HISTORIC MICHIGAN
Land of the Great Lakes
Author: George Newman Fuller (1873-1957)
In Two Volumes edited by George N. Fuller
Transcribed by Debi Hanes

Also a History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Volume III
Including -- Alger, Baraga, Chippewa, Delta, Dickinson, Gogebic, Houghton, Iron, Keweenaw,
Luce, Mackinac, Marquette, Menominee, Ontonagon and Schoolcraft

Published by the National Historical Association Inc.
and dedicated to the Michigan Pioneer & Historical Society in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary.

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Biographical Sketches

Peter White. Perhaps no man had a more marked influence upon the development of Marquette and this section of the Upper Peninsula than did Peter White, whose life was spent in an unselfish advocacy of those measures which would tend to place this region among the leading industrial and commercial section of the state. He was the grandson of Captain Stephen White, a Revolutionary war soldier of Ballston, Saratoga county, New York, and was the son of Dr. Stephen and Harriette (Tubbs) White, the former of whom kept one of the first hotels at Rome, Oneida county, New York, and the latter of whom was the daughter of Asa and Philette (Corcoran) Tubbs. Peter White was born at Rome, New York, October 31, 1820, and when he was a small boy his mother died, his father taking Mary Quintard to be his second wife. When the boy was twelve years of age, the family came West, locating at Green Bay, Wisconsin. Peter White was unhappy in his new home, and when he was thirteen years of age, he ran away from home, shipping aboard a schooner bound for Mackinac Island. Thus, he inaugurated his independent career, for from that time forward he supported himself. For two years, he was employed in a store at Mackinaw by Edward Kanter, and during this time, he was a member of the boat crew for Captain August Canfield, U.S.A. In 1849, when he was eighteen years of age, Peter White came to Marquette county with a party of prospectors searching for iron deposits, and his own account of his first days in the region where he was destined to rise to prominence is given in part in the history of this county. When Marquette county was organized, he was elected county clerk and register of deeds and served as deputy county treasurer at the same time, so that a deed to be valid in those days, it was thought must have his name in three places as register of deeds, notary, and witness. In 1855, he bought the Cleveland store at Marquette and engaged in a general trade with his brother as partner. In the same year, he was admitted to practice at the bar, he having applied himself to the study of law in his spare hours, and formed a partnership with M. H. Maynard under the firm style of White & Maynard. The firm was engaged in virtually all the lawsuits of the county during the next ten years and was widely known throughout this section of the Upper Peninsula. In 1857, he was appointed register of the United States Land Office and procured its removal from Sault Ste. Marie to Marquette, at which time he disposed of his mercantile interests. Politically, he was an unswerving Democrat until the first Bryan campaign, when he became a Republican, later being elected a regent of the University of Michigan on that ticket. He assisted in the organization of the first school district in the county in 1855 and served as a member of the school board and treasurer of that body continuously after 1857. In 1856, Mr. White was elected to represent this district in the state legislature, and in 1876, he was elected to a seat in the state senate, during which term of office he secured the passage of many bills of vital importance to the Upper Peninsula, including one for the construction of the railroad from Marquette to the Straits of Mackinac. He was influential in the formation of St. Paul's Episcopal parish in 1855 and was an officer of the church during almost the entire time he was an active member of that body. In 1853, the private banking house of Peter White & Company came into existence and supplied a much needed want of the community during the ensuing ten years. In 1863, the business was incorporated as the First National bank, Mr. White serving as cashier until 1868, at which time he assumed the duties of president, continuing in that capacity throughout the remainder of his life. The work of Mr. White in connection with the bank is one of the high lights of the financial history of the Upper Peninsula, for he was largely instrumental in bringing the institution safely through the panic of 1873. The death of Peter White occurred June 6, 1908, and Marquette mourned the loss of one of her most valuable citizens. In the civic affairs of his community, he was deeply interested, and it is solely through his farsightedness and unselfish interest in the welfare of the city that Presque Isle park has been maintained in its primitive grandeur for the delight of the people. In 1857, Mr. White married Ellen S. Hewitt, the daughter of Dr. M. L. Hewitt, and they became the parents of two daughters, Mrs. A. C. Jopling and Mrs. George Shiras, III.

George Shiras, III, is well known to the people of Marquette, Michigan, where he is president of the Lake Superior Development company and a director of the Lake Shore Engine works. He was born at Allegheny, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1859, the son of George, Jr., and Lillie E. (Kennedy) Shiras, and pursued his early studies in the schools of his native place. In 1881, he graduated from Cornell university and two years later he won the degree of bachelor of laws from Yale university. In 1918, Trinity college conferred upon him the doctorate in science. In 1883, Mr. Shiras was admitted to practice in Pennsylvania and Connecticut and at that time went into practice with his father, an association that was continued until the latter was appointed to a seat on the bench of the United States Supreme Court in 1892. Thereafter, until 1904, Mr. Shiras was a member of the law firm of Shiras & Dickey, of Pittsburgh, becoming known as one of the ablest attorneys in that city. During that time, he interested himself in politics. He was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the session of 1889-90, and he served in the Fifty-eighth Congress, 1903-5, having been elected to that seat by the Citizens party which was composed of Republicans who were dissatisfied with the local Republican organization. Though nationally a Republican, in his campaign for election to Congress he received the endorsement of the Democrats in his district. Since 1905, Mr. Shiras has written extensively upon legal questions dealing with federal jurisprudence and upon biological subjects. A student of natural history and a lover of the wild life of the country, Mr. Shiras has been an ardent exponent of measures calculated to conserve the game of the United States. He was the author of a bill placing Federal control over migratory bids which became a law on March 4, 1913. In 1914, he was appointed to serve as a member of the advisory board of the Migratory Bird Treaty Regulations of the Department of Agriculture, and since 1912, he has been vice-president of the American Game Protective association. He is a director of the National Parks association, director of the Council on National Parks, Forests and Wild Life, of New York, a member of the executive committee of the American Conference on Outdoor Recreation, at Washington, a trustee of the National Geographic society, and president of the League of Wild Life Photographers. Mr. Shiras is well known for his ability as a photographer of wild life, having gained national prominence in this field. On October 31, 1885, Mr. Shiras married Frances P. White, the daughter of Peter White, of Marquette, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work, and to this union were born two children, George Peter, deceased, and Ellen Kennedy, who married Frank J. Russell. Mr. Shiras is a member of the Boone and Crockett club and the Explorers club, of New York, the Chevy Chase Country club, of Maryland, the Cosmos club, of Washington, the University club, of Pittsburgh, and the Rotary club, of Marquette. During the winter months, Mr. Shiras maintains a home in Washington, D. C., but his summers are spent at Marquette, where the forests of the Upper Peninsula afford him rich opportunity to observe the wild life of which he is so fond. He is a prominent figure in the industrial life of this city as president of the Lake Superior Development company and a director of the Lake Shore Engine works.

Patrick W. Murray, who has long been one of the leaders in civic and business affairs in the city of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, was born and reared in this fine "north country" of Michigan, and his has been an appreciative interest in its history and its progress. Mr. Murray was born on Mackinac Island, which is included in the county which still represents his home, and the date of his birth was May 4, 1859. He is a son of Dominic and Ann (White) Murray, the former of whom was born in Ireland, August 1, 1820, and the latter of whom was born at Rutland, Vermont, she having been young when her parents came to the West, the trip having been made partially by boat and the family having thus voyaged on the Great Lakes to Chicago, to the west of which now great metropolis the home was established. Dominic Murray was reared in his native land and was an ambitious youth of twenty years when he came to the United States. He was one of the pioneer settlers on Mackinac Island, where he established himself in 1845, he having been, however, one of the adventurous spirits who went to California at the time of the historic discovery of gold in that state, in 1849. After his return to Mackinac Island he continued for many years to be engaged in the mercantile and hotel business and played a large and worthy part in the local history of this north district of Michigan. He served twenty years as sheriff of Mackinac county, in the early days, and was a pioneer merchant both on Mackinac Island and at St. Ignace, he having initiated his mercantile business in 1860. Dominic Murray was one of the well-known and highly honored pioneer citizens of the Upper Peninsula country at the time of his death, in October, 1902, when he was eighty-two years of age. His religious faith was that of the Catholic church, of which his wife likewise was an earnest communicant, she having been venerable in years at the time of her death, December 25, 1923, and having been one of the gracious and loved pioneer women of Mackinac county, she having come to this county in 1856 and having here passed the remainder of her life. The pioneer schools of his native county afforded Patrick W. Murray his early education, which was supplemented by a course in the Bryant & Stratton Business college in the city of Chicago. He gained youthful experience in connection with his father's hotel and mercantile business, and in 1880 he established at St. Ignace the mercantile business that he has continued during the long intervening years and that has represented one of the leading enterprises of this kind in the city and county. Mr. Murray has seen and participated in much of the development and progress of this section of his native state, and his mercantile business now ranks as the oldest established enterprise of its kind in the county. Mr. Murray has served as county treasurer and as judge of the probate court of Mackinac county, and was for many years a member of the St. Ignace board of education. He has been prominently concerned in lumbering operations, is now president of the First National Bank of St. Ignace, and is treasurer of the St. Ignace Transfer company. He is a communicant of the Catholic church, is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, is a Democrat in politics, and is a member of the Lions club in his home city. It may be noted incidentally that his father was sheriff of Mackinac county during the period in which "King" Strang reigned over the historic Mormon colony on Beaver Island, which was then a part of Mackinac county. In the history of this county the Murray family has figured as one of major prominence and influence since the early pioneer days, and the subject of this review is one of a family of eleven children, all of whom still survive the honored parents: David W. is now judge of the probate court of Mackinac county and is represented in a personal sketch in this history; Mrs. E. Sims is a resident of Chicago; Misses Winifred, Anna, Delia and Edith still reside on Mackinac Island; Mrs. James E. Quinland of St. Ignace died March 17, 1927; James W. resides at St. Ignace and is manager of the new Murray Hotel on Mackinac Island; Thomas J. is engaged in lumbering operations and resides at St. Ignace; Bernard D. conducts one of the leading furnishing-goods stores in St. Ignace.

David W. Murray, who is now serving as judge of the probate court of Mackinac county, is a representative of one of the old, honored, and influential families of this county, due record concerning his parents being given in the personal sketch of his older brother, P. W., on other pages of this work. Judge Murray was born on Mackinac Island, April 6, 1863, and in the schools of that fair northern isle he gained his early education, which has been amplified by well-ordered reading and study and by active association with the practical affairs of life. After his school days he became associated with his father's mercantile and hotel business on the island, and in the year that he attained to his legal majority he was elected clerk of the village of Mackinac Island. That he proved a popular and efficient public official is indicated by the fact that he was later elected township supervisor, besides serving thereafter as city clerk, city assessor and a member of the city council, besides being finally chosen mayor of Mackinac Island, after the village had gained a city charter. He has served continuously as judge of the probate court of his native county since 1908, with the executive headquarters at St. Ignace, the county seat. Judge Murray is a loyal advocate and supporter of the principles and policies of the Democratic party, he and his family are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. Cecilia L. (Latus) Murray, wife of Judge Murray was born in the city of Chicago, Illinois, and is a daughter of the late Henry and Catherine Latus, her father having long been engaged in the mercantile business in Chicago. Latus, elder of the two children of Judge and Mrs. Murray, is twenty years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27, and is a student in the University of Detroit, in the metropolis of Michigan; Cecelia L., a daughter seventeen years of age, is a student in the Ursuline academy of this city, graduating from that institution this year.

Prentiss M. Brown is one of the representative members of the bar of his native city and county, where, in St. Ignace, the county seat, he served as prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county until 1927. Mr. Brown was born at St. Ignace, June 18, 1889, and is a son of James J. and Minnie (Gagnon) Brown, both of whom were born in the city of Detroit, this state, where they were reared and where their marriage was solemnized. James J. Brown gained high reputation in his chosen profession, served as city attorney of Detroit, later engaged in the practice of law at Cheboygan and there served as prosecuting attorney of Cheboygan county, and after his removal to St. Ignace he served as prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county. He established his residence in St. Ignace in 1887, was here engaged in the successful practice of his profession more than thirty years, and he was one of the leading and honored members of the bar of Mackinac county at the time of his death, in 1920, his wife having passed away in 1902. At the time of birth of Prentiss M. Brown his father was prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county and the circuit court was in session at St. Ignace, when Judge Steere, who was then presiding on the bench of this court, learned of the birth of the son of the able and popular prosecuting attorney of the county, he promptly adjourned court in honor of the event. Prentiss M. Brown gained his early education in the public schools of St. Ignace, and thereafter continued his studies at Albion college, this state. In preparation for the profession that had been dignified and honored by the character and services of his father, he entered the law department of the University of Illinois, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1913. After thus receiving his degree of bachelor of laws he was forthwith admitted to the Michigan bar and engaged in the practice of his profession in his native city of St. Ignace. In the following year, 1914, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county, and by successive re-elections he has been continuously retained in this office, his sixth consecutive term-the best possible evidence of the high popular estimate placed upon his vigorous and resourceful administration. His professional activities have included also his service as city attorney of St. Ignace and of the city of Mackinac Island, which likewise is in Mackinac county. Mr. Brown has had much of leadership in the councils and campaign activities of the Democratic party in this section of Michigan, was chairman of the Michigan state convention of his party in 1924, in which year he was also a Michigan delegate to the Democratic national convention, in New York City, and in 1924 he was the Democratic nominee for representative of the Eleventh district of Michigan in the United States congress, his campaign having been a canvass of vital order and having made his run excellent, though he met with defeat, with the rest of the party ticket. Mr. Brown is a member of the Mackinac County Bar association and the Michigan State Bar association, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Delta Tau Delta college fraternity, and is an active member of the Lions club in his home city. In the year 1916 Mr. Brown united in marriage to Miss Marian Walker, who likewise was born and reared at St. Ignace, and who is a daughter of Frank S. Walker. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have six children, whose names and respective ages (winter 1926-27) are here recorded: Marianna F., nine years; Ruth M., eight years; James J., named in honor of his paternal grandfather, five years; Barbara J., three years; Patricia Jane, two years; and Prentiss M., Jr., sixteen months.

James E. Quinlan, who died March 13, 1927, was a most efficient, scholastic, and executive administrator as commissioner of the public schools of the city of St. Ignace, of which office he had been the incumbent since 1919, he having previously made a record of successful service as a teacher in the schools of this city during a period of twelve years. He was one of the prominent and influential figures in educational service on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Mr. Quinlan was born at Carsonville, Sanilac county, Michigan, October 27, 1885, a son of William T. and Margaret (McCormick) Quinlan, whose marriage was solemnized in the late sixties. William T. Quinlan was born in Waterford, Ireland, and in the year 1855 he joined his parents in Sanilac county, Michigan, where his father and mother had just established their home, he having preceded them to the United States and having first settled at New Orleans, Louisiana, as a young man. Later he resided in turn at Chicago and Detroit, and it was from the latter city that he went to Sanilac county in 1855, the year in which his parents came from Ireland and gained pioneer honors in that county. William T. Quinlan was graduated in the great University of Dublin, Ireland, was a man of fine intellect, and had followed the profession of accountant and bookkeeper until he joined his parents on their pioneer farm in Sanilac county, Michigan, where he passed the remainder of his life and where he was a venerable pioneer at the time of his death, in 1908, his wife having passed away in 1891. Mrs. Quinlan was born in Sydney, Australia, and was young when her parents came to the United States and established their residence in Mobile, Alabama. The family home was later maintained for a time in the city of Chicago, and finally the parents became pioneer settlers in Sanilac county, Michigan, where in the later sixties, occurred the marriage of the parents of James Quinlan of this review. The public schools of his native county afforded James Quinlan his early education and after there completing his studies in the Carsonville high school, he took a preparatory course at Ferris institute, Big Rapids, this state, besides attending for a time Valparaiso university, at Valparaiso, Indiana. In 1916 he was graduated in the Northern State Normal school of Michigan, and he has since taken effective post-graduate work in the University of Michigan. In the autumn of 1907 Mr. Quinlan became a teacher in the schools of St. Ignace, and in this connection he continued his loyal and successful pedagogic service twelve years. He was principal of the high school at the time of his election to the office of commissioner of the public schools of this county, in 1919, and in this office his work was characteristically loyal and constructive. Mr. Quinlan was a director of the Upper Peninsula Development Bureau and also of the First National bank of St. Ignace. His political allegiance was to the Democratic party, he and his wife were communicants of the Catholic church, and he affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and in his home community held membership in the Lions club and the St. Ignace Golf & Country club. His wife died March 17, 1927. Her maiden name was Beatrice Murray. She was a representative of one of the honored pioneer families of Mackinac county, and record concerning the family history appears in the personal sketch of her brother Patrick W., on other pages of this work.

Charles Barnes has been intermittently associated with his father, Charles I. Barnes, in contract construction work in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, and he here has rank as one of the successful contractors of the younger generation in Chippewa county, with headquarters at No. 605 Johnson street. His is the distinction of having served in the United States navy in the World war period, and the same spirit of loyalty has characterized his business career. Of the family history adequate record is given in the personal sketch of his father, on other pages of this work. Mr. Barnes was born at Sault Ste. Marie July 21, 1896, and after duly profiting by the advantages of the public schools of this city he was here employed four years by the Union Carbide company. He was then associated for a time with M. N. Hunt, a successful contractor, and he then resumed his service at the plant of the Union Carbide company, with which he continued his connection until he entered the United States navy for World war service. After the close of the war and his reception of an honorable discharge, Mr. Barnes was employed four months at the establishment of the Soo Machine & Auto works, next followed, a period of further connection with the Union Carbide company, and he then, in 1920, went to Rochester, Minnesota, where he remained one year. Thereafter he was employed for a time at Manistique, Michigan, and he was next employed on the erection of the high-school building at Munising, another of the vital little cities of the Upper Peninsula. He then returned to Sault Ste. Marie and became associated with his father's contracting operations, but he passed the following year in working at his trade of brick mason in the city of Ann Arbor. With occasional intermissions he has maintained since 1922 a partnership with his father in the contracting enterprise, and in this connection, as well as in his status as a loyal and progressive citizen, he is well upholding the honors of the family name. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Florence O. Comb, was born at Sault Ste. Marie August 22, 1897, and is a daughter of John and Sarah (Dean) Comb, the former of whom was born in Edinborough, Scotland, and the latter near Stainer, Ontario, Canada. John Comb was about one year old at the time of his parents' immigration to Canada, where he was reared and educated and where his marriage was solemnized, the major part of his active career having been marked by his close association with farm industry. He celebrated his seventieth birthday anniversary October 4, 1926, and his wife celebrated the sixty-second anniversary of her birth on the 8th of August of the same year. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes are popular figures in the social life of their home city. A son was born to them October 26, 1926.

John M. Longyear, who died May 28, 1922, at the age of seventy-two years, will long be remembered as one of the influential citizens of Marquette and one of the conspicuous figures in the iron mining industry in this section of the state as well as in the iron ranges of northern Minnesota. On both sides of his house, he traces his ancestry to the early colonial era in America, Jacobus Langjahr, the first of his name to locate in this country, settling in Ulster county, New York, about 1750. In the distaff line, Mr. Longyear traces his lineage to Capt. Josiah Munro, a Connecticut soldier of the Revolution who participated in the Canadian expedition and who subsequently established his home at Pawlet, Vermont. Peter Longyear, grandfather of John M., came to Michigan from Ulster county, New York, about 1840 and John Wesley Longyear, father of John M., became prominent in the affairs of the state, having served as a member of congress and, subsequent to that, judge of the United States District Court at Detroit. John M. Longyear was born at Lansing, Michigan, April 15, 1850, and attended the public schools of his native place until he was thirteen years of age. At that time, he entered Olivet college to pursue a college preparatory course, and after a year so spent, he entered Georgetown university at Washington, where he was in attendance one year. Returning to Lansing when he was fifteen years of age, he became a clerk in the postoffice at a monthly salary of twenty dollars. His health failed, however, and during the ensuing five years, he was virtually an invalid although he managed to scale lumber in the Saginaw valley for a short time and to work in a drug store for a brief period. In 1872, while his family was residing in Detroit, Mr. Longyear determined to find some sort of outside work in the hope of regaining his health, and in company with James M. Turner, he came to Cheboygan county as a land looker. The following year found him in the employ of the state in the Upper Peninsula examining state reserve school lands to determine their mineral values. As a result of his explorations, the public school lands were placed on the market at a substantially increased price. This work consumed but a short time, however, and Mr. Longyear then became a land looker for Charles Hebard, at Pequaming. His travels through the Upper Peninsula convinced Mr. Longyear that great opportunities awaited the energetic and ambitious business man in this region, and he accordingly determined to establish his home in this region. In 1878 he applied for and secured the appointment as agent for the Lake Superior Ship Canal Railroad & Iron company, a position which he retained until the time of his death. The concern subsequently became the Keweenaw Land association, and is still known by that name. With the discovery of vast deposits of non-magnetic iron ore in Northern Minnesota on what became known as the Mesaba range, Mr. Longyear went to that region and allied himself with the late Russell M. Bennett, playing an important part in the development of the district. He interested Jackson capitalists in the possibilities of the Mesaba range, and the result was the organization of the Longyear-Mesaba Land & Iron company. Mr. Longyear, president of the new company, selected all the land, directed explorations, and superintended all development, the headquarters of the organization being maintained at Jackson. Subsequently, he acquired other valuable properties on the Mesaba range. In 1903, when the Michigan Land & Iron company, in which Lord Brassey, of London, owned a large interest, decided upon a change in managers, Mr. Longyear was chosen as the new manager of the property which comprised some 300,000 acres in the center of the Upper Peninsula. In this office, he continued until the time of the sale of the holdings to Henry Ford. Mr. Longyear became interested in the purchase of coal mines at Spitzbergen, being associated with the late Frederick Ayer, of Boston, in this work. The mines were subsequently sold to a group of Norwegian capitalists at a later date, Mr. Longyear retaining some of his interest. Though his business interests were extensive and varied, Mr. Longyear took an active part in the civic affairs of Marquette, for he served as mayor in 1890 and 1891 and was a member of the board which established thie first hydro-electric power plant here. He was one of the original stockholders of the Marquette National bank, now the Union National bank, serving as president for many years, and was a stockholder of the Lake Shore Engine works. He donated the site on which was built the Peter White Public library and was instrumental in bringing to this city the Northern State Normal school, which was built on land donated by Longyear and Ayer. The first building on the campus was named Longyear hall in his honor. He also donated the Longyear Athletic field to the Luther L. Wright high school in Ironwood. He was founder and president of the Huron Mountain club, president of the Marquette County Historical society, a member of the board of control of the Michigan College of Mines since 1888 except for two years, a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an honarary member of the Marquette Rotary club. He was a Thirty-second degree Mason, a member of the Francis M. Moore Consistory, and a Shriner. He also belonged to the Marquette club, the Detroit club, and the Twentieth Century club, of Boston, Massachusetts, and attended the First Church of Christ, Scientist, at Boston. On January 4, 1879 he married Mary Hawley Beecher, in Battle Creek, Michigan, and they became the parents of five children, as follows: Mrs. Alton T. Roberts, of Marquette; Mrs. J. M. Lyeth, deceased; Mrs. Carroll Paul, of Marquette; John M., Jr., of Marquette; and Robert Dudley, American consul at Geneva, Switzerland.

John Munro Longyear, Jr., is one of the most prominent business men of Marquette, Michigan, where he is carrying on the work in mining properties established by his father. He was born in this city, October 12, 1889, and obtained his early education in the public schools of his native community. He then attended Franklin college of Dresden, Germany; Mr. Denny's school at Auteuil, Paris, France; Noble and Greenough school at Boston, Massachusetts; and pursued his college preparatory courses at the Manor school of Stamford, Connecticut, and the Mt. Pleasant Military academy, Ossining, New York. His university career was gained in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard college, Michigan College of Mines, Harvard Graduate School of Applied Science, and the University of Wisconsin. He specialized in mining work and geology in order that he might fit himself in the best possible way to handle the family affairs when such duty should devolve upon him. The extent of the Longyear estate, which may be found in the biographical record of John M. Longyear,, Sr., is such as to demand the highest training and ability in its management, and Mr. Longyear has gained an enviable reputation for his knowledge of mining and mining properties. On May 24, 1913, Mr. Longyear married Elizabeth Barrett, of Houghton, Michigan, and to them were born two children; John Munro, III, born July 30, 1914, at Houghton, Michigan; and Marion, born October 17, 1921, at Jamaica Plains, Boston, Massachusetts. Mrs. Longyear was the daughter of Fred C. and Marion Barrett, the former of whom was the superintendent of the electric light plant at Houghton before its purchase by Stone & Webster, after which he became an electrical contractor. On December 22, 1923, at Tonapah, Nevada, Mr. Longyear married Wanda Rae Archambeau, of Marquette, she being the daughter of Louis E. and Mabel Archambeau, of this city, of whom more may be found elsewhere in this work.

Archambeau Family. Among the pioneer families of Marquette county are found those bearing the names of Archambeau and Bergeron, both of French-Canadian extraction. Nicholas T. Archambeau was born at St. Lin, L'Assomption county, Quebec, Canada, July 10, 1840, and when he was seventeen years of age, he came to the vicinity of Green Bay, Wisconsin, whence, in 1857, he walked with several companions to Marquette, Michigan. The long journey afoot was not without its hardships and privations, but the party reached its destination safely. Here, Nicholas T. Archambeau secured employment on the Marquette & Bay de Noquet railroad, then in the course of construction. For twenty years thereafter, he worked on the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon railroad. In 1861, he married Adaline Bergeron, who was born at Au Sable, New York, in 1844 and came to Marquette with her parents and grandfather in 1852. This happy union was blessed with the following children: Adalin, Nelson, Alfred E., Joseph C., Louis E., Lucy, and Edward N. Joseph Bergeron, great great grandfather of Mrs. Longyear was a French-Canadian by birth and served with the British troops in the War of 1812 as a cavalryman, participating in the battle of Plattsburgh. Following the war, he settled in New York, whence he came to Marquette with his son and the latter's family. Joseph Bergeron's children, all of whom are deceased, were as follows: Margaret, Louis, Nelson J., Emily, Mathilda, Cyrille, Moses, John, Derrick, Jerome, and Joseph. Nelson J. Bergeron was born in New York state and spent the greater part of his early life in New York state. He removed to Marquette, Michigan, in 1850 and was followed by his father and family two years later. A carpenter by trade, he erected the first frame building at Negaunee and the first one at Marquette, also assisting in the building of the old courthouse and the first church which was on the site of the present residence of the bishop. His widow, Mrs. Flavia Bergeron, died in 1923, leaving eight children, Oliver, Mrs. Adaline Archambeau, Flavia Nadeau, Mrs. Mary Mitchell, Mrs. Mathilda Ducharme, Nelson, Lucy, and Louis. Nelson J. Bergeron retired from active work in 1875 and died July 14, 1895. His wife had been born at Fort Ticonderoga, New York, August 28, 1823. Her account of the advent of the family to Marquette is given as follows: "We left Au Sable about the middle of July, 1852, traveling overland to Buffalo and from there to Marquette by boat, arriving here on board the steamer Baltimore, September 2, 1852. Other residents of Au Sable who accompanied us were David Laplant, Edward Bureau, Frank LaBonte, and Antoine Deloria. We rented a cabin of Sam Wilkes and my husband made a few necessary articles of furniture, using the lumber of the packing boxes in which our bedding had been packed. In 1853, Father Menet, a Jesuit, came from Sault Ste. Marie and gave first communion to some of the children, among whom were my two daughters, Flavia and Adaline. The services were held at the residence of Oliver Laplant. This was to my knowledge the first class to receive first communion in this city. Two years afterward, my husband helped to erect the first Roman Catholic church or chapel built here. It was a two-story structure. The lower story was constructed of logs and the upper story was frame. Services were held on the first floor, and the pastor, Father Sebastian Duroc, had his living rooms on the second floor. The chapel stood on the site now occupied by the Bishop's residence at the corner of Rock and Fourth streets. The first public school, consisting of two rooms, erected on the site now occupied by the city hall, was attended by my two daughters. Among those who taught at that time were Miss Jones, Miss Buckby, Mr. Gard Maynard, and Miss Mary Huntoon, later Mrs. Mary Campbell." Wanda Rae Archambeau, granddaughter of this woman and the daughter of Louis E. and Mabel Archambeau, married John M. Longyear, Jr., of whom more may be found on other pages of this work.

