicated to the Michigan Pioneer & Historical Society in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary.

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Also see our individual County Websites in the Upper Peninsula

Alger County
Baraga County
Chippewa County
Delta County
Dickinson County
Gogebic County
Houghton County
Iron County
Keweenaw County
Luce County
Mackinac County
Marquette County
Menominee County
Ontonagon County
Schoolcraft County




CHAPTER I
EXPLORER AND MISSIONARY

When John and Sebastian Cabot discovered the coast of Labrador in 1497, and the latter discovered the land of Newfoundland the following year and announced that the waters off that coast teemed with cod, fishermen of Europe began making voyages to these waters, but nothing was recorded of these journeys, whose object was that of fishing only. No thought of exploring the lands off which they fished occurred to the hardy fishermen, and thus it was left for Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, to sail up the St. Lawrence in 1534 after planting the cross and banner of France on the shore of Newfoundland and claiming the country for the king of France. In 1535, Cartier again returned with his ships, this time ascending the mighty river to a point off the Indian village of Hochelaga, which is now the site of the city of Montreal which takes its name from that of Mount Royal, the hill named thus by Cartier on the occasion of his first visit to the place.

Even Cartier had learned of great mineral wealth in the New World from the Indians with whom he had talked, and that these deposits might be found and worked was the object of Jean Francis de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval, who was granted the commission of governor of New France in 1541. Roberval appointed Cartier captain-general of the first expedition which was sent in the same year to establish a colony in New France under Cartier The first expedition arrived in August, 1541, and while he waited for the arrival of his superior, Jacques Cartier built two forts, but not until the following spring did Roberval come to the New World, but by that time the discouraged Cartier had broken up his embryo colony and sailed for France. Roberval of course failed in his attempt when he arrived and found that his lieutenant had returned, but a second expedition was started off in 1547, Roberval and his entire company being lost in the passage.

The poor success of Roberval and the known hardships of life in New France combined with domestic troubles diverted the attention of the people from their new possessions in the Western Hemisphere for nearly half a century more. In 1598, therefore, Marquis de la Roche attempted the colonization of Sable Island; Pontgrave established a small fur trading colony at the mouth of the Saguenay river on the St. Lawrence; and in 1603 Champlain made his first visit to New France as cartographer of the expedition sent out under the seal of the crown.

The arrival of Champlain in New France spelled the virtual beginnings of this French dependency, for the forceful Champlain made extensive explorations and threw himself wholeheartedly into the development of the new lands. In 1608 he founded Quebec, the first permanent French settlement in North America, and the following year he participated in an expedition which produced a profound effect upon the entire history of New France and the Upper Peninsula. In 1609, Champlain, with two other Frenchmen and a party of Indians, ventured southward across the St. Lawrence to explore the region that lay there. The party encountered a band of Mohawks, one of the Five Nations, or Six Nations as it was later called, and defeated them in a battle, principally through the agency of the firearms of the white men. Thus was incurred the everlasting hatred of the Iroquois for the French, closing to them Lake Erie and Lake Ontario and forcing the travel route westward through the Ottawa and French rivers and Lake Nipissing to Georgian Bay and the northern lakes. As a consequence, Frenchmen came to the Northern Peninsula of Michigan long before they attempted to gain a foothold in the Lower Peninsula.

In this way was prepared the way for the advent of the first white man to what we now term the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Just who the first white man was to penetrate the wilderness of Lake Superior we cannot with definiteness say, but as far as records tell us, Etienne Brule was the first white man to come to this section of the country. Brule was sent by Champlain to live among the Indians in 1610 that he might learn their customs and their language, and he it was who first traversed the route by way of the Ottawa river, Lake Nipissing, and the French river to Georgian bay that became the principal route to the west for the French for half a century. Frequent mention had been made by Champlain in his writings of the copper mines that were reputed to exist along Lake Superior, and Brule's coming to this country was partly to verify as far as possible the statements of the Indians to this effect. During the winter of 1618-19 he came as far as what is now known as the North Channel at the straits of Mackinac, and Fowle, claiming that Brule continued as far as the Sault offers the following argument: "We have seen Brule's ambition, hardihood, and woodcraft demonstrated by his exploration of the Susquehanna to its mouth, and we are prepared to agree with Butterfield, that when, in 1618, Brule reached Georgian Bay he turned his face in the direction of the great lake, 'proceeding probably as far as the nation of the Beaver, living on the shores of what is now known as the North Channel, where he spent the winter.'

"Are we not fairly warranted in going further than Butterfield, reasoning that Brule on his expedition would most likely go somewhat beyond the north channel, in fact as far as those rapids of which he had heard many times during the years he had lived with the Hurons? At those rapids Indians lived the year round, sure of food from the never failing, never freezing waters. Tribes from a radius of 500 miles were wont to journey thither; the Hurons frequently exchanged visits with the tribe which had there its permanent home; the Hurons knew all about that country; Brule would know about it from them.

"The locality where Butterfield thinks Brule wintered was at most but a few miles from the rapids, The route thereto not difficult; it was traversed every winter for many years prior to the construction of the railroad by settlers, trappers, and mail carriers. Brule was seeking information regarding those mines and that great lake. Can we imagine him with his known ambition and prowess wintering but fifty or a hundred miles from his goal, in a region where he could secure no information which he did not already possess?"

Although there is some doubts as to whether or not Brule actually reached the Sault and saw Lake Superior at that time, it is certain that he came to this part of the country in 1621 upon the express commands of Champlain to obtain still more definite information, and he thus became the first white man to set foot on the shores of Lake Superior. If we are to believe the writings of Sagard, a French historian of that date, we know that the intrepid interpreter had a companion on one of his trips to this section of the country, for he wrote that "About 100 leagues from the Hurons there is a mine of copper from which the interpreter (Brule) showed me an ingot on his return from a voyage he had made to a neighboring nation with a man named Grenolle." Therefore we may reasonably assert that one Grenolle was the second man of the French nation to penetrate this region. Subsequently, Brule turned traitor to his people and guided the British troops to Quebec and in 1632 met his death at the hands of the Hurons, among whom he had formerly lived.

Two years after the death of Brule occurred an incident that brings into the history of this peninsula the name of another Frenchman, Jean Nicollet. The French had learned of the Winnebagoes, a name that meant "Men of the Bad Smelling Waters," and to the easily aroused imagination of the Gael, it meant but one thing, the discovery of a route to the Indies, for, they reasoned, the bad smelling waters meant salt seas and the much sought passage. Nicollet had come from France in 1618, and thereafter he spent two years among the Algonquins on the Isle des Allumettes in the Ottawa river. He then spent eight or nine years among the Nipissings to whom he returned for sanctuary from 1629 to 1638, the years in which the British held Quebec. Champlain following out his plan of extensive explorations, ordered Nicollet to make a journey to the Winnebagoes at Green Bay, or Bay des Puans. On July 1, 1634, Nicollet left Three Rivers in the train of three Jesuit missionaries, Brebeuf, Daniel, and Davost. At Ihonatiria, he parted from the Jesuits and with seven Hurons started for Green Bay. He first visited the Sault, beyond which he made no attempt to proceed, and when he again passed Mackinac Island it was on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the passage of Belle Isle straits by Cartier. Arriving in Green Bay, Nicollet landed, clad in a China silk robe embroidered with birds and flowers and carrying a pistol in each hand, for he, too, believed that he was about to visit Japanese or Chinese. So favorable an impression did he make on the Winnebagoes that he easily induced them to conclude a treaty of peace, whereby they were to bring their furs to the French trading posts on the St. Lawrence river. He then visited the Mascoutens and ascended the Fox river to the prairie country, from which if he had continued, he would have found the Wisconsin river and then the Mississippi river, the discovery of which remained for another man journeying over the same route twenty-five years later. He returned to Quebec and became interpreter for the Hundred Associates, fur traders, until his death by drowning in 1642.

In 1885, there was published by the Prince society of Boston a book that purported to be the account of the travels of Pierre Esprit de Radisson among the North American Indians from 1652 to 1694. That this man and his brother-in-law, Medart Chouart des Groseilliers, passed into the Wisconsin country and the Lake Superior region soon after 1650 cannot be doubted, for the Jesuit Relations record the journey of two unknown travelers about that time, and the journal of Radisson serves to clarify the ambiguous reference to the voyageurs mentioned in the Relations. Unfortunately, the journal of Radisson suffered much by the latest of its writing, for it appears the flight of time and the imagination of the author colored much of an otherwise authentic and interesting chronicle of these men. Despite discrepancies that appear in the writings and in spite of the obvious coloring of the tale, the men are given their proper amount of credit for their bold explorations in the Lake Superior and Wisconsin countries. The two men left in 1654 to visit the Indians in Wisconsin, returning two years later with a flotilla of fifty canoes and many Indians, being received at the settlements with an ovation befitting a king. This was but the first of many similar trips, and Des Groseilliers and Radisson are the first with the exception of Brule to have explored Lake Superior, the first to have traversed the Upper Mississippi river country (a river they claimed to have discovered), and the first to visit the Sioux tribes at the headwaters of the Mississippi. It is evident from the writings of these two men that they made frequent trips into Lake Superior, and it was they who brought civilization to the southern lake shore, the first white man to give it more than a passing glance being Father Rene Menard, S. J. In 1641, Fathers Isaac Joques and Charles Raymbault set out from Ste. Marie, which had been established at the River Wye the preceding year, to visit the Indians at the Sault at the invitation of those tribes. Although the sentiment of the Indians seemed encouraging to the good priests, nothing was done at that time toward establishing a mission among them, and the two priests shortly after set out for the East whence they never returned. In 1661, Father Pierre Rene Menard, who had come to New France in 1640 and lived among the Indians to learn their language for some two years, was ordered to work among the Ottawas on Lake Superior. Under the guidance of Radisson and Des Groseilliers, he came to the Sault where he was met by the Ottawas. Though aged and infirm, he was burdened in every way possible by the Indians, in the hope, doubtless, that he would wish to return to his people and give up the project of converting them, if possible, to Christianity. He persevered, however, and was finally brought by the Indians to their winter home, where they arrived October 15, St. Theresa's Day, a fact that inspired Father Menard to name the bay in her honor. As near as can be determined, these winter quarters of the Ottawas were in the vicinity of L'Anse at the head of Keweenaw Bay. Undaunted by the antagonistic spirt of his red charges, he established his mission and said mass, but the hardships and indignities heaped upon him could not be long endured by mortal flesh. When spring brought traveling weather, he set out for the interior of Wisconsin with one companion to seek a tribe of Indians more anxious to receive his ministrations than the Ottawas. Near Big Rapids, Wisconsin, he wandered off the portage trail and was never seen again by a white man. Thus ended the career of the first priest to go among the Indians of Lake Superior to teach them the gentle doctrines of the Master he acknowledged. The treatment accorded Menard by the Ottawas influenced his successor, Father Claude Allouez, to pass them by and establish his mission near the present city of Ashland, Wisconsin, on a sandy spit projecting into Lake Superior, which he named La Pointe du St. Esprit. At this place, Father Allouez had arrived in the early autumn of 1665, having endured the indignities of his Indian companions in much the same manner as had his ill starred predecessor. The writings of Allouez again make mention at some length of the copper deposits said to exist in that region and stated that the priest had seen some samples of the metal that were jealously guarded by their owners. Father Allouez even went so far as to gather specimens of the metal and ore and send them to Talon. After two years, he returned to Quebec with a convoy of twenty canoes, arriving there on August 3, 1667. To his superior at that place, he urged the necessity of establishing a mission at the Sault. Father Louis Nicholas and three others volunteered to work under the direction of Allouez, now superior of the Lake Superior missions, to establish the mission at Sault Ste. Marie. Late in 1667, Father Louis Nicholas arrived at the Sault with Allouez, the latter of whom continued on to La Pointe du St. Esprit, but the lateness of the season made it impossible to accomplish much toward erecting buildings. In 1668, came Father Jacques Marquette to work with his lay brother Bohesme and probably Father Nicholas in the erection of a mission church and other buildings. The following year Marquette was succeeded by Father Claude Dablon, the former going to the straits where he founded his famous mission of St. Ignace. Said Joseph H. Steere of Marquette at the Sault: "In 1668 Fathers Marquette and Dablon established a mission at the Falls of St. Mary, built the first house, erected the first church, cleared and planted the first land and founded the first white settlement in what is now the state of Michigan." Father Dablon was joined in 1670 by Fathers Gabriel Driollette and Louis Andre, the latter of whom was sent on to the Algonquins and lived among them two years. Francois Dollier de Gasson and Rene de Brabant de Galinee, two Sulpitian friars, also visited the Sault in 1670 but found the Jesuits so firmly entrenched there that they stayed but three days and then returned to Quebec.

The Sault was the scene of a ceremony of importance in that year from a political standpoint. Radisson, the fur trader and explorer, had taken service with the British and was drawing a considerable part of the Indian fur trade to the Hudson Bay posts of the English. To offset this and to insure the possession of the Great Lakes region to the French, the governor of New France arranged that formal possession of the territory should be acclaimed at a ceremony to be held at the Sault. Nicholas Perrot, who had traveled extensively throughout the Wisconsin and adjacent countries, was largely instrumental in bringing to the Sault the various tribes with whom he was well acquainted and was in no small degree responsible for the success of the enterprise.

On June 14, 1670, Monsieur de Saint-Lusson, in the name of the king of France and in the presence of priests, soldiers, trappers, and thousands of Indians, claimed the country tributary to the Great Lakes for the French throne. Thus what is now Marquette County came under the banner of France to remain so for nearly a century.

The Sault was by now a definitely established post that was a gathering place for coureurs de bois, traders, and Indians, and from the falls, the traders directed their trading trips through the Lake Superior country. It is much stronger than an assumption to say that white men visited the Marquette region, for we have it on the authority of the writings of the priests at the Sault that many traders had established themselves at that point. Is it not reasonable to suppose, therefore, that these hardy men traversed the south shore of the Lake and were often within the confines of the present county? The names of these men are not recorded, for they but followed the fortunes of the fur trade and gave no thought to settlement in a wilderness inhabited only by Indians.

However, the next white man of whom we have specific mention and whose name is a glorious one in the opening of the vast territory tributary to Lake Superior was Daniel de GrosolIon, Sieur Dulhut. A native of St. Germain-en-Laye, he was of high birth and chose the profession of arms, receiving a place in Garde de la Roi whose nominal commander was the king of France. At the age of twenty, he won the commission of captain of marines and was assigned to a Canadian command. In 1674, he returned to France to fight against the Prince of Orange under the standard of the Prince of Conde, but returning to Canada, he set out on September 1, 1678, with his younger brother, Claude Grosollon de la Tourette, and six other Frenchmen and three Indian slaves, for an expedition into the Sioux country. After wintering on the north shore of Lake Huron, Dulhut and his party passed through the St. Mary's river and coasted along the south shore of Lake Superior. Such a route without a doubt brought him to this county. In due course, he arrived at Kathio, the principal village of the Sioux, and his achievements while he was among the Sioux were signalized by his rescue of Louis Hennepin and his companions from the Indians near the headwaters of the Mississippi. Then came a period of trouble for the intrepid Dulhut, for he was charged with being a free trader and to clear his name he was compelled to go to France. In 1683, after his return from France, he was given command of Michilimackinac to recondition the barracks for the arrival of the garrison under Durantaye. He built Fort Dulhut about three miles from the present Fort William.

During this time at Michilimackinac, Dulhut learned of the murder and robbery of two Frenchmen, Jacques La Maire and Colin Burthol, by Indians at Keweenaw. He sent John Pere and some other men to arrest the offenders. The trial and execution of the murderers at the Sault forms a page in the annals of the region that is a strong endorsement of the strength of character and determination of Dulhut, for by his daring act, the execution of the two men in the presence of hundreds of openly hostile tribesmen, made secure the lives of white men then operating throughout the Indian country.

Dulhut was relieved of the command at Michilimackinac in 1685 and was sent to build Fort St. Joseph at the outlet of Lake Huron, remaining in command there some two years. Thereafter, he engaged in several expeditions, became governor of Fort Frontenac in 1695, then commanded at Detroit until 1707, and died during the winter of 1709-10.

The activities of Cadillac at Detroit beginning in 1701 virtually depopulated the Sault, although the abandonment of the district was not as complete as that of the Mackinac region. Thus for some fifty years, the Sault was not the busy place that it had been heretofore. On June 24, 1751, Louis XIV ratified a grant of land six leagues square to Chevalier de Repentigny and Captain de Bonne on the St. Mary's river at the rapids. Captain de Bonne apparently never took up his residence on the grant, but Repentigny came to the grant in the early fall of 1751, bringing cattle and horses and several men to perform the necessary work around the place. Except for the gardens maintained by the Jesuit priests, the farm of Repentigny was the first attempt at improved agricultural methods made in the Upper Peninsula, for that first winter he induced a Frenchman who had married an Indian woman to take some of the land and plant corn thereon. The interpreter at the fort was a man named Cadotte, and through him do we attach significance to the fort of Repentigny, for Cadotte subsequently became a trader on Lake Superior with Alexander Henry, an Englishman.

Of more direct importance to the Marquette country was the work of the English trader and prolific writer, Alexander Henry, who came to the straits of Mackinas soon after the fort had been taken over by British troops. Henry in his journal, allowed nothing of even trifling importance to go unmentioned, and the garrulous record left by this entertaining and shrewd trader has been valuable source material for the historian of this section of the country. It was this same Alexander Henry who was directly responsible for the first attempt at mining in the Upper Peninsula by white men. He made a visit to the Sault in the winter of 1762 where he lived with Monsieur Cadotte, and though he planned to spend the entire winter there, the burning of the fort and the greater part of the provisions in late December forced him to go to Mackinac in February with the soldiers. In March, 1763, he returned to the Sault with Sir Robert Davers and accompanied him back to the straits in May, where he remained until the fort was captured and the garrison killed or taken prisoner by the Indians when the Pontiac Conspiracy broke out. After harrowing experiences there, he made his way to the Sault, there remaining with Cadotte.

At this point Captain John Carver came to Sault Ste. Marie and outlined in his writings the most feasible way of transporting copper ore from Lake Superior through the Sault to the East. Henry by this time had secured the right to trade on Lake Superior and in July, 1765, took Cadotte into partnership with him, the two going to Chequamegon Bay that summer where they wintered. In the spring of 1768, after he had been trading up and down the lake with his partner, Cadotte, Henry went to Michilmackinac and there fell in with Alexander Baxter to whom he told such tales of the supposed copper deposits along the lake, that Baxter proposed the establishment of a company to mine the ore.

Baxter accordingly returned to England with the samples supplied him by Henry and set about to form a company, and upon his return in 1770 he announced these men as partners in the mining company: George III, Duke of Gloucester, Secretary Townsend, Sir Samuel Tucket, Mr. Cruikshank, and Baxter, in England and Sir William Johnson, Mr. Bostwick, and Alexander Henry in America. Baxter and Henry spent that winter at the Sault, where they superintended the construction of a barge for lake navigation and laid the keel for a forty-ton sloop at Point aux Pins, six miles above the St. Mary's Falls on the Canadian side. This was the first shipyard on Lake Superior.

It had been reported that gold might be found on the Island of Yellow Sands, now Caribou Island, and the first prospecting of the new company was made the following spring in search of the precious metal on the island. Failing in this, the north shore of the lake was surveyed, and though some traces were found of copper and lead ore (the latter having a trace of silver in it) the samples assayed so low that Henry and Baxter determined to look further. The expedition then made sail for Ontonagon where a workable vein was uncovered. In the spring of 1772, the sloop carrying supplies and miners put out from the Point for the copper mines but returned to the Sault on June 20, 1772. The miners stated that the clay was of such a nature that the drifts continually caved in on the workers. As a result of this, the attempt to mine copper was abandoned, ending the first venture of white men in mining on Lake Superior.

During all this time, the fur companies had been operating extensively throughout the Northwest, the white traders were becoming an ordinary sight in the Indian camps of the territory of the Great Lakes, so that to record the names of all the white men who came to this region is obviously impossible.

Mackinac. No more colorful settlement existed in the Middle West than the mission and fort at the Straits of Mackinac, for the French early realized its importance and directed their westward explorations from this base. Of all the men associated with the establishment of the mission and settlement there, no man played a more conspicuous part than Father Jacques Marquette. Born at Laon, France, June 1, 1637, he entered the Jesuit order and came to Quebec in 1666. The ensuing two years he spent in the study of Indian languages, and in 1668 he helped in the establishment of the mission at Sault Ste. Marie as mentioned above. The following year, he succeeded Father Claude Allouez, in charge of the mission at La Pointe, but friction between the Ottawas and Hurons at the mission arose, the former tribe removing to Manitoulin Island and the latter to the island of Michilimackinac. A mission was accordingly established among the Hurons at Mackinac, to which Marquette did not come until the following spring, 1671. The mission St. Ignace was thus first established on the island and was not removed to the mainland until the year after Marquette's arrival at the straits. In 1673, Father Marquette, beloved of the Indians whom he had collected around him at St. Ignace, set out with Joliet to discover and explore the Mississippi river, but upon his return from that famous voyage in 1675, he died at the mouth of the Marquette river on the east shore of Lake Michigan.

The mission at St. Ignace was continued by the Society of Jesus and exercised a marked influence upon the Indians in that region, thousands having gathered in the vicinity of the French establishment. As the fur trade grew and Fort Mackinaw became more important from a commercial standpoint, the troubles of the priests increased, for despite their earnest efforts to prevent the sale of brandy to the Indians, the pernicious custom of the traders grew, and finally Cadillac, irritated by the Jesuits, whom he detested, founded Detroit and took most of the Indians with him to that place. Finally, in 1706, five years after the exodus of the tribes, Father Marest, then in charge, burned the chapel and mission buildings and returned in sorrow to Quebec.

The fort at the straits continued to watch over the fur trade. It was removed to the south side of the straits, but subsequently was rebuilt on the island when attack on the British was feared at the time of the Revolutionary war, and how it was captured in later years by the British in the War of 1812 and also occupied by the American troops, has been narrated in the foregoing pages. The work of building the new fort on the island was begun in October, 1779, but not until 1781 was removal of the garrison to that place finally completed, due to the slowness experienced in providing adequate accommodations for the troops on the island.

The concentration point for the fur trade of the Middle West, Mackinac held an important place for many years, both during the British and the American regimes. The Northwest Fur company of the British, and subsequently the Astor organization of the American Fur company made great use of the natural advantages of the Mackinac location, and thousands of pounds of furs were carried through the straits each year, gathered from the western territory tributary to the Great Lakes.

Sault Region. When Champlain sent Etienne Brule to live among the Indians in 1610, Brule was probably the first white man to traverse the route to the west by way of the Ottawa river, Lake Nipissing, and the French river to Georgian Bay that soon after became the principal route of travel for Frenchmen to and from the western country. This preparation for forest life among the Indians paved the way for Brule's journey to the Sault either in 1618-19 or in 1621.

"Little doubt now remains," says Newton in the story of Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa county, "that Etienne Brule, Frenchman, pioneer of pioneers, interpreter for Champlain, may fairly claim to have turned the first leaf in the white man's history of Bowating, of Sault Ste. Marie as we know it; and consequently of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the great Northwest of the United States and Canada. Indeed, there is evidence that he wandered at least to the western confines of Lake Superior in or about the year 1622, twelve years before the coming of Jean Nicollet to Bowating."

Fowle entertains the opinion that Brule came to the Sault in 1618-19 to spend the winter and incidentally acquire what information he could about the copper mines of Lake Superior and about the lake itself. Certain it is that Brule came here in 1621, sent here for more definite information by Champlain himself, now acting governor of New France, and upon his return to the East traveled with a party of Huron Indians. Thus it is that Etienne Brule was the first white man to appear at the St. Mary strait and the first to set foot on the shore of Lake Superior. There is no other record to the effect that Brule ever again visited the Sault and the copper mines of the lake, and his life ended in tragedy and disgrace, for he turned traitor to the French, guided: the British to Quebec in 1629, served the Redcoats during their occupation of Canada, and was clubbed to death and eaten by the Hurons in 1632.

Meanwhile, the French continued their search for a passage to the East Indies, overlooking the fact that within their possession were riches far greater than any that might accrue to them through the finding of such a water route. The French learned of the Winnebagoes in Wisconsin, and when they were informed that the name of the tribe meant "Men of the Bad Smelling Waters," they took it to mean that they had once lived on salt water to the west, as the Indian legend had it, and that from them a route to, the Indies might be learned. The inflammable imagination of the French was ignited by the very thought, and even Champlain gave sufficient credence to the story to commission Jean Nicollet to make a journey to these people at Bay des Puans, or Green Bay.

Nicollet came from France in 1618 and was soon dispatched by Champlain to live among the Algonquin Indians on the Isle des Allumettes in the Ottawa river, where the young man lived for two years, learning the language and customs of the Indians. He then went among the Nipissings and spent some eight or nine years with that tribe, to which he returned for sanctuary while Quebec was in the hands of the British from 1629 to 1632. After Champlain had taken up the reins of government following the British occupation, he ordered Nicollet to start on the journey to the West, and on July 1, 1634, Jean Nicollet, in the train of the Jesuit priests Brebeuf, Daniel, and Davost, left Three Rivers. At Ihonatiria, Nicollet left the Jesuits and with seven Hurons began the journey that brought him to the Sault, the second man to see the falls, beyond which he made no attempt to proceed.

Turning his back upon the falls of the St. Mary's, Nicollet passed to the straits through which he proceeded to the north of Mackinac island on the one hundredth anniversary of the passage of Belle Isle straits by Cartier. When finally he arrived at Green Bay, Nicollet, who also believed that he was meeting either Japanese or Chinese, went ashore clad in a China silk gown embroidered in flowers and birds and carrying a pistol in each hand. The man who carried thunder in each hand made so favorable an impression upon the Winnebagoes that he easily concluded a treaty of peace and induced them to transport their furs to the French trading posts on the St. Lawrence river. Nicollet then visited the Mascoutens and ascended the Fox river to the prairie country, from which, if he had continued, he would have found the Wisconsin river and then the Mississippi river, the discovery of which remained for another man journeying over the same route twenty-five years later. He returned to Quebec after wintering among the western tribes and became interpreter for the Hundred Associates, fur traders, until his death by drowning in 1642.

To say with all positiveness that Nicollet was the second white man to visit the Sault is, or may not be strictly true, for Sagard, writing of the travels of Brule, had this to say of another: "About 100 leagues from the Hurons there is a mine of copper from which the interpreter (Brule) showed me an ingot on his return from a voyage he had made to a neighboring nation with a man named Grenolle." Such a trip by Grenolle would have brought him to the Sault before the advent of Nicollet, and there is some evidence that he might have entered Lake Michigan and proceeded as far as Green Bay, although the latter supposition has little to substantiate it.

In the meantime, the Jesuits had been quietly and steadily extending their sphere of influence in religious matters among the various tribes of Indians. At St. Jean Baptiste, St. Ignace in Ontario, St. Louis la Conception, St. Joseph, St. Michael, and other places, little missions had arisen in the heart of the Indian country. At the time it was estimated that between fifteen thousand and thirty thousand Hurons were living between Lake Simcoe and Severn river on the east and Nottawasaga Bay on the west, so that it was thought that a central mission would more efficiently serve the Indians of this tribe. Consequently, Ste. Marie was established in 1640 on what is the River Wye not far from the present city of Midland, Ontario, and during the ensuing nine years, Ste. Marie mission was the head of the missions in the Huron country, Fathers Isaac Joques and Du Peron being in charge of the mission. No sooner had the mission been established than the Indians at the Sault invited the Jesuits to come to them, and in September, 1641, Father Charles Raymbault and Father Joques set out for the Sault to discover the real sentiment of those Indians concerning their expressed wish for instruction at the hands of the good fathers. At the Sault, the Jesuits also found the Pottawatomies, who had fled north to escape the attacks of the Iroquois, but assured of the good faith of the Indians in the matter and after a short stay of two or three weeks, the Black Robes turned their faces to Ste. Marie. Father Raymbault died the following year, and Father Joques started for the lower St. Lawrence on a journey that spelled death in the end. Joques was taken prisoner by the Iroquois, tortured to the verge of death, made his escape to Albany and thence to England and France, and returned to Canada only to be sent as a peace envoy to the Iroquois by whom he was murdered.

Pierre Esprit de Radisson and his brother-in-law, Medart Chouart des Groseilliers have already been mentioned. The two, with the exception of Brule, were the first explorers of Lake Superior; they were the first to traverse the Upper Mississippi country; they were the first white men to visit the Sioux tribes west of the lake, spending a full winter, according to their story, among these people. After having spent two winters among the tribes of Wisconsin, they started in the spring of 1656 for the St. Lawrence with a flotilla of fifty canoes, fur laden, and more than two hundred Indians from various tribes, arriving at their destination toward the end of August of that year. The return to the west after this voyage brought the men to the Sault, and Radisson was the first to mention the place at any length in his writings. Said he, "Afterwards we entered into a strait, which had ten leagues in length, full of islands where we wanted not fish. We came afterward to a rapid that makes the separation of the lake of the hurrons, that we call Superior or Upper, for that the wild men hold it to be longer and broader, besides a great many islands which makes appear in a bigger extent. This rapid was formerly the dwelling of those with whome we weare. We made cottages at our advantages, and found the truth of what these men had often (said) that if once we could come to this place we should make good cheare of a fish they call assickmack, which signifies a white fish. The beare, the castors and the Orinack showed themselves often, but to their cost; indeed it was to us like a terrestrial paradise."

Evidently, then, these two men, Radisson and Groseilliers, passed through the Sault several times, and on one trip, while they were outward bound to the western country, they brought with them Father Rene Menard, who had worked among the Indians since 1642, two years after his arrival on this continent. Going into Lake Superior, Father Menard lived among the Ottawas near what is now L'Anse, Michigan, but the abuse he endured among them drove him to strike south into Wisconsin in the spring of 1661, a trip from which he never returned. Menard was succeeded in 1665 by Father Claude Allouez, who visited the Sault as he went to his new post and rechristened it Sault de Tracy in honor of Marquis de Tracy, then governor of New France. Allouez, with the title of chief of the Lake Tracy missions as he named Lake Superior, sent Father Louis Nicholas to the Sault in 1667 as resident priest.

The following year, 1668, came Father Jacques Marquette to work with lay brother Bohesme and probably Father Nicholas in the erection of a mission church, which, although it is not certain, was probably located about at the foot of the present Bingham avenue, Charlevoix's map of 1721, a map of 1789, and a landscape of 1850 showing the mission at the same spot. The following year Father Claude Dablon succeeded Marquette at the Sault mission, which now took the name of Sainte Marie du Sault from the Jesuits. The mission here thrived and thenceforward the Indians in this section of the country found a black robed Jesuit ready to teach them and minister to their spiritual needs after they had been converted to Christianity.

Joliet and Jean Pere made a journey through the Sault in search of the copper mines of Lake Superior and it was these two men with whom Dollier and Galinee, Sulpitian friars, and the party with them fell in when they started their journey to the west in 1669. Pere and Joliet had been the first to travel the lakes from Montreal to the Sault. La Salle, Dollier, and Galinee followed the same route on their outward passage, although Joliet and Pere had proceeded by the usual Ottawa river and Georgian Bay route when they came west. Dollier and Galinee left the party of La Salle at the straits and came to the Sault, where they arrived May 25, 1670, but a three-day stay here convinced them that the Jesuits were too firmly entrenched to allow the presence of Sulpitian friars in the work of Christianizing the Indians. Turning back toward Montreal, the friars finally reached there after a hard journey of twenty-two days, according to the journal of De Galinee.

By this time, the government of New France came to the realization that this country was far too rich and vast to take any chances with, and it was accordingly decided to claim the land officially for the king of France. A pageant was planned to be held at the Sault in the summer of 1671 and every effort was bent to receive the sanction of all the Indian tribes in the Middle West and to invite them to the affair. Although most of the tribes in this vicinity agreed to participate in the ceremony, some refused to have anything to do with it, and some, including the Fox Indians of Wisconsin presented a decidedly unfriendly attitude toward the messengers who solicited their attendance. The principal agent in securing the attendance of the Indian tribes was Nicholas Perrot, who, though particularly liked by the Foxes, could not prevail upon them to become nominal vassals of the French king. By April, 1671, Perrot had marshalled his Indian friends at the Sault, where on June 14, that year, Monsieur de Saint-Lusson in the name of the king of France claimed the country for the French crown.

The career of Daniel de Grosollon, Sieur Dulhut, has been given above, but the trial of the Indian murderers is of more particular interest to the people of Sault Ste. Marie. Dulhut sent Jean Pere with some other men to arrest the murderers, for the commander believed that to leave unpunished such a crime was to imperil the lives of all Frenchmen in the western country. On October 24, Dulhut at Michilimackinac learned that Folle Avoine, a Menominee, had been responsible for the crime and the the murderer had arrived at the Sault with some fifteen Ojibway families. Dulhut embarked at once with six Frenchmen to apprehend the slayer. Several Indian councils were held with the intent to exonerate Folle Avoine, but Dulhut refused to believe him or to release him. On November 24, Pere arrived at the Sault with the announcement that he had Achiganaga and his four sons under a guard of twelve Frenchmen about twelve leagues distant from the Sault. Achiganaga's innocence was established, but his four sons admitted their participation in the crime and described what disposition had been made of the bodies and the goods that had been stolen from the Frenchmen. Many of the Indians present made threats of violence if the prisoners were not released, but a compromise was finally reached whereby Folle Avoine and one of the other tribe were to be executed. The two murderers were shot, the execution taking place on the little hill located just south of the Weitsel lock. Though Dulhut incurred some censure for actions that were adjudged to be harsh and impolitic, it cannot be doubted that he adopted the only course open to him to impress upon the Indians that white men could not be slain with impunity, and by this execution of the killers he further guaranteed the lives of the coureurs de bois and trappers in this wild country.

At the time of this trial in the autumn of 1683, Sault Ste. Marie was beginning to assume the proportions of a hamlet, for the French residents now numbered between fifteen and twenty and were erecting dwellings for themselves. The first mission church had been burned and replaced by a finer house of worship and augmented by other mission buildings, and Father de la Tour was in charge of the mission at that time.

In 1701, Cadillac established his post at Detroit for the combined purpose of guarding the fur trade of the Northwest and of competing with the Jesuits at Michilimackinac and the Sault, for this priesthood was one for which he harbored considerable animosity. So successful was he in his efforts to induce the northern tribes to make their homes in the vicinity of Le Detroit that the Mackinac and Sault posts became almost deserted. The Jesuit Relations make no specific mention of the Sault during the first half of the eighteenth century and the Jesuit mission at the straits was burned by the sorrowing priests in 1706. The suspension of Jesuit activities at the Sault left this section without a post until 1750, when Chevalier de Repentigny and Captain de Bonne asked for a grant of land south of the falls of the St. Mary's river on the consideration that they would establish a post at the Sault and foster agriculture within the grant. The grant to these two military officers was ratified by King Louis XIV on June 24, 1751, the tract of land having a frontage of six leagues on the river and a depth of six leagues. Writing to the governor general of Canada the following year, the Minister of Foreign Affairs stated that trade was only an accessory to the grant, whose main purpose was to be "the multiplication of cattle and the cultivation of the lands."

Apparently, De Bonne never came to the Sault for no record exists to that effect. However, Repentigny arrived late in the summer of 1751 and was well received by the Indians. He was able to secure a fort large enough to receive the traders from the straits at a house-warming and during the winter he had his men cut 1,100 pickets to be used in the building of the fort in the spring. The above mentioned letter of the Minister of Foreign Affairs also describes Repentigny's establishment as follows:

"His fort is entirely finished, with the exception of a redoute of oak, which he is to have made twelve feet square, and which shall reach the same distance above the gate of the fort. As soon as his work shall be completed, he will send me the plan of his establishment. As for the cultivation of the land: The Sr. de Repentigny had a bull, two bullocks, three cows, two heifers, one horse and a mare from Michilimackinac. He could not on his arrival, make clearing of lands, for the works of his fort had occupied entirely his hired men. Last spring he cleared off all the small trees within the range of the fort. He has engaged a Frenchman who has married at the Sault Ste. Marie, an Indian woman, to take a farm; they have cleared it up and sowed it, and without a frost they will gather from 30 to 35 sacks of corn."

Thus was made the first comprehensive attempt at farming in Chippewa county, although the Jesuits and some of the French who had lived at the Sault had managed to keep small gardens to supply them with fresh vegetables. Fowle locates and describes Repentigny's fort as follows: "The palisade enclosing the four buildings was 110 feet square. The west side of the palisade was about 50 feet east of the east line of Brady street as now constructed, and the north line of the palisade was nearly identical with the north line of Water street. The site, therefore, extends entirely across Water street, just east of Brady, and about fifty feet south of Water street."

Came the French and Indian wars that resulted in the British occupation of Canada and the western posts, and as a result of this, we have the writings of the garrulous Alexander Henry, an English trader, for the next vivid account of the Sault. He arrived at the Sault on May 19, 1862, and he was so pleased with the place that he resolved to winter here, living with Monsieur Cadotte, the interpreter at the fort. On December 22, however, the fort and provisions were almost totally destroyed by fire, so that Henry, Lieutenant Jemette and the soldiers were compelled to start in the dead of winter for Michilimackinac, in February, 1763, to be exact. Jemette had been badly burned in the fire and the delay in starting had been to give him an opportunity to recover sufficiently to travel. After a hard journey, they won the straits, but Henry returned on the tenth of the following March. Soon after, the Sault was visited by Sir Robert Davers "on a voyage of curiosity," and early in May, Alexander Henry accompanied Davers to Mackinac, remaining there until after the massacre of the English and capture of the fort at the outbreak of Pontiac's Conspiracy. Henry managed to make his way to the Sault in time, traveling part of the way with Madame Cadotte, the Chippewa wife of the interpreter.

In 1765 there visited the Sault, Captain John Carver, who wrote extensively of his trip and who outlined the most feasible method of bringing copper ore from Lake Superior through the Sault to the East. Henry had secured the right to trade on Lake Superior and in July, 1765, took Cadotte, the interpreter into partnership with him, the two going to Chequamegon Bay where they wintered. A fish famine the following winter drove Indians and whites away from the Sault. Henry came here the next spring and in the spring of 1768 he went to Michilimackinac where he met Alexander Baxter, who became enthusiastic over copper mining after he had been shown the samples by Henry.

Baxter, eager to enter into mining, returned to England to set about the organization of a company to carry through his plan, and when he announced the partners upon his return in 1770, he gave these names: George III, the Duke of Gloucester, Secretary Townsend, Sir Samuel Tucket, Mr. Cruikshank, and Baxter in England, and Sir William Johnson, Mr. Bostwick and Alexander Henry in America. Baxter and Henry spent the winter at the Sault and built a barge for lake navigation and laid the keel for a sloop of forty tons burden at Point aux Pins, six miles above the rapids on the Canadian side. This was the first shipyard on Lake Superior.

The new company first prospected for gold on the Island of Yellow Sands, which now bears the name of Caribou Island from the large number of those animals that were found there at one time. They then sailed to the north shore but had no success and returned to Point aux Pins to erect an air furnace, the first to be placed on Lake Superior. Their samples assayed so low in copper and silver, the latter only showing forty ounces to the ton in lead ore, that the expedition sailed for the region of Ontonagon. Here a good vein was found, but when mining operations were begun in the spring of 1772 they were soon suspended because of a cave-in in the drift. With the return of the vessel with the miners to the Sault on June 20, 1772, ended the first attempt by white men to mine copper on Lake Superior.

J. Long, a trader, wrote that he visited the Sault in June, 1777, but his written description of the place seems to give it no great change in physical aspect than that which had prevailed for some years. In 1796 and 1797, the British established Fort St. Joseph on the island of that name, the ruins of which may still be seen.

About this time, in 1797 to be exact, the Northwest Fur company, which had heretofore been located on the south side of the Sault, removed its post to the Canadian side of the river, because by the treaty brought about by Jay, the western posts of the British were to be transferred to American commands in the following year. At that time, according to correspondence of the time, a canal and locks were built by the fur company to facilitate the passage of the canoes up and down the river. This pioneer lock, which was located on the Canadian side of the river, 38 feet long and 8 feet 9 inches wide, while the canal that was built was about 2,580 feet in length. This lock served to good purpose until it was destroyed by American soldiers in 1814 during the War of 1812.

At this juncture, comes the name of Johnston into the history of Sault Ste. Marie, a name that is remarkable for many reasons, but chiefly because John Johnston gained virtual control of the fur trade on the south side of the Sault in opposition to the powerful combine of the Northwest and N. Y. Fur companies which were established on the Canadian side of the river. John Johnston was born in Antrim county, Ireland, near, Colerain in 1763. His father was the civil engineer who planned and built the Belfast waterworks, and his mother was the sister of Mary, Saurin, wife of the Bishop of Dromore, and was also sister of the attorney general of Ireland. Coming to Canada in 1792, he presented such favorable letters of recommendation to the governor that Lord Dorchester tried to persuade Johnston to remain in Montreal until there was an opening in the British service for him. Within a short time, however, Johnston joined a trading party that was starting for Lake Superior. At the Sault he spent several months, then went on Lake Superior as far as La Point opposite the Twelve Apostle Islands where he established a trading post. Soon after his arrival at the Sault, he met a beautiful Indian girl, daughter of Wabojeeg, a chief of the Chippewa nation. In 1793, Johnston married the girl and settled at the Sault where he continued to make his home until the time of his death, which occurred September 22, 1828.

Johnston's British training and allegiance were what influenced him to commit the overt acts against the United States Government in the War of 1812 that resulted in the wrecking of his fortune and almost total loss of all that he possessed. When the American expedition under Lieutenant-Colonel Coroghan was sent in 1814 to capture the British garrison at Mackinac, the commandant there, Colonel McDowell appealed to Johnston for aid. Johnston provisioned and equipped a force of 100 men, evaded the force sent to intercept him, and reached the island safely. By so doing, however, he so enraged the Americans who had been sent to capture him that they continued on to the Sault where they burned the trading village at the south of the rapids. With the signing of peace in 1815, Johnston appealed to both the British and the American governments for compensation for his losses, the former refusing to allow his claim and the latter declining to consider it on the grounds that he was an officer in the English army during the War of 1812. Johnston and his wife were the parents of these children: Louis, who was born in 1793 and died at Malden in 1825; George, who was born in 1796 and died at the Sault January 6, 1861; Jane who was born in 1800, married Henry R. Schoolcraft in 1823, and died at Niagara May 22, 1842; Eliza, born in 1802 and died in 1888; Charlotte, who was born in 1806, married an Episcopal clergyman named McMurray at the Sault, and died in 1878; William, who was born in 1811 and was often Indian interpreter for the United States Government, and died at Mackinac in 1866; Anna Maria, who was born in 1814, married James L. Schoolcraft who was murdered at the Sault in 1846 by Lieutenant Tilden, and died at Pontiac in 1856; and John McDougall, who was born in 1816, acted as Indian interpreter for Schoolcraft and the United States Government, and died at the Sault in 1895. Both Louis and George Johnston fought against the United States in the War of 1812, the former serving aboard the Queen Charlotte when it was captured by Perry's fleet in Lake Erie and the latter fighting in the battle of Mackinac Island on August 4, 1814.

Such were the beginnings of Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa County. To attempt to record the names of the first white men to make this a permanent or even semi-permanent home is obviously impossible, but some of the more important have already been mentioned, and those whose names have been omitted were for the most part transient in local fame to warrant mention as up-builders of the community. Several ministers and priests might here be named, but it must be remembered that such men came here on orders, left for the same reason, and cannot in any sense be considered permanent settlers in the manner in which we regard those who are located as the result of their belief in the advantages and opportunities of the community.

CHAPTER II

TERRITORIAL TIMES

Came the Revolution with its reverses and successes that are familiar to every schoolboy, and at last the land south of the Great Lakes came under the dominion of the United States, although the western forts were retained by the British who were loath to surrender such a rich land. By every conceivable excuse, England attempted to maintain and keep the posts that she had acquired from the French and had established in this western country, for even though the States had won their freedom, the English still harbored ideas that they might be brought back into the fold. English were still frequently seen in the ceded territory, their sole object being that of conciliating the Indian and making him friendly to the British and hostile to the Americans.

The intention of the English to thus create an Indian buffer state between Canada and the United States promised fruition for several years, and the success attained by the English agents to the Indians is seen in the relentless opposition to the advance of the American settlers by the Indian tribes and the part these same tribes took in behalf of the British even as late as the War of 1812, when Tecumseh rallied thousands of red men to the cause of England. That the Indian power was finally broken was due to General Anthony Wayne, who dispelled the major portion of the Indians and wrung from them a reluctant peace by a campaign that ended with the battle of Fallen Timbers. With hope of Indian wars stopping the American advance at last killed, the British agreed to another treaty, which was negotiated by Jay, and the Americans in 1798 came into possession of the western forts to which the English had clung so tenaciously.

In 1787, after the various colonies had consented to surrender their conflicting claims to the Northwest Territory to Congress, the famous ordinance was passed creating the Northwest Territory, which had until then been nominally governed by the Jefferson ordinance of 1784. In 1800, this vast area was divided into two territories, those of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio and the Indian Territory. Michigan was divided between these two territories, the dividing line passing up the center of the Lower Peninsula. Thus the Upper Peninsula and Superior region were then in the Indian Territory, of which it was still a part after Ohio became a state in 1802 and all of Michigan was attached to the Indian Territory as Wayne county. In 1805, after considerable opposition in Congress, Michigan was duly erected into a territory.

The western boundary of the Michigan territory was described as being a line drawn from the bend in the southerly end of Lake Michigan, thence up the center of the lake to its northern extremity, and thence due north to the national boundary. Thus, all but the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula remained a part of the Indian Territory until the creation of the Illinois Territory in 1809, the Upper Peninsula with the exception of that part already noted being made a part of Illinois until that territory attained the dignity of a state in 1818. In that year, all of the Upper Peninsula, together with Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi, was attached to the Michigan Territory.

On December 22, 1826, the legislative council of the Michigan Territory erected Chippewa county to include all of the northern peninsula and the northern part of Wisconsin and Minnesota, the county existing until 1836, when the organization of the Wisconsin Territory reduced the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to its present limits as concerns government. When Michigan became a state in 1837, Mackinac county was cut off from Chippewa making two counties in the Upper Peninsula, of which the white population of the former was 664 (mostly at St. Ignace) and of the latter 366 (mostly at the Sault).

Governor Lewis Cass, who succeeded William Hull after the War of 1812, is more than distantly connected with the history of Marquette County, for his work of extinguishing the Indian titles to the land of Michigan and of opening the territory to settlement brought him here on such a mission. On June 16, 1820, he came north to Sault Ste. Marie and there met the Indian tribes of this region in council where he obtained the title to a tract of land containing some sixteen square miles of land and also made the opening wedge for the ultimate extinguishing of the Indian land titles. On June 22, of that same year, he and his party arrived at Presque Isle where Cass unfurled the first American flag to float over Lake Superior. From here the party coasted to Keweenaw point, thence by Portage lake to the great copper boulder in Ontonagon river, thence by way of the St. Louis river to the Mississippi. The governor and his party then returned to Green Bay, Chicago and at last Detroit. In this way did Cass gain an extensive knowledge of the territory over which he presided as chief officer.

A second expedition came here in 1826 on its way to Fond du Lac to conclude a treaty with the Chippewas. By this treaty, the United States secured the mineral rights to all the Upper Peninsula, and on the strength of this treaty, the great copper boulder in the Ontonagan river became the property of the United States Government and is now housed in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution.

CHAPTER III

EARLY SETTLEMENT

The names of the first settlers in Marquette county have been lost to the historian for the simple reason that they were never recorded. Further, to separate the first settlement from the beginning of the iron mining industry here is equally difficult, for it was not until the presence of that metal had been discovered that settlers came in any number worth mentioning. True, some years before that event, the discovery of iron, explorers and trappers were frequently seen in the county, but their names have been lost to us. The tale of the beginning of iron mining here, then, will give the true picture of the opening up of the county.

P. B. Barbeau, for years an employee of the American Fur company in the Upper Peninsula, may possibly be credited with being one of the first to learn to the presence of iron in Marquette county, but this knowledge that he gained he made no attempt to turn to his material advantage. He once stated that he knew of iron ore at Negaunee as early as 1830 and that the Indians, from whom he had gained the knowledge were acquainted with the iron deposits many years before that. He further said that the Indians knew of lead deposits, and that some of them had found lead pure enough to be used as rifle bullets, for which they had employed the metal thus discovered. The Indians were loath to divulge the secret of where they found the metals, for they believed that disaster would overtake them if once they told it to any white man. In 1844, according to the report of Charles T. Jackson, United States Geologist, P. B. Barbeau presented him with a fine specimen of specular iron ore that Barbeau had obtained from an Indian chief. Jackson reported at the same time(1849) that the main body of the ore, he then learned, lay between Keweenaw Bay and the headwaters of the Menominee river.

Returning east, Jackson says, he imparted his information to Charles Pray, of Charlestown, Massachusetts. Pray immediately proceeded to the Sault, hired an Ojibway guide, and after penetrating the forests beyond L'Anse, found the mountain of ore as described to him by Jackson. Thus the geologist ascribes to Pray the discovery of iron, ore in the Marquette district. In the same year, Joseph Stacy, of Maine, explored that land between the mouth of the Dead river and Lake Michigan and found what he described as an inexaustible supply of compact and specular iron ore.

P. B. Barbeau said that in 1845 Achille Cadotte, a French Indian half breed, learned of the mountain of iron ore from an Indian chief, Man-je-ke-jik, with whom he went to see it. Cadotte, according to Barbeau, told John Western of the ore and with him went to the place, whence about a ton of ore was packed from what was later known as the Jackson location and was taken by canoes to the Sault and thence to Detroit. It appears, however, that the man was P. M. Everett, for Western did not visit this country in 1845.

W. R. Burt, who was engaged for some years with Dr. Douglass Houghton, the well known state geologist who was drowned in 1845, in surveying the Upper Peninsula and in locating the mineral deposits here, was said to have taken ore from the Jackson location in 1844. The discovery is said to have come when deflection of the compass needle of the surveying party was seen to undergo erratic changes as the party moved from place to place. Burt, it is said directed the members of his party to determine the cause, an outcrop of magnetic iron ore being found from which specimens were taken. Not only did the incident result in the discovery of iron ore but also brought the invention of the solar compass at that time, for Burt realized that surveys based on the magnetic compass would be inaccurate in such a country. His invention of the solar compass in the wilderness of the Northern Peninsula was of incalculable value to the engineering profession.

The reported discovery of iron ore in this section of the state, brought a race to develop those hitherto unknown deposits of iron, a race that spelled the real beginning of Marquette county. P. M. Everett is accorded the honor of being practically the first to demonstrate the quality of the iron in this district. In June, 1845, the Jackson company had been organized for copper mining, Everett being one of the original incorporators. He came to Lake Superior armed with permits from the Secretary of War, and set about to find suitable locations for his company. At the Sault he learned of the iron in the vicinity of Marquette and came here to locate land. The square mile on which the Jackson mine was located was then located under permit by a man named Hamilton, who abandoned his land after it was learned that iron had been found, the man not realizing that it had been found on his own land. The Jackson company then managed to find the township lines and to enter an accurate location of the section of land, a requirement stated by law. Everett on his first visit took away a quantity of the ore as above described. The Pittsburgh men to whom some of it was sent for testing pronounced the ore worthless, but Everett sent the remainder to a small forge at Coldwater, where the first iron from Lake Superior ore was smelted. The iron bar thus made supplied the metal for a knife blade for Everett in order that he might demonstrate the high quality of the ore to be found in this region. Everett, therefore, is acknowledged to be the real discoverer and developer of the iron here. Of his first visit, Everett himself wrote to Captain G. D. Johnson as follows:

"Jackson Mich., Nov. 10, 1845.

Dear Sir:-Since I have returned from Lake Superior, Charles tells me that he promised to let you know all about my excursion, and wishes me to perform the task for him. In compliance with this request, I will therefore try and give you a brief description of my trip. I left here on the 23d of July last, and was gone until the 24th of October. I had some idea of going to Lake Superior last winter, but did not think seriously of going until a short time before I left. I had considerable difficulty in getting any one to join me in the enterprise; I at last succeeded in forming a company of thirteen. I was appointed treasurer and agent, to explore and make locations, for which last purpose we had secured seven permits from the Secretary of War. I took four men with me from Jackson, and hired a guide at the Sault, where I bought a boat, and coasted up the lake to Copper Harbor, which is over 300 miles from the Sault Ste. Marie. There are no white men on Lake Superior except those who go there for mining purposes. We incurred many dangers and hardships. - - - - We made several locations-one of which we called Iron at the time. It is a mountain of solid iron ore, 150 feet high. The ore looks as bright as a bar of iron just broken. Since coming home we have had some of it smelted, and find that it produces iron and something resembling gold-some say it is gold and copper. Our location is one mile square and we shall send a company of men up in the spring to begin operations. Our company is called the Jackson Mining company."

As stated in the letter, men were sent here in the spring of 1846, in the summer of which year the company began the erection of a forge on the Carp river about three miles from Negaunee. The first opening for iron mining was made by the same concern that autumn, and in the spring of 1847, the forge was placed in operation, where the first ore mined from the Jackson mine was made into blooms. Within a day or two after the forge was started, a freshet carried away the dam, but it was started again in the fall and operated successfully for some time. Using two fires, the forge managed to make four blooms a day, each bloom measuring about four feet long and eight inches thick. The first blooms made at this forge were sold to Eber B. Ward who used them in making the walking beam of the steamer "Ocean." The forge was operated until 1854 when it was finally abandoned, another larger one being built at Marquette just south of the shore end of the Cleveland ore docks, the second forge being erected in 1849 under the supervision of A. R. Harlow. Subsequently two other forges were built at Forestville and Collinsville.

The Jackson mine supplied all the ore for these forges, but even by this time, little progress was made in mining until the completion of the company's docks in 1855. Regular shipments of ore then began in 1856, and from that date may be recorded the real prosperity of the mining industry in this section of the state.

Marquette, like most of the Upper Peninsula outside of the regions around the Sault and Mackinac, received very few settlers prior to 1850. Before the adoption of the Constitution of 1850, there were no rights of general incorporation, and those concerns that were incorporated were compelled to get them directly from the legislature by special act. The powerful lobbying machines that thus grew up to assist and hinder the formation of corporations, had, of course, a marked effect upon the development of the Upper Peninsula, for both the lumbering and the mining interests required incorporation for any comprehensive attempts at developing these industries. With the adoption of the new constitution, however, general incorporation of companies was authorized without the red tape and possible defeat to be experienced in carrying the proposition to the legislative body of the state. Consequently, the year 1850 introduced a new era of prosperity and settlement in the Upper Peninsula, and from that time we may actually consider the growth of the county.

To the people of the county, the name of Peter White is familiar as one of the early settlers and one of her most popular and influential men. He came in 1845 with ten associates to inspect the Carp River iron region, and wrote in part as follows of Marquette as he found it at that time:

"We succeeded in crowding our large Mackinac barge up the rapids, or falls, at Sault Ste. Marie, and, embarking ourselves and provisions, set sail on Lake Superior for the Carp River iron region. After eight days of rowing, towing, poling, and sailing we landed on the spot immediately in front of where George Craig's house now stands. That was then called Indian Town, and was a landing place of the Jackson company. We put up that night at the Cedar House, of Charlie Bawgam. It is true his rooms were not many, but he gave us plenty to eat, clean and well cooked. I remember that he had fresh venison, wild ducks arid geese, fresh fish, good bread and butter, coffee and tea, and splendid potatoes.

"The next morning we started for the much talked of iron hills; each one had a pack-strap and blanket, and was directed to use his own discretion in putting into a pack what he thought he could carry. I put up forty pounds and walked bravely up the hill with it for a distance of two miles, by which time I was about as good as used up. Graveraet came up, and taking my pack on top of his, a much heavier one, marched on with both, as if mine was but the addition of a feather, while I trudged on behind and had hard work to keep up. Graveraet, seeing how fatigued I was, invited me to get on top of his load, saying he would carry me too, and he could have done it, I believe; but I had too much pride to accept his offer. When we arrived at the little brook which runs by George Rublein's old brewery, we made some tea and lunched, after which I took my pack and carried it without much difficulty to what is now known as the Cleveland mine, then known as Moody's location. On our way we had stopped a few minutes at the Jackson forge, where we met Mr. Everett, Charles Johnson, Alexander McKerchie, A. N. Barney, N. E. Eddy, Nahum Keys, and others. At the Cleveland we found Capt. Sam Moody and John H. Mann, who had spent the previous summer and winter there. I well remember how astonished I was next morning when Captain Moody asked me to go with him to dig some potatoes for breakfast. He took a hoe and an old tin pail, and we ascended a high hill, now known as the Marquette Iron company's mountain, and on its pinnacle found half an acre partially cleared and planted to potatoes. He opened but one or two hills when his pail was filled with large and perfectly sound potatoes-and then said: 'I may as well pull a few parsnips and carrots for dinner, to save coming up again'; and sure enough, he had them there in abundance. This was in the month of May.