The Boynton Family has been long and prominently concerned with the annals of civic and material development and, progress in the fair Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and a record of the family well merits place in this publication. Captain Lewis R. Boynton who died April 30, 1927 was the original representative of the family on the Upper Peninsula and was numbered among the well known citizens of St. Ignace, his having been a long and successful association with navigation interests on the Great Lakes. Captain Boynton was a representative of a family that was founded in Michigan in the territorial period, as is indicated by the fact that he was born at Port Huron, Michigan, December 9, 1833. He was a son of Granville F. and Frances (Rendt) Boynton, the former of whom was born in Rochester, New York, and the latter in Montreal, Canada, they having been pioneer settlers at Port Huron, Michigan, where, as a contractor, Granville F. Boynton built the first steam saw mill there to be placed in operation, besides which he was there employed in the office of a pioneer newspaper, he having been comparatively a young man at the time of his death, in 1846, and his widow having survived him by nearly half a century and having continued her residence at Port Huron until her death, February 14, 1894. The Boynton family was founded in America in the early colonial period, the first representatives having come from England and made settlement in Massachusetts. Captain Lewis R. Boynton received his youthful education in the pioneer schools of Port Huron and there he learned the printer's trade, in the office of the Port Huron Observer. However, his was to be of greater prominence in connection with navigation on the Great Lakes. In 1847, when he was a lad of fourteen years, he gained his initial seafaring experience, and in the passing years he advanced to the status of master and owner of lake vessels. His first berth was on the schooner Grace Amelia, commanded by Captain Dillon, and during the next navigation season he was employed on the steamer Mariner, under Captain James. In 1849 he shipped on the schooner Petrel, and in 1850 he took a position on the Huron, the first high-pressure steamboat built by the Wards. In the ensuing three years he served in turn as wheelsman on the Chautauqua, the Champion and the Franklin Moore, plying between Detroit and Port Huron, and in 1854 he was made second mate on the Princeton. Thereafter he served one season as mate of the Huron and one year as mate of the Julius D. Morton. In 1857 he became master of the steamer T. Whitney, of which he had command two seasons. In 1859 he purchased two recently completed lake tugs, the Mayflower and the M. I. Mills, and in 1861 he became master of the Iron City, of which he retained command two years. During the next two seasons he was in command of the Galena, and the ensuing four navigation seasons found him similarly retained on the Winona. He then gave three years of service as master of the St. Paul, and after purchasing an interest in the Rhoda Stewart he was in command of that vessel two years, at the expiration of which he sold his interest. In 1884 Captain Boynton established his residence at St. Ignace and became superintendent of the marine service of the Mackinac Transportation company. In this connection he assumed command of the old icecrusher freight and passenger steamer known as the Algomah, plying between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, across the straits of Mackinac, besides assuming supervision of the company's car ferries between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City. As commodore of the company's fleet he superintended all construction and repair work, and also became managing owner of the steamers Algomah and Waukon. Captain Boynton had long experience in command of the Algomah while that gallant old ice-crusher was in service as the connecting transportation link between the upper and. lower peninsulas of Michigan, and in the winter of 1898-99 he thoroughly renovated, and practically rebuilt, this vessel. The Captain was known and honored as one of the loyal and public-spirited citizens of St. Ignace during the many years of his residence here, and he had standing as one of the most venerable of the pioneers in navigation on the Great Lakes, he having been retired on a pension and having celebrated in 1926 the ninety-third anniversary of his birth. This sterling patriarch in St. Ignace affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Knights of the Maccabees, the while his was a long and loyal support of the Democratic party. On the 15th of September 1853, Captain Boynton was united in marriage to Miss Sarah E. Kendall, daughter of Oliver and Betsy (Wilkinson) Kendall, of Algonac, Michigan. She died in 1921. At this juncture is given brief record concerning the children of Captain and Mrs. Boynton: Lewis K. is employed by the Ford Motor company in Detroit, this state; Arthur H. superintendent of the Port Huron Gas works for thirty-seven years, now retired; Granville W. was master of the steamship Algomah, plying as a ferry between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, now deceased; Wilbur P. now deceased was engineer of the steamer Niagara; Albert H. retired and now lives in Florida; Raymond E. deceased was abstract clerk in the St. Ignace offices of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad; Oliver C. is engaged in the drug business at St. Ignace; Walter C. deceased was in the grocery business in this city; Fannie is the widow of George W. Westover, of Duluth, Minn.; Adeline A., the widow of Arthur Dudgeon, lives at St. Paul Minn.; and Sarah Irene is the wife of John I. Bellaire, of Manistique, Schoolcraft county. Oliver C. Boynton, Sr. seventh son of Captain Lewis R. Boynton, was born at St. Clair, Michigan, September 26, 1871, and was reared and educated principally at St. Ignace, where he is now successfully established in the retail drug business. His earlier education was obtained in the public schools of Port Huron, and after the removal of the family to St. Ignace, he served a technical and practical experience in the establishment of the Pauly & Dickinson Drug company. Thereafter he was for seven years manager of the Knill Drug company at Port Huron, and in 1896 he returned to St. Ignace and established himself independently in the retail drug business by purchasing the oldest established drug store in the city. In 1924 he admitted to partnership his younger son, Oliver C., Jr., who has since continued his valued coadjutor in conducting the substantial and representative enterprise. Mr. Boynton married Miss Minnie R. Bissell, who was born in St. Clair county, Michigan, a daughter of Philip D. and Sarah S. Bissell, both now deceased, Mr. Bissell having been prominently identified with lumbering operations and also with the newspaper business-as editor and publisher of the St. Ignace Republican. James W., elder of the two children, is now professor of chemistry at the Western Teachers college, of Kalamazoo, and Oliver C. Jr., is associated with his father in business, as previously noted. Oliver C. Boynton, Jr., was born at St. Ignace, May 13, 1900, and the public schools of his native city, including the high school, afforded him his early education, besides which he is a skilled optometrist, he having been graduated in Northern Illinois college, with the degree of doctor of optometry, and being engaged in the practice of this profession, with a well equipped department in the drug store conducted by his father and himself. His father has given many years of service as county superintendent of the poor. St. Ignace being the judicial center of Mackinac county, besides having had much leadership in the development of the annual county fairs. Oliver C. Boynton, Sr., is vice-president of the St. Ignace Golf & Country club, is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, and was the promoter and organizer of the Masonic Temple association of St. Ignace.

Chester Wing has shown versatility and resourcefulness in developing in his native city of St. Ignace the substantial and important garage and automobile business that has been conducted by him during a period of nearly twenty years, his garage being the largest and the most metropolitan in equipment and service to be found in Mackinac county. Mr. Wing was born in St. Ignace, September 24, 1888, and is a son of William G. and Adelia (Obeshaw) Wing, the former of whom was born in Elkhart, Indiana, and the latter at St. Ignace, Michigan, where her parents gained pioneer honors. William G. Wing, who now finds gratifying occupation by assisting in the activities of the garage and automobile sales establishment of his son Chester, was identified with pioneer lumbering operations in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and has been known and valued as one of the progressive and public-spirited citizens of St. Ignace, of which city he was mayor twelve years, his administration having done much to advance the best interests of this community. He is now sixty-two years of age (winter of 1926-27), and his wife, now fifty-nine years of age, has long been an active and influential figure in the social church and cultural affairs of her native city. The public school of St. Ignace afforded Chester Wing his youthful education, and he has found in his native city ample opportunity for successful business achievement. He has here been independently engaged in the automobile business since the year 1908, and his modern garage and display and sales rooms figure as the leading establishment of this kind in Mackinac county. Here Mr. Wing controls a substantial business in the sale of the Cadillac and Buick automobiles, and his establishment has the best of service facilities in the repair and the accessory and supply departments. Mr. Wing gives his political allegiance to the Republican party and he is now serving as a member of the municipal water board of St. Ignace. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and is an active member of the local Lions club. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wing to Miss Adelia Mabel Johnson, who likewise was born and reared in this city, where her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Johnson, still maintain their home, the father being a railroad man. Mr. and Mrs. Wing have four children: Chester Blaine, Walter Andrew, Ada May, and William, their respective ages at the time of this writing being ten, eight, six and one years.

Michael Hoban has been engaged in the insurance and real estate business in the city of St. Ignace more than thirty-five years, and he has long been one of the influential and highly esteemed citizens of the county in which he was born and reared and of which St. Ignace is the judicial center. Mr. Hoban was born on Mackinac Island, May 4, 1860, and is a son of James and Margaret Hoban, both natives of Ireland. James Hoban was a boy when he came from the fair old Emerald Isle to the United States, and he eventually gained pioneer honors on Mackinac Island, where he established his residence in the decade of the fifties, and where he was long engaged in the livery business, besides having been the owner of docks on the island. He held various local public offices and he was one of the most venerable of the pioneer citizens of the Upper Peninsula district of Michigan at the time of his death, in September, 1924. He had attained to the patriarchal age of ninety-one years, and his wife died many years previously, both having been earnest communicants of the Catholic church. Michael Hoban is indebted to the pioneer schools of Mackinac Island for his early educational discipline, and as a youth he was employed five years by the Martell Furnace company, at St. Ignace. He was then elected to the office of register of deeds for Mackinac county, and in the first year of his tenure of this position he was also appointed county clerk. By successive re-elections thereafter he was retained twelve consecutive years as county clerk of his native county, and in the meanwhile, in 1890, he purchased the W. A. Burt insurance agency at St. Ignace. Since his retirement from the office of county clerk he has given his close attention to the insurance business, in which he is an underwriter of all kinds of insurance with the exception of life insurance, besides which he has developed also a prosperous real-estate department. Mr. Hoban has a host of friends in his native county, and in his business he has a representative clientage. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, and he and his family are communicants of the Catholic church. He is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus,, and in his home city he is a member of the Lions club. His wife, whose maiden name was Katherine Dowd, likewise was born on Mackinac Island, and she is a daughter of the late Stephen and Bridget Dowd, her father having been a pioneer in the cooperage business on Mackinac Island. Mr. and Mrs. Hoban have two children: James, now twenty-two years of age (1927), is associated with his father in the insurance and real estate business, as a partner; and Katherine, eighteen years of age, is a student in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace.

The Right Reverend Gershom Mott Williams, first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Marquette, came of one of the pioneer families of Michigan. He was the grandson of General John R. Williams, first mayor of Detroit, Michigan, and president of the Constitutional Convention of Assent, under which Michigan was admitted to the Union. General Williams organized the State Militia and was its first Major General. Judge Thomas Williams, great grandfather of Bishop Williams, became a resident of Detroit in the middle of the eighteenth century and served as judge under appointment from the English government. Bishop Williams was born at Fort Hamilton, New York, February 11, 1857, the son of General Thomas Williams, born at Albany, New York, January 16, 1815, and of Mary Neosho Bailey, born at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, 1835, the daughter of Joseph Bailey, army surgeon. Bishop Williams' father, Major and Brevet Brigadier General in the regular army, commanded the Second Brigade of the Army of the Gulf at the battle of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he was killed in action August 5, 1862. Bishop Williams acquired his early education in the Newburgh, New York, schools, where he was graduated from the Free academy in 1871. Subsequently he attended a classical school, spent a year as office boy with the Newburgh Steam Engine works, then came an extended tour in Europe in 1874-75, winning a competitive examination for a scholarship at Cornell university he entered in the fall of 1875 and remained until 1877 when he was called to Detroit, Michigan, to look after business connected with his father's estate. He entered Mr. Robert P. Tom's office and took up the study of law, being admitted to the Detroit bar in 1879. While thus engaged, he had been doing a good deal of work in connection with the Detroit Y. M. C. A. This and other religious activities influenced him to study for the Episcopal ministry. He was ordained deacon in St. John's church, Detroit, December 26, 1880, and became curate to the rector of that church, the Rev. George Worthington, afterwards Bishop of Nebraska, the ordination to the priesthood came in 1882. During his ministry in Detroit, Bishop Williams had charge of and successfully built up St. Mathews colored church and in conjunction with this field he also had charge of the Church of the Messiah in Hamtramck, Detroit. Later, he became rector of St. George's church, Detroit, where he continued to serve until the spring of 1889. He was on temporary duty at the Cathedral in Buffalo, New York for a few months and in the fall of 1889 became Dean of All Saints Cathedral, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, remaining until his appointment in 1891 as archdeacon of Northern Michigan and rector of St. Paul's, Marquette. On the creation of the Diocese of Marquette, he became its first bishop, being consecrated in Grace church, Detroit, May 1, 1896. In 1919, because of ill health, he resigned his diocese, but remained in charge of the American Episcopal churches in Europe, having been appointed by Bishop Tuttle some years before. Bishop Williams served as chaplain of the Fourth Regiment, Michigan National Guard, from 1884 to 1886 and was chaplain of the Wisconsin Commandery of the Loyal Legion during his residence in Milwaukee. Was editor for a short time of the American Church Times. Being an accomplished linguist, he represented the American Episcopal church at a religious conference in Sweden. Both Hobart college and the University of Michigan gave him a master of arts degree and the former his degree of doctor of divinity. Another marked service of Bishop Williams to his church was in connection with the revision of the Hymnal, representing a number of years' work. He was a poet and hymnologist of no mean ability. He served for several years on the board of missions and was a member of the commission to promote the world conference on Faith and Order at the time of his death. In 1879 Bishop Williams married Eliza Bradish Biddle, daughter of William S. Biddle of Grosse Ile, Michigan, and granddaughter of Major John Biddle, president of the first State Constitutional Convention held in Detroit in 1835. Their children are: Susan Dayton Williams, Thomas Victor Williams, Dayton Ogden Williams, Cecil H. Williams, Rhoda Williams Hyde, Margaret Biddle Williams, John Biddle Williams, Everard Mott Williams, Mary Williams Knight. Bishop Williams died in Paris, France, April 14, 1923, and is buried in Elmwood, Detroit, Michigan.

Edgar H. Hotchkiss has been cashier of the First National bank of St. Ignace more than thirty-five years, and in addition to this important executive office he holds also that of vice-president of this institution, which is one of the important banks of the Upper Peninsula. Mr. Hotchkiss was born at Hudson, Lenawee county, Michigan, September 25, 1861, a date that connotes that his parents gained a good measure of pioneer precedence in Michigan. He is a son of Ephraim C. and. Alice Irene (Haight) Hotchkiss, the former of whom was born near Rochester, New York, and the latter of whom was born in that city of the old Empire state. Ephraim C. Hotchkiss was a young man when he came to Michigan, and at the inception of the Civil war he was here conducting a general mercantile business in a rural community near Hudson, Lenawee county. On account of his impaired health he was twice rejected when he attempted to enlist for service in defense of the Union, but on his third attempt he was accepted, as a mechanic, and he continued in service in this capacity until the close of the war, when he received his honorable discharge, after a record of loyal and gallant service in connection with the various engagements in which his command was involved. After the war he returned with his family to New York state and established his home in the community in which his parents had settled in 1834. Ephraim C. Hotchkiss passed the closing period of his long and useful life at Chicago and was seventy-two years of age at the time of his death, his wife having passed away at the age of 71 years. The major part of the youthful education of Edgar H. Hotchkiss was obtained in the public schools of Buffalo, New York, he having been an infant at the time of his parents' return from Michigan to that state. After his school days he was employed in the Buffalo office of a railroad treasurer, and later in the office of the auditor of the same railroad, and finally he came to St. Ignace, Michigan, where he gave seven months of service in conducting an investigation into the affairs of a local veneer factory, for the purpose of determining the reason for the negative financial success of the enterprise. After he had rendered decision to the effect that the business could not be conducted with financial success under the conditions of time and place, the factory was closed, and he returned to Buffalo, New York. The lure of the fair north country of his native state remained with him, however, and thus, after remaining two years in Buffalo, he came again to St. Ignace, in 1890, in which year he here assumed his present office as cashier of the First National bank, of which; he has been also the vice-president for a number of years. Mr. Hotchkiss has played a large part in the development of the substantial and representative business of this institution and has done much to make it the safe conservator of all community interests. He also owns and conducts in an individual way one of the leading general insurance agencies of St. Ignace. In the World war period Mr. Hotchkiss was instant in patriotic service and was chairman of the committees in charge of each of the Mackinac county drives in the sale of the government war bonds, besides giving valuable aid in the local Red Cross campaign and serving as an assistant to the provost marshal. The political allegiance of Mr. Hotchkiss is given to the Republican party, and while he has had no ambition for political preferment, his civic loyalty has been shown in his efficient service as a member of the Mackinac county board of road commissioners, and by his progressive administration as mayor of St. Ignace, in which office he served two terms, besides having previously been a member of the city board of aldermen. He is secretary and treasurer of the Mackinac Land company, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and is a valued member of the local Lions club. In the city of Buffalo, New York, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hotchkiss to Miss Agnes Thomson, who was there born and reared, and she has long been a popular figure in the social, cultural, and church activities of her present home city. The two children of Mr. and Mrs. Hotchkiss were born in Buffalo, New York, and the son, Herbert J., is now associated with the Schulte Realty company of Detroit, Michigan; the daughter Miss Jean B., remains at the parental home, and is one of the popular young women of St. Ignace. The grandfather, Loren Hotchkiss came to Michigan from Medina, N. Y., in territorial days and settled in Lenawee county. He was a member of the first legislature after Michigan was admitted as a state. He died in Lenawee county. He was a Baptist minister and built a church on his land with his own money, also erected a saw mill and grist mill and was the leading citizen of the county.

Carl F. Gustafson has secured a place in the confidence and esteem of the people of his native county, as is amply attested by the fact that he is here serving as county clerk of Mackinac county and is one of the popular and efficient members of the corps of officials in the county court house, in the city of St. Ignace. Mr. Gustafson was born at Brevort, this county, August 2, 1889, and is a son of Charles E. and Ida C. (Johnson) Gustafson, whose acquaintanceship was formed at St. Ignace, Michigan, where also their marriage was solemnized. Charles E. Gustafson was born on Oland Island, in the Baltic sea, off the coast of Sweden, and his wife likewise was born in Sweden, the former having come to the United States in 1880 and the latter in 1881, and both having made settlement in Mackinac county, Michigan, where their marriage occurred, as previously noted. Charles E. Gustafson became a pioneer farmer in this county and also gained pioneer precedence in connection with the commercial fishing industry here, his having" been a secure place as one of the substantial and honored citizens of Mackinac county at the time of his death, December 30, 1925, and his widow being now a resident of St. Ignace. Carl F. Gustafson profited by the advantages of the public schools of Brevort and St. Ignace, and thereafter continued his studies in the Marion Normal college and Business university at Marion, Indiana. After his school days Mr. Gustafson was for eight years associated with his father's commercial fishing business, and prior to this he had been employed two years in a grocery establishment at Pontiac, Michigan. In 1920, on the Republican ticket, he was elected county clerk of Mackinac county, and that he is now serving his fourth consecutive term in this office gives significant evidence of the high popular estimate placed upon his administration therein. He is affiliated with the local Blue lodge and chapter of York Rite Masonry, and has membership in the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Ingrid Blom, was born in Sweden and was three years of age when her parents came to the United States and established their home on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, both being now residents of Mackinac county. Mrs. Gustafson is a daughter of John and Erika Blom, and her parents have long been identified with the fishing industry of this north district of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Gustafson have a fine family of seven children: Della, Albert, Florence, Glenn, Charles, June and Ellis. The first four of the children were born at Brevort and the other three at St. Ignace. They are members of the Swedish Lutheran church. John H. Rhoades was born at St. Ignace, Michigan, in the year 1876, and in this city he now owns and conducts the long established and important general merchandise business that was founded by his maternal grandfather more than half a century ago. He is a son of Stephen Rhoades, who was born in the state of Maine, and as a youth he met parental objections by running away from home and making his way to the city of Boston, where he realized his ambitious purpose by enlisting for service as a soldier of the Union in the Civil war. He proved a gallant and faithful soldier, took part in numerous engagements, and while at the front he received a wound that destroyed the sight of one of his eyes. It was after the close of the war that he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and here he followed the trade of carpenter many years, he having become a successful contractor and builder at St. Ignace and his death having here occurred in 1896, he having been an honored member of the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic. Here he wedded Miss Bridget Chambers, daughter of John and Margaret (O'Malley) Chambers, her father having been the founder of the mercantile business now conducted by her son John H., of this review, and a record concerning the Chambers family being given on other pages of this publication. Mrs. Rhoades was a member of one of the sterling pioneer families of this part of the Upper Peninsula and continued to maintain her home at St. Ignace until her death. The early education of John H. Rhoades was obtained in the St. Ignace schools, and as a youth he proved a successful teacher in the schools of Epoufette and Ozark, villages in his native county of Mackinac. Thereafter he was for two years in the employ of the Mackinac Transportation company, on Mackinac Island, where he had charge of the coaling of the company's various vessels. He next passed a year in the city of Chicago, in the employ of the United States Express company, and he then returned to St. Ignace, where for two years he was in the employ of the Winkelman company. He then assumed managment of the business of the Chambers brothers and in this capacity his service continued until 1922, in March of which year he acquired sole control of the large and prosperous business, with which he had previously been associated during a period of twenty-four years. In 1926 he removed the business to the present quarters, and his store is one of the most excellent equipment and service, the long established enterprise having continuously been one of high order in this community. Mr. Rhoades has served as a member of the St. Ignace board of aldermen, as chairman of the Mackinac county road commission, as president of the St. Ignace Business Men's association, and is now (1927) president of the St. Ignace Golf and Country club, besides which he is an active member of the local Lions club. He is a director of the Gateway City Improvement association, and takes loyal interest in all that concerns the welfare and progress of his home city and county. His wife, whose maiden name was Emma Richardson, was born at West Unity, Ohio, and is a daughter of the late George Richardson, who was long and successfully associated with farm enterprise and who also was engaged in the hotel business a number of years, his death having occurred in 1906 and his widow having passed away in 1912. He was a representative of the Richardson family that was founded in Baltimore, Maryland, in the colonial period of American history. Catherine, firstborn of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Rhoades, died in infancy, in 1902; John Richardson, the next in order of birth, met his death in an accident that occurred in October, 1924, he having been at the time a member of the sophomore class in the engineering department of the University of Michigan, and his death having resulted from injuries that he received when the horse on which he was riding was struck by a railroad train; Helen was graduated in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace as a member of the class of 1926; Charles Patrick is, in the winter of 1926-27, a student in the St. Ignace high school; and Georgia Margaret and Robert M., likewise are attending school in their home city. Mr. Rhoades is a Democrat in political alignment and he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church.

Charles J. Mulcrone is a representative of a family that has long been one of prominence and influence in civic and business affairs at St. Ignace, the Gateway City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and here he is now a leading exponent of the automobile business, his establishment being one of the best in equipment and service in Mackinac county. Mr. Mulcrone was born in the city of Chicago, Illinios, in the year 1883, and was a child at the time of the family removal to St. Ignace. He is a son of Patrick and Ellen (O'Donnell) Mulcrone, both natives of Ireland, where the former was born in County Mayo and the latter in County Kilkenny. Patrick Mulcrone was long and successfully engaged in the meat business at St. Ignace, but was sojourning in Florida at the time of his death, in May 1913, his widow, now sixty-eight years of age (1927), being still a resident of St. Ignace, she being a devout communicant of the Catholic church, as was also her husband. Mr. Mulcrone served as city treasurer of St. Ignace, as well as city assessor and as a member of the board of public works. He was a bank director and was a substantial and honored citizen who did loyal service in community affairs. The earlier education of Charles J. Mulcrone was obtained in the schools of St. Ignace, and thereafter he was a student in Notre Dame university, South Bend, Indiana, where he completed thorough engineer courses and gained the degrees of civil engineer and electrical engineer. Thereafter he gave five years of efficient service as superintendent of the municipal electric and water plants of St. Ignace, and since that time he has been successfully engaged in the automobile business in an independent way, his large garage at St. Ignace having well appointed sales and display rooms and well equipped repair and service departments. He has the local agency for the Packard, Studebaker, Hudson, Essex and Hupmobile motor cars, and controls a large and representative business in all departments of his well ordered enterprise. He has served as president of the local Business Men's association, and also has held the offices of city assessor, city treasurer and member of the board of public works. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and his name appears on the membership rolls of the local Lions club and the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. He is a director of the First National bank of St. Ignace, and was former ly vice-president of the company operating the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, he having retired from this office in 1925. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Mulcrone to Miss Clara M. Eddy, who was born and reared in this city and who is a daughter of William and Effie (Chapman) Eddy, the former of whom was born in Chicago and the latter in England. William Eddy was long engaged in the cooperage business at St. Ignace, where he is now living retired, at the age of seventy-two years, his wife having passed away in 1911. Mr. and Mrs. Mulcrone have four children: Patrick, Effie, Mary and Dorthy, aged respectively (winter of 1926-27) twelve, ten, seven and five years.

Louis P. Walker. In the city of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, Mr. Walker is conducting the well ordered furniture and undertaking business that was founded by his maternal grandfather more than half a century ago, and as citizen and business man he is well upholding the prestige of the honored family name. His unqualified popularity in his native city is such as to require no further voucher than the statement that he gave three terms of progressive administration in the office of mayor of St. Ignace. In this Gateway City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Mr. Walker was born February 20, 1891,, and is a son of the late Frank S. and Elina (Mallett) Walker, the former of whom was born in the state of New York and the latter in one of the counties of southern Michigan, her father having come to St. Ignace fully fifty years ago and having been a pioneer in the furniture and undertaking business here, the remainder of his life having been passed at St. Ignace and his son-in-law, Frank S. Walker, having been his successor in the business in which the two had been previously associated during a term of years. Frank S. Walker long held precedence as one of the leading furniture dealers and funeral directors of Mackinac county, and since his death, in February, 1922, the business has been successfully continued by his son Louis P. The establishment being modern in equipment and service in all departments. The wife of Frank S. Walker preceded him to the life eternal, her death having occurred in 1915. After having profited by the advantages of the St. Ignace public schools Louis P. Walker entered the Michigan State Agricultural college, at Lansing, and in this institution he was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science in engineering. Thereafter he was for a short time engaged in engineering work in the city of Detroit, and he then returned to St. Ignace and. associated himself with his father's business, to the control and management of which he succeeded upon the death of his father, in 1922. His political alignment is with the Republican party, and it has already been noted that he served three terms as mayor of St. Ignace. He is a loyal member of the local Lions club and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Fay Whiteside, was born in Wisconsin, and is a daughter of the late Charles and Melissa Whiteside, her father having been engaged in the abstract business. in St. Ignace at the time of his death. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have three children: Howard, Ginevra and Shirley Lou. They are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Walker is president of the Mackinac Motor Bus company which operates a line of motor buses from the Soo to St. Ignace, also from St. Ignace to Escanaba. They have five modern buses. He is vice-president of the Gateway City Improvement company of St. Ignace.