"From this time until the tenth of July, we kept possession of all the iron mountains then known west of the Jackson, employing our time fighting mosquitoes at night, and the black flies during the day; perhaps a small portion of it was given to denuding the iron hills of extraneous matter, preparing the way for the immense products that have since followed. On the 10th of July, we came away from the mountains, bag and baggage, arriving at the lake shore, as we then termed it, before noon. Mr. Harlow had arrived with quite a number of mechanics, some goods, lots of money, and, what was better than all, we got a glimpse of some female faces.

"At one o'clock of that day, we commenced clearing the site of the present city of Marquette, though we called it Worcester in honor of Mr. Harlow's native city. We began by chopping off the trees and brush, at the point of rocks near the blacksmith shop, just south of the shore end of the Cleveland Ore docks. We cut the trees close to the ground, and then threw them bodily over the bank onto the lake shore; then, under the direction of Captain Moody, we began the construction of a dock, which was to stand, like the ancient pyramids, for future ages to wonder at and admire! We did this by carrying these whole trees into the water and piling them in tiers, crosswise, until the pile was even with the surface of the water. Then we wheeled sand and gravel upon it, and, by the end of the second day, we had completed a structure which we looked upon with no little pride. Its eastward or outward end was solid rock, and all inside of that was solid dirt, brush and leaves. We could not see why it should not stand as firm and long as the adjacent beach itself. A vessel was expected in a few days with a large lot of machinery and supplies, and we rejoiced that we had a dock on which they could be landed. On the third day, we continued to improve it by corduroying the surface, and by night of that day, it was, in our eyes, a thing of beauty to behold. Our chagrin may be imagined, when, on rising the next morning, we found that a gentle sea had come in during the night and wafted our dock to some unknown point. Not a trace of it remained; not even a poplar leaf was left to mark the spot. The sand of the beach was as clean and smooth as if it had never been disturbed by the hand of man. I wrote in the smooth sand with a stick, 'This is the spot where Captain Moody built his dock.' The captain trod upon the record, and said I would get my discharge at the end of the month, but he either forgot or forgave the affront. It was a long time before anyone had the hardihood to attempt the building of another dock.

"Under the lead of James Kelly, the boss carpenter, who was from Boston, we improved our time, after six o'clock each evening, in erecting a log house for sleeping quarters for our particular party. When finished, we called it the Revere House, after the hotel of that name in Boston. This building stood on the original site as late as 1860.

"We continued clearing up the land south of Superior street, preparing the ground for a forge, machine shop, sawmill and coal house. Sometime in August, the schooner 'Fur Trader' arrived, bringing a large number of Germans, some Irish, and a few French. Among this party were August Machts, George Rublein, Francis Dolf, and Patrick, James and Michael Atfield. All these have resided here continuously - - - -. It was cholera year; Clark died at the Sault on his way back; several others died on the vessel, and many were landed very sick. We were all frightened; but the Indians, who lived here to the number of about one hundred, had everything embarked in their boats and canoes within sixty minutes, and started over the waters to escape a disease to them more dreadful than the small-pox.

"At this time, the first steam boiler ever set up in this county was ready to be filled with water, and it must be done the first time by hand. It was a locomotive boiler. A dollar and a half was offered for the job, and I took it; working three days and a night or two, I succeeded in filling it. Steam was got up, and then I was installed as engineer and fireman.

"During the winter we had three or four mails only. Mr. Harlow was the first postmaster, and hired the Indian Jimmeca to go to L'Anse after the mail at a cost of ten dollars per trip. I believe the cost was made up by subscription.

"The Jackson company had about suspended operations; their credit was at a low ebb; their agent had left in the fall, and was succeeded by 'Czar' Jones, the president, but nearly all work was stopped, and the men thought seriously of hanging and quartering Mr. Jones, who soon after left the country. In the spring (1850) the Jackson company 'bust' all up, and all work at their mine and forge was suspended. By this time the Marquette Iron company's forge was nearly completed and ready for making blooms. Many dwellings, shops, etc., had been erected, together with a small dock at which steamers could land."

This letter which is quoted in part and was written by Peter White, is one of the best sources for determining the names of some of the first settlers of the city and county, for of those names he mentioned some became those of leading and prominent citizens and business men of the county and city. It is regrettable, indeed, that there is no more extensive information concerning the first settlers than does exist, and were it not for Peter White's letter, we should be almost entirely destitute of material on this phase of the history of the county. At least the letter of White gives an accurate picture of Marquette at the time of the beginning of settlement and tells vividly of the founding of the city.

Chippewa County. It is impossible to record the names of the first permanent settlers of a community such as Chippewa county, which has its roots buried in the dim past, when no thought of preserving the records of the villages concerned the inhabitants. Though the settlement at the Sault is one of the earliest in this section of the country, the fur trade was not one to encourage permanent settlement on the lands in this vicinity, and the white men who frequented this part of the Upper Peninsula did so only insofar as the demands of their trade brought them here. Agents in charge of the trading posts at the Sault were often changed, and even their names have disappeared.

There are some few, however, whose efforts in promoting the development of this section of the Upper Peninsula have gone into history, among them being Chevalier de Repentigny, who, with Captain de Bonne was granted a tract of land six leagues square bordering the river at Sault Ste. Marie in 1750. This grant of 214,000 acres of land was the largest grant within the limits of Michigan. De Bonne remained at Quebec, but De Repentigny came to the grant in 1751, and the following year erected a fort and three other buildings within a palisade one hundred feet square. The west wall of the palisade was about fifty feet east of the present Brady street at Sault Ste. Marie and the north wall was coincidental with the line of Water street. A bull and three cows, some heifers, yoke of oxen, and a horse and a mare were brought to this place by Repentigny and were the first livestock in the present Chippewa county. All the trees within gun range of the fort were cut down, and a clearing outside the palisade was placed under cultivation by Jean Cadotte, the pioneer farmer of Chippewa county. The proprietor remained at the Sault until 1755, superintending the erection of needed buildings and the improvement of the land, but when Quebec became the object of the British attack in 1762, De Repentigny gathered about him as many Frenchmen in this section of the country as he could and went to aid in the defense of New France against the English assaults. The seignory at Sault Ste. Marie was left in charge of Jean Baptiste Cadotte, above named, and was operated by him until the coming of the British. The Cadotte family continued to occupy the land, however, for many years afterward, and the question of legal title to the tract they occupied brought up a legal tangle that is one of the famous pieces of litigation in Michigan's legal history. The long occupancy of the Cadotte family, however, worked to win them the title, it was decided by the courts. Although De Repentigny was allowed tenure of his estate provided that he pledge allegiance to the English cause, he returned to France and asked for promotion in the military service, in which his family had long been prominent.

The part played by the garrulous Alexander Henry with the development of the new country has already been discussed in part. Henry, after casting about for some time in this section of the country and after making a trip to the Canadian capital, returned to Montreal to find his goods gone. He formed a partnership with Jean Baptiste Cadotte, named above as a tenant on the Repentigny estate, and the two engaged in the fur trade with the Indians with their headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie.

Jean Baptiste Cadotte was the son of Cadieux who came to the Sault with St. Lusson in 1671, when France formally claimed this country as part of New France. At the time of his appointment by Repentigny he held a virtual monopoly of the fur trade in the Chippewa villages of Lake Superior. He married the daughter of a Saulteur chief by both the Indian and Christian ceremonies, and his two sons, Jean and Michel, were prominent characters in the fur trade during the time of the Northwest company. The father continued to reside at the Sault until 1803, when he died.

Jonathan Carver was another prominent Englishman to come to the rapids of the St. Mary's river, mentioning the place in his journal at the time. In 1833, sixty-seven years after the deed was given, the heirs of Carver filed in the courthouse on Mackinac island an instrument executed by two chiefs of the Naudowessie Indians deeding a tract of land between the falls of St. Anthony and the Chippewa river on the Mississippi river, a part of which land is now occupied by the city of St. Paul. Carver was an earnest searcher for the fabled northwest passage and traveled some seven thousand miles through the northwest looking for such a waterway. With valuable charts and journal, he returned to New York and from there took passage to London, where he was refused permission to publish his book. He died in that city, penniless and heartbroken.

Though the fur trade at the Sault during the regime of the Hudson's Bay company was not inconsiderable, it was not until the organization of the Northwest Fur company that Sault Ste. Marie assumed an aspect of considerable importance in connection with this trade. The assembling point was located at Grand Portage and the outgoing peltries and the incoming supplies came through Sault Ste. Marie. The company's warehouses were located on the south bank of the river, and the portage was also located on the south side. When it became apparent that the English would at last be required to give up their western posts to American troops, the Northwest company moved its warehouses to the north side of the river, where a canal, lock, and sawmill were built in 1797. The canal was about a half mile long, and the lock was thirty-eight feet long with a lift of nine feet. Apparently the lock was little used, for scarcely any mention is made of it in the early records after the end of the century. It was destroyed by American troops in 1814, and subsequently uncovered and rebuilt as a historic reminder of the extensive commerce enjoyed by Sault Ste. Marie in those early days.

With the village deserted by the Northwest Fur company, Sault Ste. Marie fell into decline that continued for some time. Among the few traders who remained here and were not affiliated with the large fur companies was John Johnston, who was born in 1763, near Coleraine, Antrim county, Ireland, and came to Canada in 1792. He was the son of a surveyor and civil engineer who planned and executed the water works at Belfast, and his mother was the sister of Mary, the wife of Bishop Saurin, of Dromore, and also sister of the attorney general of Ireland. In the same year in which he arrived in Canada, Johnston determined to visit Sault Ste. Marie and made his journey thither by way of the Ottawa, Nipissing, and French rivers and Georgian bay. He selected La Pointe as the site for his trading post and there entered upon his work of fur trader. Within a short time after settling here, he sought the daughter of an Indian chief as his wife, but the father advised him to wait until he had made another trip to civilized parts of the country in order that Johnston might be certain that he wanted the Indian girl and not a white girl for his wife. Upon his return from England and Ireland whither he had made an extended visit, Johnston married the girl, and to this union were born three sons and four daughters, as follows: Jane, who married Henry Rowe Schoolcraft in 1823; Louis, who was serving on the Queen Charlotte when that vessel was captured by Commodore Perry; George; Eliza, who was born in 1823, and never married; a third daughter who married Reverend Murray, of Buffalo in 1833 and died in January, 1878; Maria, the fourth daughter, who married James Laurence Schoolcraft; and John McDouall Johnston. William and John became interpreters in the United States service and lived out their lives at the Sault.

Johnston continued to reside at the Sault, where he developed a trade among the Indians of the south shore of Lake Superior that marked him as one of the influential men of this section of the state. Johnston espoused the cause of the British at the time of the War of 1812, and raised a hundred men for service with the English against Mackinac island. The Americans at that post set out to intercept Johnston, and failing in this, they continued on to the Sault and destroyed his property and that of other British sympathizers. Johnston later attempted to secure compensation for his losses but failed in the effort, the British failing to recognize his services in their behalf. He served as justice of the peace in 1812.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who married Jane Johnston in 1823, was born at Watervliet, New York, March 28, 1793, entered Union college in 1808, and in 1817-18 made a tour of the mining regions of the West and upon his return to the East wrote a treatise on lead mining in Missouri. In 1820, he was a member of the party of exploration to the copper country of Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi and subsequently served as a United States commissioner in the treaty negotiations. He was appointed Indian agent at the Sault in 1822, and was married the following year. From 1828 to 1832, he served in the Territorial Legislature of Michigan, and during that time, he was the prime mover in founding the Historic and Algic societies at Detroit. His lectures on the Indians won him a medal from the French Institute, and in 1834, he headed an expedition to the Upper Mississippi region, an account of which was published in 1834. He directed the negotiations which brought to the United States approximately 16,000,000 acres of land. He visited Europe in 1842, traveled through West Virginia, Ohio, and Canada in 1843, and in 1845 collected the material on the Six Nations that was published under the name of Notes on the Iroquois. His statistics and works on the Indian tribes were published in six volumes under authority from Congress at a cost of about $650,000. He married a Miss Howard, of South Carolina, in 1847 and died in 1864.

James L. Schoolcraft, brother of Henry R., was born at Vernon, New York, and came to the Sault a few years after the advent of his brother to this region. He started a store here about 1825, married Anna Maria Johnston in 1836, and was killed at the Johnston homestead in 1846 by Lieutenant Tilden of Fort Brady. Mrs. Schoolcraft married Rev. O. Taylor, an Episcopalian minister, and died at Pontiac in 1856.

John McDouall Johnston, son of John, was born at the Sault, October 12, 1816, received a scanty education in the garrison school, and attended the mission school at Mackinac island in 1827. In 1829, he was sent to a school in Lewis county, New York, and was in attendance there some twenty months. He returned to the Sault in 1831, became a United States interpreter for Schoolcraft in the following year, and in this capacity was present at some of the most important treaty negotiations in this part of the country. He married twenty-year-old Justine Piquette, of Sault Ste. Marie, September 20, 1842. She was a descendant of the Piquette and Defoe families whose arrival at the Sault antedated that of John Johnston. The children born to this union were as follows: Spencer N.; Emma M.; Charlotte J.; Eliza S.; James L.; McD.; Louis H.; Henry G.; William Meddaugh; and Arch W.

Peter P. Barbeau was also one of the earliest settlers and fur traders of Sault Ste. Marie of whom we have any record, and his name was a familiar one to men throughout the Upper Peninsula.

Baraga County. The first white men to come to Baraga county were the missionaries sent out to the Indians. Father Menard was probably the first white man to make any improvements in the county, for he attempted to establish a mission here. The treatment accorded him by the Indians, however, forced him to abandon the attempt, and he met his death in trying to penetrate the forests of Wisconsin to reach another tribe more anxious to receive his ministrations. In 1834, John Sunday, a preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church came to Kewawenon, in this county, and Rev. John Clark, who visited Fort Brady in the same year, subsequently took charge of the mission established by Sunday. Clark is credited with having built the first log school building, the mission building, and many of the Indian houses bordering the bay.

Although the Methodist mission maintained an unbroken existence and did much good, the name of the county is derived from that of Father Frederick Baraga, who established the Catholic mission on the west side of the bay in 1841. His energy and aggressiveness quickly established the mission on a firm foothold. He built a log church and twenty-four log buildings to house the Indian converts, and in time, the colony surrounding the mission grew to be a village of some 350 persons. In 1871, L'Anse was platted pending the speedy completion of the railroad, and from that time forward the village grew rapidly under the impetus of adequate communication and transportation and the development of the marble and slate quarrying that began a few years later.

Delta County. Father James Marquette is credited with having made the first explorations within the present limits of Delta county in 1668, a short time after the founding of the mission at St. Ignace. He explored the two Bays de Noquet and discovered St. Martin's island. Louis A. Roberts, with his wife and family, was next to come to Delta county, and a short time after his arrival the old mill on the Flat Rock river was erected, although the names of the builders have long since vanished from the historic records of the county. This mill is also said to have been operating in 1838, at the time Roberts located in the county with his family. The mill and claim passed into the hands of John and Joseph Smith in 1842, and was abandoned by them in 1844. In that same year, the two Smiths removed to a new location farther down the river and erected a new mill, the second in Delta county. Later in the same year, a small Mackinac fishing boat was beached at Escanaba, and Darius Clark and Silas Billings, the passengers and crew of the little vessel, entered the employ of the Smiths. Clark married one of the daughters of Louis Roberts two years subsequent to this time.

Roberts gained the friendship of the chief of the Chippewas in this region and by the Indian was guided to an admirable site for a water power mill on the White Fish. Roberts and Darius Clark took a claim on this river five miles from its mouth and there erected a mill to which Roberts moved his family in 1846. The enterprise was operated until the death of Clark.

The Flat Rock mill was operated until 1846 by the founders and was sold in that year to Jefferson Sinclair and Daniel Wells, of Milwaukee, who continued its operation until 1851, in which year they disposed of their interests to the N. Ludington company, composed of N. Ludington, Harrison Ludington, and Jefferson Sinclair. The last named retired from the company in 1855. J. K. Stevenson, David Langley, Jefferson Bagley, and Silas Howard were among the first employees of this mill, the last two becoming pioneer farmers of the county, the first going to Marinette, Wisconsin, and the second settling at Escanaba.

In 1845, George Richards, Silas Billings, and David Bliss built a mill one mile above the mouth of Ford river and continued its operation until it was destroyed by fire in June, 1856, about two years after it was acquired by Joseph Peacock and George Legan, of Chicago. After the fire, the proprietors erected a steam mill on the same spot and moved it in 1857 to the mill site of the Ford River Lumber company where it was in operation until the winter of 1866-67. A small steam mill was built in 1859 near the mouth of the White Fish river by Messrs. Fergerson & Williamson. It was purchased by Richard Mason in 1852, who had removed from Chicago with his family in that year. This was the first locality in the county to assume the appearance of a village, and the community took the name of Masonville after the mill owner who lived there until 1880. The settlement of the county gained no impetus until 1860.

Menominee County. How Jean Nicollet came to Green Bay in the attempt to discover a route to the East, has already been told, and the journeys of many other explorers brought them to the same region, for Green Bay presented an admirable starting place for voyages of exploration among the rivers of the West. Menominee received its first white man in the person of Chappieu, an Indian trader, who came here as an agent for the American Fur company and established his trading post in 1796 or 1798. A French-Canadian himself, he gathered around him a large number of coureurs de bois and operated a highly successful post, for he was aggressive and fearless and found himself in a position to carry on a profitable trade with the hundreds of Indians who frequented the Menominee region. He built a strong fort, or post, and parts of it were still standing as late as 1860, it having been located on the Wisconsin side of the river. After being dispossessed of his property, he built a new trading post at what became known as Chappieu's Rapids about five miles up the river from Menominee. He lived with a squaw, but was not married to her, and she bore him several children.

William Farnsworth and Charles Brush are said to have been the next permanent white settlers of the county. They came to the county in 1882, and entered upon the fur trade, harboring at the same time a desire to drive Chappieu out of the vicinity where he was then located. Trouble between Chappieu and two Indian chiefs gave them the opening for which they sought. Chappieu had the chiefs arrested and sent to Fort Howard at Green Bay, and Farnsworth quickly seized the opportunity to secure their release, the Indians having been led to believe that their offense was a serious one. The tribe placed Farnsworth in high favor as a result of what they considered a high favor, and Chappieu was forced to remove to a new post at the Rapids which now bears his name. Farnsworth came into possession of the Chappieu post, where he conducted his activities as agent of the American Fur company. Brush, associated with Farnsworth, was equally able in business matters and in gaining his own ends. In 1832, the pair erected a saw mill on the Menominee river, the first on that stream, and built on the Wisconsin side a short distance above the point where the Chicago & Northwestern railroad subsequently crossed. A dam was constructed to one of the islands, and the mill had a capacity of about six thousand or eight thousand feet per day. A Samuel H. Farnsworth is said to have purchased either an interest in the water power at the rapids or in the mill at a date unknown. The mill is also said to have been sold at a sheriff's sale, the bidder, D. M. Whitney, of Green Bay, returning his bid to Samuel Farnsworth for eighteen barrels of white fish. In 1839, Dr. J. C. Hall came to this place, bought out Samuel H. Farnsworth, and also acquired an interest in the establishment of William Farnsworth and Charles Brush. Within two or three years, the dam went out and the mill was abandoned. Hall built another mill and dam in 1844. The original Farnsworth & Brush mill became the scene of fishing activities of the aggressive partners, for seeing the run of white fish up the river, they determined to make a good catch and find a market. They built a weir along the apron of the dam, and during the season when the fish were running, all the partners had to do was to dip out the fish that had been caught, salt them, and ship them. They are said to have shipped about 550 barrels of white fish per year. William Farnsworth was lost when the steamer Lady Elgin sank in a collision with another vessel between Waukegan and Chicago, Illinois. Brush eventually left the country leaving no trace of his whereabouts.

Following Farnsworth and Brush in 1826, came John G. Kittson to act as clerk for the American Fur company under Chappieu. He spent the remainder of his life in the county and cleared two farms on the river, his death occurring in 1872.

Joseph Duncan came to Menominee county in the same year as a packer for the American Fur company. He fought with the British in the War of 1812, and participated in the battle of Plattsburg. In 1832, Charles McLeod and Baptiste Premeau came to Menominee, and Joseph DeCoto, who came the same year, developed a good farm at White Rapids.

When William Farnsworth came to Menominee county in 1822, his wife was Marinette, who had previously married John B. Jacobs at Mackinaw City and had had several children by him, the children being brought to this county by Farnsworth. The mother of Marinette was the daughter of Wabashish, a Menominee chief, and her father was Bartholomew Chevaliere, a white man. Joseph Bartholomew Chevaliere, brother of Marinette Chevaliere, is credited with having made the claim of being the first white man to settle in this county. Marinette Chevaliere Farnsworth survived her husband by three years, she having several children by her second husband. Her children by her first husband became well-known residents of this county, John B. Jacobs subsequently locating at Green Bay, Wisconsin, and Elizabeth marrying Charles McLeod, above named. Mrs. Farnsworth set out the first apple orchard on the Menominee river, and her home was the first frame house built on the Wisconsin side.

In 1842 came the next permanent settler in the person of Andreas Eveland. He engaged in fishing and his house, built in 1853, was the first frame house erected within the present limits of the city of Menominee. Charles McLeod built the first frame house in the county the preceding year.

In 1845 came John Quimby to take charge of the fisheries and boarding house for the Hall mill. Subsequently, he built a tavern in Menominee and operated it until it was destroyed by fire in 1859. In that year, he put up a small tavern to replace his former one, and added to it from time to time as he was financially able. He sold out in 1864, but the hostelry was continued under various names and managements for many years.

Though Moses Hardwick settled here in 1826, he remained but a few years.

Ontonagon County, like the other counties of the mining districts of Lake Superior, presents a decided problem in attempting to determine the first settlers, for the advent of the white men for settlement came almost at once with the discovery of ore deposits and the opening of the mines. James K. Paul came to the mouth of the Ontonagon river, May 2, 1843, and pre-empted land where the village of that name now stands. He was the first white man to settle in the county, and at the little log cabin which he erected in the year of his arrival, he kept a store, called Jim Paul's Deadfall.

In 1844, the Government erected a building 16x20 feet on the east side of the river for the accommodation of Major Campbell, the Government agent. The building was known as the Mineral Agency.

In August, 1845, Daniel S. and Fanny Cash, William W. Spaulding, and E. C. Rahm came from Illinois to settle in the county, Mrs. Cash being the first white woman to make her home in this section of the Upper Peninsula. Their route to the new home was made by way of the Mississippi river from Galena, Illinois, to the St. Croix river, by which and by the Brule they traveled to Lake Superior, along which they coasted to the mouth of the Ontonagon river. Cash and Spaulding entered land on the west side of the river about half a mile from its mouth and erected a log building thereon at that time.

On October 21, 1846, Edmond Lockwood, a nephew of Daniel S. Cash, landed from the schooner Algonquin and became associated with his uncle and Spaulding in trade. Early in 1847, they built a store and warehouse on the west side of the river near Cash's claim and thus established the first mercantile and shipping business in the county, unless one consider the limited scope of Jim Paul's operations.

The first practical attention was given to the development of the copper mining in this county in 1845, in the Trap Rock range in township 50 north, range 39 west, the mine being known as the Ontonagon and later as the Minnesota. S. O. Knapp was one of the first superintendents, and others connected with its operation at that time were Capt. William Harris, Mr. Roberts, and Mr. Townsend. C. C. Cushman entered a claim in the same township for a Boston company in the same year, and Cyrus Mendenhall entered three sections on the west side of the Ontonagon river for the Isle Royale Mining company, it being known as the Mendenhall location. Others prominent in the early mining operations of the county were: F. G. White, John Cheynoweth, Webb, Richards, Lockwood, W. W. Spaulding, Buzzo, A. Coburn, Abner Sherman, A. C. Davis, S. S. Robinson, Hoyt, Hardee, Edward Sales, Anthony, Doctor Osborn, Sanderson, Martin Beaser, and Dickerson.

The first frame house was built in the village by Captain John G. Parker in 1849, it being located on River street in the southeast corner of Block 3. The first white child born in the county was William P. Cash, son of Daniel S. and Fanny Cash, whose birth occurred December 4, 1848, and who subsequently became a physician and surgeon in Minnesota. The first mail was brought to the village by dog team in the winter of 1846-47, D. S. Cash becoming the first postmaster and holding that office six years. Lathrop Johnson purchased the old Mineral Agency in May, 1848, and converted it into a tavern which he named the Johnson House. Prior to that time, Jim Paul had entertained those travelers seeking lodging.

For the other counties in the Upper Peninsula, it is virtually impossible to determine the first settlers, for their settlement and development hinged primarily upon the mines and lumbering, and in the wake of the large operators, came people to work for these concerns, so that almost overnight, villages sprang up throughout the counties. Thus, what might be termed the names of the first settlers of such counties are, practically speaking, those of the men who explored and opened the mines and who established mills. Their names may more properly be found, then, in the chapter dealing with the industrial growth of the Upper Peninsula.

CHAPTER IV

COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS

Alger County was set off from Schoolcraft county in 1885 when Munising, the county seat of Alger, was a small village of approximately 400 persons in the midst of heavy forests. The establishment of blast furnaces in the county about 1850, and the resultant influx of settlers to work those enterprises brought the ultimate erection of the county. The Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad was completed to Munising in 1881, giving the last bit of impetus necessary to promote the erection of this governmental unit.

Baraga County was formed from Houghton county, February 19, 1875, and the county seat was located at that time at L'Anse. The county takes its name from Rev. Frederick Baraga, who established the Mission of the Holy Name at Baraga in 1843. The first county election held soon after the date of organization resulted in the choice of these officers: Alexander Shields, sheriff; Oscar J. Foote, county clerk and register of deeds; Jeremiah T. Finnegan, prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner; James D. Reid, treasurer; Robert M. Stead, surveyor; and John Stewart, judge of probate.

Houghton County was organized March 19, 1845, and received its name from Dr. Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist whose reports and surveys placed such an important part in hastening the opening of the Upper Peninsula. At the time of its erection, the county included the present territory embraced by the counties of Baraga and Keweenaw. The first election was not held until 1846, at Eagle Harbor, Eagle River, and Houghton. the following men being elected to office: John Bacon, county judge; Edward Burr, probate judge; Charles A. Ammerman, clerk; Hiram joy, register of deeds; Joseph Raymond, sheriff; David French, treasurer; Samuel G. Hill, surveyor; and John Beedon and John Atwood, coroners. On March 16, 1847, the county was divided into townships with the following names: Copper Harbor, Eagle Harbor, Houghton, Portage, Algonquin, and L'Anse. The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held January 20, 1849, at the office of the Lake Superior Copper company, which building the supervisors agreed to rent the office at a cost of no more than a dollar per month for board meetings. The supervisors further ordered the expenditure of $100 for the fitting up of a jail near the office of the same company.

Keweenaw County was set off from Houghton on March 11, 1861, the county seat was located at Eagle River, and the first election was held in the fall of the same year. Keweenaw county as yet remains relatively undeveloped, but as the natural resources of the county come in for their share of exploitation, it may take its place among the larger and influential counties of the Peninsula.

Though Ontonagon County was laid off by an act of the legislature, March 9, 1843, its organization was not completed until September, 1852, at which time these men were elected the first county officers: Ira D. Bush, district judge; J. H. Edwards, probate judge; W. W. Spaulding, circuit court commissioner; H. H. Close, clerk and register of deeds; T. B. Hanna, treasurer; Peter Dean, sheriff; Charles Merryweather, surveyor. The first board of supervisors of the county was composed of James Van Alstine for Pewabic and Augustus Coburn for Ontonagon. The first school district was organized in the county in 1853, and the first school board was established in the county in 1856. The first school, however, was taught in 1851 by James Scoville.