Charles Therrien. That the fine little straits city of St. Ignace has not been lacking in advantages and attractions for its native sons, is shown in the goodly array of such native sons in the personnel of the varied business and professional ranks here. One of the number is Charles Therrien, who is here engaged in the retail grocery business and who is also the local agent for the American Railway Express. Mr. Therrien was born at St. Ignace June 18, 1887, and is of sterling French lineage on both paternal and maternal sides. He is a son of Antoine and Rose Therrien, both of whom were born in Quebec, Canada, the father, who died in 1889, having been at the time identified with the commercial fishing industry, with residence in the city of St. Ignace, which was then little more than a straggling village. The widowed mother now resides in the city of Flint, Michigan, and is seventy-nine years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. The public schools of St. Ignace afforded Charles Therrien his youthful education, and after leaving school he was employed a number of years in the service of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad. He gained experience also as clerk in a grocery store at St. Ignace, and in association with commercial fishing in the northern waters of the Great Lakes system, besides having sailed for a time on lake vessels. Since 1923 Mr. Therrien has owned and conducted a well equipped retail grocery in his native city, and its effective service has gained to the establishment a substantial and representative supporting patronage. Mr. Therrien gives his political support to the Democratic party, has for eight years represented the First ward of St. Ignace as a member of the county board of supervisors, and he has been chairman of this board three years. He is secretary and treasurer of the local Lions club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Woodmen of the World and Knights of the Maccabees, and is a member of the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Grace Campbell, was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Hugh and Sarah Campbell, who were born at Dalton, Canada, and who now reside in St. Ignace, their respective ages being seventy-three and sixty-seven years, and the active career of the father having been given mainly to farm enterprise. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Therrien are two winsom daughters, Guinevere Elaine, and Lenore Elizabeth, both being pupils in the St. Ignace schools and their respective ages being fourteen and eleven years, at the opening of the year 1927. A son, Charles Alden was six months old in July, 1927.

Frank Elsworth Keese, general superintendent of the Marquette range of the Oliver Iron Mining company, is well known to the people of this county for his acknowledge proficiency in mining matters and for his conspicuous record as a public official of Ishpeming and Marquette county. He was born August 25, 1866, in Clinton county, New York, a son of William and Carrie (Patterson) Keese, the former of whom was a native of the same county and the latter of whom was born in Scotland and died in Clinton county, New York state, in 1906 at the age of seventy-four years. William Keese was of English descent, his father, the grandfather of Frank Elsworth Keese, having helped in surveying the first district line from Glenn Falls, New York, to Canada on a government survey and then entered a section of land in Clinton county, New York. William Keese, who farmed in his native county throughout his life, was a member of the Society of Friends and died in 1871 at the age of fifty-four years. While he attended the district schools of his home community, Frank Elsworth Keese helped his father on the farm until he had reached his sixteenth year, when he went into the lumber woods of the Adirondack mountains. When he was eighteen years old, he became a miner in New York state, and after a period of six years spent in the mines of that locality, Mr. Keese came west to Florence, Wisconsin, to work in the Florence mine. Subsequently coming to Parma, Michigan, where he became captain of the Platt mines there, continuing as such until 1896. In that year, he went to the Tower mines, Tower, Minnesota, and during the three years spent there, he was advanced to captain of the Minnesota Iron company and then transferred to the Mesaba iron range, where he was in full charge of the Genoa mine for a period of four years. With such a record behind him, Captain Keese came to Marquette, Michigan, in 1900 and was sent to Parma to take charge of the Volunteer and Platt mines, remaining there until 1905. Coming to Ishpeming at that time, he became superintendent for the group of mines of the Lake Superior Iron company, and upon the resignation of W. H. Johnston, he was made general superintendent of the Lake Superior company's operations in this district. Subsequently, the Oliver Iron Mining company purchased the properties, and Mr. Keese was retained in the position he held as general superintendent. He is also a director and vice-president of the Miners bank, of Ishpeming. In public affairs, Mr. Keese is a prominent figure, for from 1908 to 1910 he was mayor of Ishpeming and has been chairman of the board of supervisors for Marquette county for five years. He is a member of the Board of Public works of his city, a trustee of the Marquette County Relief fund for the distribution of money to needy World war veterans, and a member of the Committee of the Marquette County Tuberculosis Sanitarium, with which he has been associated for the past seven years. In 1889, Mr. Keese married Martha Watson, a native of New York State, and to them have been born ten children, as follows: William, who is married and is employed by the Hardine Powder company at Ishpeming; Mildred, who is a nurse in Ishpeming; Gertrude, who is a teacher in the domestic science department of the Ishpeming schools; Alice, a teacher in the Ishpeming schools; Harriet, who is teaching music in the schools of Calumet, Michigan; Genevieve, who is a student at the Northern State Normal school at Marquette, Michigan; Cassie, who married Thomas Percy Cook, assistant superintendent of the Huron Mountain club of Michigan; Frank, who graduated from the mining school of Houghton, Michigan, and is a mining engineer of Iron River, Michigan; Martha, a student in the Ishpeming high school; and Orissa, who is attending the public schools of Ishpeming. Mr. Keese is a member of the Masons, Mystic Shrine, Knights of Pythias, Elks, Sons of St. George, Lions club, and Golf club and attends the Presbyterian church.

Frank A. Wood is now serving his seventh consecutive term as register of deeds for Mackinac county, and his successive reelections offer the best evidence of his efficiency and popularity and of the high estimate placed upon his administration in this important county office. He was an infant at the time of the family removal to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, gained his early education in the public schools of St. Ignace, and in this city, the judicial center of Mackinac county, where he still maintains his residence and his executive headquarters. Mr. Wood was born in Bay City, Michigan, January 1, 1883, and in the same year his parents came to St. Ignace, where they passed the remainder of their lives, Mr. Wood is a son of William Henry and Marceline (Ogg) Wood, both of whom were born in the province of Ontario, Canada. William H. Wood owned and conducted a barber shop in St. Ignace many years and was one of the well known and highly esteemed citizens of this place at the time of his death, January 30, 1926, when he was seventy-one years of age. He had been a resident of Michigan nearly half a century, the year 1880 having marked his arrival in the state and his removal to St. Ignace having occurred in 1883, as previously noted. He survived his wife by only a few months, as she passed away November 15, 1925, both having been earnest communicants of the Catholic church. William H. Wood was a Democrat in politics, and he served three terms as a representative of St. Ignace on the board of supervisors of Mackinac county. Under the effective direction of his father, the present register of deeds of Mackinac county learned the barber's trade, and he still owns a half interest in one of the leading barber shops of St. Ignace, where he continued activity in the work of his trade until 1913, when he was elected register of deeds, the office of which he has since continued the incumbent through successive reelections. He has thoroughly systematised the work of his office and has made various improvements in its service. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church in their home city, and he is affiliated with the local council of the Knights of Columbus. At Quebec, Canada, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wood to Miss Nellie M. Gallagher, who was born and reared in this city, and whose parents, Patrick E. and Anna (O'Donnell) Gallagher, still maintain their home here, the father being engaged in the meat market business. Marceline Ann, only child of Mr. and Mrs. Wood, was born May 2, 1926.

William J. Conlogue, the present efficient treasurer of Mackinac county, is one of the popular officials at the county court house, in the city of St. Ignace, where he was formerly employed in the First National bank during a period of six years, the following three years having been marked by his service in the local offices of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, and he then having assumed the office of cashier of the Trout Lake State bank, at Trout Lake, Chippewa county, where he remained three years. He was elected treasurer of Mackinac county in 1924, and has since continued his loyal and effective administration of the fiscal affairs of this county. His political convictions place him in the ranks of the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. Mr. Conlogue was born at Palms, Sanilac county, Michigan, May 2, 1892, and is a son of William G. and Barbara (Durkin) Conlogue, both of whom were born in Ireland, they having passed the closing years of their lives at Palms, Mich., where the former died in 1905 and the latter in 1903, the father having been a skilled artisan at the carpenter's trade and having been for a long period successfully engaged in business as a contractor and builder. The subject of this review was young at the time of the family removal to Toronto, Canada, and in that city he gained the major part of his youthful education. A general outline of his business career in Michigan has already been given, and he is known and honored as an able public official and loyal and public spirited citizen. At St. Ignace was solemnized his marriage to Miss Lydia Machia, who was here born and reared and who is a daughter of Charles and Agnes (Therrien) Machia, the former of whom, a lumberman by vocation, died in 1912, and the latter of whom still maintains her home at St. Ignace. Mr. and Mrs. Conlogue have three children, all of whom were born in St. Ignace, namely; William John, Jr., Agnes Mary, and Helen Gertrude. Mr. Conlogue served in the World war in 1918 for eight months with the 19th divison of Camp Custer infantry.

Leonard E. Murray, D.D.S., is one of the leading representatives of his profession in his native city of St. Ignace, county seat of Mackinac county, where he has been engaged in the successful practice of dentistry somewhat more than sixteen years, his office having the most modern facilities in both operative and laboratory departments, and his large and representative practice being based alike on his technical skill and his personal popularity. Doctor Murray was born at St. Ignace, November 6, 1882, and is a son of Patrick and Mary Jane (Early) Murray, the former of whom was born in Ireland and the latter in Vermont, her father, Michael Early, having been the owner of the historic Early farm in the old Green Mountain state. Patrick Murray was about sixteen years of age when he came from Ireland to the United States, and eventually he became one of the representative lumbermen and contractors at St. Ignace, Michigan, where he was long prominent and influential as a citizen and substantial business man and where his death occurred about twenty years ago. He was a youth when he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and in the earlier stage of his career he here taught successfully in the schools of the period. His was the distinction of having here discovered the long-sought grave of the historic missionary and explorer, Father Marquette, this discovery having been made by him while he was clearing space for a garden on his land, and the historic spot being now marked by a consistent memorial monument. The venerable widow of Mr. Murray still resides at St. Ignace and is revered by all who have come within the sphere of her kindly and gracious influence. This noble woman reared her fine family of eleven children, of whom five sons and four daughters are living. Dr. Leonard E., of this review, having been the eighth in order of birth. Mrs. Murray is a devout communicant of the Catholic church, as was also her husband. The early education of Doctor Murray was acquired in the parochial and public schools of St. Ignace, and in preparation for his chosen profession he completed a course in the dental department of the University of Michigan, from which he received his degree of doctor of dental surgery when he was graduated as a member of the class of 1910. He forthwith returned to St. Ignace, and here he has been engaged in the successful practice of his profession during the years that have since passed, besides which he is associated with banking enterprise on Mackinac Island. He is a member of the Michigan State Dental society, is a Democrat in politics, is an active communicant of the Catholic church, is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and has active membership and interest in the Lions club of his home city. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Murray to Miss Cassilda McCann, who was born and reared in this city, a daughter of Patrick and Honora McCann, her father having long been in the government lighthouse service in this section of Michigan. Mrs. Murray passed to the life eternal August 10, 1924, a devoted communicant of the Catholic church and loved by the people of the community in which her entire life was passed. Mrs. Murray is survived by' one son, Leonard Earl, Jr., who was born August 10, 1924.

Martin Fair has been a resident of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, since his early youth and now owns and conducts the prosperous meat-market business that was founded by his father many years ago. Mr. Fair was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, in 1875, and is a son of Alexander and Mary (Jamieson) Fair, the former of whom was born at Thorold, Canada, and the latter of whom was born in Scotland, she having been about seven years of age when her parents came to the United States. Alexander Fair came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan about forty years ago, and he was long engaged successfully in the meat-market business at St. Ignace, he having established in 1894 the market now owned and conducted by his son Martin, of this review, and having continued in active charge of the business until his death, in 1902. His widow, now seventy-five years of age (1927), still maintains her home in St. Ignace. She is a sister of the late Martin Jamieson, who was one of the pioneer citizens of St. Ignace and who served as mayor of this city. After having duly profited by the advantages of the public schools of St. Ignace Martin Fair entered upon an apprenticeship to the printing trade, in the office of the old St. Ignace Republican, where he continued to be employed ten years and where he gained an experience that has been consistently termed the equivalent of a liberal education the discipline of a newspaper office. Upon the death of his father he assumed control of the latter's meat market business, which he has successfully continued during the intervening period of a quarter of a century, with standing as one of the substantial business men and loyal and progressive citizens of the community that has long represented his home. Mr. Fair has had no desire for political preferment, but accords loyal allegiance to the Republican party. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and is an active member of the local Lions club, of the progressive policies and activities of which he is a staunch supporter. At St. Ignace occurred the marriage of Mr. Fair to Miss Ella Sherwood, who was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of E. Sherwood, who established the first hotel in St. Ignace, the Sherwood House, and who became one of the prominent and influential citizens of Mackinac county, which he represented as a member of the Michigan legislature and in which Sherwood township was named in his honor. Mr. Sherwood, now eighty-six years of age, is proprietor of a leading hotel at Bellingham, Washington. His wife, whose maiden name was Margaret Buchan, was born in Scotland and her death occurred in 1904. Charles Sherwood Fair, only child of Mr. and Mrs. Fair, was graduated in the St. Ignace high school and in 1927, at the age of twenty years, is a student in Albion college, at Albion, this state.

Litzner Brothers. The constituent members of this progressive firm, which is successfully engaged in the automobile business in Mackinac county, with modern and well equipped garages both at St. Ignace and Moran, are Louis C., Charles, and Dolf Litzner, aged respectively thirty-three, thirty-one, and twenty-nine years, and recognized as reliable, enterprising and representative young business men of their native county, all having been born on their father's homestead farm near Moran, Mackinac county. They are sons of Charles and Lucy Litzner, both of whom were born in Germany and the latter of whom was fifteen years of age when she came to the United States, her death having occurred at the old home near Moran, Mackinac county, in 1912, when she was forty-two years of age. Charles Litzner, Sr., was born in the city of Berlin, Germany, where he received his early education, and he was seventeen years of age when he came to the United States. He became a pioneer in farm enterprise in Mackinac county Michigan, and here he is now living retired in the village of Moran, he having passed the sixtieth milestone on the journey of life and being one of the sterling and honored citizens of the county that has long represented his home and been the stage of his productive activities. In addition to the three sons who constitute the firm of Litzner brothers, there is one daughter, Emma, wife of Leonard Wixon, of St. Ignace, and two other sons, Theodore, who is nineteen years of age and who has active management of the old home farm near Moran; and Paul, who is twenty-seven years of age is a telegraph operator in the railroad station at Moran. Louis C. Litzner supplemented the discipline of the Moran public schools by taking a course in Ferris institute, at Big Rapids, this state. He continued to be associated with the work of the home farm until he was eighteen years of age, then learned telegraphy, which he followed seven years, as operator at the Moran station of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, for which he there served also as station agent. It was upon this retirement from this service that he became associated with his brothers in the automobile business, first at Moran and later also at St. Ignace, the county seat. Charles Litzner, Jr., attended the Moran public schools, and thereafter he continued his alliance with farm enterprise until 1921, when he and his two brothers of the present firm of Litzner brothers became associated in the conducting of a garage, a hotel and a general store at Moran, where they still continue these enterprises. Dolf, youngest member of the firm, likewise profited by the advantages of the Moran schools, and his was active allegiance to farm industry until 1921, when he became a member of the firm of Litzner brothers. In the spring of 1926 the firm instituted the erection of its large and modern garage building in St. Ignace, and here the concern has the sales agency for the Ford Motor company, with repair, accessory and service departments of the best equipment and with a well ordered branch garage and sales agency in the old home town of Moran.

Norman H. Hill is one of the prominent representatives of the newspaper business on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he is managing editor of "The Evening News" of Sault Ste. Marie and vice-president of the Sault News Printing company, by which the News is published. Mr. Hill was born in the city of Buffalo, New York, March 21, 1887, and is a son of Henry S. and Juliana (Hingston) Hill, both of whom likewise were born and reared at Buffalo, their home now being maintained in New York city, where the father is living virtually retired. Henry S. Hill became prominently concerned in manufacturing and real estate business in his native city, and was for some time president of the Buffalo Real Estate exchange, besides which he gave a term of efficient service as executive head of the United States custom house in Buffalo. The public schools of Buffalo were the medium through which Norman H. Hill acquired his earlier education, and after his high school course in his native city he entered the University of Michigan, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1911 and with the degree of bachelor of arts. Thereafter he was for three years associated with the Detroit News, and he then, in June, 1915, came to Sault Ste. Marie, the judicial center of Chippewa county, and assumed his present position of managing editor of the Sault Ste. Marie Evening News. He has done much to bring the News to its present metropolitan standard and has made it a potent influence in advancing the civic and material progress of the community and the Upper Peninsula region. Mr. Hill had gained a good measure of newspaper experience while he was a student in the University of Michigan, as he was there business manager of the university paper, the Michigan Daily, in 1910-11, besides serving simultaneously as captain of the university baseball team. The political allegiance of Mr. Hill is given to the Republican party and he and his wife are communicants of St. James church, Protestant Episcopal, in their home city, he being a member of the vestry of this parish. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and has membership in Le Sault de Sainte Marie club and the local country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Zoe Oven, was born at Petoskey, Michigan, a daughter of Dr. Arthur and Hilda (Pennington) Oven. Her father, now deceased, was a man of exceptional intellectual and professional attainments, having studied in many of the leading universities of Europe and having long held rank as one of the influential physicians and surgeons of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, his widow being still a resident of this state. Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Francis P., who was born at Petoskey, and Arthur N., who was born at Sault Ste. Marie, in the public schools of which latter city both are students at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. In 1927, Mr. Hill was appointed a commissioner of the Michigan Department of Conservation by Governor Green and is now serving in that capacity. <

Robert G. Ferguson has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie during a period of forty years, and was here the founder of the wholesale and retail hardware business of which he still continues the executive head and which under his wise management has been developed into one of the large and important concerns of this kind in the Middle West. In addition to being president and general manager of the Soo Hardware company, Mr. Ferguson is president of the First National bank, the Ojibway Park Hotel company, and the Sooford Auto company, in his home city, and also of the Plummer-Ferguson Hardware company in the sister city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Mr. Ferguson was born at Brampton, Ontario, Canada, October 22, 1858, and is a son of Adam and Catherine (Golden) Ferguson, the former of whom was born at St. Thomas, Ontario, and the latter of whom likewise was a native of that province, the closing years of her life having been passed in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where occurred also the death of her husband, after he had been for some time retired from the mercantile business, his activities as a merchant in Michigan having been principally centered at Bay City, from which latter place he came to Sault Ste. Marie. Prior to his removal to Bay City he had been engaged for some time in the mercantile business at St. Joseph, Missouri. Robert G. Ferguson acquired his early education in the schools of Brampton, Ontario, and after the removal of the family to St. Joseph, Missouri, he there attended the Christian Brothers college. Thence he accompanied his parents to Bay City, Michigan, where he became a salesman and office executive in a wholesale hardware establishment, and later he was a traveling salesman for the same concern. These experiences gave him intimate and valuable knowledge of the various phases and details of the wholesale hardware trade and fortified him well for later independent operations in the same line. It was in the year 1887 that Mr. Ferguson established his residence in Sault Ste. Marie, and here organized the hardware firm of R. G. Ferguson & company. The business expanded rapidly in scope and importance, and in 1893, as a matter of commercial expediency, the firm was reorganized and the business incorporated, under the title of the Ferguson Hardware company, and with a fully paid in capital stock of $30,000. In 1896 another readjustment occurred and the present corporate title of Soo Hardware company was adopted, the founder of the business having since continued president and general manager, the other executive officers being A. L. Ferguson, vice-president, and D. M. Hackney, secretary and treasurer. The Soo Hardware company occupies a large and modern building that affords ample accommodations for the extensive and well selected stock of heavy and shelf hardware required in meeting the demands of its large wholesale trade, and the retail store of the company is the largest in Chippewa county. Mr. Ferguson has not only proved a vigorous and resourceful business man but has also stood forward as a loyal and progressive citizen. He has given his influence and liberal co-operation in the forwarding of measures and enterprises for the betterment of his home city and county, has served as a member of various public welfare boards, a member of the Michigan State Hospital for the Insane at Newberry, Luce county. He was appointed by Gov. Fred Warner as a member of the board of Newberry hospital and served 14 years in all. When the State Hospital Commission was organized in 1921, he was made a member of the commission by Governor Grosbeck and made chairman as reappointed by Governor Green, and he is still serving as chairman. This commission has control of all state hospitals for the insane and Michigan home and training school and all institutions located in Pontiac, lonia, Kalamazoo and Newberry. He is a stalwart in the local ranks of the Republican party, is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, in which connection it may be noted that on the paternal side he is of staunch Scotch-Irish ancestry, and he is an active member also of the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. The maiden name of his wife was Christina Bain, and she was born at Belleville, Ontario, Canada, a daughter of James Bain. Helen E., the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson, is now the wife of David M. Hackney, who is the present secretary of the Soo Hardware company and who is represented in a personal sketch elsewhere in this publication.

Anson B. Miner. Among the leading bankers and financial men of Michigan is included the name of the late Anson B. Miner, of Ishpeming, Michigan, who is prominently identified with some of the most important banking institutions in the Upper Peninsula. The family ancestry is traceable to the early colonial era of our history, when Thomas Miner established the family in Connecticut, where he and his descendants farmed. Subsequent movements of the family found them in New York, in which state, at Lebanon, were born Charles Henry and Mary (Bushnell) Miner, the parents of Anson B. About 1834 or 1836, the parents came to Stark county, Illinois, to farm, subsequently removing to Chicago, where the father died. The mother died at York, Nebraska. Anson B. Miner was born at Toulon, Stark county, Illinois, September 23, 1844, and began his education in the public schools of Galesburg, Illinois. He then attended Knox college in that same city, and when he had completed his college career, he entered the employ of the old City National bank of Chicago, holding various positions with that institution until 1871, when it was destroyed by the great fire that swept the city in that year. Ill health subsequently compelled him to go to Colorado for a time, after which he returned to Chicago and entered the employ of the First National bank, and in 1884, he went to Ishpeming, Michigan, to accept the position of cashier for the Ishpeming National bank. With this company, he was associated until 1901, in which year he effected the organization of the Miners' National bank of Ishpeming, of which he became cashier at that time. To the banking and financial problems of this section of the Upper Peninsula, Mr. Miner devoted most of his time, and in addition to his connection with the bank which he organized in 1901, he was a stockholder and director of the First National bank of Negaunee, and a stockholder in the State bank of Negaunee and the First National bank of Escanaba, Michigan. Possessed of the highest attainments of a financial man, Mr. Miner was recognized as a conspicuous figure in the banking operations in this part of the Upper Peninsula, with which he was actively identified until the time of his death, which occurred January 12, 1913. On August 17, 1886, Mr. Miner married Josephine Coulter, a native of Michigan, and to this union was born a daughter, Mary, whose home is maintained at Ishpeming. Mrs. Miner died November 15, 1925. She was the daughter of Joseph and Nacy (Hanna) Coulter, who came to Ontonagon county in 1846 and settled at Eagle River in 1847. Mr. Coulter was connected with mining operations, served on the board of supervisors of his county, was elected to the state senate in 1860, and died in 1866. Anson B. Miner was a strong supporter of the Republican party, whose principles he embraced from early manhood. He was active in Masonic circles in which he attained the Thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite and in which he was a member at Chicago of Ashlar Lodge No. 308, F. & A. M.; Washington Chapter No. 45, Royal Arch Masons; Apollo Commandery No. 1, Knights Templar; and Oriental Consistory.

Henry A. Sherman, who holds the office of city manager of Sault Ste. Marie, is giving an administration that fully justifies his selection for this position and also proves the consistency of the office itself. Mr. Sherman was born near Owosso, metropolis of Shiawassee county, Michigan, April 12, 1883, and is a son of Albert A. and Julia (Starring) Sherman, the former of whom was born at Conestota, New York, and the latter at Clarkston, Oakland county, Michigan. Albert A. Sherman became one of the representative exponents of successful farm industry in Shiawassee county, and was seventy-five years of age at the time of his death, in 1923, his widow being still a resident of Shiawassee county and being now (1927) seventy-six years of age. Mrs. Sherman has in past years been notably active in church and missionary work, and she showed all of devotion and zeal in the rearing of her children, six in number. After completing his studies in the high school at Owosso, Henry A. Sherman entered the University of Michigan, in which he carried forward his studies in both the literary and civil engineering departments, in the latter of which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1906. Thereafter he was employed for a time in the office of the county engineer of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, but he soon became a draftsman in the office of a company engaged in concrete construction work. In November, 1906, he entered the employ of the Detroit River Tunnel company, with which he served as chief inspector until the spring of 1908, when he entered the service of the United States government as inspector and junior engineer in connection with channel improvement, with headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie, where he was resident engineer in charge of three government contracts. In 1915 he left the government service, and thereafter he was in the employ of the Northwestern Leather company at Sault Ste. Marie until 1920, he having become assistant superintendent of this concern. In 1920 he assumed his present office of city manager of Sault Ste. Marie, and in this connection he has given service that has inured greatly to the benefit of the city, along both civic and material lines. He is a registered civil engineer and is a member of the International City Managers association. In his home city he is a member of the Soo club and the Rotary club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and is a communicant of St. James Episcopal church. His wife, whose maiden name was Kristine Flaa, was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Flaa, still reside in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Sherman have three children, Henry Starring, James Leonard and Peter Robert, aged respectively (1927) nine, seven and five years. Edgar T. Partridge has been a resident of Chippewa county since his boyhood and is now one of the successful business men in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, the county seat, where he is a representative of both the automobile business and the plumbing business. Mr. Partridge was born at Berry, province of Ontario, Canada, and there also were born his parents, George T. and Emma (Drury) Partridge, the latter having died in 1924, and one of her nephews having gained the distinction of serving as premier of the Canadian government. George T. Partridge was engaged in the real estate business in Seattle, Washington, at the time of his death, December 24, 1924. The early education of Edgar T. Partridge was acquired in the public schools of Chippewa county, including the junior high school of Sault Ste. Marie. In this city he served his apprenticeship in the plumbing trade, as an employe of the firm of Wood & Th, with which he continued his association twelve years. He then, in 1902, engaged in the plumbing business in an independent way, and he is now senior member of the representative plumbing firm of Partridge & Barnes. He sold his original plumbing establishment and business in 1921, and then formed a partnership with William A. Schunck, under the firm name of Partridge & Schunck, this firm having the local sales and service agency for the Studebaker automobiles, and maintaining a well equipped: garage at 30 Maple street, where the service department includes the handling of repairs and accessories for the Studebaker motor cars, the general garage service making adequate provisions for all types of automobiles. Mr. Partridge is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is known as one of the reliable and progressive business men of his home city. His wife, whose maiden name was Lottie H. Rodey, was born in Ontario, Canada, and is a daughter of John H. and Rosa (Lang) Rodey, both of whom are deceased, her father having been a farmer and having also been keeper of a government lighthouse. Mr. and Mrs. Partridge have six children: Thelma R., Margaret E., Blanche H., George T., Leonard H. and Violet Augusta. Miss Thelma R. is a talented and successful teacher of music; Miss Margaret conducts a beauty parlor in her native city; and Miss Blanche H. is a nurse by profession and vocation.

Robert J. Wynn is the owner of valuable improved real estate in the city of Sault Ste. Marie and here he is also a prominent representative of the automobile business. He has resided on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan since his childhood, and has here found opportunity for substantial and successful business achievement. Mr. Wynn was born in the city of Toronto, Canada, in the year 1874, and was about two years of age when the family home was established in Michigan. His father, Thomas Wynn, likewise a native of Toronto, became a successful general contractor at Sault Ste. Marie, and he served for some time as street commissioner of this city, as well as road commissioner of Chippewa county. Here his death occurred in 1899, and his widow passed away May 30, 1915, she likewise having been born in Toronto and her maiden name having been Ann Fitzgerald. Mrs. Wynn was known for her unfailing sympathy and kindliness and was instant in aiding those who were in straitened financial circumstances, those who were ill, and those in any way afflicted or distressed, in mind, body or estate. She was loved as a real community benefactor and as a generous and loyal friend. The youthful education of Robert J. Wynn was gained mainly in the schools of Sault Ste. Marie, and after his school days he was here employed several years by the Hammond-Standish company, and the Cornwell company, the Cornwell-Swift company, successively. He was next retained as an employe of a sash and blind company at Brimley, likewise in Chippewa county, and thereafter he worked with his father in connection with the construction of the Poe lock of the St. Marys river, he having served as a stationary engineer during most of his association with this construction work. Following this experience he was for seven years in the service of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, and' the last four of these years he was stationed at Soo Junction, in Luce county. In 1902 he assumed control of the Lock City hotel at Sault Ste. Marie, and after conducting the same two years he was retired from active business about one year. He then became proprietor of the old Bay City House, the name of which he changed to Hichler House, and this hotel he successfully conducted during the period of 1905-12. In his hotel enterprise his wife proved an efficient and popular coadjutor and added greatly to the success of the business. She won a host of friends in her home community and among the traveling public entertained at the Wynn hotel, and when she passed to the life eternal, January 12, 1914, her death was deeply mourned in her home city of Sault Ste. Marie. In September 1912, Mr. Wynn sold his hotel business, and established an automobile livery business at Sault Ste. Marie, the enterprise having thereafter been expanded to include the local sales agency for the Buick, Oakland and Olds automobiles. Later he became the local representative of the Dodge Brothers Motor company, and this alliance resulted in his becoming an intimate friend of both John and Horace Dodge, he having been an honorary pallbearer at the funeral of each of these influential motor-car manufacturers in Detroit. Mr. Wynn still retains the agency for the Dodge cars, and in March, 1925 he erected the modern building in which his substantial business is now conducted. He is the owner also of the Wynn apartment building, which valuable property has been in his possession since 1912. Mr. Wynn is a staunch Republican and is a popular member of the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. Reared in this invigorating north country of Michigan, Mr. Wynn has never lost his love of the great outdoors, and he is an ardent devotee of boating, hunting and fishing. Albert Schmidt, of Detroit, has a large tract of land on Moon Bay, and Mr. Wynn is fully appreciative of the privileges that are given him for the hunting of deer and smaller wild game and for fishing in the region thus controlled by Mr. Schmidt, Mr. Wynn married Miss Louise Marcero, who was born at Anchorville, St. Clair county, Michigan, a daughter of James Marcero, who was long numbered among the successful farmers in Saginaw county, this state. As previously noted, Mrs. Wynn has passed from the stage of life's mortal endeavors, her death having occurred January 12, 1914, and she being survived by no children.

J. Alfred Burns was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa county, and has resided continuously on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he has gained success and precedence as one of the representative business men of the younger generation. He is associated in the ownership and conducting of one of the leading clothing stores in his native city, and the firm has also well equipped clothing stores at Newberry, Munising and Marquette. Mr. Burns is a son of James H. and Margaret Burns, both of whom were born at Lindsey, Ontario, Canada, their home being now maintained at Marquette, Michigan, and the father being a railroad man. The schools of his native county afforded J. Alfred Burns his early education, and from his early youth to the present time he has been associated with the men's clothing and furnishing-goods business. For six years he was in charge of the clothing department of the L. Winkelman mercantile establishment at St. Ignace, thereafter he held a similar position with the firm of Ormsbee & Atkins in the city of Marquette, where he next became associated with the establishment of the present firm of Stern & Field. He then returned to Sault Ste. Marie, to take charge of the clothing department of the Miller mercantile establishment, with which he was connected two and one half years. During the ensuing five years he here had charge of the clothing and shoe department of the Hub, and he then, in June, 1922, formed a partnership with George A. Cowell, with whom he has since continued to be associated in their independent and prosperous business as dealers in men's clothing, furnishing goods and shoes, with a well appointed and commodious store at Sault Ste. Marie, and with excellent branch stores at Munising, Newberry and Marquette, Mr. Cowell being in active charge of the Munising establishment, which handles also apparel for women and children. The firm of Cowell and Burns likewise has the exclusive agency for the celebrated Hart, Shaffner & Marx clothing, and in the handling of this superior line of goods controls a large business. Effective service and fair and honorable dealings have given to this progressive firm a secure place in popular confidence and supporting patronage. Mr. Burns is a communicant of the Catholic church, and in this connection it may be noted that as a boy and youth he was for six years a student in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace. He has membership in the Knights of Columbus, the Holy Name society, the Soo club, Kiwanis club and the Civic & Commercial association of his home city. At Sault Ste. Marie was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Burns to Miss Doris McGovern who was born and reared in this city, a daughter of Thomas and Margaret McGovern, the former of whom is deceased and the latter of whom still resides in Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. McGovern was long associated with lumbering operations on the Upper Peninsula. Mr. and Mrs. Burns have two children, Katherine and Eleanor. Mrs. Burns is a graduate of Loretto academy and attended Ypsilanti Normal for two years. She also attended La Salle high school and the La Salle Institute of Chicago.

Edward I. Miniclier is successfully established in business as an undertaker and funeral director in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, where he has been long and prominently associated with this line of enterprise. In this Lock City of Michigan Mr. Miniclier was born March 3, 1871, and that he is a representative of one of the pioneer families of this section of the state is indicated by the fact that his father, Captain Louis Miniclier, long in service as master of vessels on the Great Lakes, likewise was born at Sault Ste. Marie, his death having occurred June 2, 1882, and his wife, Mrs. Zoe Miniclier, who was born in Montreal, Canada, having passed away in June, 1897. The early education of Edward I. Miniclier included the discipline of the high school at Sault Ste. Marie, and he has been associated with the undertaking business during virtually his entire active career. In preparation for his service as a licensed embalmer he completed a course and was graduated in the Barnes School of Anatomy, in the city of Chicago. For twenty years Mr. Miniclier had active charge of the undertaking establishment of A. R. Haist, who founded the same in 1900, and of this establishment and business he became the owner in 1924, the appointments, facilities and service being of the best metropolitan standard. In connection with his well equipped establishment, at 130 West Spruce street, Mr. Miniclier conducts also a representative enterprise in the handling of art goods, pictures, picture frames, etc. Mr. Haist established the business July 1, 1900, and conducted the same until its sale to the present owner. Mr. Miniclier is one of the substantial business men and loyal and progressive citizens of his native city, is affiliated with the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and his name still remains on the roster of eligible bachelors in Chippewa county.

Edwin T. Crisp is managing director of the Crisp Laundry company, which conducts two laundries of the best modern equipment and service and has status as one of the important business concerns of Sault Ste. Marie. The company specializes in the handling of marine laundry work, and, as established in the Lock City that is one of the important points of the Great Lakes transportation system, it controls a marine laundry business that is not excelled in scope by that of any similar concern in the world except in New York city. Mr. Crisp was born in the city of Detroit, Michigan, May 22, 1874, and is a son of Christopher and Jane Crisp, the former of whom was born in Yarmouth, England, and the latter at Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada, her death having occurred July 28, 1888. Christopher Crisp was reared and educated in his native land and was twenty-six years of age when he came to the United States. He had gained in England a goodly experience in seafaring life and in the land of his adoption he continued to be identified with navigation on the Great Lakes until he entered the government lighthouse service, to which he gave his loyal and efficient attention during a period of fifteen years, and in connection with which he maintained a lifesaving station above Whitefish Point, the location of this station being now known as Crisp Point and the name having been given in his honor. This veteran of the Great Lakes marine service passed to the life eternal June 27, 1924, secure in the high regard of all who knew him and honored for his life of faithful service. Both he and his wife were earnest communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church. Edwin T. Crisp profited by the advantages of the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie, but when he was sixteen years of age the family home was broken by the death of his mother, and he became virtually dependent upon his own resources. He continued his school work while residing in the home of Doctor Bacon, during the years 1889 and 1890. As a boy he was employed in gathering laundry for one of the laundries in Sault Ste. Marie, and in the period of 1890-1901 he was in the employ of the Soo Steam laundry. In the latter year he entered into a co-partnership with William M. and W. E. Everett in the laundry business, and in 1905 he effected the organization of the Great Lakes Laundry company, in the plant and business of which he retained a substantial financial interest. In 1908 he was residing in California, but in 1910 he returned to Sault Ste. Marie to protect his business interests here. In 1911 he organized the Crisp Laundry company, which took over the plants and business of both the Great Lakes Laundry company and the Superior laundry. He has since continued as the active and efficient executive head of the large and important business, which now includes the operation of a second large laundry plant, purchased by the company in 1920. Mr. Crisp has proved a resourceful and straightforward executive in the development of the extensive business controlled by the company, and is known and valued as one of the progressive business men and loyal and liberal citizens of the vital Lock City of Michigan. He is a member of the local Rotary club, is a Republican in political alignment and he and his wife are communicants of St. James church, Protestant Episcopal. On the 6th of October, 1910, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Crisp to Miss Yeida A. Larson, who was born in Sweden and who was six years of age when she came with her parents to the United States, the parents having been residents of Michigan at the time of their death. Mr. and Mrs. Crisp have no children.

Hugh M. Moran, secretary and assistant treasurer of the Lock City Manufacturing company, one of the well ordered and important industrial concerns of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, was born at Bay City, Michigan, and is a son of John Moran, who is now president of the Lock City Manufacturing company and who is represented in a personal sketch in this publication, so that further review of the family history is not here required. The schools of his native city, afforded Hugh M. Moran his early education, and as a boy he gained practical experience by selling newspapers on the streets of Bay City. As a youth he worked for some time in a planing mill, and thereafter he was for ten years in the employ of the Pittsburgh Coal company, with headquarters in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. In 1903 he came to Sault Ste. Marie and associated himself with his father, in the management of the business of the Lock City Manufacturing company, which had been founded by his father a few years earlier, and with which he himself had been previously associated. He is now secretary and assistant treasurer of the company, and is a director of the First National bank of his home city. His religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church, he is affiliated with the Rotary club, Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and is a popular member of the Soo club. His wife, whose maiden name was Anna Margaret Berry, was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Andrew J. and Mary Berry, the former of whom is now retired from active affairs, at the age of sixty-eight years (1927), and the latter of whom is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Moran have three children: John (Jack), James, and Stewart, aged respectively eleven, nine and six years.

S. B. Moran was associated with his father, John Moran, in the organizing of the Lock City Manufacturing company, one of the important industrial concerns of Sault Ste. Marie, and of this representative company in the vital Lock City of Michigan he is the vice-president, further mention of the company being made on other pages of this work, in the personal sketch of his father, John Moran. S. B. Moran was born in Bay City, Michigan, and after there profiting fully by the advantages of the public schools, he was for three years a student in the University of Michigan, in the period of 1904-06. In the latter year he became associated with his father in the organizing of the Lock City Manufacturing company, and with the management of the business he continued his active alliance until 1909, when he went over into Ontario, Canada, where he was engaged in professional work as an architect until 1913, his preparation for this profession having been made while he was a student in the University of Michigan. In 1913 Mr. Moran returned to Sault Ste. Marie, and here he passed three years as an executive with the Soo Lumber company. Since that time he has concentrated his energies and service in his executive administration as vice-president of the Lock City Manufacturing company. However, he is financially interested in one or more other business enterprises in his home city. Mr. Moran has membership in the Soo club and in the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. His wife, whose maiden name was Florence Pittman, was born at Calumet, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Pittman, both of whom are living. Mr. Pittman is in the service of the government, as a skilled ship carpenter. The marriage of Mr. and, Mrs. Moran was solemnized January 1, 1926.

Very Reverend Henry A. Buchholtz has been pastor of the Catholic cathedral at Marquette for more than eleven years, and as head of that church, he is honored and respected by his parishioners as a priest who is wise and sympathetic in his instructions to them and who is exceptionally capable in his administration of the parish affairs. Nor is Father Buchholtz prominent merely in local religious circles, for he has been prominently identified with the diocesan matters as apostolic administrator and vicar general of the diocese. A native of Escanaba, Michigan, he was born June 20, 1874, a son of Jacob and Catherine Buchholtz, both of whom were natives of Luxembourg, Germany, and became pioneers of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Jacob Buchholtz came to the United States when he was eighteen years of age, first setting foot in the Upper Peninsula before the settlement of Escanaba had begun, and here he engaged in the hardware business, also assisting in the building of the first railroad from Escanaba to Negaunee, Michigan. He died in 1917, two years after the demise of his wife, who had come to this country when she was nine years of age and had been one of the founders of St. Joseph's church at Escanaba. Graduating from St. Joseph's school, Escanaba, in 1889, Henry A. Buchholtz went to St. Francis seminary, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he pursued a classical course in that city. His philosophical and theological studies were carried on at Mount St. Mary's Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, upon the completion of which, he was ordained priest at Escanaba, May 15, 1898, by Bishop Vertin, of Marquette. His first assignment after his ordination was to the pastorate of Sacred Heart church at Munising. Taking up his duties there in August, 1898, he completed the church that was then under construction and supervised the erection of the new rectory. In addition, he negotiated the purchase of property for a new school, so that his six years at Sacred Heart parish in Munising constituted a period of labor and achievement that was indicative of his subsequent career in the service of the church. From Munising, he was transferred to St. Ambrose church, Ironwood, Michigan, his eight years as head of that parish being signalized by the erection of a new home for the resident Sisters. Following the death of Monsignor Langner, of St. Paul's church, Negaunee, Michigan, Father Buchholtz succeeded to that charge, and three years and a half of excellent work in that city were terminated November 4, 1915, by his appointment to the position of pastor of the Cathedral at Marquette, succeeding Monsignor Joseph Pinten, now Bishop of Grand Rapids, in that office. Here Father Buchholtz has remained, accomplishing changes in the physical equipment of the parish that show him to be a man of the highest attainments in an administrative capacity. The cathedral was renovated and the towers completed at a cost of $80,000 in 1922, and in 1924, the new rectory, noted for its beauty of architectural design, was built at a cost of $50,000. On May 4, 1922, came his appointment to the position of vicar general of the diocese by Bishop Eis to succeed Msgr. Joseph Pinten, who was consecrated Bishop of Superior, Wisconsin, at that time, and on August 12, of the same year, he was appointed apostolic administrator of the diocese upon the resignation of Bishop Eis, acting in that capacity until the installation of Bishop Nussbaum, February 7, 1923. Further eulogy of the works and character of Father Buchholtz is unnecessary, for in spite of the material improvements he has wrought in the service of the church-works that are in themselves worthy of further exposition-the greatest manifestation of his character as a man and a priest is found in the place he holds in the hearts of his parishioners.

Albert E. Cullis. In the city of Sault Ste. Marie is established the large and modern plant of the Soo Woolen Mills, which constitutes one of the most important industrial and commercial concerns of Michigan's Lock City, in the manufacturing of high-grade mackinaws, shirts, blazers, blouses and men's and boys' trousers, the output of the factory finding demand in virtually every state of the Union. Of this progressive manufacturing corporation Mr. Cullis is vice-president and general manager, besides which he is vice-president of the Soo Machine & Auto company, and a director of the Central Savings bank, as he is also of the Crisp Laundry company, one of the nation's foremost concerns specializing in marine laundry. Mr. Cullis was born at Lindsey, province of Ontario, Canada, in the year of 1862, and is a son of John and Ann Cullis, both natives of Cornwall, England, where they were reared and educated, their respective ages at the time of their coming to Canada having been about thirty and twenty-five years. At Lindsey, Ontario, John Cullis became the owner and operator of a flour mill, and there his death occurred in 1886. He was a representative business man and influential citizen of his community and served a number of years in a public office of his township. His widow survived him by many years, and her death occurred in August, 1920. In the schools of his native place Albert E. Cullis acquired his early education, and there also he learned the flour-milling business, in the mill operated by his father. With this line of enterprise he continued his connection eleven years, and he then came to Michigan, in 1897, and established his residence in Chippewa county, where he has since maintained his home. He was identified with lumbering operations at Fibre, this county, four years, and then became associated with G. J. Griffith in the control of the Soo Woolen mills. In 1902 the business was incorporated under this title, and Mr. Cullis has since continued his productive service as vice-president and general manager of the company. The present large and modern factory of the company Was erected and equipped in 1907, and the concern has built up a substantial and prosperous business that has contributed much to the industrial and commercial prestige of Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Cullis is a member of the Soo club and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Bella McKay, was born near Ripley, Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Kenneth McKay, who was a prosperous farmer of that locality. Mr. and Mrs. Cullis have two children: John R. is now the efficient superintendent of the Soo Woolen mills, and Jennie is the wife of C. J. Schank, of Sault Ste. Marie.

Joseph H. Walker is a representative of one of the old and honored families of Sault Ste. Marie, in the public schools of which place he received his early education, and he is now numbered among the prominent and influential business men of this city, where he is executive head of the Joseph H. Walker company and the Soo Builders Supply company, besides being vice-president of the Sault Silver Fox company. Mr. Walker was born at Meeford, Ontario, Canada, October 26, 1875, but was reared and educated in the city that is now his home. He is a son of Samuel and Sarah Walker, the former of whom was born in Ireland and the latter in England, both having been children at the time when the respective families came to America and made settlement in Ontario, Canada. Samuel Walker became a successful contractor and builder at Sault Ste. Marie, and many of the older buildings still in evidence in this city were constructed by him. He was one of the venerable and honored pioneer citizens of Sault Ste. Marie at the time of his death, in the early part of the present decade, when he was eighty-one years of age, his widow being still a resident of this city and being seventy-nine years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. As a youth Joseph H. Walker became associated with the contracting and building operations of his father, by whom he was eventually admitted to partnership in the business. About 1905 he removed to Fort William, Ontario, Canada, where he continued his business activities ten years. In 1915 he returned to Sault Ste. Marie, and the jobbing business that he here established on a modest scale has been developed under his management to the substantial and prosperous enterprise now conducted by the Joseph H. Walker company. Of his other important business activities due mention has already been made in this review. Mr. Walker is a member of the Soo club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and he and his wife are zealous members of the local Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is an official. Mr. Walker wedded Miss Elissa Jane Mutart, who was born at Owen Sound, Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Thomas and Helena Mutart, the former of whom is still actively engaged in farm enterprise and the latter of whom is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have four children, whose names and respective ages (1927) are here recorded: Harry Samuel, fourteen years; Russell Thomas, twelve years; Lora Elsie, ten years; and Elizabeth Jane, eight years. All of the children were born at Sault Ste. Marie except Russell T. who was born at Fort William, Ontario.

J. Charles Royce is one of the leading representatives of the retail grocery trade in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and his large and well equipped establishment, at No. 550 Bingham avenue, is known for its metropolitan service in all departments. Mr. Royce was born in Wellington county, Ontario, Canada, August 9, 1872, and is a son of Josiah and Janet (Stewart) Royce, the former of whom was born on the old family homestead farm in Wellington county, Ontario, and the latter of whom was born in Dundee, Scotland, she having been about sixteen years of age when she accompanied her parents from Scotland to Ontario, Canada, where she passed the remainder of her life, her death having occurred April 30, 1916, when she was eighty-one years of age. Josiah Royce, likewise of English ancestry, became one of the substantial and representative exponents of farm industry in his native county, and after many years of worthy and productive activity as an agriculturist and stock grower, he retired from the farm and established his residence at Guelph, Ontario, in which city he died at the patriarchal age of ninety-one years, he having passed away January 26, 1925. The public schools of his native county were the medium through which J. Charles Royce acquired his youthful education, and he continued his association with the activities of the old home farm until he had attained to the age of eighteen years, when, in 1890, he came to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and where he was employed in turn as clerk in a clothing store and a grocery store. In 1902 he purchased the grocery store and business that had previously been owned and conducted by his older brother, and his grocery establishment now ranks as the fourth oldest retail store of this kind in the city, the while he has continuously conducted the business in its original location. Within the passing years Mr. Royce has had two partners in the business, but since 1917 he has conducted the enterprise in an individual way. When the nation entered the World war Mr. Royce became the executive representative of the Chippewa county merchants in carrying forward the food conservation work in the county, in accordance with the governmental policies, and his service in this capacity, instituted early in 1918, was continued until the close of the war. In this connection he received from the government a certificate of authority, as did he also an official acknowledgment of his loyal and effective work. He was active in the support of other patriotic activities and service in his home city and county during the climacteric period of the war. At the annual convention of the Michigan Retail Grocers association held in Bay City in 1909, Mr. Royce was elected a member of its executive committee, a position to which he was re-elected in the following year, when the converntion of the association was held at Detroit. As soon as possible after he had established his residence in Sault Ste. Marie, Mr. Royce made application for citizenship, and in February, 1898, he received the final papers that duly certified him a citizen of the United States. His political alignment has since been in the ranks of the Republican party, and he and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. He has passed the official chairs in both branches of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, receiving on April 25, 1927, the Rica 25 year Veteran Jewel, also 25 year Veteran Jewel in the Woodmen of the World in 1918, and is a charter member of the local camp of the Woodmen of the World, which he has represented as an official of the State camp of Michigan. Mrs. Sarah J. (Coulter) Royce, wife of the subject of this review, was born near the attractive little city of Peterboro, Ontario, Canada, has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since 1896, and here her marriage to Mr. Royce was solemnized October 19, 1898. She is a daughter of the late Andrew and Rebecca Coulter, and her father was a farmer by vocation. Mr. and Mrs. Royce have two fine sons, Carl Coulter and W. Earl, aged respectively eighteen and fourteen years (1927). The older son is a student in the high school of his native city, and the younger son was graduated in the eighth grade of the local schools as a member of the class of 1926, so that he will be a student in the Sault Ste. Marie high school before this publication is issued from the press.

Ernest D. Cox has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since the year 1922 and is now associated with Joseph H. Walker in the contracting and building business, under the title of the Joseph H. Walker company, a personal sketch of Mr. Walker being entered elsewhere in this publication. Mr. Cox was born in England, March 20, 1883, and in his native land he not only acquired his youthful education but also learned the carpenter's trade. He was twenty years of age when he came to America and established residence in the Dominion of Canada. He was for two years engaged in the work of his trade in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and thereafter he was for eight years foreman of construction work for John L. McRae, a leading contractor and builder at Port Arthur, Ontario, Canada. He then engaged independently as a contractor and builder in that city, where he became the senior member of the firm of Cox & Jones. This firm continued operations until 1914, and Mr. Cox passed the ensuing four years as a skilled workman and executive with the Port Arthur Shipbuilding company, besides having been for a time in the service of the Canada Car Works at Port Arthur. In 1922 he established himself as a contractor and builder at Sault Ste. Marie, and since the early part of 1926 he has been one of the principals of the important contracting corporation of Joseph H. Walker company, one of the leading concerns of this kind in Chippewa county. In the York Rite of the Masonic fraternity Mr. Cox has basic affiliation with Bethel Lodge, A. F. & A. M., in his home city, here also he has membership in the chapter of Royal Arch Masons and Commandery. His wife, whose maiden name was Daisy Nellie Wicks, likewise was born and reared in England, she being a daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Sylvester) Wicks, and the vocation of her father being that of building contractor. Thomas Wicks Cox, elder of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. Cox, was born at Port Arthur, Ontario, is now (1927) eighteen years of age and is actively associated with the Joseph H. Walker company, in which his father is a principal. Robert Tye, the younger son, was born at Port Arthur, Ontario, is now eight years of age, and is attending the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie.

Charles I. Barnes has the technical skill and experience and the requisite executive ability to fortify him most admirably for the substantial and successful business that he now controls as a contractor and builder in the city of Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Barnes was born in England, September 15, 1872, and is a son of William and Mary Jane Barnes, who passed their entire lives in England, the latter having been of Scotch ancestry and her death having occurred about the year 1878, when her son Charles I., of this review, was a boy of about five years. William Barnes was long engaged in the woolen trade in England, maintained headquarters in one location during a period of forty-seven years, and was of venerable age at the time of his death, in 1900. The subject of this sketch was reared and educated in his native land, where he also gained his initial business experience. In 1899, at the age of seventeen years, he came to the Dominion of Canada and entered the employ of a company engaged in the manufacturing of brick at St. Thomas, Ontario. Thereafter he passed five years at McKeesport Pennsylvania, where he was employed in mason work in steel rolling mills. It was at the expiration of this period that Mr. Barnes came to Sault Ste. Marie, and here he was in the employ of the Union Carbide company during the long period of twentyone years. He then engaged independently in business as a contractor and builder, he having previously erected a brick business building on Ashmun street, in an interval during which the plant of the Union Carbide company was closed down. Mr. Barnes has done an appreciable amount of contract work for the city, in the installation of concrete street paving and in 1926 he erected at Sault Ste. Marie a substantial garage building for Chippewa county. Mr. Barnes is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order of Foresters and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He and his wife were reared in the faith of the Established Church of England, and in the United States they retain this faith, as communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church. At Sault Ste. Marie was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Barnes to Miss Jemima Johnston, who was born on Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada, where she gained her rudimentary education. She was thirteen years of age when her parents came to Sugar Island, Michigan, and later became residents of Sault Ste. Marie. Her father, Robert Alexander Johnston was born at London, Ontario, and his death occurred in 1916, the greater part of his active career having been given to farm enterprise. His widow, whose maiden name was Margaret Miller and who was born at Thornberry, Ontario, now resides in the state of California. Charles, eldest of the three children of Mr. and Mrs. Barnes, is engaged in the contracting business at Sault Ste. Marie and is represented in a personal sketch on another page of this publication. Robert, the second son, is a brick mason by trade and is associated with his father's contracting operations. Arthur, the youngest son, now resides at Pontiac, this state, and is there identified with the hardware business.