Luce County was erected from the western part of Chippewa county in 1887, and at the first election held on April 20, that year, these men were raised to office: A. G. Louks, sheriff; Ambro Bettes, clerk and register of deeds; Fred J. Stewart, treasurer; S. N. Dutcher, prosecuting attorney; William J. Aclen, surveyor; and S. J. Fraser and Sanford Helmer, coroners. The county seat was established at Newberry, which was first settled in 1881, when a clearing was made for the Vulcan furnace, and after the projection of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad through that place, it assumed a position of relative importance in that section of the Upper Peninsula. It is the location of the Newberry State Hospital for the Insane, and the Superior Iron & Chemical company there is one of the leading industries of its kind in the state.

Gogebic County was organized by an act of the legislature approved February 2, 1887, and Bessemer, despite the rivalry of other communities, was declared the county seat. A $75,000 brownstone courthouse was erected, and in 1889, Bessemer, under the spur of its position as the seat of justice of the county, assumed its status as a city.

Iron County was erected from parts of Menominee and Marquette counties in 1885, at which time Crystal Falls was named the seat of justice.

Dickinson County came into being in 1891, when an act of the legislature approved October 2, that year, set it off largely from Menominee county with parts of Iron and Marquette counties included. That it was set off as a separate county was largely due to the fact that it was almost entirely an iron mining community whereas Menominee county, of which it had been a part, was almost completely interested in lumbering. The county was named in honor of Don M. Dickinson, of whom a biographical record is contained in this volume, and Iron Mountain was selected by the commissioners as the county seat.

Menominee County came into existence under peculiar circumstances. Anson Bangs, an aggressive young man of the county, secured the erection of the county in 1861 as Bleeker county, named in honor of his wife's family. The dissatisfaction among the people of the county was such that it became impossible to effect an organization of the county government, the citizens refusing to honor the act under which they were granted county rights. Judge E. S. Ingalls became the leader of the fight to get the offensive act repealed, and in 1863, a new act was passed organizing Menominee county. On the first Monday of May, that year, the first election was held, resulting in the choice of these officers: John Quimby, sheriff; Salmon P. Saxton, clerk; S. W. Abbott, treasurer; E. S. Ingalls, prosecuting attorney, judge of probate, and circuit court commissioner. In the same year, Menominee and Cedarville townships were erected by the supervisors of the county.

Chippewa County has been, as we have seen, under both the French and the English flag as well as that of the United States. When the Northwest Territory was laid off by the Ordinance of 1787 the territory now embraced was not considered a part of the Michigan country. By the organization of the Indiana Territory what are now Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa county were included within the far flung limits of this new territory. In 1805, however, with the creation of the Michigan territory the present Chippewa county was included therein and was also a part of Wayne county which at that time was composed of the entire territory. The territory of Legislature, composed of the governor and three judges, soon made shift to divide the territory within their jurisdiction into counties.

By this means an act of the Legislative Council of the territory of Michigan created and organized Chippewa county, the act being approved December 22, 1826, and reading as follows.

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of Michigan, That all the tract of country to which the Indian title has been extinguished, and comprehended within the following boundaries, namely, beginning at the north side of Lake Huron, at Isle St. Vital, running thence due north until it strikes a river which falls into the northwest part of Muddy lake, of the river Sainte Marie, thence up said river to its source, thence to the Meristic river of Lake Michigan, thence up said river, to the parallel of north latitude 460 31', thence due west to the Mississippi river, thence up said river to its source, thence north to the boundary line of the United States, and with line returning, through Lake Superior, to the mouth of the river Ste. Marie, and thence southwest to the place of beginning, is hereby erected into a separate county, to be called the county of Chippewa, and the same shall be organized from and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the privileges and rights to which, by law, the inhabitants of the other counties of this territory are entitled.

"Section 2. That the seat of justice of said county shall be established at such point in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie as a majority of the county commissioners, to be appointed, shall designate.

"Section 3. That the county court of said county Chippewa shall be held on the first Monday of August and the second Monday in January in each year. And that suits, prosecutions, and other matters, now pending in the circuit court of the United States, for the county of Michilimackinac, or before the county court of said county, or before any justice of the peace within the same, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, and all taxes heretofore levied, and now due, shall be collected in the same manner as though the said county had not been organized.

"Section 4. That this act shall take effect and be enforced from and after the first day of February, 1827."

From the above act it may be seen that the county of Chippewa and its original limits embraced a territory equal in size to many of our states and larger than others. It is obvious, too, that governmental and judicial administration of such a vast territory, then scarcely more than a wilderness, punctured with a few tiny settlements, could be anything but effective, and it is not to be wondered at that the western portion of the county as originally defined should soon be detached and the remainder given once and for all as a sop to allay the bitterness engendered by the Toledo war.

The Upper Peninsula was unwillingly accepted, for both the people of the state and Congress believed that it was practically worthless. Only those living in this part of the state realized the resources of the Upper Peninsula and the possibilities that lay in the development of those natural advantages. The exploitation of the vast quantities of timber and the tapping of the almost unlimited mineral resources was left for future years to determine the true worth of the land given to Michigan to pacify the people for the loss of Toledo and the Ohio strip.

When Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1835, the county of Chippewa, which had heretofore comprised the entire Upper Peninsula, was divided into a new county of Chippewa and the county of Mackinac, the former of which then had a population of 366, mostly at the Sault, and the latter with a white population of 664, mostly at Mackinac. Thus, with the establishment of Mackinac county, began the gradual erection of other counties that has left Chippewa county in its present size, although it is now one of the largest, if not the largest, county in point of area in the Upper Peninsula.

Mackinac County, or rather what is now included within the limits of Mackinac county, came under the nominal control of the United States Government after the signing of the peace treaty between the United States and Great Britain at the close of the Revolutionary war, and although the government for this Northwest Territory was provided for by the Ordinance of 1787, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was not actively governed by the provisions of that famous instrument until 1798, when the British forts in this territory were surrendered to American garrisons. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was erected, and the original boundaries of that territory included the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

On June 30, 1805, an act was passed erecting and organizing the Michigan Territory, the western boundary thereof being described as a line drawn up the center of Lake Michigan to the northern boundary of the United States. By this act, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula and all of the present Mackinac county came into the territory of Michigan, and in due course, into the state of Michigan. Prior to the erection of the Michigan Territory, however, Wayne county, of the Indiana Territory had been created to include all of the present state of Michigan, approximately, and even after the territory was erected, it was a part of Wayne county.

By a proclamation of Governor Lewis Cass issued October 26, 1818, Michilimackinac county was erected with these boundaries: Beginning at the White Rock on the shore of Lake Huron, thence with the line of Macomb county to the line between the United States and Upper Canada, thence with the boundary to the western boundary of the Michigan Territory; thence southerly along the western line so far that a line drawn due west from the dividing grounds between the rivers which flow into Lake Superior and those which flow south will strike the same; thence due east to these dividing grounds and with the same to a point due north from Sturgeon bay, thence south to the bay, and thence by the nearest line to the western boundary of the territory as established by Congress.

It can be seen from the above mentioned boundaries that the original county of Michilimackinac included a vast amount of territory that comprised a goodly portion of the Lower Peninsula as well as most of the present Upper Peninsula. Obviously, such an unwieldy territory could not long remain as one county, and as county organization proceeded in the Lower Peninsula, Mackinac county shrunk rapidly in size. By a legislative act of March 9, 1843, redefined the boundaries of Mackinac county, naming them as follows: Beginning at a point in Lake Huron, south of line between ranges 2 and 3 east, thence north to the boundary of township 41 north, thence west to the line between ranges 1 and 2 east, thence to the north boundary of township 42 north, thence west to the meridian, north on the meridian line to the north boundary of township 43 north, thence west to the line between ranges 6 and 7 west, north to the north boundary of township 45, thence west on the north boundary of township 45 north, to the line between ranges 12 and 13 west, south on this line to Lake Michigan, and thence east along the lake shore to the place of beginning. Bois Blanc, St. Martin's, Round, Les Chenaux, St. Helena, and Michilimackinac were the islands attached to Michilimackinac county by this act. Thus the limits of the county have remained the same since the passage of this act, the only changes occurring within the county in the shape of township organizations. Among the first townships organized was St. Ignace, while Holmes township came into being on April 12, 1827, and Moran sometime later.

Courthouse and Seat of Justice. When Michilimackinac county was organized, the seat of justice was located at the borough of Michilimackinac, then included in Holmes township, but as the population grew on the mainland, it became increasingly evident that such an arrangement was not one of expediency for the great bulk of the county's population. Came a time when the people of the county moved actively for a change in the county seat, and on April 3, 1882, an election was held, 479 votes being cast in favor of removal to St. Ignace and 128 against. Thus, the county seat came to St. Ignace where it has since remained.

From the time of the organization of the county to the removal of the seat of justice to St. Ignace, two county buildings had been erected at the island, one being occupied temporarily until a more suitable structure could be secured for the housing of the county offices and the circuit court rooms. This latter building was an excellent structure for its purpose, considering the size of the county at the time it was built.

When the removal was voted, it became necessary to procure a new courthouse, and to this end, a special election was held in June, 1882, to vote on the question of a loan of $17,000 for new county buildings at St. Ignace. At that time, the committee in charge received the following offers of location for the buildings:

(1) Michael Marley submitted for consideration three bluff sites on claims 15 and 16, either to be 300 feet square, with streets 100 feet wide to be laid out on each side of the square except around the site on Portage street, where only three sides could have thoroughfares of such width due to the fact that Portage street was already located and of less width than the proposed avenues.

(2) In addition to a 300-foot square in the heart of the village, an offer to which Brooks B. Hazelton added a thousand dollars, the Murrays offered any site on their bluff the committee might select.

(3) Mrs. Amelia Crain offered two sites, the first containing from three to five acres on Crain's bluff, having an elevation of 200 feet and a fine view of the straits, and the second 100x200 feet on Lake avenue.

(4) From three to five acres on claim 3 were offered by P. W. Hombach.

(5) Matilda Wendell, through her agent, W. P. Preston, offered a site of two acres in extent on claim 11.

(6) The Mackinac Lumber company, through B. B. Hazelton, proposed to give a location 200 feet east of the Reagon shops and to donate $1,000 if either the Crain, Murray, or the lumber company site were chosen by the committee.

With such generous response from the people of the community, the matter of location of the new county buildings was easily settled, the committee accepting the offer of Michael Marley for the location at Prospect and Marley streets. No sooner had the location been made than negotiations were opened for the construction of the courthouse, sheriff's residence, and jail. Plans for an $18,000 courthouse were accepted by the board, and on August 16, 1882, the cornerstone of the courthouse was laid with ceremonies at which W. P. Preston, chairman of the county board, was presiding officer and Judge Charles R. Brown was the speaker of the day.

Thus was the county seat established at St. Ignace, and the courthouse, sheriff's residence and jail, as they stand today, were completed with all dispatch after the laying of the cornerstone, being ready for occupancy within a comparatively short time afterward.

Marquette County. As has been pointed out in the chapter on Territorial Michigan, Marquette county was first a part of Chippewa county, remaining so until 1843, when by an act approved March 9, that year, the legislature erected Marquette, Delta, Ontonagon, and Schoolcraft counties from territory that had been parts of Chippewa and Mackinac before that date. By this act, that territory bounded by the line between ranges 23 and 24 west, the north boundary of township 41, the line between ranges 37 and 38 west, and Lake Superior was erected into a county to be called Marquette, this county to be attached to Chippewa county for judicial purposes. By an act approved March 19, 1845, the boundaries of the county were limited on the north by the north line of township 49 instead of by Lake Superior as in the preceding act.

On March 16, 1847, the governor approved an act of the legislature creating Marquette township to include all that territory embraced by the unorganized county of Marquette and attached to Chippewa county. A township election was ordered for that year, but no record of a town meeting before July 15, 1850, exists. On that date, however, these township officers were elected: A. R. Harlow, supervisor; R. J. Graveraet, clerk; A. R. Harlow and E. C. Rogers, school inspectors; R. J. Graveraet, treasurer; Joshua Hodgkins, director of the poor; Samuel Moody, Charles Johnson, and A. R. Harlow, road commissioners; Samuel Moody, N. E. Eddy, Czar Jones, justices of the peace; and A. N. Barney, A. H. Mitchell, and Charles Johnson, constables.

The influx of settlers that came to this region about this time, brought an increase of population that warranted the organization of Marquette county, and by an act approved by the governor in April, 1851, the county was declared organized and the first election ordered to be held on the second Monday of June, that year, but the election was not held until November 4, when votes were cast for the state as well as for the county officers, the results in this county being in favor of these men: Robert McClellan, governor; Calvin Britain, lieutenant-governor; Philo M. Everett, judge of probate; James D. Watt, sheriff; Peter White, register of deeds; John S. Livermore, clerk; Charles Johnson, treasurer; and John Burt, surveyor. At the time the county was organized, all that part west of range 26 west was erected into a township under the name of Carp River and the first election was held at the house of B. F. Eaton. By the erection and organization of Iron county in 1885, and Dickinson county in 1891 from land previously included in this county, Marquette county was reduced to its present size.

Public Buildings. Standing on a hill overlooking the blue waters of Lake Superior is the imposing edifice of the Marquette county courthouse. Somewhat a radical departure from the usual county building design, the courthouse is nevertheless eminently practical for its needs and is as beautiful as it is unconventional. The usual towers and cupolas are conspicuous by their absence in this structure, their place being taken by a low dome which surmounts a rotunda. It was constructed at an approximate cost of $250,000 and is built of red Marquette limestone, a fitting material for this county.

Overlooking Iron bay is the Branch State prison, which is under the general direction of the State Board of Control and the direct superintendency of a warden. It was established in 1885, by the legislature, which appropriated at that time the amount of $150,000 and the first warden installed was 0. C. Thompson, who had been warden of the Jackson State prison before that time. The prison was first opened June 22, 1889, for the reception of prisoners, by which time $206,000 had been spent on the buildings.

CHAPTER V

EDUCATION

As in all pioneer communities, the early schools of the Upper Peninsula were the log cabins so familiar to our grandfathers, yet in the later settlements in the mining regions, the development of the communities was so rapid, that schools were established under general education laws almost at the first, and excellent facilities were provided for the children.

The mission school at St. Ignace must be given the credit of laying the foundations of education among the first white children and the Indians of that region, and for many years it flourished, continuing on the Island even into the nineteenth century. The founder was Father Marquette, beloved of his Indian charges, and the succeeding priests at the mission continued the work he had so ably begun. During the years immediately following the closing of the Catholic mission at the straits and prior to its reopening, apparently no school was maintained, but the mission school remained the main educational institution until after the erection of Mackinac county and the establishment of public schools by the residents at the straits.

Soon after the establishment of the county seat at St. Ignace and the new life that came to the village thereby, the people provided for a public school, marking the beginning of the school system that has maintained an unbroken existence to the present time.

Escanaba began its educational work with two teachers, but with the development of the city, the facilities were increased to keep pace with the ever-growing number of children. Today, the city boasts more than a half dozen ward school buildings and a high school building of the most modern design and equipment. For many years the crowded conditions of the school forced the authorities to devote one entire building to the eighth grade pupils of the city, a move that presaged the establishment of the 6-3-3 plan of grade division that has now become widely accepted throughout the country as the most practical and efficient arrangement of the graded schools. The parochial school of St. Joseph's Catholic church is one of the largest institutions of its kind in the Upper Peninsula and has worked hand in hand with the school board of the public system.

Sault Ste. Marie, like St. Ignace, found its first schools in connection with the missions that were established here, but practically nothing has been left to tell us of the first school kept in this county. School buildings were erected in 1829 in connection with the establishment of the Baptist mission at the Sault, and these were among the first schools to make their appearance here. From these beginnings have evolved the present fine school system of the city and county, and since 1878, Sault Ste. Marie has been surpassed by no city of her size in the matter of school buildings and curriculum.

Baraga County. The first school district was organized in Baraga county in 1857 at L'Anse, although the Methodist and Catholic missions had done good work among the Indians and the first settlers to come to the county. The amount of $8,000 was voted by the county school authorities in 1882 for the erection of a new school building to supplant the frame buildings that had been used prior to that time, and from this time forward, the schools of L'Anse and Baraga county have made steady progress.

Houghton County. The first school district organized in Houghton county was in Portage township and was established April 11, 1857. A small building was erected opposite the Catholic church to serve the purposes of the comparatively small number of children who then needed schooling. As the city grew under the rapid development of the mines, a Union school district was soon formed, for which a $35,000 building was erected, containing a library of some 800 volumes in addition to the schoolrooms. It has a splendid school building at the present time costing approximately $60,000.

Houghton is the seat of the Michigan College of Mines, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the United States, for it is admirably equipped to give its students the best practical as well as theoretical training in mining due to its proximity to both copper and iron mines. It was established by an act of the legislature in 1885, and was opened to receive students, September 15, 1886. That such an institution was established at Houghton, is largely due to the efforts of Jay A. Hubbell, of Houghton, who realized that the mining interests of Michigan would be well served by the maintenance of such a school for the training of mining engineers in the fields where they might be most likely to seek their careers. Though the majority of the students are drawn from this state, many come from other states of the Union because of the enviable reputation the institution has acquired. Twenty-three students matriculated the first year, and the succeeding terms have witnessed the enrollment reach well into the hundreds. An $85,000 brownstone structure is the principal building on the campus, while other buildings, totaling nine in number, serve the various departments of the institution.

The first school organized in Hancock was kept in a frame building on Franklin street from 1869 to 1875, but in the latter year a school was erected at a cost of approximately $30,000 just outside the western corporate limits of the village, the lower grades and high school being maintained there.

In 1867, the people of Calumet, or Red Jacket, built a two story, frame school, and in the same year a second school district was formed. In 1869, the schools were graded. In 1875, the Calumet & Hecla Mining company built a new building, then one of the largest in the state, it being three stories in height and being 196x100 feet in size. Every possible need of a modern school of that day was anticipated by the builders, and Calumet could well boast of the exceptional educational facilities provided by the company. The supremacy thus gained has been maintained throughout the succeeding years, and the Calumet schools are among the best in the state.

The first school was erected in 1867 in Lake Linden, the funds therefor being raised by taxation and personal subscription. Subsequently, an addition was made by the people and a second by the Calumet & Hecla company, the entire structure representing an expenditure of $20,000. It was destroyed by fire in November, 1881, and was rebuilt the same year at a cost of $15,000.

Keweenaw County. In 1872, when the school census showed a population of only ninety-six children of school age, the people of Eagle Harbor erected a school, forming the nucleus of the village's school system. The first school established at Eagle River was also used by various church organizations as a place of worship. In 1878, the Central company erected a $7,500 schoolhouse, it being a three-story structure, 40x70 feet. The Lake Superior Copper company built the school at Phoenix, as is common in most communities which are devoted entirely to the mining industry such as this place.

Menominee County. As far as can be determined, the first school kept in Menominee county was taught by Emily Burchard in 1857 in the house of Henry Nason at his shingle mill on the Bay Shore, and like most pioneer schools, it was maintained by subscription. It is said that a school was kept by a daughter of A. F. Lyon prior to this time, but nothing in confirmation of this report has ever been learned. The first schoolhouse erected in the county was built by A. F. Lyon, Henry Nason, W. Q. Boswell, Andreas Eveland, E. N. Davis, and others, at the junction of Ogden avenue and the railroad in Menominee village in 1857. It was made of hewn logs and was put up by volunteer labor. After the organization of the county and the division into townships, the schools came under the supervision of the various school districts. The first building used for school purposes in District No. 1, Menominee township, was a small structure owned by Samuel Abbott and used by him for the storing of fish nets. This was used only during the winter of 1863-64, and in the latter year, another and more suitable building was erected. This soon became too small for its purposes and was supplanted in 1868 by a frame building costing approximately $7,000. Ten school buildings now serve the needs of the community, and the Menominee County Agricultural college has done much to train boys for the vocation of farmers.

Ontonagon County. The first school was started in the village of Ontonagon in 1851 by James Scoville, a graduate of the University of Michigan. He rented a room and charged tuition of $3.50 per pupil per term. When the Methodist church was completed in October, 1852, the people used it for school purposes during the week days inasmuch as the village had no school building of its own. William Fox, a graduate of the famous Oxford university, England, was employed as the first teacher and continued in that capacity for two years. By 1857, the number of pupils had grown so large that the church could no longer accommodate them, and James Burtenshaw was awarded the contract of building a union school at a cost of $4,000, which was completed and occupied in June, 1858, 0. E. Fuller, of Maine, acting as the first superintendent. During the winter of 1857-58, one public and two private schools were operating in the village. In 1877, an addition was made to the building costing $1,500. Such were the beginnings of the fine Ontonagon school system of today.

Iron County. Mr. McDonald, the groceryman of Iron River, owned the first school building in that place, where Thomas Flannigan taught the first term in the winter of 1883-84. In 1893, the schools were incorporated by the legislature, and in 1905 they were reincorporated. The city today boasts several ward school buildings and a high school that cost $125,000.

The schools of Stambaugh were also incorporated in 1905, and in addition to the fine central buildings include several smaller school buildings throughout the city.

The first school in Crystal Falls was taught by Martha Parmenter in the summer of 1883, the building she used being located on the south side of Superior avenue between Third and Fourth streets. A high school building costing $65,000 and a graded school erected at a cost of $125,000 are today the boast of the city.

Gogebic County. Miss Gertie Fitzsimmons started the first school in Ironwood in 1887, and she was succeeded in that work by Professor Carus and then by Prof. L. L. Wright, the latter of whom organized the high school and served for eighteen years as superintendent of the Ironwood schools. In 1908, a high school was erected at a cost of $35,000, while the present high school cost $120,000. Of the ten graded schools, the Central is the most imposing, having been erected at a contract price of approximately $200,000. The high school at Bessemer, costing $45,000, is indicative of the high character of the schools of that place.

Dickinson County. The first school in this county was kept in a logging camp between the Vulcan mine and the mouth of the Sturgeon, Miss Reath serving as the teacher. In 1880, work on a school building was commenced in Iron Mountain, it being located on Brown street between Stephenson and Iron Mountain avenues. It was ready for occupancy January 1, 1881, at which time William N. Shepard took charge, the first term lasting eight months from that date. During the time the school was being built, the population of the city grew so rapidly that the children were forced to sit two and three in a seat. Other rooms were added before the opening of another term. The city now has two high schools, costing $150,000 and $75,000, a manual training school, a school for the deaf and dumb, five brick and two frame graded school buildings.

Marquette County. Once the iron deposits in Marquette county had been uncovered, the settlers began flocking into the region. Almost overnight, Marquette, Negaunee, and Ishpeming, as well as the smaller communities, sprang into being, attaining within a short time the status of incorporated villages and then of cities. Thus it was that the villages and cities of the county jumped into a class where schools were concerned far beyond their ages in years. The laborious building up of a school system by starting with part time teachers, short terms, crude log buildings, and similar disadvantages were pleasingly free. By this time, too, the state had evolved a public school system for incorporated villages and cities that gave the communities of this county a basis on which to work. The newspaper files of the old publications give ample testimony to the progress made in educational lines in the county, and the splendid school buildings in the villages, the cities, and the counties today show that the pioneers were not slow in obtaining the best for their children.

Marquette, with eight graded schools, a junior high school, Howard high school, and the new Graveraet high school building on Third street, is offering the most modern and up-to-date elementary courses for the children, the 6-3-3 plan being the prevailing one in this city in accordance with the latest ideas of public school work. Negaunee is possessed of fine graded schools and a fine high school that is one of the modern ones in the county, for it was completed in June, 1909, at a cost of $120,000. The courses offered provide the manual training education that is one of the more recent developments of public instruction in the high schools. Ishpeming is no less progressive than her sister cities, and the school buildings there leave nothing to be desired for the adequate instruction of the children of that community.

Northern State Normal School was established by the legislature in 1899, and the first classes were opened on September 19, that year, in the Marquette city hall. By July, 1900, the normal school building had been completed, and in that month the classes were removed to that place. A science building was completed in June, 1902, and a library was started in May, 1904, and completed in September of the same year. The Longyear School of Pedagogy, which was built in June, 1900, burned in December, 1905, and rebuilt and completed in the spring of 1907, is a three story building. Additions and improvements have been made from time to time, and the library containing close to 20,000 books is an excellent one, indeed. In May, 1902, an arrangement was made with the University of Michigan whereby graduates of the Northern State Normal school could be admitted to the university with a total advance credit of fifty-six hours. An excellent art collection is also maintained at the school.

The Peter White Public library was named in honor of the man who donated so liberally to its support and who was the prime mover in securing the institution for the city. In 1872, he gave the city $4,000 with which to found a library. On August 12, 1879, he donated the old city hall building, located on Spring street in back of the First National bank, to the trustees to be used for a library building. He gave it to the common council with the privilege of using the lower floor as a city hall provided that the council permit the library to occupy the upper floor. In 1886, he fitted up a library room in the First National Bank building at a cost of $1,800 with the stipulation that the city pay the librarian and Peter White to pay the other library expenses. On January 12, 1892, he donated the Thurber building and lots No. 134 and No. 136 on Washington street to the city for the library, which had shortly before been made a department of the city. The value of the gift was then estimated to be in the neighborhood of $20,000. With this start and supported by the city, the Peter White library as it was now known, was eventually able to build its own building, the present one, at the corner of Ridge and Front streets. The library, in point of view of size and usefulness is much in advance of other libraries of cities of the size of Marquette, and the people have shown their appreciation of this fact by making the most of the opportunities for study and amusement afforded by the institution.

CHAPTER VI

BENCH AND BAR

During the French regime, no regular courts were established in the territory of the Great Lakes, the commandants of the various military posts being the sole administrators of justice as they saw fit, and seldom were cases ever taken up to the courts at Montreal and Quebec on appeal from the decisions of these civil and military officials.

The English, on the other hand, did make an attempt to bring what was later known as the Northwest Territory under judicial supervision, but no court, as such, sat at Michilimackinac, the jurisdiction of this territory being vested in a district court sitting at Detroit. To all effects and purposes, then, little if any legal considerations beyond those enforced by the military commanders of the fort restricted the individual sense of right and wrong in this section of the state until after the American occupation and the formation of the Michigan territory.

When Michigan was set off as a territory, four district courts were established, one being that of the District of Michilimackinac. The territory embraced by this district was indeed vast, and it is thus safe to suppose that the ends of justice were but indifferently served in a region so broad and so loosely knit as that of Michilimackinac. Despite the fact that the courts were established, no record of appointments in any of the districts remain, except that there is on record the return of a commission of Samuel Abbott on July 16, 1807, as associate justice of the district court of Michilimackinac. The abolition of these district courts in 1810, left no intermediate court between those of justice of the peace and the supreme court until 1815. Thereafter, the region of the straits was nominally, and occasionally in effect, under the care of a supreme court justice who had charge of a circuit.

In 1850, when the new constitution was adopted, a circuit court of the entire Upper Peninsula was created, and Daniel Goodwin, of Detroit, was appointed judge. He remained judge of the court until it was abolished in 1863, at that time- becoming judge of the Eleventh judicial circuit, an office that he held until August 17, 1881. Joseph H. Steere then became judge of the Eleventh circuit until 1892, when a revision of the circuits placed Chippewa county, of which he was a resident, in another circuit.

In 1891, the Eleventh circuit was reduced to include Mackinac, Cheboygan, Emmet, and Manitou counties, the Manitou islands subsequently being attached to the Thirteenth circuit. On May 10, 1892, Charles J. Pailthorp, of Petoskey, was elected judge of the circuit thus formed which was named the Thirty-third Judicial circuit. At the next regular election, Oscar Adams, of Cheboygan, was elected judge of the circuit, serving from January 1, 1894, to December 31, 1899, inclusive. On January 1, 1900, Frank Shepard, of Cheboygan, began a period of service on the bench of the Thirty-third circuit that has continued without interruption to the present time.

Daniel Goodwin, first judge of the Upper Peninsula, was born at Geneva, New York, November 24, 1799, the seventh in descent from Oxias Goodwin, who settled at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1635. His mother, Lucretia Collins, was the granddaughter of Timothy Collins, the first pastor of Litchfield, Connecticut. Graduating in 1819 from Union college where he was a classmate of William H. Seward and Bishops Doane and Potter, Daniel Goodwin studied law in the offices of John H. Spencer, of Canandaigua, New York, and after a time spent in practice at Geneva, he came to Indiana for his health, there taking tuberculosis that cost him the use of one lung thereafter. Upon the death of his father at Detroit in 1825, Daniel Goodwin came to the Michigan city and there entered practice, acquiring a high name as a lawyer and being endorsed by the bar association for United States District judge when Michigan was admitted to the Union. He declined the office because of the small salary but accepted the appointment as district attorney and held it for several years. He was a delegate from Wayne county to the Second Convention of Assent in 1836 and became supreme court justice in 1843-46, resigning in the latter year. He was a Wayne county delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1850 and was elected president of that conclave. In 1851, he was made judge of the Upper Peninsula circuit in 1851, held it until the court was abolished in 1863, and was elected judge of the Eleventh circuit, where he remained until August 17, 1881. He maintained his home in Detroit during all the time he sat as a judge in the Upper Peninsula, and during the vacations of court, he practiced law in Detroit. He officiated in other circuits at times, including the Recorder's court at Detroit. On two occasions he lacked but one or two votes of becoming United States senator, and in two elections, he was the only Democratic officer in Michigan. It is said of him that he was a model judge of spotless life, and that when he died at Detroit on August 25, 1887, the Michigan Bar experienced a distinct loss.

Joseph H. Steere, who succeeded Goodwin as judge of the Eleventh circuit, was born in Addison, Lenawee county, Michigan, May 19, 1852. He was educated in the Raisin Valley Seminary, the Adrian high school, and the University of Michigan, from the last of which he won the degree of bachelor of arts and by which he was granted the honorary degree of doctor of laws in 1892. After graduating from the university, he studied law for two years in the offices of Geddes & Miller at Adrian, but after his admission to the bar, he taught school for some time before he entered upon the active practice of his profession. Coming to the Upper Peninsula to settle at Sault Ste. Marie, he was elected judge of the Eleventh Judicial circuit in 1881. To this office he was successively re-elected but resigned August 30, 1911, to accept the appointment of supreme court justice to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Frank A. Hooker. At the succeeding election, Judge Steere was returned to the supreme bench and has continued to hold that office.

Charles J. Pailthorp, elected first judge of the newly organized Thirty-third circuit, was born December 25, 1848, at Mt. Morris, Michigan. Receiving a common and high school education in the schools of his native community, he entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the law college of that institution in 1875, with the degree of bachelor of laws. He then removed to Petoskey and commenced the practice of law, and was there elected prosecuting attorney and subsequently appointed United States Commissioner for the Western District of Michigan. On May 10, 1892, he was elected judge of the Thirty-third circuit, serving as such until December 31, 1893.

Oscar Adams, second judge of this circuit, was born at Harpersville, Delaware county, New York, April 16, 1827. He began the study of law at Buffalo and graduated from the Ballston Spa Law school when he was twenty years of age and was admitted to the bar in 1850. He entered upon the practice of his profession in Erie county, New York, but after a short time so spent, he went to Wisconsin, where he remained two years. In 1855, he came to Flint, Michigan, and was elected circuit court commissioner of Genesee county in 1860. In the Civil war, he was an army paymaster, and after his return to Flint, he was elected treasurer and then president of the Flint School Board. In 1871-72, he was representative in the legislature from Genesee county, and subsequently, he removed to Cheboygan, whence he was elected circuit judge, serving from January 1, 1894, to December 31, 1899.

Frank Shepard, the third judge of the circuit and the one who is still wearing the ermine of the Thirty-third circuit, was born in Dover township, Lenawee county, Michigan, January 28, 1853, and attended there the public schools of Adrian. After taking courses at the State Normal school at Ypsilanti and at Oberlin college, Ohio, he taught school for a period of five years, clerked for a short time in a store, and then studied law in the offices of Stay & Underwood, of Adrian. Being admitted to the bar in 1879, he began at that time at Cheboygan. Here, he was elected prosecuting attorney for the years 1880-82, was appointed probate judge in 1886, and was returned to that office in 1888. In 1890-91, he was a member of the board of control of the Upper Peninsula prison, and was representative from the Cheboygan district to the State Legislature for the terms of 1897-98 and 1899-1900. Being elected judge of the Thirty-third Judicial circuit, he took office as such on January 1, 1900, and has since discharged the duties of that office.

Twenty-fifth Circuit. When the legislature in 1863 revised the judicial system of the state, what had been the Mackinac district became the Eleventh circuit and remained under Judge Daniel Goodwin, but in 1865 the legislature redivided the circuits so that the Twelfth was established to include the counties of Houghton, Ontonagon, Marquette, and Keweenaw, the limits of which were then much more extensive than they now are, for Iron, Dickinson, and Baraga counties were also within the circuit but were then unorganized. On the first Monday in April, 1865, an election was held at which Clarence E. Eddie was chosen judge of the Twelfth circuit, beginning his term on May 28, 1865, which was to have ended January 1, 1870. Eddie was a comparatively young man who had been engaged in the practice of law at Houghton but a few years in partnership with J. A. Hubbell, who represented what was then the Ninth district in Congress. Eddie died in office early in 1869.

In April, 1869, James O'Grady was elected to fill out the unexpired term of Eddie and to continue on the bench until January 1, 1876. On the latter date, he was succeeded on the bench by Judge William D. Williams, of Marquette. Judge O'Grady, before coming to the Upper Peninsula, had been a resident of New York, from which he went to serve with the Famous Irish Brigade of that state in the Civil war. A Democrat in politics, he became a victim of the bigotry of Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war, who feared the loyalty of the Democratic officers and brought about the resignation of many of them, including O'Grady. After leaving the army, James O'Grady came to Marquette in 1863, but in 1866 went to Houghton and formed the law firm of Hubbell & O'Grady. He had been born in Vermont and his death occurred at Houghton in 1879.

Judge William D. Williams ascended the bench of the Twelfth circuit on January 1, 1876. He was a Marquette man and had practiced here for some time prior to his election to the bench to succeed Judge O'Grady. In 1881, the legislature created the Twenty-fifth circuit to include the counties of Marquette, Delta, Menominee, and eventually Dickinson counties. Judge Williams, a Marquette man, was retained as judge of the Twelfth circuit although his residence was no longer within the bounds of that circuit, and a Houghton man, Claudius B. Grant, ascended the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit. Thus, the judges of the two adjoining circuits were sitting in circuits in which they did not live. Judge Grant took the oath of office as judge of the Twenty-fifth circuit in 1882 and served until December 31, 1887, when he took the oath of office as supreme court justice of the State of Michigan. He was noted as a vigorous trial lawyer and as a member of the firm of Chandler & Gray, his partner being Joseph H. Chandler, he was one of the leading lawyers practicing before the bars of Houghton and Marquette counties, and it is said of him that he spared no pains to present his cases lucidly and with forcefulness. As a judge, his decisions were characterized by his exacting rendering of fact and detail, and in court he insisted on the observance of etiquette with exactitude and maintenance of the dignity of the court. In the supreme court, he served continuously from January 1, 1888, to December 31, 1910.

Next to be elevated to the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit was John W. Stone, of Marquette, who began his service in that capacity on January 1, 1888, and finally retired from the judgeship on December 31, 1910, to become a supreme court justice, although he was then more than seventy years of age. He was born in Allegan, Michigan, and at an early age was elected county clerk, later prosecuting attorney, and then circuit judge. From 1880 to 1884 he served as United States District Attorney for the Western District of Michigan, and he also served two terms in Congress for the district in which Allegan was located.

When Judge Stone was elected to the supreme bench, his place on the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit was filled by Richard C. Flannigan, who took office January 1, 1911, and is still discharging the duties of that position. He was born in Ontonagon county in 1857, and entered the practice of law at Norway. When it came time to nominate candidates for election to succeed Stone, he was the unanimous choice of both parties, a fact which alone presents ample testimony to his integrity and ability as a lawyer and jurist. The wisdom of his selection and of his election to the bench by the people has been consistently demonstrated by his work as judge of the Twenty-fifth circuit, for he has been successively returned to the position in which he has made a name for himself of being one of the ablest justices who ever presided in an Upper Peninsula court.

Eleventh Circuit. The history of this circuit has been almost entirely given above. Following the retirement of Judge Joseph H. Steere from the bench of this circuit to become a supreme court justice, Louis H. Fead, of Newberry, has presided over the Eleventh circuit, which, since 1891, has included the counties of Chippewa, Luce, Alger, and Schoolcraft.

Thirty-second Circuit, comprising Gogebic and Ontonagon counties, was also established in 1891, with Norman W. Haire becoming the first judge. He served brilliantly for many years and was succeeded by Samuel S. Cooper. On January 1, 1918, George W. Driscoll, of Ironwood, took the oath of office as judge of the circuit and has since retained that position.

Twelfth Circuit. The early history of this circuit is the same as that of the Twenty-fifth circuit given above. Following the creation of the Twenty-fifth circuit, the Twelfth was reduced to its present size, including Keweenaw, Houghton, and Baraga counties. Albert T. Streeter, of Houghton, was one of the well known judges of the circuit and of the Upper Peninsula. He retired from office December 31, 1917, and was succeeded at that time by Patrick H. O'Brien, of the same city. Judge O'Brien served one term, and since January 1, 1924, the circuit has been in charge of Judge John G. Stone, son of the aforementioned Judge John W. Stone, of Marquette. Biographical records of father and son may be found elsewhere in this volume.

CHAPTER VII

BANKS AND BANKING

The Upper Peninsula of Michigan happily escaped the period of wild cat banking that wrought such havoc among the pioneer communities of the southern sections of the state during the late forties, and due to the later settlement of this part of the state, the banking history is one of substantial and well operated financial institutions that have ever been an aid to the communities rather than a detriment.

The First National bank at Munising has served the people of Alger county for many years and is regarded as one of the leading banking houses of that section of the state. Capitalized for $100,000, it has the following officers at the present time: William G. Mather, president; H. R. Harris, vice-president; and 0. E. Brown, cashier. The Peoples State bank of the same city was incorporated May 7, 1910, for $25,000 and has the following officers: Fred S. Case, president; H. H. McMillan, vice-president; and Vernon A. Floria, vice-president and cashier.

The only bank in Baraga county is the Baraga County National bank, capitalized for $50,000 and headed by these officers: Thomas D. Tracy, president; J. W. Black, vice-president; and E. S. LeDuc, cashier.

The First National bank at Escanaba is capitalized for $100,000 and has these officers: M. K. Bissell, president; C. M. Thatcher, vice-president; and Leslie French, cashier. The Escanaba National bank is also capitalized for $100,000 and has these officers: M. N. Smith, president; J. K. Stack, Jr., vice-president; and J. E. Morgan, cashier. The State Savings bank, of Escanaba, was incorporated November 2, 1902, with a capital of $100,000 and is headed by these officials: W. R. Smith, president; 0. N. Hughitt and C. W. Malloch, vice-presidents; and William Warmington, cashier. The Bark River State bank was incorporated August 13, 1910, for $20,000 and has these officers: J. B. Frechette, president; M. B. Harris, vice-president; and E. J. Bergman, cashier. The Gladstone State Savings bank was incorporated May 16, 1917, and in spite of the difficult period attending its inception, it has become a strong factor in the development of that section of Delta county. It is capitalized for $40,000 and has the following officers: William H. Aitken, president; Robert Crockery, vice-president; and Fred Leonard, cashier. The First National bank, of Gladstone, is capitalized for $50,000 and is also a substantial banking enterprise of the county. Elof Hanson is vice-president and E. J. Noreus is cashier.

The four banks at Iron Mountain, Dickinson county, are all capitalized for $100,000. The officers of the First National bank are E. F. Brown, president; W. J. Cudlip, vice-president; and F. J. Oliver, cashier. The officers of the United States National bank are C. Meilleur, president; Charles Parent and C. H. Milliman, vice-presidents; and R. J. Bath, cashier. The American Security bank was incorporated October 23, 1920, and has these officers: I. W. Byers, president; G. Harold Earle and W. J. Harding, vice-presidents; and R. C. Hanchette, cashier. The Commercial Bank of Iron Mountain was started February 1, 1892, and has the following officers: 0. C. Davidson, president; William Kelly and E. G. Kingsford, vice-presidents; and Wilbur W. Thompson, cashier. The First National bank, at Norway, is capitalized for $75,000 and has these men as officers: A. E. Asp, president; William Bond, vice-president; and D. A. Stewart, cashier.

Five national and one state bank are established in Gogebic county, three of the national banks being located at Ironwood and each of them capitalized for $100,000. The Gogebic National bank has these officers: D. E. Sutherland, president; R. A. Douglas, vice-president; and R. M. Skinner, cashier. The officers of the Iron National bank are B. A. Morgan, president; John W. Black and G. N. Olson, vice-presidents; and F. R. Burrell, cashier. The following men are officers of the Merchants & Miners National bank: F. H. Kearney, president; R. P. Zinn and A. D. Chisholm, vice-presidents; and F. J. Jeppeson, cashier. The First National bank, of Bessemer, is capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: Walter F. Treuttner, president; William S. Baird, vice-president; and Samuel J. Williams, cashier. The Peoples State bank in the same city is capitalized for $50,000 and has these officers: Jacob Goldman, president; J. Stanley Rummage, vice-president; and M. A. Hagerman, cashier. Wakefield is served by the First National bank, which has a capital stock of $50,000 and is headed by these officers: Anton Ringsmuth, president; William S. Peters, vice-president; and Victor Lepisto, cashier.

In Houghton county, eight national banks, four state banks, and one trust company serve the financial interests of the county. In Hancock are the First National and Superior National banks, each capitalized at $100,000, and the Superior Trust company with a capital of $150,000. The first of these has the following officers: W. R. Thompson, president; George H. Nichols, vice-president; and M. M. Shea, cashier. The second is headed by Charles L. Lawton, president; Joseph Ruppe and Gordon R. Campbell, vice-presidents; and J. C. Jeffery, cashier. The trust company was started June 30, 1902, and has the same officers as the Superior National bank. Two national banks are established at Houghton. The Citizens' National bank is capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: James R. Dee, president; A. M. Schulte and A. F. Heidkamp, vice-presidents; and John C. Condon, cashier. The Houghton National bank has a capital of $200,000 and is headed by these men: J. H. Rice, president; W. D. Calverley and A. N. Baudlin, vice-presidents; and C. H. Frimodig, cashier. The two banks at Calumet are both capitalized for $200,000. The First National bank has these officers: John D. Cuddihy, president; Edward Ulseth, vice-president; and Edward F. Cuddihy, cashier; and the Merchants' & Miners' bank, established August 7, 1873, has these officers: Gordon R. Campbell, president; Thomas Hoatson, vice-president; and Frank R. Kohlhaas, cashier. The State Savings Bank of Laurium was incorporated October 9, 1897, has a capital stock of $100,000, and is now directed by these officers: William H. Thielman, president; James T. Fisher, vice-president; and Edward P. Bast, cashier. The First National bank, of Laurium, is also capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: William J. Reynolds, president; Frank H. Haller and -Peter J. McClelland, vice-presidents; and J. B. Paton, cashier. The First National bank at Hubbell has a capital of $50,000, and is headed by these men: D. K. Macdonald, president; A. L. Burgan, vice-president; and R. E. Odgers, cashier. The Chassell State bank was incorporated June 27, 1912, for $20,000, and has the following officers: Charles H. Worcester, president; Edward A. Hamar, vice-president; Marcell A. Nadeau, cashier. The First National bank, of Lake Linden, has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by these officers: Joseph Bosch, president; J. H. Wilson, vice-president; and Archie J. Mackerroll, cashier. The South Range State bank, in the village of that name, was incorporated June 27, 1903, for $30,000, and has the following officers: A. D. Edwards, president; W. H. Schacht, vice-president; and G. C. Edwards, cashier.

Like the other counties of the Upper Peninsula, Iron county has a preponderance of national banks. The Crystal Falls National bank, with a capital of $50,000, has these officers: W. J. Reynolds, president; John W. Black, vice-president; and Walter Granberg, cashier. The Iron County National bank, of Crystal Falls, has these officers: James F. Corcoran, president; Benjamin C. Neely, vice-president; and G. A. Brotherton, cashier. The First National bank, of Iron River, is capitalized for $100,000, and is headed by Nelson E. Fisher, president; Charles E. Lawrence, vice-president; and Henry J. Veeser, cashier. The Miner's State bank, of the same city, was incorporated April 23, 1912, and has the following officers: D. H. Campbell, president; Herman Holmes, vice-president; and G. L. Hauck, cashier. The First National bank at Alpha is capitalized for $25,000, and has these officers: Henry J. Veeser, president; Fred E. Olin, vice-president; and William H. Veeser, cashier. The Caspian National bank, in the village of that name, has a capital of $25,000 and is headed by Charles E. Lawrence, president; Henry J. Veeser, vice-president; and Carl G. Nelson, cashier. The Commercial Bank of Stambaugh was incorporated August 14, 1913, for $30,000, and has these officers: H. A. Chamberlain, president; Charles E. Weaver, vice-president; and Joseph Martin, cashier.

The Keweenaw Savings bank, at Mohawk, is the only bank in Keweenaw county. It was incorporated January 31, 1907, for $25,000, and has the following officers in charge at the present time: J. P. Peterman, president; W. T. King, vice-president; and A. C. Messner, cashier.

Luce county also has but one bank, the Newberry State bank in the village of that name. It was incorporated May 14, 1908, has a capital stock of $50,000, and is headed by Frank P. Bohn, president; L. H. Mead, W. G. Fretz, and E. M. Chamberlain, vice-presidents; and A. A. Mattson, cashier.

The First National bank at St. Ignace is the only bank in Mackinac county. It has a capital of $50,000, and has the following officers: Peter W. Murray, president; and E. H. Hotchkiss, vice-president and cashier.

Menominee county has seven banks. The First National bank at Menominee has a capital of $200,000 and is headed by G. A. Blesch, president; Edward Daniell, vice-president; and Clinton W. Gram, cashier. The Lumberman's National bank, with a capital stock of $100,000, has these officers: M. B. Lloyd, president; E. P. Smith, vice-president; and Henry Marin, cashier. The third bank in Menominee is the Commercial bank, incorporated May 27, 1905, for $100,000. It has the following officers: Frank St. Peter, president; and Howard E. Nadeau, vice-president and cashier. The First State Bank of Powers was incorporated September 30, 1910, with a capital of $20,000, and has these officers: Louis Nadeau, president; Nicholas Peterson, vice-president; and Ernest T. Wilfong, cashier. The Daggett State bank has a capital of $20,000, was incorporated May 27, 1912, and has the following officers: Andrew E. Weng, president; D. R. Landsborough, vice-president; and C. O. Larsen, cashier. The First National bank at Hermansville is capitalized for $25,000 and has the following men in charge: I. W. Rowell, president; Stewart E. Earle, vice-president; and Chris. H. Gribble, cashier. The Bank of Stephenson, in the village of that name, was established November 8, 1902, has a capital stock of $50,000, and is headed by Edward Sawbridge, president; W. B. Winter, vice-president; and Glen E. Sanford, cashier.

The Citizens' State bank, of Ontonagon, was incorporated October 16, 1910, with a capital of $40,000. The present officers are Edward Carroll, president; Fred Johnson and Thomas H. Wilcox, vice-presidents; and Allan L. Boyden, cashier. The First National bank, of the same city, has capital of $50,000 and the following officers: Andrew Halter, president; C. F. Eichen, vice-president; and B. F. Barze, cashier. The State Bank of Ewen has a capital of $25,000 and is headed by these officers: E. J. Humphrey, president; Edward Erickson, vice-president; and Andrew M. Anderson, cashier. The Trout Creek State bank was incorporated May 25, 1920, with a paid-up capital of $25,000. The officers are J. S. Weidman, Jr., president; R. M. Weidman, vice-president; and P. W. Saxton, cashier. The First National bank, of Rockland, has a capital of $25,000 and is in charge of these officers: G. W. Stannard, president; Henry Gagnon, vice-president; and C. A. Meuller, cashier. The Miners' & Merchants' State bank at Greenland was incorporated July 17, 1912, for $20,000 and is now in charge of these officers: B. F. Barze, president; W. B. Hanna, vice-president; and Clarence Dubuque, cashier.

Three banks, all located at Manistique, serve Schoolcraft county. The Manistique bank was incorporated April 22, 1889, with a capital of $50,000, and has these officers: Oren G. Quick, president; and Paul R. Baldwin, vice-president and cashier. The State Savings Bank of Manistique was incorporated May 7, 1917, with a capital stock of $25,000, and has the following officers: William J. Shinar, president; G. S. Johnson, vice-president; and H. K. Bundy, cashier. The First National bank has a capitalization of $100,000, and is headed by V. I. Hixson, president; and William S. Crowe, vice-president and cashier.

In Chippewa county, unlike the other counties of the Upper Peninsula, the state banks are far in the majority, the only nationally incorporated institution being the First National bank at Sault Ste. Marie. It was established in 1886, and has a capital of $100,000, the present officers being R. G. Ferguson, president; E. H. Mead, vice-president; and Fred S. Case, vice-president and cashier. The Sault Savings bank was established in 1887, also has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by these officers: M. J. Magee, president; Henry Hecker, vice-president; and H. E. Fletcher, cashier. The Central Savings bank at the same place was established in 1902, has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by J. L. Lipsett, president; M. N. Hunt, vice-president; and A. W. Clarke, vice-president and cashier. The Brimley State bank was started in 1912, had a capital of $20,000, and went into liquidation in 1926, at which time the officers were A. W. Reinhard, president; and A. F. Leach, vice-president and cashier. The Dafter Savings bank was started in 1919, has a capital of $10,000, and is headed by N. L. Field, president; A. L. Hillier, vice-president; and W. F. Roe, cashier. The Bank of Pickford, a private concern, came into being in 1906, has a capital of $25,000, and has these officers at the present time: F. H. Taylor, president; W. H. Best and H. P. Hossack, vice-presidents; and D. Beacon, cashier.

Marquette County. The banking history of Marquette county has been one of singular solidity in the financial institutions, both corporate and private, that have served the people. Few indeed have been the failures recorded in this county, and these were private banks. Probably the famous Peter White was one of the first, if not the very first banker to operate in this county, for when he was casting about for business opportunities and was engaged in running a store here, he also conducted a small private banking business in conjunction with his other interests.

Considering the early activities of Peter White in the banking business, it is not to be wondered at, then, that he was the prime mover in the organization of the first chartered bank in this county. He and H. R. Mather set about the organization of a national bank, and on January 24, 1864, the First National bank was chartered with a capital stock of $100,000. During the years that followed, Peter White was connected with the bank, and he it was who placed the company on such a firm footing in the county. His hand was evident in the formulation of those policies that existed during the many years he was actively associated with the bank's affairs. In 1890, the capitalization of the bank was increased to $150,000, a figure at which it has remained since that time. The scope of the bank's activities was enlarged in 1925 to include the functions of a trust company, the name being changed in that year to the First National Bank & Trust company. At the present time, the bank is erecting a new building at the corner of Front and Washington streets, two blocks above its present location where it has been established for years. The present officers of the institution are Louis G. Kaufman, president; Edward S. Bice, vice-president; C. L. Brainerd, cashier; and W. O. Johnason and 0. M. Olson, assistant cashiers.

The next chartered bank to be established in Marquette and the second state bank to be founded in this county was the Marquette County Savings bank, which was organized July 28, 1890, and opened for business on the fifth day of the following month, the first banking offices of the company being established in the Manhard block. The first president was a Mr. Call and the first cashier was Charles C. Ames, who had been connected with the savings department of the Union bank, of Jackson, Michigan, for many years. The original capitalization of the institution was $50,000, but the need for such an institution in Marquette county brought it so much business that within a comparatively short time the present capitalization of $100,000 was adopted. The present bank building is located at the corner of Front and Washington streets, it having been built shortly after the opening of the bank. The present officers of the institution are: H. L. Kaufman, president; E. J. Hudson, vice-president; G. A. Carlson, cashier; and Oswald E. Barber, assistant cashier.

The third and last bank to be established in the city of Marquette was the Marquette National bank, which got off to an auspicious start late in the year 1901, probably in November. The authorized capitalization of the bank at its inception was $100,000, but so eager were the people to be served by another bank that the stock was oversubscribed almost to a total of $200,000. The original incorporators were F. H. Begole, J. M. Longyear, D. W. Powell, Charles Schaffer, J. G. Reynolds, F. J. Jennison, E. T. Towar, Charles Hebard, Frederick W. Read, William G. Mather, Walter Fitch, of whom Edgar H. Towar was the first president, Frederick W. Read was vice-president, and Frank J. Jennison was cashier. As the Marquette National bank, the concern continued successfully until October 6, 1921, when it began business under the name of the Union National bank with a capital of $150,000 and under the direction of the present management. The officers now are Alton T. Roberts, president; Erbest L. Pearce and C. H. Schaffer, vice-presidents; W. W. Gasser, vice-president and cashier; and E. A. Brown, assistant cashier.

Negaunee Banks. The early history of banking in Negaunee is as much a closed book as that of the rest of the county, but occasional references to private banks found in the old newspaper files give a brief and fleeting glimpse of the banking era before the establishment of chartered banks. The first number of the Negaunee Iron Herald carried advertisements for Haydon's Negaunee bank and for the private concern operated by D. G. Stone under the name of the Miner's bank. The officers of the former bank (which was established in 1868, according to the advertisement) in 1873 were H. E. Haydon, president; Fred Stafford, cashier; and H. M. Boyce, assistant cashier. It is difficult to determine whether or not the bank bearing Haydon's name was a chartered or private concern, for an editorial carried in the same edition of the Herald has this to say of the banks of the place:

"The town has nearly doubled in population and business importance-a city charter has been obtained, the First National bank and D. G. Stones' private bank have been established."

From the foregoing paragraph, it might seem that Haydon's bank was the First National bank, or that his bank has succeeded the National bank, or, still more remote, the First National might refer to the institution of that name then doing business at Marquette. However, conjecture on that score must be left to the reader for want of more definite information on the subject. Then, passing to a more recent period, the first of the present banks to be established in Negaunee was the First National bank, founded in 1887, principally through the agency of Alexander Maitland, who was also interested in banking at Ishpeming and founded the First National bank of Escanaba before he located at Negaunee. Even at that early time, the capitalization of the bank was set at $100,000 and the amount has never been changed since that time. The banking quarters were rebuilt and enlarged in 1907-08, for from the time the bank was started-the First National having bought out the private concern operated by a man named Pierce -the company had been located in the same place. The present officers are Joseph H. Winter, president; A. F. Maitland, vice-president; G. Sherman Collins, cashier; and John J. Beldo and M. G. DeGabriele, assistant cashiers.

The Negaunee State bank was organized September 27, 1909, with its present capitalization of $50,000. The first officers were Frank A. Bell, president; Thomas Pellow, vice-president; Thomas Pascoe, cashier; and Y. S. Heinonen, assistant cashier. The officers now are the same as in 1909 with the exception of the vice-presidency which is now occupied by Thomas Connors. The Negaunee National bank was organized October 7, 1909, with a capital stock of $100,000, and with the following officers and directors: E. N. Breitung, president; Benjamin Neely, vice-president; C. Meilleur, vice-president and manager; and H. C. Wagner, cashier; and A. E. Boswell, J. P. Miller, Philip Levine, J. H. Sawbridge, J. Hodgson, and James F. Foley, other directors. The present officers of the bank are Philip Levine, president; Thomas L. Collins, vice-president; Clarence E. Kearns, cashier; and J. H. Anderson, assistant cashier. The bank occupies quarters that would be a credit to a much larger city than Negaunee, and the policy that has been pursued by its officers has always served to give the maximum of benefit to the community and the greatest possible safety to the stockholders and depositors.

Ishpeming Banks. Like Negaunee, Ishpeming possessed several private banks long before chartered banks made their advent into the banking circles of the city, and it is as true of Ishpeming as of Negaunee and the balance of the county that the history of these first private banks is almost completely obliterated by the passage of time. The Peninsula bank, holding a state charter granted in 1887, and thus the oldest state bank in the county, was organized on October 27, that year, principally through the efforts of William Sedgewick, who first directed the policies of the bank. The affairs of the bank have been in careful hands since the time of its inception. Now capitalized for $100,000, the Peninsula bank stands as one of the most substantial and successful financial institutions of the county, and its present officers are John Kandelin, president; Dr. W. S. Picotte, vice-president; Peter Handberg, cashier; and John Jaaski, J. E. Lereggen, and Roy Stansbury, assistant cashiers.