Charles DePaul is one of the successful and popular representatives of the theater business both in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and in the sister city of the same name on the opposite side of St. Mary's river in Ontario, Canada. Mr. DePaul was born in Italy, November 21, 1881, and is a son of Patsy and Josephine DePaul, the former of whom died in 1915 and the latter of whom is now a loved member of the family circle in the home of her son Charles, of this review. The schools of his native land afforded Mr. DePaul his youthful education, and as a youth he visited both Germany and Spain. After his return to his native land he served three years in the Italian army, and in 1905, at the age of twenty-three years, he came to the United States. He was employed for a time as a motorman on the street-car lines of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in 1909 he established his residence at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where his association with the theater business was initiated in 1912. In that year he bought and remodeled the Dreamland theater, and this he conducted until 1924. In 1921 he erected and equipped the Princess theater at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and in 1923 he formed a partnership with W. George Cook and they purchased both the Temple and Strand theaters in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The firm has since conducted these theaters with marked success, and also the Princess theater at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. These are leading places of entertainment and. present the best grade of films of the moving-picture world. Mr. DePaul has won a host of friends in this fair north country, and is a popular member of the Sault Ste. Marie Commercial and Automobile clubs, is affiliated with the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks and the Modern Woodmen of America, and is an active member of the Michigan Motion Picture association. His wife, whose maiden name was Hannah Raffaele, likewise was born in Italy, and her parents now reside in Sault Ste. Marie, where her father is engaged in the retail grocery business. Mr. and Mrs. DePaul have two fine sons, Joseph and Tony, aged respectively thirteen and twelve years (1927) and both are students in the public schools of their native city. He is a member of the Civics Commission organization. On December 1, 1926 he purchased Mr. Cook's interest in the Soo Amusement company which makes him sole owner.

Benjamin S. Rothwell. Within a period of a quarter of a century of active association with business affairs in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Mr. Rothwell has gained high reputation and a large degree of success, as is shown in a concrete way by his ownership of one of the largest and best equipped furniture establishments in this part of the Upper Peninsula, his store, metropolitan in appointments, stock and service, catering to a large and representative patronage and being located at No. 529-31 Ashmun street. Mr. Rothwell was born on the home farm of his parents, in Bruce county, Ontario, Canada, February 19, 1879, and is a son of John and Eliza Rothwell, who likewise were born in that county and who there passed their entire lives, the father having been one of the substantial farmers and representative citizens of Bruce county at the time of his death, in 1911, and his widow having passed away in 1916. To the schools of his native province Benjamin S. Rothwell is indebted for his youthful education, and he early gained a full measure of experience in connection with the activities of the home farm. He was about twenty-three years of age when he came to Sault Ste. Marie, in 1902, and here he has continuously maintained his home, save for a period of about eighteen months that he passed in the West. At Sault Ste. Marie he was employed a number of years in the mercantile establishment of the Eddy & Reynolds company, and in 1916 he here became secretary and treasurer, as well as manager, of the Raymond Furniture company, with which he continued his alliance until 1924, when he here engaged in the furniture business in an independent way, his establishment being now one of the largest and most metropolitan of its kind in this upper country of Michigan, and effective service having caused the business to expand to broad scope. Mr. Rothwell is known and honored as one of the substantial and progressive business men of Sault Ste. Marie, and takes loyal interest in all that concerns the communal welfare. He is a member of the local Kiwanis club, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, in the latter of which he is a past chancellor. His wife, whose maiden name was Caroline Vine, was born at Lake Linden, Houghton, county, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Vine, the latter of whom is still living. John Vine, whose death occurred in 1922, was long identified with important mining operations on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Rothwell have five children, all of whom were born at Sault Ste. Marie, namely: Benjamin John, Paul, Helen, Isabel, and Robert. The three older children are attending the public schools in their native city.

Courtney C. Douglass, 62 years of age, well-known Houghton resident died July 17, 1924, at his home in East Houghton. Death was due to a stroke of paralysis, suffered July 5, 1924. The late Mr. Douglass came to Houghton from New York city in 1887 to look after extensive land interests. He had maintained his home here ever since although he made it a practice to spend his winters elsewhere in recent years. Columbus C. Douglass his father was a cousin to Doctor Douglass Houghton and was assistant to the noted scientist when the latter made his Copper Country exploration which ended with his death in 1846. Mr. Douglass continued his interests in the Copper Country after Doctor Houghton's death and laid then the foundations for the interests which later brought his son Courtney to this district. The late Mr. Douglass was born in Algonac, St. Clair county, Michigan, on May 18, 1862, was educated in Michigan and New York, and upon the death of his father in 1874 began to take active interest in his estate, later coming to Houghton to take active charge of interests here. He has been identified with numerous mining and land transactions. Funeral services were held July 19 at the home. The remains, accompanied by the widow, Mrs. H. B. Douglass, and Henry Romph, private secretary to Mr. Douglass, were taken to Algonac, Michigan for burial in the family lot.

David M. Hackney has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since 1917, and has gained secure place as one of the representative business men of this Lock City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he is secretary of the Soo Hardware company and manager and secretary-treasurer of the Soo Ford company. Mr. Hackney was born at Guelph, Ontario, Canada, in the year 1884, and is son of David and Harriet Hackney, the former of who was born in Scotland and the latter in the province of Ontario, Canada, where she now maintains her home in the city of Toronto. David Hackney, Sr., was educated in Guelph and there became superintendent of the leading concern engaged in the manufacturing of sewing machines. His death occurred in 1890, his widow, as previously noted, being now a resident of Toronto. After profiting by the advantages of the schools of his native city of Guelph, David M. Hackney continued his studies in Harbor Collegiate Institute, Toronto, and in Ontario college, Guelph. Thereafter he was for five years connected with a wholesale and retail hardware business at Guelph, and he then went to Manitoba and established in the city of Winnipeg a virtual brokerage business in the handling of builders' supplies. In 1915 he came to Sault Ste. Marie, where he has since continued as secretary of the Soo Hardware company, and where he has also been secretary and manager of the Soo Ford company from the time its business was here founded, in 1922. This company is the distributor of the all-pervading Ford automobiles, maintaining branches at Rudyard and Pickford, thriving villages of Chippewa county and has the sales and service agency for the Ford and Lincoln motor cars in all of Chippewa county. Mr. Hackney is a Knight Templar Mason, is affiliated also with the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and has membership in the local Rotary club and Country club. At Sault Ste. Marie, 1911, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hackney to Miss Helen Ferguson, daughter of Robert G. Ferguson, who is represented in a personal sketch in this publication. Margaret, elder of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. Hackey, was born in Winnepeg, Canada, in 1913, and Helen was born at Sault Ste. Marie, in 1919.

Oscar G. Anderson, engineer, shop manager of the Lakeside Iron works, Marquette, is justly recognized as one of the ablest men in Marquette county engaged in this sort of work, and that he has attained such a high place in manufacturing circles, is directly due to his experience and training in mechanical lines and to his ability as a shop manager. A son of Albert J., who was born in Sweden and is now living retired in Marquette, and Christine Anderson, who was also a native of Sweden and died in 1895, Oscar G. Anderson was born in Sweden, April 14, 1888, and came to the United States with his parents in 1893. His early education he received in the Marquette public schools, and after serving an apprenticeship in the Lakeside Iron works, he went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, and then to Detroit, Michigan, following his trade in both of those cities. It was this work that gave him the experience and training that he needed to secure a higher place in the metal working trades. To Detroit he returned after service in the Coast Artillery during the World war, fourteen months of which he spent with the United States army in France, and after he had spent some time in the Michigan metropolis, he came to Marquette to take charge of the shops of the Lakeside Iron works, where he has since remained. Mr. Anderson is also interested in the Lakeside Refrigerating company, which is one of the flourishing industries of Marquette, and his association with this enterprise has been as noteworthy as his connection with the Lakeside Iron works. Mr. Anderson married Esther Sweeder, daughter of A. M. and Mathilda Sweeder, the former of whom is the proprietor of the organization with which Mr. Anderson is employed as engineer, and Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have one daughter, Adele Marie, aged five years.

Albert E. Swanson is unquestionably one of the most successful and progressive morticians in Marquette, and to this reputation he has won not merely because he employs the most modern facilities in the operation of his establishment but also because he possesses that innate tact and understanding of another's sorrows that are essential constituents of an undertaker's equipment. His father, Mons Swanson, came to the United States from his native Sweden when he was thirty-three years of age, became a dock inspector, and then engaged in farming at Skandia for eighteen years, where his death occurred in 1917, his widow, Lena Swanson, also a native of Sweden, now living in Marquette at the age of fifty-seven years. Albert E. Swanson was born at Marquette, May 1, 1896, attended the Skandia public schools, and after working for his father, came to Marquette to enter the employ of the Hager Brothers Furniture company, where he continued two years and five months. Having decided to follow the work of undertaker, he took a course of eight months' duration at the Worsham Embalming & Undertaking school at Chicago, Illinois, in which city he was employed two and a half years by D. W. Edgar, undertaker, after his studies had been completed. Feeling that his training and experience was sufficient to justify the move, Mr. Swanson came to Marquette and opened his own establishment at No. 329 West Washington street, where he installed the most modern appliances necessary to his work, making the establishment one of the most completely equipped in this city. Indicative of his progressive methods is the fact that he is believed to be the first undertaker in the Upper Peninsula to have a limousine hearse. The truly excellent service he is able to furnish and the character of his work have both served to bring him the favor of Marquette people, so that he is now a leader in his field in the city and county despite the fact that he is but a young man. His brother, Emil, is working for Mr. Swanson as an apprentice embalmer. Mr. Swanson is a member of the various Masonic bodies, including the Mystic Shrine, and also maintains membership in the Odd Fellows, Vasa Lodge, a Swedish organization, the Swedish Crown, and the Lions club.

Martin Rustenhoven, Jr., is known as one of the leading merchant tailors of Marquette, for he has been engaged in that business here for more than fifteen years, during which time, he has developed his business to a point where it ranks as a leader in its field in the city and county. Mr. Rustenhoven, for his work in building up the enterprise, is known among business men as one possessed of initiative and resourcefulness in commercial affairs. His father, Martin Rustenhoven, was born in Holland, came to the United States when he was a young man, settled first at Appleton, Wisconsin, and then at Marquette, where he is now engaged in the grocery business at the age of sixty-five years. His mother, Katilda (Douchers) Rustenhoven, was born in Belgium, whence she came to Republic, Michigan, and then to Marquette, where she met and married Martin Rustenhoven, Sr. The public schools of Marquette afforded Martin Rustenhoven, Jr., his education, after completion of which he spent three years working in the woods. He opened a tailor shop with a partner, the place being located in Washington street, and in 1910, he opened his present establishment where he handles the finest lines of high grade men's clothes made to order. The store is located at No. 301-3 South Front street. Mr. Rustenhoven is freely accorded the reputation of being one of the ablest business men in his field in Marquette, for the fifteen years that he has been engaged in business for himself have seen him rise from comparative obscurity to a commanding position in the merchant tailoring field. Mr. Rustenhoven married Mary Ann Hollister, daughter of a Marquette lumberman, and to them have been born three children, Marian Elizabeth, aged ten years: Lucille Gertrude, eight years old; and Martin Bernard, six years of age. Mr. Rustenhoven is active in fraternal circles as a member of the Elks and the Knights of Columbus.

J. P. Harrington is recognized as a merchant who is rapidly coming to the front among the able retail store managers in Marquette, for within a few years he has started in business for himself and developed that enterprise into a valuable general merchandise store, an achievement that has stamped him as an aggressive and successful business man. His parents, both of whom are living and were natives of Hancock, Michigan, both having been born near the Quincy Mine, are Michael and Margaret Harrington, the former of whom has been an engineer with the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, for many years. J. P. Harrington was born at Marquette, June 25, 1894, graduated from the Baraga high school and then took a commercial and classical course at Marquette. Since completing his studies, he has been engaged in the clothing business, applying himself to learning the many phases of that field of endeavor with the energy that has characterized his subsequent operations as a store proprietor. On July 11, 1923, he opened Harrington's Clothing & Shoe store at Washington and Third streets, where he handles a complete line of men's clothing, shoes for men, women and children, and all established lines of merchandise. His store is admirably equipped and stocked, and he employs three men to care for the rapidly growing trade that is his. He married Katherine Herres, daughter of Lorenz and Susan (Kerry) Herres, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and to Mr. and Mrs. Harrington has been born a daughter, Mary Katherine, who was born at Hancock, Michigan, and is attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Harrington is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks, and in the affairs of these two lodges he takes an active interest.

Frank Stickney has been engaged in the brokerage and fire insurance business at Marquette since 1907, in which time, he has come to be recognized as one of the substantial and influential business men of this city. He was born at Eagle Mills, Michigan, April 26, 1876, a son of John and Elizabeth Stickney. His father was born in Germany, came to the United States when he was a year old, and became a lumberman, and he was also active in Marquette county politics, where he served several years as county supervisor. He died February 6, 1924, his wife, a native of Guelph, Ontario, having died February 3, 1923. Frank Stickney, one of nine children, seven boys and two girls, born to his parents, attended the public schools of Eagle Mills and then took a course in business college at Marquette. Completing his studies, he became a lumberman in the woods for a year, after which he entered the employ of A. B. Turner & Brothers, brokers. Finding this sort of work to his liking, he applied himself to learning the business with all the energy and initiative that have marked his subsequent operations in the same field, and by 1907, he felt that his experience and knowledge of the business was sufficient to allow him to open an establishment of his own. Accordingly, he went into the brokerage business in that year and in 1918 added fire insurance to the scope of his work. In the latter department, he has been as successful as he has always been in the brokerage end of the enterprise. Mr. Stickney married Mary E. McGuire, of Menominee, Michigan, and they have become the parents of the following children ranging in age between twenty-four years and eleven years: Myrtle, now deputy county clerk; Bernadette, in the employ of the Bureau Grocery company; Hazel, employed at Miss Weston's beauty parlor; LeRoy, who is working with Lindstrom & Son; Loretta, who finished school in June, 1926, and is working in the office of her father; Frank, Jr.,; Florence; and Aileen, the last three named attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Stickney is a member of the Knights of Columbus and is secretary of Holy Cross cemetery.

John William Adriance needs no introduction to people of Marquette and Marquette county, for he has been prominently identified with manufacturing interests and subsequently with real estate projects that have stamped him as a man of the highest attainments in all fields of endeavor, and because of this consideration, Mr. Adriance is accorded a place among the foremost business men of this city. He was born at Stormville, Dutchess county, New York, a son of Isaac C. and Susan Ida (Storm) Adriance, and received his education there. When he had completed his education, he came to Racine, Wisconsin, where he obtained a clerkship under Allen D. Linn, superintendent of the veneer department of the Racine Hardwood Manufacturing company. Since Mr. Linn had previously hired four or five clerks who had proved unsatisfactory in the work Mr. Adriance determined that he, at least, would be successful in the work, and to such good purpose did he labor to learn the details of the business that he found his first pay check was for forty dollars per month instead of for twenty-five dollars as had been tacitly understood. Such encouragement was but a spur to his ambition, so that he was subsequently made superintendent of the four departments handling the manufacture of parquet flooring. Prior to this time, the company had experienced considerable difficulty in making satisfactory flooring of this kind, for the large output sold the year prior to the superintendency of Mr. Adriance had shrunk when installed in steam heated buildings. Consequently, it was understood that Mr. Adriance was to remedy the defects that had appeared in the parquet flooring manufacture, and that he did effect the necessary changes and brought a stop to the complaints, is a tribute to his ability higher than any words. When he was but twenty-three years of age, Mr. Adriance was in charge of five departments of the Racine Hardwood Manufacturing company. His success in this work, had brought upon him the favorable regard of many leaders in the hardwood manufacturing industry, but after refusing several attractive offers, Mr. Adriance, at the personal solicitation of the Hon. J. M. Longyear, of Marquette, Michigan, came to this city to assume the general managership of the company and the Polygonal Turning company, of which fifty-one percent of the stock was owned by Mr. Longyear. Although the general superintendent of the Racine organization gave him an excellent letter of recommendation and appreciation when he left that company, Mr. Adriance found his greatest satisfaction in the gift from his men of a gold headed, ebony cane as a testimonial of their regard for him as a man and a superintendent. In Marquette, Mr. Adriance shouldered his new responsibilities with the same vigor that had characterized his previous actions, but with the lapse of two and a half years, he relinquished his position to go to Chicago, leaving behind him two companies that had taken a new lease on life through the policies he had originated and introduced. Wishing to form a connection with a well known concern in Chicago, Mr. Adriance sought a position with the Morgan & Wright company, manufacturers of bicycle tires, and during the two and a half years he was associated with this concern, he was steadily promoted until he headed the advertising department. His successful handling of this department, brought him an excellent offer from the sash and door manufacturing company of True & True, to which organization he went as head of the advertising department. The multifarious duties of his office-the thousands of sales promotion letters, arrangement of advertising copy, great masses of personal letters and general correspondence were but a foil to his ability, for in the figures of the company's annual business is found the measure of his accomplishment. In 1897, when he became connected with True & True, the sales amounted to $196,000, while the sales of the year 1906 closely approximated three-quarters of a million dollars. So valuable did the company deem the services of Mr. Adriance that he and two others were permitted blocks of stock of the company. When True & True company closed out its interests, Mr. Adriance went to the Barrows & Donnellan company as head of the advertising department. Reposed in him was the implicit confidence of his new associates, so that Mr. Adriance was given a free rein in conducting the advertising campaigns of this concern. The result was that the annual volume of the company increased rapidly under the stimulus of the intelligent and effective advertising policies promulgated by Mr. Adriance. During the five years he was associated with the company, Mr. Adriance was called upon to reorganize the East St. Louis office of the Barrows & Donnellan company, for the conduct of the men at that office had caused rumors to get about to the effect that the company was on an insecure financial basis. He was made treasurer of the company. Instituting a vigorous advertising campaign in that district and improving the personnel, Mr. Adriance soon placed the East St. Louis office on a secure footing, thereby increasing the business in that district far beyond the point where it had been before the trouble began in that section. For some years before he came to Marquette, Mr. Adriance had studied the real estate business, absorbing knowledge of costs and worth, adaptability of land for various uses, and similar facts connected with the business. Consequently, he developed an extraordinarily extensive and accurate fund of information on this score, so that when he left the Barrows & Donnellan company, it was but natural that he should turn his attention to this business in which he had been objectively interested for several years. Remindful of the pleasant business connections he had maintained in Marquette, Mr. Adriance elected to enter the real estate field here. Establishing his offices in the Harlow Block, he threw himself into the new work with the same zest and enthusiasm that had been so familiar to his associates in other enterprises, and the advertising methods that he employed were a revelation to the real estate dealers of this section of the state. As a result, Mr. Adriance has developed a large business and is unquestionably regarded as a leader in his field in Marquette. He was married in 1920 to Martha Bacon Clark, of Marquette. They are members of the Presbyterian church, and for the past two years Mr. Adriance has served as superintendent of the Sunday school.

John S. Davis, president of the Upper Michigan Motors corporation, is regarded as one of the successful and aggressive automobile sales executives in Marquette, where he has demonstrated on several occasions that he is capable not only of establishing but also of developing a business enterprise into a strong and substantial concern. His parents were William B. and Manla M. Davis, the former of whom edited the Whitley County Republican in Indiana during the Civil war, subsequently became a traveling salesman, and died in December, 1925, at the age of eighty-nine years, and the latter of whom was born in Huntington, Indiana, and is now living with her daughter at the age of seventy-nine years. J.S. Davis was born at Columbia City, Indiana, October 16, 1865, and attended the public schools of Adrian, Michigan. Completing his education, Mr. Davis became a traveling salesman for the Ohio Rubber company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and during the ensuing thirty years and seven months, he covered the entire United States in his operations for that company. Mr. Davis was keenly alive to the possibilities for advancement and success to be found in the automobile industry and determined to engage in business for himself in some branch of that field. Accordingly, he came to Marquette in January, 1915, and organized an automobile business located on Front street under the name of the J. S. Davis Motor company, a partnership consisting of J. S. Davis. and G. A. Carlson. After two years spent in the successful operation of this venture, he sold out in February, 1917, to the Peninsular Auto Sales company. Following the failure of this concern in June, 1919, Mr. Davis and G. A. Carlson re-entered the automobile field by purchasing the defunct company and opening it on August 1, 1919, as the J. S. Davis Motor company, and in October, 1920, it was made a stock company known as The Upper Michigan Motors corporation with Mr. Davis as president and general manager, a position that he has since occupied, and G. A. Carlson, secretary-treasurer. The first quarters were found on Baraga avenue, but in 1923, the present building at No. 329-33 West Washington street was erected and occupied. Here are maintained the salesrooms for the Hudson, Essex, and Reo automobiles and for the automobile accessories department, and the garage that is housed in the same building is regarded as one of the largest and most completely equipped' in the Upper Peninsula. As principal organizer of the company and as manager of the enterprise, Mr. Davis is accorded the name of being one of the most successful men engaged in that kind of work in this section of the state. Mr. Davis married Emma Massie, a daughter of Eli Massie, of Crystal Falls, Michigan, both the parents of Mrs. Davis still living in that place.

Alfred Alholm is known to Marquette people as a partner in the Marquette Baking company, which has become one of the important concerns of its kind in the city and county since its inception in December, 1919, for the products of the concern are distributed not only in the city but throughout the county as well. He was born in Finland, December 12, 1883, a son of Michael and Sophia, Alholm, both of whom were natives of that country and both of whom are dead. After receiving his education in the schools of his native country, Alfred Alholm came to the United States in 1903 and at that time engaged in the baking business with which he has since been associated in one capacity or another. On December 15, 1919, he, with John A. Norgaard and Oscar Salo, established the Marquette Baking company, which has come to be favorably known for the excellence of its products throughout Marquette county, for it sells large quantities of its bakery goods in the various cities and villages of this locality. In the development of this enterprise, Mr. Alholm is given no small share of the credit, for in addition to being a practical baker, he possesses those qualities of aggressiveness and executive ability that have enabled him to assist in building up the baking company in which he is a partner. Mr. Alholm married Alwina Linquist, daughter of Sam and Marie Linquist, of Finland, the former of whom was a tanner by trade, and to Mr. and Mrs. Alholm have been born two children, Harold, thirteen years old, and Hazel Marie, aged ten months. Mr. Alholm is a member of the U. C. T., Vasa, and Skandia lodges.

Murray Morris Duncan was born in the city of Washington, D. C., May 10, 1858. His father was the Rev. Thomas Duncan, D.D., of Pennsylvania, a clergyman of the Episcopal church. The Duncan family had lived in the United States for several generations and had come from Scotland. His mother was Maria L. Morris, of Washington, the daughter of Commodore Charles Morris. One of his brothers, Doctor Louis Duncan, the eminent scientist and electrical engineer, was president of the American Institute of Electrical engineers, an honorary member of the Franklin Institute, a member of the Mathematical society of France and of the Physical society of France. After attending school in Washington, Mr. Duncan entered Lehigh university in 1875 and graduated in 1880 with the degrees of E. M. and A. C. (Engineer of Mines and Analytical Chemist). He was first employed by the Cambria Iron company at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, as assistant chemist during 1881. In this year he married Harriette DeWitt Coppee, daughter of Dr. Henry Coppee, the president of Lehigh university. They have three children, namely, William Coppge Duncan, Pauline Coppee Duncan, both of whom are married and living in California, and Helen Coppee Duncan, married and living in Ishpeming. From Johnstown Mr. Duncan moved in 1881 to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he was employed by the Roan Iron company, of which Hiram S. Chamberlain was president for about ten years, first as chemist and was then placed in charge of open hearth furnaces and later in charge of that company's blast furnace, ores and fuel at Rockwood, Tennessee. In 1891 he left the Roan Iron company and became general manager of the Cardiff Iron company, which was then building furnaces and opening mines at Cardiff, Tennessee. The next year, 1892, he came to Michigan, taking the position of general manager of the Antrim Iron company's charcoal furnace at Mancelona, of which the president is J. C. Holt, of Grand Rapids. On January 1, 1897, Mr. Duncan became the agent of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company's mines at Ishpeming, Michigan, Frank B. Mills, the former manager, or agent as he was termed, having resigned in 1895. The Cleveland Iron Mining company had operated mines there since 1850 and the control has always been in Cleveland. Samuel L. Mather, who had been an officer in the company since its incorporation and its president for many years, died in 1891 and was succeeded by his son, William G. Mather. The Iron Cliffs company had operated other mines there since 1864 and that company had been controlled by Samuel J. Tilden and others. In 1891 the Cleveland company bought the property of the Iron Cliffs company and as a result the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company was incorporated on May 9. Following the panic of 1893, several of the company's mines had been closed, but as the ore business revived, these mines were reopened by Mr. Duncan who then began to build up the organization for extended operations. The Lake Superior & Ishpeming railroad with ore docks in Marquette had been built in 1896 by the company and its associates. For the next few years the development of the company's business was rapid, especially from 1900 to 1910 when it purchased or leased several mining properties at Negaunee, Gwinn, and North Lake, besides operating mines on other Michigan ranges and on the Mesaba range, of Minnesota, and proceeded to develop them by the most approved and up-to-date methods of construction. During this period, the development of its water power was begun for the generation of electric power with which to operate its mines in Marquette county. To show the growth of the company's business, the greatest annual tonnage shipped until 1897 was three quarters of a million tons, while in the past few years the annual tonnage has at times exceeded three million tons, with a total of over seventy million tons from 1850 to 1925. On November 30, 1908, Mr. Duncan was chosen a director of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company, succeeding the Honorable Peter White, of Marquette, who had died during that year. In 1916 he was appointed vice-president and general manager of mines. Besides the management of the mines, Mr. Duncan had taken an active part in Upper Peninsula affairs. He was appointed by the governor as a member of the board of control of the Michigan College of Mines in 1904. He has long been a member of the Marquette County Republican committee and has been its chairman for over twenty years. He was also Chairman of the Congressional Republican District committee. He has been on the board of the County Road Commission since its organization in 1905. Since the Carnegie library at Ishpeming was built in 1903 he has been a member of the board; also, he was on the Board of Public works for over twenty years. He has been a director of the Miners' National bank since its incorporation in 1900 and has been president for many years. During the war he served on several boards. In 1916 he was appointed by Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, as a member from Michigan on the board of directors organized for industrial preparedness. In 1918 he was appointed chairman of Sub-District No. 5 of the Resources and Conversion Section of the War Industries Board and the details were conducted under his supervision. He was also chairman of the County War Preparedness Board. Mr. Duncan has taken an active part in mining societies. He has been a member of the American Institute of Mining & Metallurgical Engineers since 1884 and for many years a member of the Mining & Metallurgical society. He joined the Lake Superior Mining Institute in 1897 and served as president in 1908-9 when he called attention to the "urgent necessity for a change in the laws governing personal injury." His presidential address on compensation to workmen in case of injuries was later followed by state legislation. He is a member of the American Iron & Steel Institute and of the American Mining Congress. He was brought up in the Episcopal church, of which he has been an active member. Grace church, Ishpeming, was rebuilt during his residence here. He has been president of the Department of Finance of the Diocese of Marquette since 1920. The Masonic order honored him about ten years ago when he received the Thirty-third degree in recognition of his services. He has been a member of the University club, of Chicago, since 1909. He is a member of the Aztec society, of Washington. For recreation he has had little leisure. Besides traveling for business, which included a trip to Europe in 1910, he has usually spent a few weeks each spring in California or in the South and East. He is a member of the local Golf club, which was started some twenty five years ago, and for many years he regularly joined his friends on the course. The history of the development of the Lake Superior mining region is interesting, not only on account of the wealth of metal furnished for the use of mankind, but also on account of the personality of the leaders, among whom Mr. Duncan was one of the foremost, in carrying out that work. He has been distinguished by persistent energy, attention to details, business ability and broad mindedness, and fortunate in the wise selection of assistants to carry out the operations of development and mining. Through his daily contact with business men and with his sympathetic attitude toward employees and fellow townsmen, he has made and kept a great number of sincere friends and they could add many interesting instances to this brief history.