A private bank had been conducted in Ishpeming for many years by D. F. Wadsworth & company, but its failure came about 1883. A second bank, the Marquette County bank, a private concern, was then started at the same location but continued only a few months. With the failure of this second private bank, preparations were made for the organization of a chartered concern, the result being the establishment of the Ishpeming National bank on December 25, 1900, with a capital of $100,000, as it is today. The national bank was opened in the same location as that occupied by the two unsuccessful private concerns, and subsequently the building was remodeled in 1914 to prevent the fires that had threatened the bank with disaster on several occasions. After seventeen years successful operation as the Ishpeming National bank, the name was changed to the present one of the Miners' National bank. The first directors were F. Braasted, M. M. Duncan, D. T. Morgan, Alexander Maitland, H. O. Young, D. McVichia, Walter Fitch, W. H. Johnson, and A. B. Miner, and the first officers were F. Braasted, president; D. McVichia, vice-president; A. B. Miner, cashier; and H. S. Thompson, assistant cashier. The present bank officials are M. M. Duncan, president; Ole Walseth and F. E. Keese, vice-president; C. H. Moss, cashier; and 0. G. Aas, George Hathaway, and H. M. Lally, assistant cashiers.

The Gwinn State Savings bank was organized September 29, 1908, with a capital of $25,000, and headed by these officers: William G. Mather, president; W. F. Hopkins, vice-president; H. H. McMillan, cashier; and M. M. Duncan, C. V. R. Townsend, W. G. Mather, W. F. Hopkins, and G. R. Jackson, directors. The present officers of the bank are William G. Mather, president; G. R. Jackson, vice-president; R. J. Jeffery, cashier; and T. H. Williamson, assistant cashier. During the eighteen years that the bank has been established in that community, it has proved a great aid to the transacting of business in that part of the county and has been a material aid to the development of that region.

The Republic State bank, located in the village of that name, was organized August 1, 1912, and opened for business soon after that date. It has been capitalized for $25,000 during its existence, and its first officers and directors were W. A. Siebenthal, president; Louis Levine, vice-president; F. W. Lawrence, cashier; and W. A. Siebenthal, Louis Levine, Carl Peterson, Walter Ericson, Charles Hooper, William Kelly, and C. Meilleur, directors. The service of this bank to the community and section of the county in which it is located cannot be underestimated, and conducted as it is upon a conservative yet progressive basis, it is regarded as an exceptionally solid financial institution and an asset to the banking conditions of the county.

CHAPTER VIII

MILITARY

Despite the fact that the settlement of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan gathered little impetus until shortly before the Civil war, this section of the state has a long and relatively shining military record. The story of the fort at Mackinac may be found in the chapter dealing with the early history of this section, and thus it is that we begin the military history of the peninsula with the War of 1812.

Almost from the day hostilities between the United States and England had opened, the British had determined to capture Fort Mackinac. About the middle of July, the news of the declaration of war reached the British post on St. Joseph's Island in the St. Mary's river, a fort that was garrisoned by forty-six regulars under the command of Captain Charles Roberts. On July 16, this force embarked for Mackinac aboard the armed brig Caledonia together with 250 agents and employes of the Northwest Fur company and 500 Indians to which were added between eighty and 100 enroute and some seventy allies at Mackinac. While the British force was descending the river, it captured Captain Michael Dousman, of the militia, who had been sent to watch the Indians on St. Joseph's Island by Lieutenant Porter Hanks, the commandant at Fort Mackinac, for the latter had heard that trouble was brewing among the natives there. Dousman was captured when he was but fifteen miles away from Mackinac and was forced to give his parole on condition that he return to the straits and assemble the people on the west side of the island under British guard. He was to keep information of the British actions away from the American commandant of the post.

Landing on the side farthest from the fort under cover of darkness, the British occupied Fort Holmes and set up their guns to command Fort Mackinac. Hanks, realizing that his garrison of fifty-seven officers and men could not hope to withstand the attack of such an overwhelming force, arranged honorable terms of surrender. The garrison was paroled and left immediately for Detroit, and the fort remained in the hands of the British throughout the remainder of the war, their possession of it being uncontested by the American troops. Lieutenant Hanks was killed August 16, 1812, during the bombardment of Detroit. After the victories of Perry and of the army around Detroit, Captain Groghan was sent northward with a force of five hundred regulars and two hundred militia with five vessels of Perry's old fleet under the command of Captain Sinclair.

The expedition sailed early in July, 1814, ascended the St. Mary's river to St. Joseph's island, and finding that post abandoned went on to Sault Ste. Marie to find that the post there had also been abandoned and the buildings destroyed. Returning to the straits, Groghan set about the capture of Fort Mackinac. The Americans landed on the north side of the island, whence it was necessary to traverse what seemed to be an impenetrable forest for a distance of two and a half miles. As the American troops debouched into a clearing, they were met by heavy artillery fire from the British, Major Holmes being killed and many other casualties being inflicted. Groghan retired to his boats, and deciding that he would need re-enforcements before he could force the capitulation of the fort, he left the Tigress and Scorpion to blockade the forts while he returned to Detroit for the additional troops. The blockading schooners were soon after captured by the British and their officers and crews made prisoners. Further operations were stopped by the signing of peace, by the terms of the treaty of Michigan and the forts being returned to the United States.

In 1822, the United States Government established Fort Brady at Sault Ste. Marie, and with the exception of two short periods, the fort has been garrisoned by the regular army. The old fort was located on the south bank of the rapids at Sault Ste. Marie on the present site of the Federal building and was originally surrounded by a stockade. The ravine crossed by General Cass when he pulled down the last British flag to fly over American soil is still to be seen in the canal park at the Sault. For many years, Fort Brady has occupied a commanding position to the southwest of the city, where the barracks and officers' quarters were completed in 1895. Fort Brady constitutes the last military establishment maintained by the United States Government on the Canadian border. The original site of twenty-six acres was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa Indians on June 16, 1820, the spot having been selected by the French in 1750 for military purposes by the French, at which time Chevalier Repentigny built a stockade there. In July, 1922, General Brady was ordered to the Sault with six companies, there to erect buildings and a stockade, which, upon their completion were given the name of Fort Brady in honor of the first commandant and builder. From 1857 until May 8, 1866, no garrison was maintained at the fort. The force of regular soldiers was withdrawn for service in the Mexican war, during which time the garrison consisted of a half a company of the First Michigan Infantry under the command of Lieutenant E. K. Howard until April 1, 1848, after which the fort was untenanted until June 1, 1849. The transfer of the fort to the present location of seventy-five acres in extent was begun in 1892 and completed in 1895, the buildings there being erected at a cost of $200,000, and garrisoned by a battalion of infantry.

Whether or not any men from the Upper Peninsula served in the army during the Mexican war is uncertain, but if the subsequent record of the men of this region may be taken as a criterion, we may be reasonably sure that some from here offered their services to the government during that time. For want of more definite information, however, we must turn our attention to the Civil war, when the true spirit of the country was more truly manifest than at the time of the Mexican war, when but few white men had taken up their residence in this part of the state.

Even in setting forth the record of the Upper Peninsula men in the war for the preservation of the Union, we are again handicapped by the fact that many were the men from this part of the state who enlisted in Wisconsin regiments. Due to the lack of good communication with Lower Peninsula of Michigan, it was much more convenient for the men of this part of the state to enlist in Wisconsin organizations. For example, a call was sent out by a Wisconsin regiment in 1864 for new recruits. Within an hour after hearing of the appeal, Judge Ingalls raised nineteen men in Menominee for service with the Badger outfit. Menominee county furnished eighty-two volunteers for the army; Chippewa county, 21; Delta, 24; Houghton, 460; Keweenaw, 119; Marquette and Schoolcraft, 265; Mackinac, 47; and Ontonagon, 254. These figures were compiled by the state and include those men who enlisted voluntarily prior to September 19, 1863, and those who were inducted into the service under the enrollment system that went in to effect on that date. Without exception, the counties of the Upper Peninsula show an overwhelming majority of voluntary enlistments prior to the date mentioned, testifying anew to the patriotic spirit of the men who were even then struggling to develop a new country.

When recruiting began, the first regiments were raised in the southern part of the state, no attempt being made beyond the written appeals to enlist the services of the men in the northern sections of Michigan. Thus it was that those men who served with the early regiments were forced to come south to enter the service. The first opportunity given the men of the Upper Peninsula to enlist in organizations recruited within their own territory came when enlistments were opened July 15, 1862, in the Fourth Congressional district, of which Delta, which included Dickinson county, and Mackinac counties were a part, for service with the Twenty-first Michigan infantry. On September 4, that year, the regiment was mustered into the Federal service at Ionia and left there eight days later under the command of Colonel Ambrose A. Stevens for Louisville. The engagements in which the Twenty-first took part were as follows: Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862; LaVergne, Tenn., December 27, 1862; Stewart's Creek, Tenn., December 29, 1862; Stone River, Tenn., December 29, 31, 1862, and January 1, 2, and 3, 1863; Tullahoma, Tenn., June 24, 1863; Elk River, Tenn., July 1, 1863; Chickamauga, Ga., September 19, 20, and 21, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., October 6, 1863; Brown's Ferry, Tenn., October 27, 1863; Mission Ridge, Tenn., November 26, 1863; Savannah, Ga., December 11, 18, 20, and 21, 1864; Averysboro, N. C., March 16, 1865; and Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Recruiting for the Twenty-third Michigan infantry began in the Sixth Congressional district on the same day as the above regiment, July 5, 1862, and included in this district were the counties of Marquette, Houghton, Ontonagon, Chippewa, and others as yet unorganized. Company I, of this regiment was raised at Houghton and officered by men of that city, they being Captain Carlos D. Sheldon, First Lieutenant Graham Pope, and Second Lieutenant William D. Patterson. The company entered the state service on August 1, 1862, and with its regiment was mustered into the Federal service on September 13, following under the command of Colonel Marshall W. Chapin. The command left Saginaw, Michigan, September 18, 1862, and was assigned to the command of General Rosecrans in Kentucky. The engagements of the regiment during the course of the war were as follows: Paris, Ky., July 29, 1863; Huff's Ferry, Tenn., November 12, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tenn., November 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 17 to December 5, 1863; Dandridge, Tenn., January 14, 1864; Strawberry Plains, Tenn., January 22, 1864; Rocky Face, Ga., May 8, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 14, 1864; New Hope Church, Ga., June 1, 1864; Lost Mountain, Ga., June 17, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864; Chattahoochee River, Ga., July 5 and 6, 1864; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to August 25, 1864; Lovejoys Station, Ga., August 31, 1864; Columbia, Tenn., November 25, 1864; Duck River, Tenn., November 28, 1864; Spring Hill, Tenn., November 29, 1864; Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., December 12 to 16, 1864; Fort Anderson, N. C., February 18, 1865; Town Creek, N. C., February 20, 1865; Wilmington, N. C., February 21, 1865; and Goldsboro, N. C., March 22, 1865.

In the order for the recruiting of the Twenty-seventh Michigan infantry it was directed that six companies be raised in the Lake Superior counties, but only three were there organized. These companies were rendezvoused at Port Huron and were for a time in charge of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas S. Sprague, of Detroit, and afterward in command of Colonel Dorus M. Fox. In the meantime, the recruiting of a regiment designated as the Twenty-eighth had been ordered, to rendezvous at Ypsilanti in charge of Col. Edward Doyle. Recruiting for these regiments proceeded so slowly that it was determined to consolidate them, and on February 1, 1863, the Twenty-seventh was ordered to break camp at Port Huron and proceed to the rendezvous at Ypsilanti. The consolidation was there completed and the regiment, with the designation of the Twenty-seventh, was mustered into the service on April 10, 1863, with eight companies. Those units from the Upper Peninsula were Companies A, B, and C, whose officers in the order named were: Captain Daniel Plummer, First Lieutenant Charles Waite, and Second Lieutenant Daniel G Cash, Company A, the second of whom was from Rockland and the others from Ontonagon; Captain Samuel Moody, First Lieutenant James H. Slawson, and Second Lieutenant Nelson Truckey, Company B, all of Houghton; and Captain William B. Wright, of Eagle Harbor, First Lieutenant Frederick Myers, and Second Lieutenant Chester W. Houghton, of Houghton, Company C. The engagements in which the Twenty-seventh infantry participated were as follows: Jamestown, Ky., June 2, 1863; siege of Vicksburg, June 22 to July 4, 1863; Jackson, Miss., July 11 to 18, 1863; Blue Springs, Tenn., October 10, 1863; Loudon, Tenn., November 14, 1863; Lenoir Station, Tenn., November 15, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tenn., November 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 17 to December 5, 1863; Fort Saunders, Tenn., November 29, 1863; Strawberry Plains, Tenn., January 22, 1864; near Knoxville, Tenn., January 23, 1864; Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; Ny River, Va., May 9, 1864; Spotsylvania, Va., May 10, 11, 12, 1864; Oxford, Va., May 23, 1864; North Anna, Va., May 24 and 25, 1864; Bethesda Church, Va., June 2 and 3, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 17 and 18, 1864; The Crater, Va., July 30, 1864; Weldon Railroad, Va., August 19 and 21, 1864; Ream's Station, Va., August 25, 1864; Poplar Springs Church, Va., September 30, 1864; Pegram Farm, Va., October 2, 1864; Boydton Road, Va., October 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., October 27 and 28, 1864; Fort Steedman, Va., March 25, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Va., from June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865.

In these regiments of Michigan fought many men of the Upper Peninsula, but it must be remembered that because these three were the only ones in which recruiting was carried on in the Lake Superior country many more men, as mentioned above volunteered for service with other Michigan regiments and with organizations of other states, so that it is virtually impossible to give a recital of the achievements of the organizations in which Michigan men served within the space of this chapter. However, it may well be said that the record of the men from the Upper Peninsula redounds not only to their own credit but to the glory of this region, which was then so sparsely populated.

Spanish-American War. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war, the Upper Peninsula could boast several national guard organizations trained and equipped for service in the field. Six companies of the Thirty-fourth Michigan infantry were all located in the Upper Peninsula, they being Company D, of Calumet; Company E, of Iron Mountain; Company F, of Houghton; Company G, of Sault Ste. Marie; Company H, of Ironwood; and Company L, of Marquette and Menominee. The commissioned officers of these companies at the time they were called into service were as follows: Company D, Captain Julius E. Fliege, First Lieutenant William H. Thielman, and Second Lieutenant Angus McDonald; Company E, Captain Silas J. McGregor, First Lieutenant Thomas Touhey, and Second Lieutenant John O'Connell; Company F, Captain George Millar, First Lieutenant Charles A. Hendrickson, and Second Lieutenant Rudolph J. Haas; Company G, Captain Robert S. Welch, First Lieutenant Henry F. Hughart, and Second Lieutenant Gilmore G. Scranton; Company H, Captain Robert J. Bates, First Lieutenant Frank J. Alexander, and Second Lieutenant William J. Tresise; and Company L, Captain Samuel W. Wheeler, First Lieutenant John S. Wilson, and Second Lieutenant James A. Leisen.

On April 28, 1898, the six companies of the Upper Peninsula were called to join the other units of their organization in the Lower Peninsula, where the regiment was collected and prepared for service against the Spanish. On June 7, the regiment arrived at Camp Alger, Virginia. On June 23 one battalion embarked at Newport News and the rest of the regiment boarded the transport on June 26 to be sent to Cuba to reinforce Shafter before Santiago, landing in due course at Baiquiri. The only action seen by the regiment was as support to the men who attacked and captured San Juan hill. Soon after, the Spaniards capitulated, and as the Michigan troops were about to be sent home, they were quarantined for the yellow fever. On September 1, 1898, the quarantine was lifted and the long journey home started.

World War. On April, 1917, the United States threw her resources into the struggle on the side of the Allies against Germany, and at that time, but four companies of the Michigan National Guard in the Upper Peninsula were maintained. These were Company G, of Houghton; Company L, of Menominee; and Company M, of Sault Ste. Marie, all of the Thirty-third infantry; and the Battalion Headquarters company, First Michigan Engineers, also of Houghton. The Michigan units had been called into the Federal service in 1916 to take part in the Mexican punitive expedition, and the Thirty-third, reaching the border at a later date than the other organizations was never mustered out before the United States declared war on Germany. The Thirty-third infantry was returned to Michigan after the declaration of war to guard the locks at the Sault and to perform similar duties throughout the state until the entire National Guard should be mobilized at Camp Grayling. In August, 1917, the various units were ordered to Camp MacArthur, Waco, Texas.

The officers of the Upper Peninsula companies at the time they were inducted into the service of the Government were as follows: Headquarters company, Major Benjamin W. Vallat and Captain Ira 0. Penberthy, adjutant; Company G, Captain Thomas S. Smith, First Lieutenant Merritt Lamb, and Second Lieutenant Elmer H. Theriault; Company L, Captain Oscar F. Falk, First Lieutenant Grover Thompson, and Second Lieutenant Merritt B. Wilson; and Company M, Captain Ira D. MacLachlan, First Lieutenant J. F. Young, and Second Lieutenant Charles E. Follis. The battalion commander of this unit was Major Charles D. Mathews, of Sault Ste. Marie, the battalion being the third of its regiment.

Soon after the arrival of the Michigan men at Camp MacArthur, a general order was issued creating the Thirty-second Division, to be composed of Michigan and Wisconsin units of the National Guard, about 8,000 Michigan and 15,000 Wisconsin men being so united. Subsequently, the deficiencies were supplied by about 4,000 drafted men from these two states. Under the new arrangement, Company G, of Houghton, became Company G, 125th infantry, Company L, of Menominee, was divided between Companies L and K of the 125th, and Company M, of Menominee, was divided between Companies L and K of the 125th, and Company M, of Menominee, was divided between Companies I and M of the same regiment. The Houghton headquarters company became the headquarters company for the first battalion of the 107th Engineers of the same division.

Major General James Parker assumed command of the Thirty-second Division on August 26, 1917, and on September 18, following, was sent to France on a special mission, from which he returned in December, 1917. Almost immediately thereafter he was transferred to the command of the Eighty-fifth Division at Camp Custer, and he was succeeded in the command of the Thirty-second by William G. Haan, senior brigadier general of the division. Colonel John B. Boucher was made commander of the 125th infantry, which included all the companies but one of the old Thirty-third Michigan infantry and five companies of the Thirty-first Michigan infantry.

Training in trench warfare began almost immediately, a work which was greatly aided by five French officers, four British officers, and several French and British non-commissioned officers, who were assigned to the division as instructors. A trench system was constructed outside the camp, where war conditions could be experienced by the troops as near as possible to the actual battle experience. With no training detail overlooked, the division quickly rounded into shape, and late in November and during the early part of December, the War Department inspectors visited the division and pronounced it fit to be sent to France.

On January 2, 1918, the first troops entrained at Waco for Hoboken, New Jersey, division headquarters following twelve days later. By the first of March, all the Thirty-second Division had evacuated the camp, and all the infantry had been concentrated at Camp Merritt, New York, before the division headquarters sailed for France. A detachment of the Thirty-second sailed on the Tuscania, one of the few transports sunk by a German submarine, and the thirteen men of the division who lost their lives at that time were the first casualties suffered by the division.

The divisional headquarters were established at Prauthoy, Haute Marne, France, on February 24, 1918, and here the troops were rapidly concentrated, the division thus becoming the sixth to arrive in France. However, the high hopes of the men were blasted by the announcement that the Thirty-second was to be used as a replacement organization for the First Army Corps, and for about four weeks, the division functioned in this capacity. The captains of the 128th infantry were assigned to one battalion of the First Division and all the privates of the regiment to another battalion of the same division. In all, about 7,000 men were taken away from the division during that time.

Great was the joy of the men when the order making them replacements was rescinded by one ordering the division into Alsace to begin its actual battle training in a quiet sector. On May 18, 1918, the first troops of the Thirty-second Division, consisting of four battalions, were assigned to front line duty in Haute Alsace, relieving some French troops. Thus, the Thirty-second Division was the first American organization to enter German territory. Although a thirty-five-day course of instruction had been planned in this quiet sector, a new drive by the Germans on Paris cut this short, and on July 19, the first elements of the division entrained for the journey to the Chateau Thierry section, and by July 24 the entire division was in the vicinity of Pont Maxence. Two days later the division was ordered to report to the French at Chateau Thierry. On the night of July 29, the Thirty-second Division took over the front held by the Third Division, and on the following night, the Sixty-third Brigade, in which were serving the men from the Upper Peninsula, moved up from support to receive its baptism of fire. Then began an attack that drove the Germans back step by step until they reached the Vesle, an attack that proved beyond all doubt the fighting qualities of the men of the Thirty-second Division and earned for them the name of "Les Terribles." On the night of August 6-7, the men of the Thirty-second were relieved, and tired and battered as they were, they were happy in the knowledge that they had done more than their share to hurl the Germans back from Paris, serving in what is called the Aisne-Marne offensive. From August 18 to September 6, the division was engaged in the Oise-Aisne offensive in which they signalized their record by the capture of Juvigny in a bitter battle. On September 26, the division went into the Argonne and was engaged in that greatest battle of the war until the signing of the armistice on November 11 relieved them of further fighting.

With hostilities concluded and the disorganized Germans fleeing for their fatherland, the Thirty-second was selected to become one of the advance units of the Army of Occupation and to guard one of the bridge heads under the frowning walls of the castle Ehrenbreitstein at Coblentz. Months of duty at this point, months of longing for the return journey home to begin, and orders finally came that the Red Arrow Division was to start its return to the United States. Finally the day had come, and by May 15, all but the casuals were on the Atlantic, sailing for the country for which they had so gallantly fought. At eastern camps, the division was broken up so that the units might be sent to the camps nearest their homes to be discharged.

The Eighty-fifth Division composed of National Army men of Michigan and Wisconsin has a record to its credit that is in every way as noteworthy as that of the Thirty-second, and many men from the Upper Peninsula saw service in France with this organization. The regular army and the navy also had its complement of enlistments from this section of the state, but to enumerate the military achievements of every man who served with the armed forces of the United States is impossible. The summaries of the various counties of the Upper Peninsula, however, are herewith given: Alger, 320 in service, 4 died, 8 wounded, 1 gassed, 1 shell shocked, 1 in the Canadian army; Baraga, 325 in service and 7 died of various causes; Chippewa, 1359 in service, 27 died, 15 in Canadian army, 1 in British navy; Delta, 1572 in service, 43 died, 7 in Canadian army, 1 in Allied service; Dickinson, 906 in service, 19 died, 7 wounded, 11 gassed, 7 in Allied armies, 16 living in other states at the time of enlistment; Gogebic, 2367 in service, 42 died, 43 in Canadian army, 147 in Polish army, 3 in English army; Houghton, 4618 in service and 58 died of wounds or killed in action; Iron, 1218 in service, 17 died, 7 in Canadian army, 2 in the Polish army; Keweenaw, 216 in service and 4 died; Luce, 279 in service, 11 died, 1 in Canadian army; Mackinac, 387 in service, 21 died, 1 in Canadian army; Marquette, 2194 in service, 35 died, 23 in Allied armies; Menominee, 1336 in service, 58 died, 1 in Canadian army; Ontonagon, 552 in service and 14 died; Schoolcraft, 401 in service, 4 died, 2 in Canadian army. The figures of those who died include those killed in action, died of wounds, and died of disease either in this country, at sea, or in France. The figures herewith given were taken from the records in the State library at Lansing and show more fully than words just how great was the part played by the Lake Superior counties in the World war.

CHAPTER IX

CITIES AND VILLAGES

St. Ignace, though settled in 1671, by Father James Marquette and his followers, enjoyed but little more than a quarter of a century of prosperity, for when Sieur de Mothe de la Cadillac came to the straits, he began a conflict with the Jesuit fathers at the mission and village of St. Ignace that resulted in the ultimate depopulation of the community and the burning of the church and mission buildings by the broken-hearted priests. Thereafter, the village was no longer the main point of intercourse for the travelers who passed through the straits; Mackinac island and the community surrounding the old fort on the south side of the straits attracting what Indians and fur traders made this section their headquarters.

Just when settlements began to be made in the St. Ignace locality cannot be definitely determined, nor can it be said with certainty who these first settlers were. A few of the names of the early residents of the rejuvenated St. Ignace have been spared to us. Louis Grondin came here from Canada in 1822, and Peter Grondin located at St. Ignace, two years later. At that time, there were these settlers at Point St. Ignace: John Graham, an Irishman; Francois Perrault, Mitchell Jeandrean, Mitchell Amnaut, Louis Charbonneau, J. B. Lajeunesse, Louis Martin, Francois Trucket, Charles Cettandre, and Francois DeLevere, French; Isaac Blanchette and a Mr. Hobbs, American. Francois De Levere was the first of this number to die, his death occurring in 1832, and his burial being made near the site of the Catholic church that was built in 1834. The first Americans to settle at St. Ignace were Hobbs, Puffer and Rousey, all of whom were veterans of the American Revolution. John Graham, the first Irishman to settle here, did so in 1818, he having been a survivor of the Indian massacre at Hudson bay. Patrick McNally located here in 1847; John Chambers and Dominick, Patrick, David, and Michael Murray came in 1848-49.

Although settlers came from time to time and lumbering operations brought the shifting population to be found in places that operated extensively in that product, it was the prospect of the railroad connections with the south and west that brought the first boom in the prospects of the community, with the result that in 1882, on the eve of the completion of the D. M. & M. railroad to St. Ignace, the village had reached a size that warranted incorporation. Accordingly, the matter was laid before the county supervisors, who passed the following resolution:

In the matter of the petition of B. B. Hazelton and others, praying for the incorporation of the following described territory into the village of St. Ignace: Commencing at the shore of Lake Huron, at the dividing line between townships 40 and 41 north, of range 3 west, following the shore of said lake, and thereby to the south line of the land owned by Ignatius Reagon, thence west along the south line of said Reagon's land to the east line of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad; thence northerly along said line of said railroad to the north line of private claim No. 19, the dividing line between townships 3 and 4 west; thence north along said dividing line of said townships to the north line of township 40 north, of range 3 west; thence east on the said north line of township 40 north, range 3 west; thence west to the place of beginning.

"It was ordered by the Supervisor's Board that this territory be, and the same is, incorporated into a village, to be called the village of St. Ignace. And it is further ordered that B. B. Hazelton, I. Reagon and William Hintz be, and the said B. B. Hazelton, I. Reagon and William Hintz are hereby, appointed inspectors of the first election to be held in the said village of St. Ignace on the third Tuesday in March, 1882."

Pursuant to the act of the Board of Supervisors, the first village election was held on the appointed day. Daniel Kanter cast the first vote, and when the polls were closed and the votes were counted, it was found that these men had been chosen as the first village officers: Brooks B. Hazelton, president; Ambro Bettes, clerk; Peter A. Paquin, treasurer; William D'Arcy, marshal; Fred Kruger, assessor; Lewis Ryerse, Ignatius Reagon, and Horatio Crain, trustees for two years; and A. M. Withrow, Hyacinth Chenier, and William Hintz, trustees for one year.

Marquette was first platted by the Cleveland Iron Mining company in August, 1854, and recorded the same year before the county register, Peter White. The original plat included that part of the city extending from a point below Fisher street to half a block north of Spring street and from the bay to Fifth street. A thirty-six acre addition was platted shortly after for John Burt, Edward Cook, M. L. Hewitt, Charles Johnson, and Eliza T. Duncan of the Cleveland company. The two additions of Harlow, Hewitt's addition, Burt & Ely's addition, and the additions of Penny & Vaughn were all made before the village was incorporated by the legislature in 1859. The great fire of 1868 that laid waste the community destroyed all the village records, so that the village officers before that time are not known. On April 5, 1869, the people of the village, stimulated to action by the disastrous fire, voted a loan of $100,000 for the establishment of a waterworks and fire system. Through a technicality the vote was declared illegal and on the following August, the amount of $50,000 was voted for the same purpose. The Holly Manufacturing company secured the contract to supply pumps that would have a total capacity of 2,000,000 gallons daily and the T. T. Hurley contracting concern was awarded the contract for building the engine house on lighthouse point. The waterworks, still located in the same place was remodeled in 1890 to triple the daily capacity, and the city of Marquette, drawing its water from a point seven hundred feet in the lake, has as good a supply as it is possible to secure.

In July, 1867, the council granted the Marquette Gas Light company the right to erect buildings and lay mains, so that by 1869 the city was lighted by that means. In 1890, the city council granted a franchise to the Marquette & Presque Isle railway which began laying its tracks that summer and has since served the people of this community.

Marquette was incorporated as a city by an act of the legislature approved February 27, 1871, and on April 3, that year, these city officers were elected: H. H. Safford, mayor; Arch Benedict, recorder; F. M. Moore, treasurer; John G. O'Keefe, school inspector and justice of the peace; Jacob Dolf, constable; and T. T. Hurley, P. C. Parkinson, and James M. Wilkinson, aldermen.

Negaunee, although mines were in operation and the Marquette & Bay de Noquet railroad had been built to that place, dates its real beginning from 1865, when the construction of the Soo canal opened the Upper Peninsula iron deposits to the outside world. In 1865, J. P. Pendill and the Pioneer company made two separate plats of the village, the latter naming its village Iron and the former taking the name of Negaunee, which means "pioneer" or "first." In the fall of that year, it was incorporated as a village, and a jail and town hall was built at a cost of $10,000. The following year witnessed the erection of a Union school at a cost of $8,000. The burning of the Pioneer Furnace in 1874 caused a local panic that for a time threatened the prosperity of the place, but the community soon recovered, and today it, and its sister city Ishpeming, are the center of the iron mining in this section of the country.

Ishpeming, the name of which signifies "heaven," is essentially a mining town. Its site was originally the site of the Lake Superior location which was started in 1853. In 1869, Robert Nelson, who had started the first store in 1860, bought the site from the Cleveland Iron company and in the summer of that year laid it out into lots. In the fall of the year, it was incorporated as a village and Captain G. D. Johnson was elected president with James McLeon as justice of the peace and a Mr. Ryan as town marshal. Thereafter the place grew rapidly and was incorporated as a city in 1873, at which time Captain F. P. Mills was elected mayor.

Schoolcraft County has Manistique as its principal city. Incorporated as a village by the legislature in 1885 and as a city in 1901, it has its principal advantage in the fact that an excellent harbor is kept open throughout the winter by the waters from the swift-flowing Manistique river which empties into the bay at that point. Car ferries operate between Frankfort and Manistique because of this ice-free harbor throughout the year, adding immeasurably to the importance of the city as a shipping point. A dam thrown across the river just below the Indian lake outlet supplies the reservoir necessary to supply an excellent power station, and one of the secrets of the advancement of the city has been this abundance of power for the lumber mills and other industries. In addition to the lumber mills and lime kilns that are the chief industries of the city, Manistique is one of the large shippers of fish on Lake Michigan.

Delta County, as stated in another chapter, did not enter upon a period of growth worthy of mention until after 1860. When the Chicago & Northwestern railroad put a line through from Negaunee to Escanaba and erected ore docks, the village began to grow by leaps and bounds. The line began operation in 1864, and the first building of note at the village was the Tilden House, erected by the railroad and the N. Ludington company. The hotel was named in honor of Samuel J. Tilden, Democratic candidate for president against Hayes, and he was one of the first guests at the hostelry. Escanaba became the county seat in 1861, was incorporated as a village in 1866, and was reincorporated as a village in 1883. In the same year, it was granted a city charter by the legislature and was reincorporated by the same body in 1891. Possessing one of the best harbors on the Great Lakes and having excellent rail connections with the various mining centers of this part of the state, the city is regarded as one of the most important ore shipping points on the Lakes. Its great docks supply facilities for the handling of millions of tons of ore annually. In addition to the lines of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, Escanaba has connections with the great Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul system through the Escanaba & Lake Superior, which was started in November, 1898, as a small logging road some twenty-six miles in length. When the C., M. & St. P. sought an entrance into the city, it arranged such an opening through the Escanba & Lake Superior, which was then extended from Watson to Channing, making the distance sixty-five miles. The road is one of the most successful short line railroads in the United States, the main line and branches totaling but little more than 125 miles. The Escanaba Power company supplies the electrical power for the city and plants of the community and to Gladstone, the main power house of the company being located on the river four miles from Escanaba. The principal industries of Escanaba include woodenware factories and brass and iron companies, while one of the important enterprises is a manufactory of acetate of lime and wood alcohol, the former being used in the manufacture of explosives. At one time, nearly a third of the acetate of lime was sold to the British Government.

Gladstone is located on the west shore of Little Bay de Noquet and on the main line of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie and has excellent communications with Escanaba by means of electric cars. The Northwestern Cooperage & Lumber company has been largely responsible for the development of this community, for through its steady and substantial growth it has provided employment for hundreds of men even during periods of lowest ebb. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1908 but immediately rebuilt on a larger scale than ever.

Wells, situated a few miles north of Escanaba, has a population of 1,500, and has the I. Stephenson company as the chief industry. Manufacturing hardwood flooring and cedar products, the concern has been almost the sole factor in the development of the community. It is served by four railroads.

Munising, Alger County, the seat of justice of the county, was established in July, 1895, when engineers platted the town, the first lot being sold in November of that year to Robert Peters, who erected a store building and for a time engaged in mercantile pursuits. The summer of 1896 witnessed the growth of the population to 3,000, which was phenomenal in view of the fact that East Munising and Onata had endured such hard struggles for existence. In 1905 it was incorporated as a village. In 1900, the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company came into the field at Munising and inaugurated its second period of growth. The company owns large tracts of land in the county and manufactures lumber, it having been particularly aggressive in promoting the development of the city and county in all ways. The Munising Paper company is one of the largest industries at this place and one of the largest paper mills in Michigan. The Munising Woodenware company, manufacturers of wooden products of all kinds, is another of the substantial enterprises of this city.

Luce County. The county seat of this county is Newberry, the clearing of the site of which began in 1882 for the Vulcan Furnace and for the houses of the employees of that organization. The village was platted under the supervision of W. 0. Strong, the land superintendent of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad. A $5,000 school was erected within five years; incorporation was secured in 1885, and the village now has a population of 2,400 persons. The Newberry State hospital was established on a 680-acre tract of land in November, 1895, the land being donated by the Peninsula Land company and the people of Luce county. The Lake Superior Iron & Chemical company established a plant at Newberry in 1910, and when it was opened it provided one of the principal industries of this part of the state.

Baraga County. The beginnings of L'Anse as a mission site has already been given in the chapter on Early Settlement, but it was not until 1891 that the village was granted a charter. The first village election was held in August, that year and resulted as follows: George Hadley, president of the board; S. D. Davenport, clerk; John McIntosh, treasurer; Anthony Girard, T. A. McGrath, and Phillip Foucault, trustees for two years; James McMahon, Nelson E. Penneck, and J. J. Byers, trustees for one year; Peter Gerard, street commissioner; James Bendry, assessor; D. J. Golden, constable; and James Golden, pound master. The village was platted in 1871 by S. L. Smith, Charles H. Palmer, and Captain James Bendry, the original plat containing the names of twelve streets. For a few years thereafter, L'Anse grew rapidly, for it was thought that with the completion of the railroads, L'Anse would become one of the great shipping points for ore and lumber, the rival of Marquette in this respect. The discovery of ore further enhanced these ideas, but the panic of 1873 and the playing out of the mine in 1878 banished the fond hopes of the residents and founders of the village, although attempts were made to keep the mining industry alive by further explorations, it remained for the lumber mill and the stone and slate quarries to supply the industrial life of the city and county.

Houghton County. The cities and villages of Houghton county, for the most part, grew up around various mine locations and to attempt to attribute their inception to the initiative of any one man or group of men who saw a favorable location for a town is virtually impossible. Houghton was settled in 1852 and was incorporated as a village in 1861. With two banks and two newspapers and served by the Copper Range railroad, Houghton is one of the leading communities in the Copper country. It is the site of the Michigan College of Mines, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the country. Most of the stock of the Copper Range railroad is owned by Houghton people, the road running the entire length of the Keweenaw Peninsula and forming a junction with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Mass City in Ontonagon county. The Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic and Mineral Range railroads also touch Houghton, giving it excellent transportation by land as well as by water for the ore that leaves this place. A sketch of the first settler, Ransom Shelden, may be found on other pages.

Hancock, with a population of 8,500, is located on the north shore of Portage lake directly opposite Houghton with which it is connected by electric railway and a bridge. In addition to the Quincy mine, second only to the great Calumet & Hecla mine, the city boasts a varied line of industrial enterprises, including iron and brass foundries, saw and planing mills, machine shops, flour mill, mining machinery manufacturing plant, boiler works, and other industries. Such diversity assures stability at all times, for the community is thus happily liberated from the recurrent periods of depression that often attack the mining industry. The Houghton County Street Railway company was incorporated in 1900 and has proved of great benefit in bringing the communities of the region more closely together, having been of particular benefit to the development of the twin cities of Hancock and Houghton.

Red Jacket, which carries the post office name of Calumet and is so known to the state at large, is the headquarters for the famous Calumet & Hecla company, which operates one of the largest copper mines in the world. The stamp mills and furnaces of the company are located at Lake Linden and are among the largest in the world. The village of Red Jacket was incorporated by the legislature in 1874, and its first election was held April 10, 1875, with the following officers being elected: Peter Ruppe, Jr., president; James H. Kerwin, recorder; James Mailin, Jr., treasurer; Richard Bastian and James Sullivan, assessors; John Powers, attorney; J. C. Pearce, marshal; and George Wertin, Henry Northy, D. D. Murphy, Martin Foley, Michael Borgo, and Joseph Hermann, trustees. E. J. Hurlbut is regarded as the father of Red Jacket, for he located here in 1856 and erected a log boarding house. He sunk the first one hundred feet of the vertical shaft of the Calumet & Hecla mine, subsequently disposing of the mineral rights while he retained the surface rights to the land now occupied by the village. Soon after incorporation of the village, a fire department was established to protect the city against a recurrence of such a disastrous fire as swept the community in 1870. No city or village of the county is more fully supplied in every way than Red Jacket, for it has three banks, a daily and two weekly newspapers, two hospitals, an electric street railway, and every sanitary convenience.

Laurium, originally named Calumet, adjoins Red Jacket village and the Calumet & Hecla location on the south and is an incorporated village with a population of 7,000 persons. It is included in the same mining district as Red Jacket and the majority of its inhabitants are employed in the operations of the companies in that region. It has a bank, hospital, and a daily newspaper with an excellent water works and fire department. The community had its inception in the Laurium Mining company from which it takes its present name, adopted in 1895.

On the west shore of Torch Lake is located Lake Linden, established in 1868 and incorporated in 1885. Here are located the stamp mills of the Calumet & Hecla company together with eighteen furnaces of that same company, one of the Quincy company, and one of the Osceola company near the same place. It has a bank, newspaper, and a hospital, and it is served by the Mineral Range, Copper Range, and the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroads.

Hubbell, formerly known as South Lake Linden, has a population of 1,200 and is the location of the smelting works of the Calumet & Hecla Mining company and the stamp mills of the Quincy, Osceola, Tamarack, and Ameek Mining companies. A substantial bank is located in the village and has played an important part in the development of the community.

Keweenaw County. Eagle River, located at the mouth of the river of the same name, is the seat of justice of that county and located two miles from the nearest railroad, although it has stage connection with Phoenix, two miles distant. The latter community has a population of 400 and is situated on the K. C. railroad.

Ontonagon County has had Ontonagon village as its judicial seat since 1846. The early history of the place has been given in the chapter on Early Settlement. The village has a population of 2,200, is the lake terminal of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. Saw mills, fishing companies, a cigar factory, and cedar yards represent the chief industrial assets of the community, and a harbor that has been developed into one of the best on Lake Superior makes it an important shipping point, the docks extending along the river for a distance of half a mile. The village owns and operates its own water and electric light plants. As the extensive forests are cut down, the county is rapidly coming to the fore in vegetable, fruit, and grain farming.

Gogebic County. Bessemer, the county seat, was incorporated as a village in 1878 and as a city in 1889, and finds its chief claim to fame in the many producing iron mines in the vicinity. The opening of the Colby mine on the site of explorations conducted by Captain N. D. Moore in 1880 gave Bessemer its real start and additional settlers came to the community when the Chicago & Northwestern railroad projected its line through this place in 1884.

Ironwood, the largest city in the county, has a population of 17,000 and has iron mining as its chief industry, several mines being located within the corporate limits of the city. It was incorporated in 1889 as a city. It has three hospitals and three banks, and its educational system has equipment that is exceeded by no city of its size in Michigan, having a manual training school that was erected at a cost of $40,000 in addition to a $200,000 central school and a $120,000 high school. The city has a daily and two weekly papers.

Wakefield, settled in 1866, was incorporated as a village in 1877 and as a city in 1919, and has a population of 6,000. The Wakefield Advocate is the newspaper, and iron mining is the principal industry of this city as of the rest of the county.

Iron County. Crystal Falls, county seat, has a population of 3,500 and has adopted the commission-manager form of city government. S. D. Hollister, Sr., and George Runkel bought the land on which the city stands in 1880 and commenced to lay out the site in town lots the following year, they having organized the Crystal Falls Iron company with James H. Howe the preceding year for this purpose. Many settlers came to the community that year. In all ways, the city is progressive, having expended much money in the perfection of its school system. Two banks, two hospitals, and a weekly newspaper are indicative of the activity in the community.

Iron River, the largest village in the county, has a population of 4,500. It has two banks, a daily newspaper, and a weekly newspaper are successfully operating in this community, while the school facilities are all that could be expected in a village of this size.

Dickinson County. Quinnesec is the oldest village on the Menominee range and was laid out by Hon. John L. Buell, who made explorations here in 1873 and who took out the first consignment of ore by sleigh in the following winter. Buell platted the village in 1877.

Iron Mountain was started in 1879 and was incorporated as a city in 1887, and is the seat of justice of the county. With a population of more than 12,000, it has four banks and is surrounded by a fine belt of farming land. The immense lumber resources make the place attractive to woodenware manufacturing concerns. A large saw mill is operated by the Van Platen-Fox company and a chemical plant and blast furnace further add to the industrial prestige of the place. A large saw mill and body plant units have recently been erected by the Michigan Iron, Land & Lumber company. The schools in Iron Mountain are unsurpassed and a business college enjoys a wide patronage. With approximately thirty power houses operating in the vicinity of Iron Mountain, the city is particularly well adapted to manufacturing interests.

Norway, with a population of more than 4,000, is the second community in the county. Mining, farming, and lumbering have played their share in the development of the community, although it was the opening of the mines in this region that brought about the establishment of the city. It was incorporated as a city in 1891 and was first settled in 1879. It has a bank and a weekly newspaper.

Vulcan has a population of 2,000, is essentially a mining town, taking its name from the first mining concern there.

Chippewa County. Sault Ste. Marie, with its long and absorbingly interesting history, is the judicial seat and the largest city of the county, and the early days of the settlement have been narrated elsewhere. It was incorporated as a village in 1874 and received its city charter in 1887. At the first village meeting, held February 2, 1874, Peter B. Barbeau was elected president. At the present time, the city boasts educational facilities consisting of six ward school buildings, a high school, and the Loretto academy, the last of which is under the direction of the Ladies of Loretto. St. Mary's Parochial school is also under the charge of the same order. The city is noted for its admirable situation with respect to water power development, the plant of the Michigan Northern Power company being one of the largest concerns of its kind in the state. At the lower end of its two-mile canal is situated the power house, which is 1,340 feet in length and has a capacity output of 40,000 horsepower. One of the most important industrial ventures is the Union Carbide company, whose plant is located next to the power house and which is a subsidiary of one of the largest corporations of its kind in the United States. The company supplies employment for large numbers of people. The Lock City Manufacturing company, handling lumber, lath, sash, doors, glass, shingles, roofing, beaver board, and similar products is one of the outstanding local enterprises and is accorded a place among the leading concerns of its kind in the Upper Peninsula.

Pickford, twenty-four miles south of Sault Ste. Marie, was settled in 1877, and has a population of approximately 400. It has a bank and is the center of the agricultural communities in that part of the county.

Rudyard, twenty-four miles southwest of Sault Ste. Marie, is located on the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie railroad and has a population of approximately 800 persons. It is the concentration and shipping point for an excellent farming region, and its interests are well served by a substantial and thriving bank.

Menominee County. Menominee, the county seat, has a population of about 10,000 persons and has long held a leading place among the lumber cities of the Upper Peninsula. The J. W. Wells Lumber company is one of the leading establishments of its kind in this section of the peninsula and is the successor of the Girard company. The Menominee River Sugar company, organized in 1902, erected a million dollar factory in 1903 and began operations. For the first few years of its existence, it was hampered by the slowness of the farmers in growing sugar beets, but as the advantages of such agricultural employment was demonstrated to them, the business has grown to be one of the largest and most important industrial enterprises of the city. With an annual production amounting to nearly $20,000,000 pounds of sugar, the company brings to the farmers of the county nearly half a million dollars. The canning business has grown to large proportions, the annual production of canneries in this vicinity amounting to 3,500,000 cans of vegetables, 2,500,000 cans of preserves, and 100 carloads of pickles. The Lloyd Manufacturing company, making children's carriages and furniture, is an unusual yet highly successful undertaking that brings the name of Menominee before the entire country. The Menominee Stained Glass company presents still another phase of the industrial life of the community, for it specializes in the making of cathedral glass, mirrows, and stained window and plate glass. A steam pump and engine works, box factories, a chemical plant, saw mill machinery plant, hardwood flooring factory, packing plant, and electric supply plant increase the list of diversified industries that make for the stability and commercial prestige of the city.

Menominee was incorporated as a city in 1883, at which time it was divided into five wards and Samuel M. Stephenson was elected the first mayor. It owns its own water system, has an electric street railway, and every sanitary precaution to safeguard the health of the community.

Stephenson was incorporated as a village in 1898. It is located twenty-two miles north of Menominee and has a bank and a weekly newspaper. It is the largest community in the county outside of Menominee and is the focal point of a rich agricultural community.

Daggett, also in Stephenson township, is one of the important villages of the county. It has a bank and good village schools. Cedar River is the oldest settlement on the Bay Shore; Ingalls and Wallace are located north of Menominee on the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, the former having been settled in the early Fifties; Nadeau is on the same railroad thirty-six miles north of Menominee; and Powers is at the junction point of the main line of the Chicago & Northwestern and the Menominee Range branch.

CHAPTER X

INDUSTRIAL

Natural resources, their abundance or their dearth, form the basis of industrial development, and with this axiom in mind, the treatment of a chapter on the industrial life and growth of the Upper Peninsula necessarily finds its beginnings in a recitation of the discovery of Michigan mineral deposits and the opening up of the lumbering industry.

Lumbering, by right of priority in large scale exploitation, merits first mention, for not only were many of the large fortunes of Michigan founded in this industry but also lumbering in the old days presented a colorful picture that is a distinct phase in the advance of the state and an equally important and picturesque development in the life of the nation. The Michigan lumberman has been glorified in literature; the vast pine forests of the state were once a vast reservoir from which almost an entire nation drew its supplies of lumber; and the industry as a whole has contributed that to the progress of the state which merits it primary consideration in a chapter of this nature.

The forests of the Upper Peninsula, and the entire Middle West, for that matter, represented to the French nothing more than hunting and trapping grounds, wherein they might find the wealth of peltries for which a European market was clamoring. The commercial value of the forests, if it occurred to the French at all, never encouraged them to exploit this industry, and even the English, once they had acquired possession of this vast, rich territory, continued to view this part of the country as a fur source and used the lumber insofar as it was necessary in the construction of fortifications or dwellings at the scattered posts. That a royal mandate forbade settlers to cross the mountains of the Atlantic Seaboard to establish themselves in the wilderness tributary to the Mississippi river and the Great Lakes, reaffirms the theory that large and influential interests sought to maintain the virgin forests of this great territory intact so that there might be no diminution of the fur trade; yet it was this edict of the king which was a contributing factor to bringing on the Revolutionary war and to opening up the Northwest Territory to settlement, leaving the work of levelling the forests of Michigan and other states to the hardy pioneer lumbermen who played a conspicuous part in the development of the country over a period of more than half a century.

With the year 1840 were inaugurated the land surveys in the Upper Peninsula, continuing for a period of nine years, and with the completion of this great task, the way was opened for the comprehensive development of the lumber industry in this part of the state. A small sawmill was erected and placed in use at Menominee in 1832 and a second in 1841, while a third was built at Escanaba in 1841 and a fourth in 1852 at Ontonagon, the last named having a daily capacity of only 5,000 feet. Though these mills were insignificant as compared to the great mills that followed shortly after, they represented the beginning of an industry that would, for a time, eclipse all else in the scope and importance of its operations.

No sooner had the surveyed lands been placed on the market than the land office at Sault Ste. Marie was besieged by eager timber cruisers and landlookers who sought to enter choice tracts of pine lands, either for themselves or for large interests that they represented.

One of the great corporations of the Upper Peninsula, the N. Ludington company, was organized in 1851 and took over a mill at Flatrock, now Escanaba, which had been built in 1844, and a mill was subsequently erected by the same company at Menominee, where the Kirby-Carpenter company, the Ludington, Wells & Van Schaick company, and the New York company also established large mills to handle the timber cut from their large holdings in that part of the peninsula. The pioneers in lumbering believed that the forests of the Upper Peninsula were exhaustless, as indeed they might well have been under operations no more intensive than those carried on in the infancy of lumbering. Within a few years after the first large companies established their mills here and sent their axmen into the forests, the number of sawmills, as well as the size and efficiency of the establishments, has grown to such proportions that less than half a century brought a virtual end to the pine cutting in the Upper Peninsula. Yet it must be remembered that those fifty years formed a period of feverish activity, of relentless and tireless labor that has scarcely found a parallel in industrial history anywhere in the world.

"The possibilities of this occasion," says Alvah L. Sawyer, in the Michigan Magazine of History, "cannot compass the details of the fifty active years of pine lumbering in this peninsula, in the various and varied branches of that industry; life in the logging camps where men toiled from dawn till dark, measuring their accomplishments not by an eight-hour yard stick, but by the possibilities of their efforts, the monotony of which was broken by the incentive of competition, and wherein the evenings were enlivened with cards, story-telling, and dancing. The garb of the 'shanty-boys' would be a topic by itself, with mackinaws of most flashy hues, heavy spiked boots and chopped-off trousers. The cook and the cooking, the river-driving, and the 'drives' that followed the coming down of the drive; each of these and many other branches of my topic for subjects for historical elaboration which I hope will find treatment in the system of historical research now being introduced through our schools, fostered by the development bureau of the peninsula."

Figures to give an idea of the magnitude of the lumber industry in the Upper Peninsula are sadly lacking, for none have been compiled embracing the industry as a whole in the peninsula and only a few boom companies still exist so that old records may be consulted in the attempt to make an estimate of the size of the industry. Among the most important lumbering rivers was the Menominee, where lumbering reached its height in 1889, in which year more than 642,000,000 feet of logs passed through the booms of that river, having an approximate value of nearly $12,000,000. The importance of the industry in the peninsula may be gauged by the fact that Menominee was then the largest lumber port in the world. The Menominee River Boom company, which began operations in 1868, has passed more than 10,000,000,000 feet of logs through its booms since that time, and the fact that this is but one company of the many that have operated during the hey-day of lumbering, an idea may be gained of the stupendous proportion on which the lumber industry was conducted. The transportation of logs by water has largely given way to rail transportation, while the huge waste that was prevalent in the cutting and sawing of lumber has now been brought to the irreducible minimum.

At first, only those logs were brought to the mills that two, three, or four sixteen-foot logs would cut a thousand feet. In 1888, each log 192 feet each, or about five logs to the thousand, while today between thirty and forty logs are necessary to cut a thousand feet. Improved mill methods have reduced the great waste in slabs and sawdust that figured so prominently in the conduct of the early sawmills, and by-products are manufactured today from the waste material of the mills.

The pioneer lumberman scorned to handle anything but pine, and that the best. With the passing of large pine cuttings, Michigan lumbermen and manufacturers turned their attention to the hardwood manufacturing, and the state today boasts some of the largest plants in the world, making hardwood products of various kinds, principal among which is the manufacture of maple flooring, of which Menominee possesses one of the leaders in the J. W. Wells company.

Perhaps the picturesqueness of the lumber industry has passed, and certainly the quickly-won fortunes are no longer made in wholesale logging of pine, yet the business men of the Upper Peninsula are finding an equally wide demand for hardwood products and a market for them far more stable than that enjoyed by the pine lumbermen.

It must be remembered, however, that thousands of acres of virgin forest still exist in the peninsula, some tributary to the Manistique river and the rest to the Escanaba, Menominee, and other rivers in this section of the northern part of the state.

Mining, for both copper and iron, entered upon its period of development at about the same time that the ax of the lumberman was beginning to cut its way through the forests of the Upper Peninsula. Even before a white man had penetrated the wilderness of the Lake Superior region, the Indians knew of the presence of copper and had told the great Champlain of its existence in this part of the country. To find the mines of this metal became the object of several voyages into the interior under orders from Champlain. Brule, although it is not known definitely that he penetrated farther than the Soo, ascertained that copper undoubtedly existed in the country to the south of Lake Superior, and his reports to Champlain confirmed the stories of the Indians, reports which he substantiated by displaying samples of the ore which he had acquired from Indians at Sault Ste. Marie. But at that early date, the French were too preoccupied with their search for a passage to the Indies to concern themselves at length with the evident wealth of minerals found at hand, and with the passing of the energetic Champlain, further explorations with such a goal ceased, leaving the rich deposits of the Copper country to be uncovered by Americans two hundred years later.

To the Indians found by the white men, the copper of the Upper Peninsula apparently represented nothing of a salable commodity. Archaeologists have found traces of an extensive trade between the early Lake Superior inhabitants and the Aztecs and Mayas of Mexico whereby the Mexican and Central American tribes traded with the Northern Indians for the copper ore. That such a trade was carried on is substantiated by the fact that the Mexican tribes made a wide use of copper and by the fact that traces of old mining operations were found in the copper country when the Americans undertook to market the mineral, for the Aztecs and Mayas had no copper within their own reach. When the Chippewas released to the United States in 1843 their control of the Upper Peninsula country, they claimed that they had controlled the region for four hundred years, succeeding the Mascoutens, and that the latter tribe had been the only ones to conduct mining operations. Evidences of this early mining were found throughout the copper country but were chiefly pronounced at Isle Royale and in the vicinity of Ontonagon. Overland trails traversed Wisconsin and Illinois to cross the Menominee river at Wausaukee Bend, and it was probably over these routes and by the rivers and lakes that the ore or copper utensils were transported for trade with the Indians of the Southwest.

The discovery of these ancient mining evidences has been attributed to Samuel O. Knapp, mine superintendent for the Minnesota Mining company in that year, 1847. Foster & Whitney, engaged in early geological explorations in this territory, wrote at some length in their book, "Prehistoric Races," on the discoveries of Knapp, part of which is as follows:

"The following spring, he explored some of the excavations farther west. One artificial depression was twenty-six feet deep, filled with clay and a matter mass of mouldering vegetable matter. At a depth of eighteen feet he came to a mass of native copper, ten feet long, three feet wide, and nearly two feet thick, and weighing over six tons. On digging around the mass, it was found to rest on billets of oak, supported by sleepers of the same material. This wood, from its long exposure to moisture, was dark colored, and had lost all its consistency. It opposed no more resistance to a knife blade than so much peat. The earth was so firmly packed as to support the mass of copper. The ancient miners had evidently raised it about five feet and then abandoned the work as too laborious, having first knocked off all projecting points. The vein was wrought in the form of an open trench, and, where the copper was most abundant, there the excavations were deepest. The trench was filled nearly flush with the wash of the surrounding surface.... A few rods farther on west was to be seen another excavation in a cliff, where the miners had left a portion of the vein-stone, in the form of a pillar, to prop up the hanging wall.

"Of the fact that a race of skilful miners were operating here long anterior to the historic era, there are abundant proofs. The evidence consists in numerous excavations in the solid rock, from which the vein-stone has been extracted; of heaps of rubble and dirt along the course of the veins; of copper utensils fashioned into knives, chisels, axes, spears and arrowheads; of stone hammers, creased for the attachment of withes; of wooden bowls for the bailing of water from the mines; of wooden shovels for throwing out the debris; of props and levers for raising and supporting the mass of copper, and ladders for ascending and descending the pits."

Frequent references to the copper of the Lake Superior region were made in the Jesuit Relations, while mention was made of the deposits in writings of various Frenchmen soon after the presence of the metal was definitely ascertained.

Alexander Henry, the garrulous British trader whose writings have supplied a wealth of source material in the historical work of this section of the country, became interested in the copper reputed to lie hidden in the soil of the Upper Peninsula, and in 1771, he joined others in equipping an expedition to make explorations for the metal. The party proceeded to Ontonagon, built a house, and began work in the clay to discover copper, masses of the mineral being found at frequent intervals. In 1772, the entire party of miners returned to Sault Ste. Marie, saying that further work was impracticable, because the clay had caved in on the diggings during the winter freezes. Henry, one of the promoters of the project, noted in his writings that undoubtedly large copper deposits were in that region but that it would be impossible to work the mines except for local consumption and operations would have to wait until the country had become populated by white men.