John C. Harrington is prominently identified with the real estate and insurance business in Marquette, and although he has been engaged in that work here but little more than two years, he has nevertheless come to be recognized as an aggressive and resourceful business man. Born at Marquette, Michigan, June 2, 1892, he is a son of Michael and Margaret Harrington, natives of Hancock, Michigan, the former of whom is an engineer in the employ of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad. After graduating from the Baraga school, of Marquette, Mr. Harrington was connected with the Passenger department of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad for a period of twelve years. By this time, he felt that his capital was sufficient to justify his goings into business for himself, and casting about for a likely field, he chose insurance and real estate. In 1924, then, he opened his own office in the Huetter Block and has since been general agent for the Detroit Life Insurance company at Marquette, building up a business that is steadily growing under his able direction. To the insurance end of the business, he added real estate and has been as successful in this field as he has been in the insurance work. Developing as he has a substantial enterprise that is a distinct asset to the commercial life of Marquette, Mr. Harrington has forced recognition as one of the ablest men in this city. In fraternal circles, Mr. Harrington is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks, in the affairs of both of which he takes an active interest.

Charles T. Geill, a leading Marquette business man, has been engaged in the decorating business in this city for more than forty years, and during that time, he has acquired the reputation of being one of the shrewd and competent entrepeneurs in the city and county. Born in the Netherlands, November 12, 1857, he is a son of George Frederick and Helen Geill, the former of whom was an officer in the Dutch army and died in 1870 and the latter of whom was a native of the Netherlands and died in 1880. Receiving his education in the schools of his native country, Charles T. Geill came to the United States in 1870, and for a number of years thereafter, he was engaged in the music business as a band and orchestra leader. Wishing to enter commercial fields, he came to Marquette forty years ago and opened a decorating establishment, in the successful operation of which, he has since been engaged. The four decades that have elapsed since his advent to this city have witnessed a steady increase in the annual volume of his business, which under his careful direction has grown to proportions that stamp the proprietor as one of the ablest business men of Marquette. The company is equipped to handle anything in the way of decorating, and the work done by the concern is widely known for its excellence. Mr. Geill married Emma Baker, a daughter of John and Mary Baker, of Canada, the former of whom was a carpenter by trade, and to Mr. and Mrs. Geill have been born these children: Staats L., who was born in Marquette and is now engaged in the decorating business; Emma H., who was also born in Marquette and is now engaged in business with her father; and George Frederick, who is also engaged in the decorating work with his father. Mr. Geill is a member of the Elks, Knights of Pythias, the Maccabees, and the Yeomen.

Edwin Larson is well known to business men of Marquette as the founder and proprietor of the Queen City Bakery which he established here nearly thirty years ago, and that the concern is today one of the leading baking companies in the city and county, is due primarily to the ability and knowledge of baking possessed by Mr. Larson. A native of Sweden, he came to the United States when he was quite young and established the Queen City Bakery in 1897. After enduring the usual struggles attendant upon the starting of a new business, he placed the company on a secure footing which has brought him recognition as one of the ablest business men of this city. Mr. Larson is a member of the Vasa, Skandia, Swedish Crown, and Elks lodges. His wife, Mrs. Anna E. Larson, was also born in Sweden and came to the United States when she was a young girl, and Mr. and Mrs. Larson are the parents of three children, Amy, Wilfred H., and Edward R. Another daughter, also named Amy, died at the age of eighteen months, while the living daughter of that name is now the wife of Walter G. McKie, of Rochester, New York. Wilfred H. Larson, the elder son, was born in Marquette, November 23, 1891, attended the Marquette schools, and then worked for ten years at the First National bank, which he left to enter the Queen City bakery with his father. He married Ethel Swanson, daughter of Charles and Annie Swanson, of Ishpeming, Michigan, the former of whom is a tinsmith and the latter of whom is dead. Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred H. Larson are the parents of two children, Wilfred H., Jr. aged six years, and Lloyd, four years old. Edward R. Larson, younger son of Edwin Larson, was born in Marquette, November 13, 1893, and after graduating from the Marquette schools, entered the Queen City bakery, in 1913. He married Bessie Husby, daughter of Louis and Gertrude Husby, of Ishpeming, Michigan, both of whom are living. Wilfred H. Larson, who is now engaged in business with his father, is recognized as one of the abler of the young business men of Marquette, for he has taken no small part in developing the concern to its present size. He is a member of the Vasa and Skandia lodges and of the United Commercial Travelers, the various Masonic bodies, and the Odd Fellows. Edward R. holds membership in the following orders: Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, and Vasa lodges.

G. M. Hult has risen to his present position of manager of the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, of Marquette, through sheer ability and close attention to his work, so that today he stands forth as one of the substantial business men of the city where he makes his home. His father, Magnus Hult, was born in Sweden and came to the United States as a young man, where he engaged in the mining and lumbering business until the time of his death in 1895 at the age of forty-two years, and his mother, Marie Hult, was also born in Sweden and died at the age of fifty-eight years. G. M. Hult was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, February 16, 1887, and attended the public schools of that city until he was eleven years of age, at which time, he gave up his studies to go to work, being employed on a farm until his thirteenth year. Thereafter and until 1901, he was employed by F. Braastad & company of Ishpeming, but in the latter year he went to work for the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, of Ishpeming. During the ten years that he spent there, he applied himself to learning everything possible of the business in which he was engaged, and it was his hard work and evident ability displayed at this time that attracted the favorable attention of his superiors and paved the way to the position he now holds with that concern. From 1911 to 1913, he was connected with the J. E. du Pont Powder company. In 1913, he returned to the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, where his industry and knowledge of the business were subsequently rewarded by his promotion to the position of manager, the duties of which office he has since discharged. His administration of the position, has been of benefit not only to him but to the company as well for he is known among business men of Marquette as one of the efficient and resourceful executives in that field of work. Mr. Hult married Elsie Roberts, of Isheming, Michigan, who died April 11, 1924, at the age of forty-three years leaving three children, Elton, aged fifteen years, Robert, twelve years old, and Geneva, six years of age, all of whom are now attending the Ishpeming schools.

Simon R. Anderson was first elected school commissioner for Marquette county in 1915 and has been successively returned to that office since that time, a fact that shows more conclusivelythan words in what regard he is held by the people of the county both as respects his work as school commissioner and his personality as a man. Born at Ishpeming, Michigan, December 19, 1886, he is a son of Alfred and Maria Anderson, natives of Sweden, the former of whom came to the United States when he was thirty years of age and died at Ishpeming in 1922, where his widow is still living. Alfred and Maria Anderson were the parents of six children, Simon R., Alfred, Edwin, Paul, Ruth, and Gerda. Simon R. Anderson elected to follow the teaching profession after his graduation from the Ishpeming high school and accordingly studied at the Northern State Normal school, at Marquette, the Stout Institute, and the University of Wisconsin. Having completed his studies, Mr. Anderson returned to Marquette county where for two years he was in charge of a rural school. He then secured the position of principal in the graded schools of Iron Mountain, Michigan, and after a six-year period spent in that capacity, he returned to Marquette and became the successful candidate for election to the office of school commissioner of this county in 1915. Admirably equipped for the office in education and experience, Mr. Anderson shouldered the duties of the new position, and since that time, he has handled the affairs of school commissioner with an ability that has influenced the county electors to return him to office at each succeeding election. Mr. Anderson is also the Marquette county agent for the State Welfare work, in which he has acquitted himself as capably as in the school work. He married Miss M. D. Anderson, of Ishpeming, Michigan, and they have one daughter, Dorthy Jean, who is attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Anderson is a member of the Masonic order and the Knights of Pythias.

John H. Godwin, who has been engaged in the contracting business in Marquette for more than fifteen years, is regarded as one of the most successful men in that field in this county, for since he went into contracting for himself, he has developed an enterprise into one of the most substantial of its kind in this section of the state. His parents were John and Elizabeth (Peters) Godwin, both of whom were born in England, the former in 1824 and the latter in 1830. John Godwin came to Canada when he was a young man, taught in the Canadian schools, and subsequently became manager of the gas company of Three Rivers, Quebec, Canada, where he died in March, 1887, his wife, dying in the same year. They were the parents of nine children, six of whom are living, J. H., Fred, William, Charles, Percival, and Alice. J. H. Godwin was born at Montreal, Canada, June 27, 1859, and attended the schools of Three Rivers, Quebec, until he was thirteen years of age. He then entered the post office at Three Rivers, and after working there for three years, he entered the employ of the-George Baptiste Sons company, a lumber concern with which he was connected for a period of eight years. At this-juncture, he was one of Lord Wolseley's expedition which went to the relief of General Charles Gordon in the Egyptian Sudan, a famous military operation. Returning to Canada from that expedition, Mr. Godwin followed the lumber business for a number of years, and in 1896, he came to Marquette to enter the lumber and contracting business, in which he has been engaged since that year. Here, he has made an unqualified success of the enterprise he established, so that the subsequent sixteen years have brought him universal accord as an exceedingly able contractor and business man. His late wife, Mrs. Clara Godwin, was a native of Three Rivers, Quebec, and was active in church work until the time of her death in 1922 at the age of sixty years. Mr. Godwin is a member of the United Commercial Travelers league, and also served as a member of the charter commission which placed the city under the commission form of government.

Wilfred J. Des Jardins is a prominent figure in the commercial life of the county, for as owner and manager of the W. J. Des Jardins Oil company, of Marquette, he is steadily expanding his business to include other cities and villages of Marquette county. He was born at Republic, Michigan, whither his parents, Alfred and Olivine Des Jardins, came from their native Canada, the former having been born at St. Theresa and the latter at St. Catherine, that country. Alfred Des Jardins, a miner, died at Republic, Michigan, February 20, 1921, while his widow died July 15, 1926. Wilfred Des Jardins attended the public schools of his native city until he was thirteen years of age, at which time he sought employment in the mines, where for three years he labored that he might acquire sufficient funds to enable him to take a course of study at Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Michigan. When he was sixteen years old, he attended that institution and after relinquishing his studies was a telegraph operator and agent for a period of thirteen years. He then became a commission agent for the Standard Oil company at Republic for two years. It was his signal work in this capacity that influenced his superiors to transfer him to Marquette as the manager of the Standard Oil company's stations at this place. Four years he worked for the Standard Oil company at Marquette and then became associated with the Cloverland Oil company, of Marquette, for two years. With the expiration of that time, he purchased the Cloverland enterprise and has since been the owner and manager of the venture. Under his direction, the concern has enjoyed unqualified prosperity and branches have been established at Skandia, Michigan, and Ishpeming, Michigan. Mr. Des Jardins is thus recognized as one of the dynamic business men of Marquette, for solely through his efforts has the company won its present prestige as one of the substantial and growing oil and gasoline ventures in Marquette county. Mr. Des Jardins was united in marriage to Miss Elma M. Platt, of Hilbert, Wisconsin, and they have three children, Roylance, who is eighteen years of age, graduated from the Marquette high school and is now a student at Marquette University of Milwaukee; Olive Ann, who is eight years of age and is now attending the Marquette schools; and Mary Jean, aged three years. Mr. Des Jardins is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Foresters, the United Commercial Travelers, and the Elks.

Howard Murnane, although he has been engaged in the plumbing, heating, and contracting business in Marquette for but little more than two years, has already developed a business that is rapidly forging to the front in its field and that he has performed such a work within a comparatively short time, stamps him as a man of aggressiveness, initiative, and wide technical knowledge in his particular field. He was born at St. Paul, Minnesota, May 26, 1892, a son of J. J. and Margaret (Handrahan) Murnane, the former of whom was born in Illinois and is now a district fire chief with the St. Paul Fire department with which he has been connected for thirty-nine years and the latter of whom was born in Wisconsin. Two sons, Jay and Edward, and a daughter, Mrs. J. P. Sarsfield, all of whom live in St. Paul, were the other three children born to J. J. and Margaret Murnane. Howard Murnane learned the heating and plumbing business after he had completed his education in the St. Paul schools, and one of his most valuable pieces of experience during this time was that of being employed as foreman on the $4,000,000 high school at Hibbing, Minnesota. By this time, he had accumulated sufficient capital to go into business for himself, and when he looked about for a likely place in which to locate, he chose Marquette, Michigan. Here, in 1924, he opened his present establishment and has since been engaged in the plumbing, heating, and contracting business, in which he has been more than moderately successful. His achievement in building up a substantial business within such a comparatively short time, stamps him as one of the dynamic younger business men of Marquette. He married Irene Kasenow, a native of St. Paul, Minnesota, and Mr. Murnane is a member of the Elks and the Knights of Columbus, in the affairs of both of which he takes an active interest. He has since added the silent automatic oil burner installation to his line of work and Copeland electric refrigeration for homes.

Percival J. Delf. For nearly a half century, Percival J. Delf has been a familiar figure to the people of Marquette, Michigan, for during that time he has been connected with the grocery business here and is now known as one of the most substantial and successful grocery store proprietors in this city. Born at Hancock, Michigan, March 22, 1869, he is a son of Arthur and Marion E. Delf, the former of whom was born in London, England, was a printer by trade, and died in 1896 at the age of sixty-four years and the latter of whom was a native of Australia and died in 1918. Attending the public schools of Negaunee, Michigan, and Marquette, Michigan, Percival J. Delf left school at the age of thirteen years to go to work for his father who was then conducting a grocery store in Marquette. Following his father's death in 1896, he continued the operation of the store on his mother's behalf. In 1918, after the death of Mrs. Marion E. Delf, he took over the store for himself, and today Mr. Delf can point with worthy pride to the fact that his forty-three years in the grocery business find him the owner of one of the most completely equipped and stocked stores of its kind in Marquette. Needless to say, he is regarded favorably by business men of this city as one of the successful retail store managers of this locality. Mr. Delf was united in marriage to Marian E. Van Iderstine, who was born in Marquette. Mr. Delf is active in fraternal circles, he being a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and a member of the Elks.

Ransom Shelden occupied a conspicuous place in the pioneer development of the Copper Country of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for his advent to this region came at a time when the vast mineral resources were little more than a matter of conjecture. A son of George and Hannah Shelden, he was born in Essex county, New York, July 7, 1814, and passed his early life on his father's farm, where he acquired habits of industry and frugality that characterized his future life. In 1835, having procured a horse and light wagon and a stock of merchandise, he set out from his home in the Empire State for the West. He arrived in Chicago in 1837, and after remaining there a short time, he went to Bigfoot Prairie, Walworth county, Wisconsin, where he began work on a farm about two miles from the southern end of Lake Geneva. He was widely known in that community for his skill and speed with the cradle in reaping and in other kinds of farm work. At that place, in 1839, he married Miss Theresa M. Douglass, a daughter of Christopher Douglass and a cousin of Dr. Douglass Houghton, the first State Geologist of Michigan and for whom Houghton county is named. She was born at Fredonia, New York, and came West with her parents to settle at Mt. Clemens and, later, Algonac, Michigan, where the declining years of her parents were spent. Failing health induced him to make a change, and in 1845, he located at L'Anse, Baraga county, in the Upper Peninsula near Portage Entry, where he engaged in trading with the Indians in partnership with his brother-in-law, Columbus C. Douglass. At Portage Entry, whither the business had been removed from L'Anse in the spring of 1847, the partners inaugurated a fishing business in conjunction with their mercantile enterprise, and here they were established until 1851. In that year, they removed to Houghton, being the only white family for thirty miles around there conducting a mine store for general merchandise, and in the spring of the following year, they platted the village of Houghton, removing their goods at the time opposite the site of the present Northern Garage on Isle Royale street. The partners continued to operate the store until the autumn of 1862, when it was sold to the firm of Smith & Harris. Ransom Shelden spent the summer months of 1849 and 1850 exploring for copper in the vicinity of Houghton and Hancock. As a result of his efforts, he and Mr. Douglass, during the winters of 1851 and 1852, organized the Portage, Isle Royale, and Huron mining companies, by which several mines were opened in this section. The two men acquired land aggregating 55,000 acres in extent in Houghton and adjoining counties, and about two miles below Houghton, they erected a saw mill at Dollar Bay. They placed two small steamers in service between Houghton and Portage Entry and acquired the "Napoleon" to ply between Sault Ste. Marie and the head of Lake Superior. Disaster overtook the "Napoleon," for she foundered on her second trip. The business relations of Mr. Shelden in his life in the Upper Peninsula were of a nature to inspire confidence and trust in his associates, for he combined a superior intelligence with the initiative and enterprising spirit of the pioneer, and upon the industrial and commercial annals of this section of the Upper Peninsula his hand is indelibly stamped. His political allegiance was given to the Whigs until the Republican party was organized, at which time he espoused the cause of the new party, remaining one of its staunch adherents during the remainder of his life. About 1855, he built the fine mansion that fronts the street bearing his name, and it was there that his life was terminated, May 17, 1878. He and his wife were the parents of four children. Carlos D. Shelden, the eldest son, is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. George C., the second son, who is also mentioned elsewhere in this volume. The only daughter, Christine M., married Edward Gilbert and died at the age of thirty-two years, leaving three children, Shelden D., Edwin G., and Theresa C. The youngest son, Ransom Bird Shelden, married Miss Cora A. Paull and they had three children. He is now a fruit grower at Riverside, California. After the death of Ransom Shelden his estate was ably handled by his two sons, the Honorable Carlos D. and George C., both of whom are now deceased. But the name of Shelden will long be remembered with respect and interest as one of the most important connected with the history of the Northern Peninsula.

Carlos D. Shelden, came of a family that has contributed much to the development of Houghton county and the Copper Country, and as a representative to congress from the Twelfth Congressional District of Michigan, Honorable Carlos D. Shelden carried the achievements of his family into still a second great field of endeavor by his zealous championship of the interests of the people. He was born in Walworth county, Wisconsin, June 10, 1840, the son of Ransom and Theresa M. (Douglass) Shelden, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work. He removed with his parents to the Upper Peninsula when he was a small boy, locating with them in Baraga county and then in Houghton. He obtained his education at the Union school, of Ypsilanti, Michigan. When the clouds of civil war gathered over the country, he returned to his home in the fall of 1861 and raised a company at Houghton for service in the Union army, and in the following year, he was commissioned captain in the Twenty-third Michigan Volunteer Infantry. With this regiment, he served until the latter part of 1864, his organization being under the command of General Thomas during the greater part of that time. Returning to Houghton, he went into business with the extensive Shelden interests. A publicspirited citizen who was ever on the alert to promote the welfare of his community, he took an active part in the Republican politics of the city, county and state. He was elected to the position of president of the village of Houghton and served several years as a member of the board of supervisors of Houghton county. His diligence in behalf of the people found further endorsement in his election to a seat in the legislature in 1892 and to the State Senate in 1894. His advancement through the two houses of the legislature added new honors to his public career, and it was only to be expected that he be nominated for election to congress from his district, the twelfth. He served in the 55th and 56th congresses, and when he became a candidate for election to a third consecutive term, the people returned him to his trust with the overwhelming majority of 21,000 votes. In the legislature and in congress, Mr. Shelden distinguished himself by his faithful attention to duty, his penetrating insight into the merits or demerits of various measures, and his fearless espousal of those bills which he believed to be greatest in their benefits to the people. A strong party man, he was nevertheless equally strong in his observance of the right when party affiliation might cause him to temper his adherence to party customs or practices. Since the death of his father, he handled the affairs of the Shelden estate, his brother, George C., being associated with him in this work until the death of the brother on October 2, 1896. During the two years of 1885-86 Mr. Shelden was superintendent of the Shelden and Shafer mines at Crystal Falls. This property having been acquired after he and Mr. Shafer had gone prospecting a few years before in this territory and took over four to five thousand acres of government land. Since then this property has proved to be rich in iron ore and the following mines have been opened up: Crystal Falls, The Dunn, Tobin and the Odgers. After Mr. Shafer's death his half interest was purchased by Mr. William Calverley and the property is now known by the name of Shelden & Calverley holdings. On June 24, 1904, Carlos D. Shelden died, thus ending a life that had been a useful one in the service of the people. In 1865, Mr. Shelden married Mary E. Skiff, the daughter of George and Eliza Skiff, of Willoughby, Ohio. She died in 1868 leaving a son, Ransom Skiff Shelden, who was then six months of age and is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. In 1888, Carlos D. Shelden was again married, taking for his second wife Mrs. Sarah Wales Gardner, nee Dashiell, a native of Princess Anne, Maryland. Mrs. Shelden has two daughters, Mrs. J. D. Ryan, of Butte, Montana, and New York City, and Nellie, who is the wife of William R. Thompson, president of the First National bank of Hancock. Mr. Shelden was a Thirty-second Degree Mason, maintaining membership in the Blue Lodge at Houghton, the Chapter at Hancock, the Montrose Commandery at Calumet, the Consistory at Grand Rapids, and the Shrine at Marquette.

Ransom Skiff Shelden was one of the foremost attorneys and business men of Houghton, for he was engaged in the practice of law in this city for a period of fifteen years and was subsequently identified with the management of the Shelden Estate company, which is largely interested in iron mining and mineral and timber lands in Houghton and Iron counties. He was Circuit Court commissioner for twelve years and had the distinction of being the youngest officer Houghton county ever had, being only twenty-one years of age. Born at Houghton, Michigan, on December 4, 1869, he was the son of the late Carlos D. and Mary E. (Skiff) Shelden, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work. Following the death of his mother when he was but six months of age, he was placed in the care of his Grandfather and Grandmother Skiff of Willoughby, Ohio, where he remained until he was twelve years of age. He then returned to Houghton but in a short time entered Orchard Lake academy, whence he went to Racine college, Racine, Wisconsin. Completing the course of study at the latter institution, he matriculated in the Law school of the University of Wisconsin from which he was graduated in due course. Returning to Houghton, he entered upon the active practice of his profession and was so engaged until 1906. He acquired an excellent reputation through his work before the bar of his native county and established a practice that ranked him unquestionably among the leading lawyers of the Upper Peninsula. When his father, administrator of the Shelden estate, died in 1904, the duties of that work fell upon the shoulders of Ransom Skiff Shelden. Here again he displayed an initiative and ability that proved him to be a man of wide attainments, his success as a business man being equally as conspicuous as that as a lawyer. He was also a member of the firm of Shelden & Calverley, dealing in real estate in Houghton and Iron counties and in iron mining properties. He was also a partner in the firm of Shelden & Dickens, a real estate and insurance organization of Houghton that occupied a prominent place in its field in this section of the state. Fraternally, Mr. Shelden was a member of Houghton Lodge No. 218, F. & A. M., and the Hancock Lodge of Elks, also the University club and the Athletic club of Chicago. He was active in the affairs of Trinity Episcopal church, of Houghton, and served twenty-five years as choirmaster there. His later years found him an extensive traveler, and it was during the course of a world cruise in 1922 that he died of pneumonia at Nice, France, on March 27, that year, his mother being with him at the time of his death and returned with his body to Houghton for burial.

George C. Shelden was a man well-known in the Northern Peninsula, public-spirited and successful in business. The son of Ransom Shelden, one of the most distinguished pioneers whose deeds are chronicled in the history of the copper region, he was born, December 27, 1842, in Walworth county, Wisconsin, and died in Houghton, Michigan, October 2, 1896. He passed his early boyhood in Houghton county, obtaining his education in the public schools and until he was about twenty years of age he assisted his father who was engaged in the mining and mercantile business. His business career was interrupted by the breaking out of the Civil war, and although he was a very young man being only eighteen years old he gave eminently valuable service to his country by recruiting and organizing a company of the Sixteenth Michigan Regiment. He was commissioned first lieutenant, and participated in several small engagements, later being commissioned captain of his company in which he served until the close of the war, and was in the battles of Gettysburg, Antietam, Weldon R. R., Peebles farm, Spottsylvania courthouse, Five Forks, Norfolk R. R., Hatchers Run No. 1, Hatcher's Run No. 2 and Appomattox. When peace was concluded young Shelden returned to Michigan and took his place in the world of affairs, his special line of endeavor being the mercantile and commission business and he was one whose executive qualifications secured him entire success. He was associated in different partnerships in the mercantile business and was the means of adding materially to the wealth and progress of the community. He also organized the company which built the Portage Lake bridge connecting the cities of Houghton and Hancock. This bridge was operated on a toll basis until it was sold to Houghton county. He invested extensively in real estate and usually realized handsomely in all of his dealings. When he died in the fullness of his powers he left a fine property. He was the brother of one of Michigan's eminent congressmen, Honorable Carlos D. Shelden, also deceased. George C. Shelden was married April 17, 1867, to Miss Mary E. Edwards, daughter of Hon. Richard Edwards. Their happy union was blessed by the birth of two daughters; Jennie, now Mrs. S. J. Bowling of Detroit, and Mary, now Mrs. B. T. Barry of Houghton, Michigan. Nowhere did those admirable and endearing qualities which distinguished Mr. Shelden among his fellows shine forth more clearly than in the home circle, for he was a man of quiet, domestic tastes, who was never more content than when under his own vine and fig-tree. Like his distinguished brother and his equally distinguished father Mr. Shelden gave his heart and hand to the Republican party and he found great pleasure in his fraternal connection with the Masonic order. Of his brothers only one survives, Ransom Bird Shelden of Riverside California. A sister who became Mrs. E. S. Gilbert, having died some years ago.

Roy L. Rydholm, as a partner in Rydholm Brothers grocery, is well known to business men of Marquette as a man well acquainted with the ramifications of his business and exceedingly able in store management. He was born in this city, March 12, 1890, a son of Charles F. and Selma Rydholm, both of whom were born in Sweden and the former of whom is a laborer and now lives in Marquette with his wife. Graduating from the Marquette high school in 1907, Roy L. Rydholm enlisted in the United States navy, serving one enlistment of four years, and in 1911 he returned to Marquette to engage in the grocery business. During the ensuing six years, he applied himself to learning the details of the business with an energy and application that has since characterized his operations in the business world, but his progress was interrupted by the declaration of war on Germany in 1917. Enlisting again in the navy for war service, he was so employed until 1919, when he received an honorable discharge and returned to Marquette. Here again he entered the grocery business as a partner in Rydholm Brothers grocery in 1920. The six years subsequent to the establishment of this partnership have been highly successful ones for Mr. Rydholm, who is becoming known as one of the progressive and able grocers of Marquette Mr. Rydholm married Hazel Zerbel, of Marquette, and has three daughters, Marjorie, Dorothy, and Shirley, aged four years, three years, and one year, respectively. Mr. Rydholm is a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine.

August W. Johnson, a leading figure in the plumbing and heating business in Marquette, Michigan, was born in this city, March 3, 1894, a son of Gus and, Emma Johnson, both of whom were natives of Sweden and are now living in Marquette. After receiving a public school education, August W. Johnson became a plumber's apprentice and during the years that followed did everything within his power to perfect his knowledge of that work. While he labored, he carefully husbanded his wages against the day when he should engage in business for himself, and that day came in 1921, when he joined his brother in plumbing and heating engineering under the firm style of Johnson brothers, a partnership that exists today. Mr. Johnson married Louise Koepp, of Marquette, and they have one son, Walter, aged five years. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Superior lodge. Oscar W. Johnson, brother of August W. and a partner in the firm of Johnson brothers, was born in Marquette, August 27, 1892, and like his brother, attended the public schools of this city. For a number of years following the completion of his education, he followed the trades of printer and subsequently machinist, and in 1921 joined his brother in the plumbing and heating business as above stated. He, too, is a member of the Superior lodge and also of the Swedish Crown lodge, of Marquette. The five years that have elapsed since the establishment of the business have been profitable ones for the two brothers, for they have developed a large business in their field and are equally regarded for their business ability in building up a substantial enterprise in such a comparatively short time. No higher grade of work can be found in Marquette than that performed by Johnson brothers, who owe their rise to honest effort, workmanship, and ability of a high degree.

Edward F. Kennedy is known to people of the county and city of Marquette not only as one of the ablest business executives of which this section can boast but also as a public servant in the office of county supervisor. A native of Atlantic, Iowa, he was born December 17, 1870, a son of James and Mary Kennedy, the former of whom, a mechanic, was born in Ireland and died in 1883 at the age of fifty-two years and the latter of whom was born in Canada and died in 1909 at the age of seventy years. After attending the public schools of Plattsmouth, Nebraska, until he was eleven years old, Edward F. Kennedy started life as a water boy in the employ of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, and two years later, though he was but thirteen years of age, he apprenticed himself to the boilermaker's trade with the same railroad company. To such good purpose did he employ his time, that when he was eighteen years of age, he was transferred to Alliance, Nebraska, as boilermaker foreman, work in which he continued for several years. In 1897, he became an employe of the Union Pacific railway as boilermaker, and in 1902, it was he who conducted the strike on that railroad and was chairman of the agreement committee. In 1903, he came to Marquette, Michigan, as master boilermaker for the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, a position in which he continued four years. Giving up the work in the railroad shops, he established the Marquette Boiler & Sheet Iron works in 1907 and has since continued at the head of that enterprise. He has developed the company into one of the substantial manufacturing concerns of this city, demonstrating his ability as an executive beyond all possible refutation. To this activity he added the Northern Michigan agencies for the No-Kol and Hardinge Automatic Oil burners in 1924 and the Frigidaire agency for Marquette in 1926. These products he distributes through the medium of the Kennedy Automatic Servis company, which has already won for itself a permanent place in the commercial life of the city and county. Mr. Kennedy has shown himself to be actively interested in the problems of the city and county, and at the present time he is serving as a county supervisor. His wife, Mrs. Caroline Kennedy, whom he married in 1897, was a native of Clarks, Nebraska. Mr. Kennedy is a member of the Knights of Columbus and is actively interested in the affairs of that order.

William G. Miller, prominent building contractor of Marquette, Michigan, was born in Wisconsin, October 5, 1887, a son of George and Katherine Miller, the former of whom was born in Milwaukee county, Wisconsin, and was a general contractor until the time of his death in 1926 at the age of sixty-three years and the latter of whom was born in New Berlin, Wisconsin, and is now living at Waukesha, that state. After attending the public schools of Waukesha, Wisconsin, William G. Miller matriculated at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, and following his two years at that institution, he became associated with the Foster Construction company as timekeeper and material clerk. When he left the company nine years later, he was holding the important position of building superintendent. Coming to Gogebic county, Michigan, Mr. Miller assumed the duties of county engineer, designing steel bridges that were then being constructed throughout the county. In 1915, he came to Marquette, Michigan, and engaged in the general contracting business in which he has been since employed. In his particular field, perhaps no man is more widely and favorably known than is Mr. Miller, and fitting recognition of his ability as a contractor was accorded him in 1921 by his appointment to the responsible position of building superintendent for the State of Michigan for the prison and state schools in Marquette county. In addition to the contracting business, Mr. Miller has become interested in other enterprises, for he is a stockholder in the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company and of the Union National bank, both of Marquette. For these three reasons, Mr. Miller is recognized as one of the influential and capable business men in Marquette, and without exception, his business associates designate him as an executive of initiative and aggressiveness. He married Clara A. Smith, born in Marquette, a daughter of Jacob and Augusta Smith, the former of whom was born in Germany and subsequently entered the grocery business at Marquette and the latter of whom was a native of this county. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are the parents of three children, Bruce, seven years old; William G., Jr., aged two; and Jack S., who is eight months old. Mr. Miller is a member of the Masonic fraternity and of the Mystic Shrine.

Leslie J. Bourgeois is well known in business circles of Marquette as the proprietor of the Wicker Shoppe, which is regarded as one of the finest establishments of its kind in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. He was born at Marquette, July 28, 1901, a son of Arthur and Elizabeth Bourgeois, the former of whom is a mechanic and boiler inspector and both of whom are now living in this city. After leaving the Marquette public schools, he worked as a mechanic in various machine shops at Marquette, but tiring of the work, he found a position as traveling salesman for a candy manufacturing concern, which he represented throughout the Upper Peninsula. In this work, he gained the knowledge of candy and similar products that assured him success in business for himself, so that when he opened the Wicker Shoppe at No. 727 North Third street, he was fully acquainted with the various lines of products which he prepared to market. Consequently, his venture has been an unqualified success from the time of its inception, and the constantly growing trade is ample testimony to the ability of Mr. Bourgeois as a store manager and business man. Mr. Bourgeois is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the United Commercial Travelers.

John P. Outhwaite played a prominent part in the early history of Ishpeming, where he came to make his home in 1866. His father, John Outhwaite, first came to this locality in 1846, shortly after iron was discovered on what is now the Marquette range, and was interested with several others in the ownership of the old Cleveland mine. The elder Outhwaite held possession of the Jasper Hill at the Cleveland location, which was believed in the early days to be a hill of commercial ore, but it still stands untouched, the grade being too low to make it of value. He was successful in keeping possession of his claims in spite of the efforts of others to gain the titles. John P. Outhwaite was born in Cleveland, Ohio, seventy-five years ago and made his first trip to this section in 1850, coming by boat to Marquette. He made several other trips prior to 1866, when he settled in Ishpeming. His first work here was with the Cleveland Iron Mining company, he being in charge of a crew of explorers for about a year, after which he took a position in the office. He severed his connection with the mining company about 1875 to engage in the mercantile business with B. W. Wright, now of Marquette, the two conducting the old New York store. Mr. Outhwaite disposed of his store interests to his partner and entered the livery business, later opening a meat market in the Robbins' building, on Main street, opposite the Miners National bank. For years Mr. Outhwaite took an active part in politics, being a staunch member of the Republican party, and he was chosen a member of the first board of aldermen, elected in 1873 when the city was incorporated. He served as a councilman until 1876 when he was chosen mayor of the city and he was re-elected the following year. He was out of office in 1878, but in 1879 was again named as the city's executive, being chosen the fourth and fifth terms in 1881 and 1882. Later he held the office of county treasurer and highway commissioner. Mr. Outhwaite was the first chief of the Ishpeming fire department and held that position for a number of years. He was also president of the Peninsular bank from 1903 to 1913. In 1870 Mr. Outhwaite married Miss Mary Nelson, only daughter of the late Robert Nelson, who was known as the founder of Ishpeming. Mr. Nelson platted the greater portion of the present city of Ishpeming and erected the Barnum House, which was a prominent hotel for many years. Following the destruction of the Barnum House, he built the present Nelson House, which later became the property of Mr. Outhwaite. Mr. Outhwaite is survived by Mrs. Outhwaite and one son, John N. Outhwaite, of Cleveland, who is captain of one of the Great Lakes vessels, and two daughters, Mrs. Charles M. Leonard, of Richmond, Virginia, and Miss Mary, at home. Mr. Outhwaite was a member of the Ishpeming branches of the Masonic order and the Ishpeming lodge of Elks. Mr. Outhwaite died Sunday, December 21, 1919.

John Outhwaite, father of John P. Outhwaite, was born in Hunton, Yorkshire, England, in 1811. He came to this country in 1832 and after a short sojourn in Buffalo, took up his residence in this city, which for the remainder of his life was his home. In the summer of 1848 Mr. Outhwaite went to Lake Superior, landing where now is the town of Marquette. The first timbers for the building of the town were not felled till the following year. Sleeping the first night upon the sand by the shore, he began next day with his Indian guides to prospect for iron. He located the claims of what later became known as the Cleveland Iron Mining company, being himself one of the incorporators in 1850. From this early beginning Mr. Outhwaite was closely identified with the development of the mining interests of that region, shipping the first thousand tons of Lake Superior ore down the lakes. He was also connected with the construction of the first rolling mill in Northern Ohio. At the time of his death he was director and president of the Pittsburgh & Lake Angeline Iron company, of the Curry Iron company, and of the Sterling Iron company. Mr. Outhwaite was a man of unspotted integrity, thoroughly honorable in all his business relations and possessed the sincere respect of the community of which he was so long a member. But only those who knew him in private could know the real excellence and fine make-up of the man. He died at Vulcan, Michigan, on Thursday, April 27, 1881. He left a wife, two sons and two daughters.

Robert Nelson. A history of Robert Nelson's career is practically a history of Ishpeming. The founder of the city, the head and front of many of its most important enterprises, he was from the beginning the city's first citizen in every sense. During the prosperous days in Ishpeming's infancy, Mr. Nelson's business activity was manifest in almost every branch of trade. He established the Bank of Ishpeming and in 1874 built the Barnum House, which latter in those days was an extraordinary enterprise. The panic of 1873 which closed so many banks and caused many others to temporarily suspend, never stopped the one over which Robert Nelson presided, and when in 1879 the Barnum House was destroyed by fire the Nelson House rose from its ashes as rapidly as the plans for it could be completed and the work of building performed. Though well along in years then he was undaunted by the disaster to the old Barnum House. One of his most prominent and successful enterprises was the development of what is now the Cleveland Hematite mine. In 1876 Mr. Nelson was elected county treasurer, an office he did not seek, but which sought the man. By the death of Robert Nelson, which occurred on June 16, 1895, Ishpeming lost one of its foremost citizens. Though not a resident here for several years, his name was so indelibly stamped on Ishpeming's record and its interests so much his own that he would be an Ishpeming man wherever he dwelt. He was a man of keen business ability, tireless industry and strict integrity. His manner was sometimes gruff and to some it seemed harsh but there was a good heart in his breast and the deserving person who wanted a friend did not seek one in him in vain. Every public enterprise had his support if it was for the benefit of Ishpeming.

Frank La Bonte stands out as one of the leading business men of Marquette, for in the conduct of his grocery and meat business, he has displayed a resourcefulness, initiative, and ability far above the ordinary retail store manager. His father, Frank La Bonte, a merchant of Marquette, was born in 1856 and died in 1914, and his mother, Louise La Bonte, was born in Canada and was active in church work until the time of her death in 1920. Frank La Bonte, the younger, was born in Marquette, November 19, 1876, and here attended the public schools. When he was sixteen years of age, he became a clerk in the employ of Watson & Palmer, with whom he continued five years, and he then worked as a grocery clerk for E. L. Kellar for a period of seven years. In these two positions, he learned all that he could of store management, so that when he opened his own store in 1903, he already possessed an extensive and accurate knowledge of the grocery business. Starting in a small way, Mr. La Bonte conducted his grocery store for a period of twelve years, but; realizing that success awaited only the venturesome, he decided to materially expand his business. Accordingly, he purchased property and built thereon a store that is unrivaled in Marquette for completeness of equipment and stock, for he handles a full line of groceries, meats, and vegetables. In building up this business, Mr. La Bonte has justly acquired the name of being a shrewd and progressive business man, for none knows better than his associates in business the manner in which he has virtually lifted himself by his bootstraps from a position of comparative insignificance to one of leadership in the commerce of Marquette. Having taken a deep interest in the civic affairs of his community since the days of his young manhood, he was chosen a charter member of the Marquette City Fire department. He and his wife, who was Agnes Delaria, of Negaunee, Michigan, are the parents of these three children: Mark L., aged twenty-two years; Fern, who is nineteen years of age and is a student at the Northern State Normal school, of Marquette; and Madonne, who is a student in the Marquette high school. Mr. La Bonte is a member of the Merchants' association and of the Knights of Columbus.

William Bell, veterinary surgeon and automobile dealer of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the successful men of that locality, where he has been engaged in the practice of his profession and in business since 1913. He was born in Ishpeming, April 4, 1883, a son of William and Margaret Bell, both of whom were born in Montreal, Canada, of Scotch parentage, and the former of whom came to the United States when he was a young man and followed the business of liveryman and stock dealer until the time of his death in 1888 at the age of forty-four years. In the public schools of his home community, William Bell began his education, and after a year at Toronto college, he entered the McKillip Veterinary college, of Chicago, Illinois, whence he graduated in 1908. For a short time thereafter, he was located at Ishpeming but in 1909 went to Virginia, where he was engaged in the practice of veterinary surgery until 1913. Returning to Ishpeming in the latter year, he began the practice of his profession here, a work in which he has since been employed and in which he has gained an enviable reputation throughout Marquette county. In 1914, the year following his return to Ishpeming, he established a livery, sale, and teaming business which he still operates successfully. But Mr. Bell has consistently shown his farsightedness in business affairs, for in 1920, he acquired the agency for Maxwell and Chrysler automobiles, which he surrendered in 1925 to assume charge of the Chevrolet and Buick sales organization at Ishpeming, a business that he operates under the firm style of the Ishpeming Motor company. Mr. Bell married Winifred Moutrie, who was born in England to Alfred and Mary Moutrie, and they have one daughter, Winifred, who is a graduate of the Ishpeming high school and is employed as a bookkeeper with her father.

William Trebilcock, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the leading men of that city and of Marquette county, for the many enterprises to which he has set his hand are leaders in their several fields. His father, James Trebilcock, was born in Cornwall, England, in 1848, came to the United States when he was a young man, and died at Ishpeming, where he had been engaged in mining, in 1901, while his widow, Elizabeth Trebilcock, mother of William, still resides at Ishpeming, where she takes an active interest in the affairs of the Ladies Aid society and the Rebekah lodge. Born at Ishpeming, June 22, 1876, William Trebilcock attended the public schools of the city until he was eleven years of age, at which time he left school to enter the mines, subsequently spending two years as a fireman on the railroad, work which he followed by three years as a stationary engineer in California. In 1900, Mr. Trebilcock returned to Ishpeming where he started the greenhouse business which he still operates and which has become one of the leading establishments of its kind in the county. Two years after the birth of that enterprise, he entered the contracting business, developing that venture into one of large proportions. Not content with the work entailed by the management of these two concerns, he organized the Northern Leather company in 1909, of which he has been president since that time. Thus, through the agency of these three companies that he has built up unaided, Mr. Trebilcock has come to be known as one who holds a commanding position in the commercial and industrial life of the city and county where he makes his home. A conspicuous figure in the life of his community, he was appointed postmaster in 1921 and still discharges the duties of that office. During the past fifteen years, Mr. Trebilcock has been engaged in the ice business in Ishpeming, providing a service in this commodity that cannot be excelled in a city of the size of Ishpeming. Mr. Trebilcock and his wife, Lydia E. Trebilcock, a native of Ishpeming, are the parents of these children: Merle, who is the wife of Doctor Malin, of Iron Mountain; Verna, aged twenty-three years, who is attending the University of Michigan; Ruth, twenty-one years of age, who is also attending the University of Michigan; Dorothy, who entered the same university in September, 1926; Winifred, aged twelve years; and William A., nine years old, who is attending the Ishpeming schools as is his youngest sister. In Masonry, Mr. Trebilcock is a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason, a Shriner, and a member of Eastern Star, and he is also a member of the Odd Fellows, Elks, Knights of Pythias, American Order of the Sons of St. George, the Maccabees, and the Modern Woodmen of America.

Jacob Talso, M. D., director and owner of the Finnish hospital at Ishpeming, was born in Finland in 1872, a son of Jacob and Lisie (Luooma) Talso, both natives of Finland, the former of whom was a farmer and died in 1908 at the age of sixty-three years and the latter of whom died in 1922 at the age of seventy-three years. Subsequent to his graduation from the high school of his native community, young Jacob Talso came to the United States, and imbued with the determination to better his situation in life, he entered Valparaiso university, from which he received the degree of bachelor of arts, and in 1910 graduated from the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery with the degree of doctor of medicine. Having completed his studies, Doctor Talso went: to Calumet, Michigan, where he engaged in the practice of his profession over a period of ten years and in 1921 came to Ishpeming, where he bought the Finnish hospital from Dr. H. Holm. Doctor Talso is favorably known for the work he has accomplished as director of the Finnish hospital, which is complete to, every detail, including an X-ray room, a laboratory, and an excellent operating room. He has met with unusual success in the handling of the cases that have been placed under his care and has thus made the hospital widely known throughout this section of the county. Doctor Talso married Jennie Mattson, a native of Finland, and they have one son, Peter, who is five years of age. Doctor Talso is a member of the Masons, Knights of Pythias, Knights of Kaleva, and the Maccabees, and his wife is a member of Eastern Star, Ladies of Kaleva, and the Finnish Lutheran church, which her husband also attends.

Harry Sigfrid Peterson, superintendent of the Michigan mining properties of the Jones & Laughlin Ore company, has arrived at his responsible position in that organization through years of hard work and close attention to duty. John A. Peterson, his father, was born in Sweden and now, at the age of sixty-five years, is following his trade of blacksmith in the employ of the Lake Shore Engine works, of Marquette, Michigan, where he was also leader of the band as he was at Ishpeming, where he also served as city alderman for several years. Augusta (Carlston) Peterson, mother of Harry S., was born in Sweden and is still living, having attained the age of sixty-four years. Born at Calumet, Michigan, October 20, 1883, Harry Sigfrid Peterson attended the Ishpeming high school, and following his graduation therefrom, he studied for a year at the University of Wisconsin and for a like period at the University of North Dakota. It was in 1906 that he entered the employ of the Jones & Laughlin Ore company, beginning a term of service with the organization that has witnessed his rise to the position of superintendent in charge of the Michigan properties of that company. Unquestionably, then, he is recognized as an important figure in iron mining on the Marquette range. Attesting his ability and popularity is the fact that he has served continuously as alderman of Ishpeming for fourteen years, a time in which he has devoted every effort to promoting the welfare of the people. He is now president of the city council by virtue of his long and noteworthy service as a public official. Mr. Peterson married Norma Altschwager, of Jefferson, Wisconsin, and they have two children, John Avery and Betty Barbara, aged fourteen years and nine years, respectively. Mr. Peterson is a Thirty-second degree Mason, a Shriner, and a member of the Golf club, Sportmen's club, and Legion club. He and his family attend the Presbyterian church.

Mathew Lofberg has been in the men's furnishings business at Ishpeming since 1896 and has developed a retail store in this field that stamps him as an able and progressive business man. He was born in Finland, February 9, 1870, a son of Christian and Susina Lofberg, both natives of Finland, the former of whom, a farmer, was born in 1844 and died March 1, 1915, and the latter of whom died July 5, 1922. After completing his studies in the public schools of his native land, Mathew Lofberg spent two years in Russia. Coming to the United States in 1892, he became a miner at Ishpeming, Michigan, and in 1896 engaged in the men's furnishings business, first as a clerk and in 1908 in a business of his own. He has built up a large trade during the ensuing thirty years, and he is known as one of the most able men engaged in retail store operation in Ishpeming, for his establishment is equipped in the most modern way and carries a complete line of the highest grade clothing and haberdashery. Mr. Lofberg is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Kaleva, the Knights of Pythias, and Modern Woodmen. In addition to the clothing business, Mr. Lofberg is a director of the Miners National bank, of Ishpeming, one of the oldest and strongest financial institutions in the county.

John S. Wahlman is a prominent figure in Ishpeming not only for his record as a public official but also because of his eminence as a leader in the contracting field in the city. His father, John Wahlman was born in Sweden in 1837, came to Ishpeming in 1872, and here engaged in the general contracting business until his retirement, since which time he has made his home at Minneapolis, Minnesota. Christina (Johnston) Wahlman, mother of John S., was born in Sweden and died in 1914 at the age of seventy-six years. John S. Wahlman was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, July 9, 1875, and after graduating from the high school there, pursued a course of study at Augustana college, Rock Island, Illinois. Returning to Ishpeming in 1894, he entered the contracting business in the employ of his father. Under his parent's careful guidance, he learned the ramifications of the contracting business with a thoroughness that brought him a partnership in the business with his father in 1904. From that time forward, the senior Wahlman gradually relinquished the burdens of the work in favor of his son, who finally took over the entire concern in 1916 when his father retired from active life. Since that time, Mr. Wahlman has been sole proprietor of the enterprise which is a leader in its field in this section of the county. Mr. Wahlman married Dagmar Windsand, born in Europe, and to them have been born four sons: Windfred, aged twenty-nine years, who served in the United States navy in the World war, married Mildred Ramsdell, of Ishpeming, and is now building inspector of St. Petersburg, Florida; Edgar, who is twenty-seven years of age and is a mechanical engineer in the employ of the International Harvester company at Chicago, Illinois; and Spencer, aged thirteen years, who is living at home. Elmer died at the age of fifteen years. Mr. Wahlman is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Modern Woodmen.

Clarence Ellsworth Lott is recognized as one of the leading young attorneys of Marquette county, and the measure of his ability and popularity is seen in the fact that he is city attorney of Negaunee and is a candidate for election to the office of county prosecutor. He was born at Iron River, Michigan, May 10. 1900, and is a son of Edward P. Lott, who was born at Escanaba, Michigan, of Dutch parentage and is a general contractor of Iron River. Graduating from the Iron River high school. Clarence E. Lott studied at Beloit college, Beloit, Wisconsin, during the year of 1916-17, after which he spent a like period at the Northern State Normal school at Marquette, Michigan, he being a sergeant in the Student Army Training Corps in the World war. With this pre-legal training, Mr. Lott matriculated in the law department of the University of Michigan, whence he graduated in 1921 with the degree of bachelor of laws. Following his admission to the bar, he entered practice at Marquette. In 1923, he opened offices at Muskegon Heights, Michigan, and in 1924 returned to Marquette county to enter practice at Negaunee, where he has since remained. His ability as an attorney was apparent from the first, and in 1925 he became city attorney of Negaunee, an office that be still retains. His quick rise caused him to be sought as a candidate for prosecuting attorney, and as this volume goes to press, the voters of the county are but waiting the time to show their preference. Mr. Lott has gained a remarkable success with the cases that have been placed in his hands, and it is this fact that stamps him as one of the ablest young lawyers of the city and county, and possessed of a winning personality as well as the highest attainments of a barrister, he cannot fail to reach the heights in his profession in this section of the state. He was district governor of the Lions club in the Upper Peninsula and is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Elks, American Legion, Marquette club, Wawonowin Golf club, Phi Kappa Psi, college social fraternity, and Delta Theta Phi, legal fraternity. Mr. Lott was elected prosecuting attorney November 2, 1926, for a term of two years.

William James Billing, proprietor of the Billing Motor Sales company, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the leading business men of the city, having been a pioneer automobile man of this section of the county. His paternal grandparents were William Henry and Elizabeth Ann (May) Billing, both natives of Cornwall, England, the former of whom was a miner and died in 1873 at the age of thirty-seven years and the latter of whom died in 1909 at the age of sixty-nine years. Their son, James Henry Billing, father of him whose name heads this review, was born in Cornwall, became a miner and lumberman after coming to the United States in 1887, and subsequently engaged in the hotel business at Ishpeming, where he operates the Billing House. He married Rosenia Menhenett, a native of Cornwall, England, and he is a member of the Sons of St. George. Born at Negaunee, Michigan, April 10, 1893, William James Billing attended the public schools of Ishpeming until he was fourteen years of age, when he gave up his studies to learn the automobile business. Subsequently, when his capital and experience warranted the move, he established the Billing Motor Sales company, at Ishpeming, and to this work he has added automobile painting and taxi service. That he has been more than moderately successful in the conduct of the enterprise is attested by the fact that he is one of the influential men in his field in this section of the county, a position that he has won through hard work and executive ability of a high order. Mr. Billing married Viola Marian Bonen, of Iron Mountain, Michigan, and he and his wife are members of the Grace Episcopal church.

John Kielinen well known building contractor of Ishpeming, Michigan, was born in Finland, May 24, 1880, a son of Herman and Sanna (Saugula) Kielinen, both natives of Finland, the former of whom died in 1883 at the age of twenty-four years and the latter of whom is living at Ishpeming at the age of sixty-six years. After attending the public schools of his native country, John Kielinen came to the United States when he was seventeen years of age, and for a period of two years thereafter, he was employed as a carpenter in Brooklyn, New York. In 1900, he came to Ishpeming to follow the same trade until 1906, when he went to California, remaining there until 1915. In the latter year he returned to Ishpeming and at that time established the building contracting business in which he has since been successfully engaged. His operations in this field, which includes not only the city but the section of the county in the immediate vicinity, have shown him to be one of the able and efficient men in this work. In addition to the contracting business, he is a partner with his brother in the operation of the Finnish Bath House at Ishpeming. In 1903, Mr. Kielinen married Anna Leppla, a native of Finland, and to, them have been born two children, Elmer, aged twenty years and Elline. Mr. Kielinen is a member of the Elks, Maccabees, and the Knights of Kaleva, and he and his wife attend the Finnish Lutheran church.