The expedition of General Lewis Cass to the Upper Peninsula in 1820 visited the great copper boulder that had been discovered in the Ontonagon river and was thought by the Indians to possess supernatural powers. The boulder of native copper was subsequently transported to the East and housed in the Smithsonian Institution. It took the report of Dr. Douglass Houghton, state geologist, to the state legislature in 1841, however, to arouse the people to the worth of the copper fields of the northern part of the state. Houghton had begun his surveys in the northern part of the state in 1830, but they were interrupted after a time. He completed his work in 1841; the government secured the release of title from the Indians in 1842; and in 1844, the lands of this section of the territory were placed upon the market for active development. Thus, the first great copper field in the United States was discovered and opened, beginning the operations in a copper mining region that has since been one of the most important in the world.

Even before the lands were opened for settlement by the Government, Jim Paul and Nick Miniclear, two backwoodsmen, started overland from southern Wisconsin in mid-winter to reach the copper country in March, 1843, becoming known to history as the first miners to locate in that region. A land office was opened at Copper Harbor later in the same year, and from thenceforward, prospectors flocked to the country. Because of the confusion resulting from the overlapping of mining locations, the Government eventually adopted the policy of selling mineral lands outright.

The year 1844 brought a fresh influx of prospectors, most of whom were unfamiliar with mining, but in that same year came the first Cornishmen to the copper country, men who sprung from a race of people that had been miners since before history records their activities. The first copper was mined that year at Copper Harbor, a few tons of ore called black oxide being taken from a fissure vein and then abandoned. This vein was soon displaced by a fissure vein containing native copper as the object of the operations of the same company, and in 1849 that concern began paying dividends, payments that have since been made to Lake Superior copper lands. Soon after the Cliff Mine was opened in Keweenaw county, the Minnesota mine was opened in Ontonagon county at the opposite end of the copper producing district.

The first methods of mining copper consisted in the working of cross fissures only, and for many years, the stratified beds, in which all the present mines are developed, were untouched for many years. The Portage lake section, containing but few fissure veins, was not an object of early exploitation. The Quincy company was the first to make a success of mining in the cupriferous, opening an amygdaloid lode, so that their example was soon followed by other mining companies. In 1866, the Calumet & Hecla opened the first mine in a conglomerate bed, and this mine has since remained the largest and most profitable mine in the Lake Superior copper country, having paid, it is believed, greater dividends than any other mining company in the world.

The Keweenaw formation in Michigan includes four fields, Keweenaw point at the eastward part, the Portage Lake or Central district, which includes Calumet and South Range fields, the mines of Ontonagon county and the extension into Gogebic county, and Isle Royale. The western end of Keweenaw county possessed the richest cross veins, in which the Cliff, Phoenix, and Central mines were the most important developments.

The percentage of copper contained in the rock shows a decrease in all mines opened to a depth of 4,000 feet or more, and the heat and briny water found at that depth coupled with the increased mining costs and lower copper content of the ore makes it a bottom for the mines for the most part. Considerable silver is found in the mines of the Lake Superior region, particularly in the mines of the Evergreen belt of Ontonagon county and those of the Portage Lake district in Houghton county. This precious metal is not alloyed with the copper but is present merely in a physical mixture. Virtually all the commercial copper ores are found in the mines of the Upper Peninsula, including, cuprite, melaconite, azurite, malachite, chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, algodonite, domeykite, whitneyite, mohawkite, and keweenawite. Metallic copper is found in all rocks of the Keweenaw formation except in the sandstones of the Porcupine mountains. It is found principally in the traps and conglomerates of the main series, the metal of the conglomerates occurring largely as cementing material.

In 1846, Professor James T. Hodge made the first attempt at smelting, erecting a small furnace on the Gratiot river in Keweenaw county. But two short seasons spelled the career of the Hodge furnace, for the smelter returns were only 3.5 percent copper from ore that assayed about 20 percent metal, showing that about five-sixths of the metal was lost in the slag. In 1847, the Suffolk Mining company erected a small furnace seven miles southeast of Eagle River, but this venture was likewise a failure. A third furnace was built on Isle Royale in 1849 but was never put into commission. Thus it was that all copper mined in the Upper Peninsula was, until 1850, smelted in Baltimore, but in that year, J. G. Hussey & company built a copper smelter in Cleveland, and in the same year, another was erected at Detroit. Shortly after the establishment of these two furnaces, a successful smelter was built at Hancock, Houghton county, and another was built in Ontonagon county in 1863. Prior to 1867, a small and unsuccessful smelter was erected at Lac La Belle, Keweenaw county. The Calumet & Hecla smelter at Hubbell was built in 1886, the Dollar Bay plant in 1888, the Quincy smelter in 1898, and the Michigan smelter in 1904.

Keweenaw, Houghton, and Ontonagon counties are considered the copper counties of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for it's within their limits that the major portion of the copper has been mined. The unquestioned leaders in the mining of this metal are the Calumet & Hecla and the Quincy Mining companies, the former of which is one of the largest in the United States, and the latter of which, while it is not as large, is favorably known for the large dividends it has always paid. The Quincy concern was incorporated March 30, 1848, with a capital of $500,000, was reincorporated in 1878 for a second period of thirty years and with a capital stock of $1,000,000, subsequently increased to $2,500,000, and entered upon its third thirty-year period of incorporation in 1908 with a capital stock of $3,750,000. The mine at Hancock was originally explored in 1856. The lands of the company now cover a large area, extending from the northern shore of Portage lake to a point half way between Hancock and Calumet, property that was acquired, in large part, from other mining enterprises, including the Pewabic Mining company, whose affairs were closed in 1905 and transferred to the Quincy Mining company at that time. The company has been aggressive in the acquirement of extensive docks at Hancock, has built its own railroad to connect its various mines, smelters, and mills, and has spared no pains to equip its mines with the most modern machinery of all kinds.

The Calumet & Hecla Mining company, one of the largest copper mining enterprises in the United States, was organized in 1871 under the laws of Michigan, its original capitalization having been $2,500,000. Its charter was renewed in 1900 for thirty years and was altered in 1905 to make the concern a security holding company as well as a mining and smelting organization. With the exception of the smelting, which is done at Buffalo, New York, the Calumet & Hecla company carries on all its mechanical work in this section. Representing a consolidation of the Hecla, Calumet, Portland, and Scott Mining companies, the Calumet & Hecla Mining company has various subsidiary organizations including the Frontenac Copper company, Gratiot Mining company, and the Manitou Mining company, while a majority of the stock of these companies is owned by the Calumet & Hecla company: Centennial, LaSalle, Superior, Dana, and St. Louis Copper companies, and the Allouez Mining company. Minor interests are owned in these companies as well: Osceola Consolidated, Laurium, and Seneca Mining companies. The Calumet & Hecla mine proper covers an approximate area of 2,750 acres, while other tracts are owned by the company as well. The richer portions of the conglomerate are, for the most part, located on the Calumet & Hecla property, this part of their holdings being worked in two separate mines, known as the Calumet & Hecla branches of South Hecla. The Calumet on the north, the Hecla in the center, and the South Hecla together form a continuous mine, developing the conglomerate ore deposits by inclined shafts with the exception of the Red Jacket mine, which taps the ore body vertically.

Perhaps no mining company in the United States has a better equipment throughout than has the Calumet & Hecla properties, for in the surface equipment, everything is duplicated as far as possible to obviate delays caused by the breaking of one particular kind of machinery. The company maintains its own large machine shop to handle the repair and building of tools and machines for use in the mines. The company maintains schoolhouses for the education of the children of its employees and supports a library of many thousand volumes for the use of the employees. At Lake Linden is a combination library and clubhouse for the use of the stamp mill and smelter employees. The company supplies hospital facilities for the miners and other persons in its employ. Three waterworks systems are maintained by the company, one at Lake Linden, one on the shore of Lake Superior four miles from Calumet, and a third at the mines in Calumet. The fire department affords the mines and company buildings the necessary protection and responds to calls from Red Jacket, Laurium, and other towns on the Calumet & Hecla property. The Hecla & Torch Lake railroad, owned by the corporation, connects the mills, mines, shops, and smelters by a line some twenty miles in length. In 1908, the mills of the company at Lake Linden were completely rebuilt, electric equipment being installed at that time. The Torch Lake smelter is located about a mile south of the mills at Hubbell, comprising four furnace buildings and a blister copper building. A sawmill at the head of Torch Lake cuts the lumber logged off the property of the company, the timbers thus made being used in the mines and in the construction of mine buildings of various kinds. The company owns and operates a ship canal from Torch Lake to the Government project at Portage lake, and ample dock facilities are maintained by the concern.

The Tamarack mine, said to the deepest copper mine in the world, is owned and operated by the Tamarack Mining company, which was incorporated in 1882 to work the end of the conglomerate lode where it passed from the Calumet & Hecla land into the Tamarack property. Captain John Daniell conceived the idea of tapping the lode by a series of vertical shafts, but inasmuch as the sinking of such deep shafts was considered impracticable in those days, he found some difficulty in interesting capital in the venture. However, the company was formed and three and a half years after the organization of the company, the first shaft was bottomed and production commenced. The Tamarack mine, with shafts sinking to a depth of a mile or more, has been one of the large producers of copper in the Lake Superior fields. The company also mines the Osceola amygdaloid lode, but the conglomerate forms the chief output of the company. Two stamp mills are maintained at Torch Lake about a mile south of the mills of the Calumet & Hecla Mining company.

The Copper Range Consolidated company, whose mine office is at Painesdale, Houghton county, and main offices are at Boston, Massachusetts, was organized in November, 1901, and now has a capitalization of $40,000,000. The assets of the company consist largely in stocks in subsidiary companies, by which it is the owner of the Baltic and Trimountain mines and has a half interest in the Champion mine. Thus, it is the second largest producer in the Lake Superior copper country and ranks among the twelve leaders in the world. The Trimountain Mining company was organized in 1899 and commenced reproduction in 1902, and the Champion Copper company was also organized in 1899. The stamp mill of the latter organization is located at Freda, on Lake Superior two miles west of Redridge. The Baltic Mining company, of Baltic, Michigan, southwest of Houghton county, was established in 1897 and began producing about three years later. Like the other two mines of the Copper Range Consolidated company, it is served by the Copper Range railroad.

The Isle Royale Consolidated Mining company was organized in 1899, and the mill site is located at the mouth of the Pilgrim river and has a frontage of nearly a mile on Portage lake. There the company maintains a six hundred-foot wharf from which ore barges are sent to the smelter of the Lake Superior company across the lake at Dollar Bay.

The Wolverine Copper company came into existence in 1890. Although the property of the company at Kearsarge, Houghton county, was opened in 1882, it did not become a good producer until 1892, the change being brought about by John Stanton, whose courage and good management made the venture a successful one. The mill was completed in 1902 and was located on Traverse bay, Lake Superior, near the Mohawk establishment.

The Centennial Copper Mining company was organized in 1896 to succeed the Centennial Mining company and is controlled by the Calumet & Hecla company. The first work on the Centennial lands was begun in 1863 by the old Schoolcraft Mining company, which failed to open a paying mine and was succeeded in 1876 by the Centennial Mining company, which was reorganized as the Centennial Copper Mining company in 1896. The new company did a few months' work on the old conglomerate lode in 1897. It then turned its attention to the Osceola lode and to the Kearsarge lode in 1899. The Centennial stamping mills are at Point Mills and were established in 1904 by the Arcadian Mining company.

The Mayflower Mining company began its operations in August, 1909, and its property extends from the Eastern Sandstone to the Wolverine mine, and the Old Colony mine, a subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla, is located just south of the Mayflower. The LaSalle Copper company, another subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla company, bought the old Tecumseh mine in May, 1910. The Osceola Consolidated Mining company has two stamp mills adjoining those of the Tamarack mills on Torch lake. The first mill, a wooden structure, was built in 1886 and torn down in 1905; the second was completed in 1899 and the third in 1902. The company was organized in 1873 and reincorporated in 1903 with a capital of $2,500,000 and controls the Osceola, Tamarack Junior, North Kearsarge, and South Kearsarge mines, in addition to large timber holdings in Houghton and Keweenaw counties.

The Hancock Consolidated Mining company was organized in 1906 and has a location of 936 acres adjoining the Quincy mine to the southwest. The tract includes the original Hancock mine, which was set aside by the Quincy Mining company in 1859 with mineral rights reserved, and the Quincy West and Hancock, or Sumner copper-bearing property.

A subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla is the Laurium Copper company, which began active mining developments on its property in August, 1909. Its original lands consisted of a section lying east of the Calumet & Hecla property, but about 250 acres of the land has been sold for platting the village of Laurium and another piece of about sixty-five acres was sold many years ago to the Calumet & Hecla Mining company.

Iron Mining. Hand in hand with the copper mining and the lumbering of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, came the development of the great iron fields that have been of equal importance in the commercial and industrial prosperity of this section of the state.

Although Indians antedating those found by the white men worked the copper deposits of the Upper Peninsula, the iron was apparently unknown to them, and the discovery of iron ore in this region may therefore be attributable to William R. Burt, who found it while conducting government survey work in Marquette county in 1844. Burt found in his surveying that the compass needle could not be relied upon because of peculiar magnetic action, and this observation led to the invention of the solar compass and to the discovery of iron ore. Believing that iron ore underlaid the ground of Marquette county, Burt reported what he had noticed, and in 1845 a company of Jackson men came to the present Marquette county and conducted the explorations that led to the discovery of the iron deposits of the Upper Peninsula. Under the decaying roots of an uprooted tree, the party found the iron ore for which it was looking, and in 1846, the Jackson mine produced the first iron ore of the peninsula, Negaunee, the site of the mine, being so named because it was there that the iron was discovered, Negaunee meaning, the first or pioneer. Early in 1848 blooms were made at a furnace built by the company on Carp river a few miles east of Negaunee. In that year, the dam for the forge, which had been carried away by a freshet soon after the forge had begun operations, February 10, 1848, was replaced, and a certain amount of ore was manufactured into blooms there until 1854. The high cost of transportation of the blooms to the market retarded the infant industry to a point where it was almost inactive, and it was not until the opening of the ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie that the iron mining industry gained the impetus that has made it one of the important fields in the United States.

The first shipment of ore was made from the fields in 1850 by A. L. Crawford, of Newcastle, Pennsylvania. The ore was smelted into blooms and rolled into merchant bars with which to make tests of the iron, and so high were the tests that the attention of the Pennsylvania iron and steel manufacturers was attracted to the Marquette iron range. General Curtis, proprietor of an iron works at Sharon, Pennsylvania, came to the new fields in the same summer and bought a controlling interest in the Jackson mine, which was thereafter known as the Sharon mine for some years. In 1852, about seventy tons of ore from the Jackson mine were taken to Sharon and smelted. However, the history of the Jackson mine, the pioneer opening in the Marquette iron range, is one of financial embarrassment, changes of management, and disappointments until 1860. In 1861, a new and able board of directors took charge of the affairs, and this fact coupled with the great demand for iron caused by the outbreak of the Civil war, the Jackson mine became so successful that the value of its stock jumped to five times par and there remained.

The Marquette Iron company was the second enterprise of that kind to become established in this region. In the summer of 1848, Edward Clark, of Worcester, Massachusetts, came to Lake Superior in the interest of Boston capitalists to explore for copper. At Sault Ste. Marie, he met Robert J. Graveraet who persuaded him to stop at Carp river and inspect the iron deposits. At that time, the forge of the Jackson company was in operation, and Clark was so impressed with abundance of the ore and the apparent high quality of the iron that he returned to Boston without once looking for copper, taking with him a sample of the ore and a bloom from the Jackson location. At Boston the bloom was drawn into wire with such success that Clark set about the formation of a company to enter the iron mining field of the Marquette range. Robert J. Graveraet joined Clark in Worcester, Massachusetts, that winter and they succeeded in interesting a number of men in the enterprise, including Amos R. Harlow. Against the capital of the others, Clark and Graveraet were to put up leases of iron lands which they claimed to own, and Harlow', the owner of a machine shop, built and purchased the machinery necessary to erect a forge on Lake Superior. Graveraet returned to Marquette early in the spring of 1849 with a party of men to be ready to receive the machinery and supplies, and Harlow and family followed about two months after the arrival of the machinery. Among the party brought by Graveraet was a boy, Peter White, he subsequently became one of the wealthiest and most influential men of that section of the state. More detailed information of the arrival of this party may be found in that part of the history dealing with Marquette county.

During the summer of 1849, the men built several log houses, a large log barn, and a log boarding house, and in the fall of that year the company's mine was opened. During that winter, twenty or more double teams were employed in hauling ore from the mine to the forge, which was completed and put into operation one year after the landing of Harlow and his men. During 1850-51, the Marquette company worked an opening in Section 11 and one in Section 10 and in the following winter as well. However, the Marquette Iron company came upon difficulties, for each member of the organization denied that the others were partners in the project, and with dissension rife within the ranks of those who financed the company, it was but to be expected that the time was not far off when it should either go out of business or be sold to another enterprise.

In April, 1853, the articles of incorporation for the Cleveland Iron Mining company were filed, the capital stock being set at $500,000. The previous winter, the company had acquired the rights and interests of the Marquette Iron company, for the Cleveland company had come into being prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1850. That state instrument prohibited the legislature from granting special charters of the kind which the Cleveland company had gained and thus it was that reincorporation came in 1853. The title to the property of the Cleveland organization was for some time in dispute. In 1846 a Dr. J. L. Cassells, of Cleveland, came to the Sault and took possession of a square mile of territory in the name of the Dead River Silver & Copper Mining company but left the country the next year. At that time, the property was taken possession of by Captain Samuel Moody, John H. Mann, and Edward C. Rogers, the first two claiming what afterward became the porperty of the Cleveland company and the last named squatting on the lands in sections 10 and 11. The Marquette Iron company had leased these lands from Clark and R. J. Graveraet, who claimed to be the representatives of Moody and Mann. A long controversy was settled when the Department of the Interior accorded the right of purchase to Lorenzo Dow Burnell, from whom the Cleveland company purchased the property. The company was subsequently consolidated with the Iron Cliffs company under the present name of the Cleveland Cliffs Iron Mining company, an organization that stands as one of the important and large operators in this section of the Michigan iron fields.

One of the three oldest companies in the district is the Lake Superior Iron company, which was incorporated March 13, 1873, with a capital stock of $300,000. What is now the Lake Superior mine was claimed by Graveraet under the Rogers' pre-emption in behalf of the Marquette Iron company. Rogers lost his interest by failing to reach the land office at the Sault in November, 1850, to attend a Government sale of lands, a storm on the lake delaying him. Isaiah Briggs then purchased the land in the name of John Burt under an agreement to lease an undivided one-half to Graveraet for a term of ninety-nine years. Graveraet in turn assigned his lease to the Marquette Iron company, the property thus coming to the Cleveland Iron Mining company and by it sold to the Lake Superior Iron company, a transaction that subsequently became a basis for a long suit against the company by A. R. Harlow.

The New England Mining company was incorporated in 1848 by a special act of the legislature, but nothing was done in mining by this concern, and in 1855 the charter passed into the hands of Captain E. B. Ward, who opened the New England mine in the spring of 1864.

The Eureka Iron company and the Collins Iron company were both incorporated in 1853, each having a capital stock of $500,000. The Eureka organization was formed for the purpose of mining Lake Superior iron and manufacturing charcoal pig iron, and to this end, the erection of a furnace was begun at Marquette, but the location was changed to Wyandotte, Michigan, and became the nucleus of the extensive iron works of that place, Captain E. B. Ward being one of the leaders in the enterprise. The property purchased by the company proved to be practically worthless for mining purposes, and it was sold back to A. R. Harlow, the original owner. The Collins Iron company built a forge in the fall of 1854 and began the manufacture of blooms. In 1858, Stephen R. Gay leased the forge, erected a cupola, and began making pig iron. The company then erected a blast furnace and began the manufacture of iron under the supervision of Mr. Gay. It went into its first blast on December 13, 1858.

The Peninsular Iron company was incorporated in 1854 and acquired the title to eight hundred acres of land, which was subsequently sold to the Lake Superior Iron company. The company erected a blast furnace at Hamtramck, Detroit, in 1863, and bought the Carp River furnace at Marquette in 1874.

The Forest Iron company was incorporated in 1855, but it failed after a brief career. The Pioneer Iron company erected the first blast furnace in the Marquette region, and though work was commenced in June, 1857, the articles of incorporation for the company were not filed until the following month. Stephen R. Gay and Lorenzo D. Harvey were the builders of the furnace which began operations in February, 1858, drawing its ore principally from the Jackson mine near which it was located. For the first few years of its existence, the furnace made no money, for in 1860 I. B. B. Case had contracted to deliver the pig iron on board vessels at Marquette at a contract price less than the manufacturing costs. The furnace was razed by fire in August, 1864, and was almost immediately rebuilt. Two years later, the Iron Cliffs company bought the enterprise and continued to operate it until it went out of business.

The Menominee iron range was the second to be discovered in the Upper Peninsula. Bartholomew and Thomas Breen were prominently engaged as timber cruisers and inspectors, and in 1866 they discovered an outcropping of ore at what is now the Breen mine in Dickinson county. But the prospect of development of the region was a poor one at that time, for no railroad penetrated that district to give an outlet to the lakes. The two Breens and Judge E. S. Ingalls set about the task of promoting the development of the great iron fields. They had also discovered what they believed to be large marble deposits a few miles distant from the iron beds, and to open the fields, they interested capital in the organization of the Deer Creek & Marble Quarry railroad to connect the prospective mines and quarries with the lake at Deer Creek. Before the project could be carried out, however, the Chicago & Northwestern railroad entered the field, making unnecessary the construction of the private railroad. This line was projected as far as Escanaba in 1872. The Menominee River Railway company was then organized under the control of the Northwestern to build a line into the Menominee iron range, receiving a grant of seven sections of land per mile to promote the construction of the proposed carrier. The first eighteen miles to the newly-opened works at Vulcan were built in the summer of 1877, and continued to Quinnesec in the fall of the same year.

In the meantime, further explorations had been conducted along the proposed route of the railroad in 1872 under the supervision of Dr. N. P. Hulst, the work being continued throughout that season and the one of the following year. Doctor Hulst is given much credit for the extensive explorations in this range and for the additional work on the Breen location under a lease from the Breen company. The Vulcan mine was discovered in 1873, and made its first ore shipments in 1877.

The Quinnesec mine formation was discovered in the fall of 1871, but it was not until May, 1873, that work was begun to determine the extent of the deposit and the character of the ore contained therein. Fifty-five tons of the ore were hauled to Menominee in the spring of 1874, where its tractability was proved in the smelter. The mine was officially opened in 1877 and the first rail shipments of ore made the following year. The Emmet was opened in 1877, and shipped nearly 12,000 tons of ore the following year. The Cyclops mine was discovered October 1, 1878, and was shipping 150 tons of ore per day by the twenty-fourth of that same month. The Curry mine was opened in 1887 and shipments begun the following year, when nearly 14,000 tons left the mine. The Saginaw mine, later named the Perkins, was also discovered in 1879, and began the regular shipments of ore the following year. The Cornell mine was discovered in 1879, and in 1880 shipped more than thirty thousand tons of ore. The Keel Ridge mine was discovered in 1879, and also began its shipments in 1880, although the total for the first year was less than half of that produced by the Cornell mine. The East Vulcan mine was opened in the same year as the two preceding ones. The Ludington mine, too, was opened in 1879, and the famous Chapin mine began its production in 1880. The Indiana mine was discovered in 1879, and the Millie mine in 1880, production beginning the following year.

The aggressiveness of the promoters of the mines in that section of the peninsula deserve great commendation for the manner in which they carried through the development of what proved to be one of the richest iron fields in the United States, for from the time the ore was first discovered in the Menominee range, those who purported to be authorities, claimed that it could never be successfully worked as long as the Marquette range was producing large quantities of high grade ore. Undiscouraged by the skeptical attitude of others, the Menominee entrepeneurs went steadily ahead, and perhaps no field has seen a quicker or more intensive opening than that under discussion.

The Breens, Judge Ingalls, John L. Buel, and S. P. Saxton stand among the pioneer developers of this field. To their vision, tireless labors, integrity, and unbounded faith in the future of the iron industry in this section of the state, the Menominee range owed its early and substantial development. However, there are others, younger men, whose names are indissolubly linked with the history of the industry there, they being Hulst, Cole, Davidson, MacNaughton, Jones, Brown, McLean, and others.

Close upon the heels of the beginning of iron production in the Menominee range came the discovery of iron in the Gogebic range. As the Breen brothers discovered the ore in the Menominee range while on a timber cruise, so is iron said to have been found on the site of the Colby mine by a lumberman and reported to Captain N. D. Moore, who is generally credited with having made the discovery of the ore in that range.

The Colby, the first mine opened in the Gogebic range, was opened on the site of this discovery and within a short time ranked among the leaders in production in the ranges of this part of the peninsula. At that time, the mine was in a wilderness, located far from Ontonagon, the county seat. As in the case of the mines of the Menominee range, the mine was forced to wait for the coming of the railroad for its development. The Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western was incorporated and projected for this purpose, subsequently becoming a part of the Chicago & Northwestern system. The road was built in 1884, and with the advent of adequate transportation facilities, settlers streamed into the country and the development of the mining properties began on a comprehensive scale.

The Ashland mine was discovered in the year of the coming of the railroad, 1884, and shipments of ore were begun the following year. The Norrie mine was opened in 1885 and began its shipments of ore in the same season. The Aurora and the Newport, then called the Iron King, were opened in 1886, and with this beginning, the Gogebic iron range assumed an important place among the iron ore producing fields of the country. Mines were uncovered in rapid succession, following the range easterly into Michigan and westerly into Wisconsin.

One of the important mining companies of the Upper Peninsula that has not yet been mentioned is the Oliver Iron Mining company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation. This company has mines in the Marquette range, operating there largely in the vicinity of Ishpeming, Marquette county, as well as at Bessemer, Gogebic county, and other portions of the various ranges. It is known as one of the largest producers and shippers of iron ore in the world, for it operates some of the largest and most productive mines in the various ranges of the Lake Superior as well as in the Missabe range of northern Minnesota.

Discovery of ore in the Iron River district is attributed to Harvey Mellen, a United States surveyor, who entered in his field book on August 8, 1851, that an outcropping of iron ore five feet high was found on the west face of Stambaugh hill fifty-two chains north of the southwest corner of section 36, township 43 north, range 35 west. Though this surveyor discovered iron there, neither he nor anyone else attempted to promote developments in the ore deposit thus discovered, and it was thirty-one years before active steps were to be taken in that direction. The first mine in that district was opened on the site of the outcropping discovered by Mellen, and the opening of the district came with the advent of the spur of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad from Stager, then known as Iron River Junction. Shipments began almost simultaneously from the Iron River and Nanaimo mines, these enterprises making the only important ore shipments until 1893. The Beta, Sheridan, and Hiawatha mines were opened in 1886, 1889, and 1893, respectively. That the ores of the district were chiefly non-Bessemer has been given as the reason for the slow development of this field, for mining capital was largely attracted to the newly-opened Bessemer fields of Vermilion and Penokee-Gogebic ranges. The deposits, too, were overlaid by deep glacial drift, and titles were in litigation for many years, two more reasons for the slow opening of the range of this section. One of the notable, and unsuccessful achievements of that time, was the attempt of the Iron River Furnace company to establish a blast furnace on the opposite side of the river and north of Nanaimo mine. From 1893 to 1899, the iron mining industry was in a state of depression, but after this period, production began anew. The Mastodon Iron company, of Crystal Falls, explored the property of the Dober mine, which was subsequently purchased by the Oliver Iron Mining company and has become one of the largest producers in the district. The Verona Mining company explored the Baltic mine in 1900, and began shipments of ore from that property in 1901. The Hiawatha began shipping in 1900 and the Caspian in 1902. The Iron River mine, which had been inactive since 1892, was reopened in 1903, and Young's mine came into being in 1904. The first shipments from the James and Brule mines were made in 1907, from the Berkshire and Zimmerman in 1908, and from the Fogarty, Chatham, and Baker mines in 1909.

Other Industries. While the lumbering of the past and the mining activities of today form a great part of the industrial life of the Upper Peninsula, it must be remembered that enterprising manufacturers and business men have introduced other lines of endeavor that have added materially to the prosperity of this section of the state, doing much to remove the people from the depressions caused when communities are dependent almost entirely upon one or two industrial ventures for their subsistence.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

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