John W. Stone, late of Marquette, Michigan. It is given some men to excell in the work to which they set their hands, and it was not by chance that the late Judge John W. Stone rose steadily in the legal profession until he attained a seat on the supreme bench of the State of Michigan, a fitting acknowledgment of the place held by one of the ablest jurists and legists of the Upper Peninsula. A native of Wadsworth, Medina county, Ohio, he was born July 18, 1838, a son of Rev. Chauncey and Sarah (Bird) Stone, both of whom were natives of Vermont and came of families established in this country during the colonial period of our history. His great grandfather, Edmund Stone, served in the War of the Revolution. Benjamin Stone, grandfather of Judge Stone, served in the War of 1812 with a Vermont regiment, subsequently removing with his family to Medina county, Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his life. Rev. Chauncey Stone, father of Judge Stone, was born in Vermont, educated in his native state, and there married. In 1836, he came to Medina county, Ohio, and there cleared a farm where he continued to make his home until 1856. In the latter year, he removed to Allegan county, Michigan, where he resided until the time of his death, which occurred in 1881. His wife survived until 1897, dying at the age of eighty-seven years. Of the children born to this union, four sons and three daughters reached maturity; namely, Dr. Benjamin V., who was hospital steward and assistant surgeon of the Twenty-eighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war and who died at Alexandria, Virginia, in March, 1865; John W., whose name heads this review; Maria, who married H. N. Averill, of Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cynthia L., who died in California in 1880; Chauncey C., who became a resident of California; Charles W., who resides in Muskegon, Michigan; and Melissa, who is the wife of Joseph McConnell, of Allegan county, Michigan. John W. Stone obtained his early education in the schools of his native community. He was eighteen years of age at the time of the removal of the family to Michigan in 1856, and there he assisted his father in clearing a farm, spending the winter months teaching in the district schools of Allegan county. In 1859, he began reading law under the preceptorship of Silas Stafford, one of the foremost members of the Allegan county bar, and in 1860, he was elected clerk of Allegan county, an office to which he was returned in 1862. In January, 1862, Judge Stone was admitted to the bar, and upon the close of his second term as county clerk, he was the successful candidate for election to the office of county prosecutor in 1864. By successive re-elections, he was the incumbent of that office for a period of six years. His private practice was initiated in partnership with Judge Dan J. Arnold, and his success as an attorney and prosecutor were such as to win him the election in 1873 to the bench of the Twentieth Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Allegan and Ottawa. He resigned the position the following year to ally himself with the law firm of Norris & Blair, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, under the firm style of Norris, Blair & Stone, and in 1875, following the retirement of Mr. Norris, Willard Kingsley joined the firm, which then adopted the name of Blair, Stone & Kingsley. His record in public office and in private practice brought Judge Stone to the favorable attention of the people of that section of the state, and in 1876, he was elected to represent the counties of Allegan, Kent, Ottawa, Ionia, and Muskegon in the Forty-fifth Congress, a seat to which he was returned by the electors of the district in 1878. Coincident with his election to Congress, he retired from the firm of Blair, Stone & Kingsley, and in 1878, he joined Edward Taggart and N. A. Earle under the firm style of Taggart, Stone & Earle, an arrangement that was maintained until 1882. In the same year, following the conclusion of his service as Congressman, Judge Stone was appointed by President Arthur to the position of United States Attorney for the Western District of Michigan. During the four years he was so engaged, he was in partnership with Wesley W. Hyde as Stone & Hyde. It was during this four year period as United States Attorney that Judge Stone became acquainted with the Upper Peninsula, to which he made frequent trips in the performance of his duties, and so favorable was the impression the country made upon him that in May, 1887, he established his home in Houghton, where he allied himself with A. R. Gray under the name of Stone & Gray. The partnership was a happy combination, for Judge Stone's reputation had by this time become statewide and Mr. Gray's local name was an enviable one. The firm sprang into immediate prominence, and within a short time, a large practice was enjoyed by the partners. When Judge Grant of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit was elected to the bench of the supreme court in the spring of 1889, a vacancy was created in that circuit. At the earnest solicitation of the influential men of that circuit, Judge Stone removed to Marquette and was elected to fill the vacancy in 1890, although prior to that time, he had been a resident of another circuit. Such was the manner in which he discharged the duties of that responsible position that when the delegates to the Republican and Democratic conventions assembled in Escanaba in the spring of 1893, Judge Stone was the choice of both parties for re-election to the bench of the Twenty-fifth Circuit. His election followed as a matter of course, having the support of both parties, and by successive re-elections, he continued as judge of the circuit until December 31, 1909. In April, that year, he had been elected a Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court, and on January 1, 1910, he took the oath of office. In this high trust, he continued until the time of his death, which occurred March 24, 1922. Upon the occasion of his death, a Detroit newspaper printed an appreciation of the work of Judge Stone from which the following extract is taken: "Bred in the common law and armored in his knowledge of it, he was not only an honest lawyer, but a great lawyer. He had that valuable cast of mind which can think a proposition through and weigh it on its merits. 'Of law it must be acknowledged that her voice is the harmony of her world'; and of that harmony John W. Stone was always the faithful and jealous exponent. He was a wise man-rich in that wisdom which is the distilled essence of what he had learned from experience; and his had been an unusually long and varied experience. He was furnished with that openness to nature-with that old-fashioned simplicity and decisiveness of judgment-which rendered him incapable of being insincere or hesitant in the presence of his duty." Politically, Judge Stone was an unswerving Republican, yet it is a high tribute to his public character and political faith that he enjoyed the support of Republican and Democrat alike. He was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church and served as a vestryman and warden of St. Paul's church at Marquette, and as Chancellor of the Diocese of Marquette. At Allegan, Michigan, in 1861, Judge Stone married Miss Delia M. Grover, the daughter of Andrew P. Grover, who was then sheriff of Allegan county. Mrs. Stone died in Marquette, January 25, 1902. To this union were born these children: Carrie M., who married Fred M. Champlin, of Grand Rapids; Nina; Edith M.; Judge John G., who is mentioned elsewhere in this work, and Frank B., who died at Riverside, California, September 15, 1896, at the age of seventeen years.

John G. Stone, of Houghton, Michigan, has presided as Judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit of Michigan since May, 1922, succeeding by appointment and subsequent election Judge Patrick H. O'Brien on the latter's removal to Detroit. John G. Stone is the son of the late Judge John W. Stone and Delia M. (Grover) Stone. He was born at Allegan, Michigan, September 29, 1871, and received his elementary education in the public schools at Grand Rapids and Houghton, and later at Beloit College academy and Beloit college, at Beloit, Wisconsin. He pursued his law studies at the University of Michigan from whence he graduated as a member of the law class of 1894. On his admission to practice following his graduation he located at Grand Rapids, Michigan, and became associated with Judge John W. Champlin, who, like his father, was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan. This association continued until 1900, at which time he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and established himself in Ontonagon. Two years later he removed to Houghton where he joined A. R. Gray, who had been his father's junior partner, and Judge Norman W. Haire, in the law firm of Gray, Haire & Stone. With this firm, and its succeeding members, he was continuously identified until 1922 when he went upon the bench of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. Prior to ascending the bench Judge Stone had acquired a large practice as an attorney, fitting him for his present position. On October 4, 1899 at Marquette, Michigan, Judge Stone married Helen Grace Ball, a daughter of Dan H. Ball. To this union have been born the following children: Helen Grover, who married the late Charles L. Brace, Jr., of New York City, John Ball, who is now a geologist in South America, Everett, who is a student in Carleton college, Northfield, Minnesota, Mildred Chandler, a student at Sweet Briar college, Sweet Briar, Virginia, and Frank Bush, a student, at home. Judge Stone, like his father, is a staunch supporter of the Republican party. He is a communicant of the Episcopal church; a vestryman of Trinity Episcopal church, Houghton, and Chancellor of the Diocese of Marquette. He is a Knight Templar in Masonry, a member of the Elks, and of the American Order of the Sons of St. George.

Hon. Jay A. Hubbell, was for eight years a member of the United States Congress, during which time his name became familiar not alone to the citizens of Michigan, but throughout the United States, true merit and ability receiving their due recognition. He was known as the father of the Michigan College of Mines, located at Houghton. That city has him to thank for its location there and the securing of the large appropriation that made its establishment possible. Judge Hubbell, was born in Avon township, Oakland county, Michigan, September 15, 1829, and was a son of Samuel S. Hubbell. The family came to Michigan from Connecticut. Samuel S. Hubbell his father was one of the early settlers of Oakland county, Michigan, where he located in 1820. Jay A. Hubbell attended the district schools of Avon township during the winter terms until he reached the age of eighteen, when he went to Rochester academy at Rochester, Oakland county, Michigan, for two years. He then studied two years more at Romeo high school. In the fall of 1850 he was in a position, financially, to enter the literary department of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he spent three years and graduated in 1853. He then taught school in order to secure the money with which to complete his education and prepare himself for the bar. In the meantime he read law in the office of Judge Manning of Pontiac, Michigan, and later studied in the office of Howard, Bishop & Holbrook at Detroit, being admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of Michigan in 1855. He then started for the Upper Peninsula, landing at Ontonagon, June 17, 1855, with but three dollars in capital, and it is said that he was in debt to the captain of the steamer that brought him up from Sault Ste. Marie. Shortly after his arrival he went into partnership with A. H. Hanscomb, but for the three years following his practice was very limited. In 1858 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Ontonagon county, and was appointed District Attorney of the Northern Peninsula. He moved to Houghton in 1860, and was soon well established in a lucrative practice. In 1861, he was elected Prosecuting Attorney for Houghton county. He was thereafter frequently called upon to fill positions of honor. In 1876 he was State Commissioner to the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia. He made his first appearance in national politics as a member of the House of Representatives of the 43d Congress, and was re-elected to the succeeding three Congresses. He served on the ways and means committee, the most important and most sought for committee of Congress, and during a larger part of the time was chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee. He was elected judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit and served until his retirement January 1, 1900. He was a man who commanded the respect and admiration of all who knew him. The people from all walks of life were treated by him with the same kindly consideration. His death was sadly lamented as an irreparable loss to the community in which he lived. Judge Hubbell was married in 1861 to Florence Doolittle at Ontonagon, Michigan, and they had two children, Florence M., now deceased who married Lessing Karger of Houghton, Michigan; and Blanche D., now deceased who married Alvin B. Carpenter of Hollywood, California. Judge Hubbell was a prominent Mason, and a member of Montrose Commandery, Knights Templar of Calumet; Saladin Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S.; and Grand Rapids Consistory, S. P. R. S. He died at his home in Houghton in 1900.

Thomas L. Chadbourne was born at Eastport, Maine, April 13, 1841, the son of I. R. Hannah (Lincoln) Chadbourne. He received a collegiate education at Harvard and graduated in 1862. Soon after completing his course at Harvard he came to Houghton and began the study of law with Hon. J. A. Hubbell. He was admitted to practice in 1864 in the Circuit Court of Houghton county. He entered upon the practice of his profession at Eagle River, Keweenaw county, Michigan, and thus continued until 1868 when he came to Houghton, Michigan, and formed a law partnership with Mr. J. A. Hubbell, under the firm name of Hubbell & Chadbourne, which continued from January 1, 1869 to January 1, 1876. After the expiration of his partnership with Mr. Hubbell he practiced alone until 1893 when the firm became Chadbourne & Rees and so continued to the time of his death which occurred in April, 1911, at West Palm Beach, Florida. Mr. Chadbourne was married at Copper Falls, July, 1869, to Miss Georgina, daughter of George Kay. Mrs. Chadbourne was born on Prince Edward Island. They had seven children: Hannah L. (Mrs. F. W. Denton), Thomas L., Eliza A. (who died in infancy), Alice G. (Mrs. R. B. Harkness), Waldemar A., Alexander S., (now deceased), and Humphrey W.

Dan H. Ball, late of Marquette, Michigan, was for many years a leading attorney of the Upper Peninsula. He will long be remembered as one of the conspicuous figures before the bar and in business circles of that section of the state. On both sides of his house, his ancestry is traceable to colonial days in America. His maternal grandfather served in the Continental army during the Revolutionary war and his paternal grandfather was a soldier during the War of 1812. The latter removed from Vermont to New York, his forebears having been early settlers of the Green Mountain State, and became a pioneer settler of New York. In 1836, he removed to Michigan and spent the remainder of his life in Washtenaw county, where he was a farmer. James Ball, his son and the father of Dan H., also located in Washtenaw county, Michigan, in 1836, and lived there until his death, which occurred in 1852. He was a native of Vermont. His wife, Lucy (Chandler) Ball, was born in New York. She died in August, 1892, at the home of her daughter, Phoebe M. (Ball) Lewis, at Atlanta, Georgia. Dan H. Ball was born in Sempronius, Cayuga county, New York, January 15, 1836, and was an infant at the time of the removal of his parents to Michigan. He was reared to manhood in Washtenaw county, this state, and obtained his early education in the district schools of that county. When he was fifteen years of age, shortly after the death of his father, he entered the Wesleyan seminary, Albion, Michigan, where he studied about one year. The ensuing two years, he spent as a school teacher, after which he matriculated at the University of Michigan in the autumn of 1856. His finances reached such a low ebb within a year, however, that he was compelled to give up his studies to return to school teaching, and while he was so employed, he turned his attention to the study of law. Such was his application and earnestness, that he was admitted to the Law department of the University of Michigan in 1860, and after a year's study there, was admitted to the bar. Soon after the completion of his studies, he removed to Marquette, Michigan, to assume the management of a small mercantile enterprise left by his deceased brother, James Wilson Ball, but after a year in this work, he sold the business to purchase an interest in the Lake Superior News and the Lake Superior Journal, which were then consolidated and became the predecessor of the Marquette Mining Journal. For about two years thereafter, he was associated with Alexander Campbell in the newspaper business, but gave up the work in the autumn of 1862 to accept the appointment of Register of the United States Land Office at Marquette to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. James St. Clair. Upon the expiration of his term, he was reappointed by President Lincoln and discharged the duties of that office until 1865. During his incumbency, he devoted as much time as possible to the practice of law, and upon his retirement from office, turned his entire attention to the legal profession, remaining at Marquette until September, 1866, when he removed to Houghton to form a partnership with James B. Ross. In September, 1870, he returned to Marquette, although he maintained connections at Houghton for some time thereafter in association with J. H. Chandler. In addition to his practice of law, in which he was a recognized leader in the Upper Peninsula, Mr. Ball became president of the Marquette Building & Loan Association at the time of its organization, and subsequently became a director of the Marquette National bank He took an active interest in the civic affairs of his community and served in various offices of public trust, including that of alderman of Marquette. He declined the nomination for Judge of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit, and at the Republican State convention in February, 1895, he was considered for the nomination for the office of Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan. In 1893, his son, James Everett Ball, joined him in the practice of law, and in 1905, Mr. Ball, Sr., was associated with John G. Stone in the partnership of Ball & Stone at Houghton, which association continued for some years. Mr. Ball was active in the Protestant Episcopal church, being vestryman and senior warden of St. Paul's church for many years. On May 2, 1863, he married Emma E. Everett, the daughter of Philo M. Everett, an early settler of Marquette, and to this union were born six children, as follows: James Everett, who married Sarah McConnell, of Madison, Wisconsin, and who died April 4, 1914; Charles W. who died in infancy; Emily M., deceased, who married Clarence M. Smith of Redlands, California; Colonel George E., of the United States Army now stationed at Chicago; Mabel E., who married Walter B. Hill, of East Liverpool, Ohio; and Helen G., who married Judge John G. Stone, of Houghton. Dan H. Ball died February 21, 1918, closing a career that had made his name a familiar one to the people of the Upper Peninsula. His wife died March 10, 1922.

Raymond Turner, one of the representative members of the bar of Dickinson county, has here been engaged in the practice of his profession since 1908, and he has maintained his home and professional headquarters since 1921 at Iron Mountain, the county seat. Mr. Turner was born at Vulcan, Dickinson county, Michigan, July 30, 1884, and is a son of William J. and Elizabeth (Howard) Turner, both natives of Wisconsin. William J. Turner was born in the year 1857 and was reared and educated in the Badger State. He came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1879 and established his residence at Vulcan, Dickinson county. He died in 1913, at the age of fifty-six years, and his widow, who was born at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, is now a resident of New Jersey. To the Michigan public schools Raymond Turner is indebted for his early education, and in 1908 he was graduated in the law department of the University of Michigan, his admission to the bar of his native state having been virtually coincident with his reception of the degree of bachelor of laws. He forthwith engaged in the practice of law at Norway, Dickinson county, and that he proved his resourcefulness and ability, besides gaining secure place in communal esteem, was shown when in 1914, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Dickinson county. Of this office he continued the incumbent until 1917, when he resigned, in order to respond to the call of patriotism, when the nation became involved in the World war. He enlisted in the United States army, entered the officers training school at Fort Sheridan, near Chicago, Illinois, and there received a commission as second lieutenant. He served overseas with the famed Rainbow Division, one of the, first divisions of the American Expeditionary Forces to land in France and with his command he lived up to the full tension of conflict. He was in France at the time the armistice brought the war to a close and after his return to his native land he received his honorable discharge, in the summer of 1919, and resumed the practice of his profession at Norway, whence, as before stated, he removed to Iron Mountain in 1921, his law practice at the county seat being of substantial and important order. Mr. Turner is a staunch advocate of the principles of the Republican party, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the American Legion. He is a director of the Commercial bank of Iron Mountain, and also of the Dickinson County Land & Abstract company, besides which he is vice-president of the Iron Range Transportation company, and a director of the Champion Sand & Gravel company. October 15, 1919, Mr. Turner was united in marriage to Miss Esther Junell, who was born at Ironwood, this state, her religious affiliation being with the Lutheran church, and she having membership in the Woman's club at Norway, as well as the Delphian Study club. Mr. and Mrs. Turner have three children: Dorothy, Irene, and William.

K. A. Ruona, proprietor of the Ishpeming Bottling works, is a well known business man of that city where he has been engaged in business for himself for nearly a quarter of a century. Born in Finland, September 25, 1869, he is a son of Eric Franslae and Susie Ruona, both natives of Finland, the former of whom was a farmer and shoemaker and died in 1916 and the latter of whom died in 1876. After obtaining his early education in the schools of his native land, K. A. Ruona came to the United States in 1889, settling first at Calumet, Michigan, and at Ishpeming in 1890. For a period of twelve years after he arrived in Ishpeming, Mr. Ruona worked in the iron mines, but by that time he had acquired sufficient funds to allow him to go into business for himself. Accordingly, he established the Ishpeming Bottling works in 1902 and has since been engaged in the successful operation of that enterprise. He has taken an active interest in the civic affairs of his community, and at the present time, he is a member of the Ishpeming city council. Mr. Ruona married Susie Marie Ekola, a native of Finland, and they are the parents of the following children: Limpi, who married Rev. Eli Marijavi and is living in Minnesota; Marie, a teacher in the schools of Ishpeming; John, who is twenty-six years of age, served in the United States navy in the World war, and is manager of the Ishpeming Bottling works; Ida, who is now living in Minnesota; Arthur, employed in the mines at Ishpeming; Lenniece, dead; Rudolph, who is working with his father; Martin and Dorothy, who are attending the Ishpeming schools; and Leonard and Fannie, who are dead. Mr. Ruona is a member of the Elks and is treasurer of the Michigan conference of the Finnish Lutheran church. For the past twelve years, he has been a director of the Finnish college at Hancock, Michigan.

Alexander D. Hannah, once prominent in Chicago business circles as a member of the firm of Hannah & Hogg and one of the proprietors of the Brevoort hotel in that city, became a cottager on Mackinac Island in 1889 and maintained his summer home at that place until the time of his death in 1913. Like his business partner, he was a native of Scotland, having been born at Whithorn on Solway Firth in 1846. He was one of four sons born to Alexander and Mary (Patterson) Hannah, the former of whom was a fisherman and shoemaker. Alexander D. Hannah received his early education in the public schools of his native community and became a grocery salesman when he laid aside his school books. In the late sixties, he came to the United States and located in Eastern Kansas at a time when that region was frontier country. There he worked in a grocery store and subsequently entered the employ of an uncle at Kansas City, where he remained until 1871. In that year, he came to Chicago to become associated with the wholesale liquor house of Weadley, Senndy & Clarey, and in 1874, he formed a partnership with David Hogg under the name of Hannah & Hogg to engage in the same field of endeavor. The organization which they built up became one of the large and successful concerns of its kind in this part of the country. Subsequently, the partners acquired ownership of the Brevoort hotel in Chicago, and when the building was destroyed by fire in 1905, they rebuilt the hotel the following year at a cost of approximately a million dollars. In 1889, Alexander Hannah and David Hogg erected two cottages on Mackinac Island and became two of the first cottagers at what has become one of the leading summer places in the country. In 1913, Alexander Hannah died, terminating a partnership that had existed for nearly forty years. In 1875, Mr. Hannah married Catherine Grady, of Chicago, who still survives him, and to them were born one son, Alexander, and two daughters. Mr. Hannah took a deep interest in promoting the welfare and development of the island where he spent his summers and was a director of the Grand Hotel company there. In fraternal circles, he was a member of the Masonic order.

James A. Thomas is unquestionably the leading plumber of Negaunee, Michigan, where he has been engaged in that business for himself since 1911, developing his concern from one conducted on a small scale to the largest and most completely stocked organization of its kind in the city. He was born in this city, May 27, 1891, a son of Henry and Catherine Thomas, both of whom were born in England and came to Negaunee, where Henry Thomas was engaged in the transfer business until the time of his death in 1920 at the age of fifty-six years. James A. Thomas was educated in the Negaunee public schools until he was fourteen years old, when he relinquished his studies to learn the trade of plumber. He applied himself so assiduously to absorbing every bit of knowledge of the trade, that by 1911 he felt that his experience and training were sufficient to permit him to go into business for himself, which he did in that year. Starting in a small way, Mr. Thomas has developed his establishment into the undisputed leader in its field in Negaunee, and he is thus accorded the name of being one of the able business men of this locality. Mr. Thomas was united in marriage to Florence Perkins, daughter of William and Harriet Perkins, of Negaunee, and to them have been born four children: James, aged ten years; William P.; Catherine, seven years old; and John Arthur, two years of age. Mr. Thomas is a Thirty-second Degree Mason and a Shriner and is a member of the Elks, Odd Fellows, Sons of St. George, and the Master Plumbers association.

George A. Newett, publisher of the Iron Ore, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is recognized as one of the leading newspaper men not only of Marquette county but also of this section of the state, for he is a pioneer journalist of the Upper Peninsula. His parents, William H. and Anna (McCullough) Neivett were both natives of the British Isles, the former having been born in Scotland and the latter in England. William H. Newett came to the United States when he was eighteen years of age, settling first in Connecticut and then at Janesville, Wisconsin, where he engaged in the milling business until 1873, at which time he came to Ishpeming to operate a hotel, a career that was cut short by death three years later. Born at Janesville, Wisconsin, October 8, 1856, George A. Newett received his early education in the public schools of that city, and after the removal of the family to Ishpeming in 1873, he became an apprentice printer in the employ of the Ishpeming Iron Home, the first newspaper published in this city. Here he continued until 1879, learning everything possible of the mechanical and editorial departments of newspaper work, and in that year, Mr. Newett founded the Iron Agitator, the name of which he changed to the Iron Ore in 1882. When it is considered that Mr. Newett started his newspaper and continued without interruption as its publisher at a time when frequent changes in ownership and management were the rule rather than the exception in the field of journalism, the true ability of Mr. Newett as a publisher and editor may be comprehended more readily. Perhaps, no paper in the county is more firmly entrenched in the regard of its subscribers than is the aggressive Iron Ore, and that such is the case, is due directly to the business and editorial policies promulgated by Mr. Newett in his half century of newspaper ownership. As an earnest champion of progressive measures in civic matters, Mr. Newett has served on the board of education and the board of public works, and in 1906, he received the appointment of postmaster of Ishpeming, an office that he held four years, or until his resignation. In addition to his newspaper interests, Mr. Newett is interested in mining operations, he being a director of the Calumet & Arizona Mining company, of Bisbee, Arizona, and of the New Cornelia Copper company, of Ajo, Arizona. Mr. Newett married Mary E. Nichols, born in Cleveland, Ohio, of German parentage, who died in 1897 leaving these children: Mrs. George E. Nelson, of Ishpeming; Mrs. C. H. Dawson, of Kansas City, Missouri; William H., of Ishpeming; George A., Jr., of Ishpeming; and Mrs. H. V. Niss, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1904, Mr. Newett married Edel A. Windsand, of Ishpeming, who was born in Stavanger, Norway, and to them has been born one son, John W. Mr. Newett is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Lake Superior Mining Institute, and the Wawonowin Golf club, of Ishpeming. He is a Republican and has served as delegate to state and national conventions and was state statistician under Pingree. He had two sons in service: William H., member 32nd Division, 107th Regiment of Engineers, overseas, who saw much active service as master engineer; and George A., Jr., who was with the naval forces.

Thomas L. Collins, mayor of Negaunee, is not only respected for his record as a public official but is also one of the leading business men of the city and county. His parents, Samuel and Hanna (Lauthford) Collins, were natives of the adjoining English counties of Devonshire and Cornwall, respectively, and came to Negaunee in 1866. Samuel Collins was a miner for a number of years and then engaged in the livestock business, which he surrendered to enter the meat business. In this field, he became one of the leading merchants of Negaunee, where he also served on the board of county supervisors. He died in 1924 at the age of eighty-two years, his wife having preceded him in death in 1898. Thomas L. Collins was born in Negaunee, March 30, 1872, attended the public schools of that city, and then worked for his father until 1891, when he went to Iron Mountain, Michigan, to work on the surface for a mining company. After a year so occupied, he returned to his father's store at Negaunee, there rounding out his knowledge of the meat business under the careful tutelage of his parent, so that in 1893 he felt that he was sufficiently trained to start in business for himself. In that year, then, he opened a store at Ishpeming, continuing there until 1897, when he returned to Negaunee to establish the meat market which he still operates. He is unquestionably a leader in his field in this section of the county, and his initiative and enterprise in business matters is conceded by all who know him. In addition to the meat business, Mr. Collins is a director and vice-president of the Negaunee National bank and a director of the Gannon Grocery company, of Marquette, Michigan. Signal as has been his success in mercantile and financial ventures, Mr. Collins has been no less a leader in the public life of his community, for twelve years as city alderman were brought to a triumphant climax in 1925 by his election to the office of mayor of Negaunee, a position which he still holds. His administration of the responsible public offic has been but a confirmation of his known progressiveness in civic matters, for Mr. Collins has consistently advocated and supported those measures that tended to enhance the welfare of the community where he has always made his home. Mr. Collins married Anna Rafferty, born in England of Irish parentage, and they have the following children: Mrs. Anna L. Hanson, who resides in Negaunee; Raymond, aged thirty-one years, who served in the World war with the 28th Infantry, First Division, and is now living in Negaunee; William G., now residing in Milwaukee, who served in the navy during the war and is a noted ball player: Thomas, twenty-six years old, who is a civil engineer of Grand Rapids, Michigan; and Samuel R., aged twenty-three years, who was a student in the law college of the University of Michigan. Mr. Collins is a Republican in national issues but is independent in local affairs. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Modern Woodmen, and Sons of St. George.

Frank David Klinglund is well known to residents of Negaunee not only as the proprietor of a successful automobile sales organization but also as a public official who has rendered signal service in the offices to which he was elected. Born at Whitehall, Michigan, December 1, 1884, he is a son of August and Emma (Olson) Klinglund, both natives of Sweden, who settled at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where August Klinglund conducted a hotel, he dying in 1913 and his wife in 1907. After obtaining a graded and high school education in Sault Ste. Marie, Frank Klinglund matriculated at the Houghton College of Mines, from which he graduated with the class of 1905. His first position upon completing his university education was that of chemist at Port Arthur, Ontario, but after a short time, he secured a position as mining engineer with the Ogleby Norton & Company mining concern of Commonwealth, Wisconsin, by whom he was stationed at Stambaugh, Michigan, in charge of the mines of the company at that place. So he continued until 1912, when he became superintendent and manager of the Empire Iron company, of Palmer, Michigan. In 1920, he gave up the mining work to come to Negaunee, where he established a garage business and secured the franchise to handle Chevrolet and Studebaker automobiles. The subsequent six years have seen him rise to a high position in this field of endeavor in this section of Marquette county. In 1921, Mr. Klinglund was elected a member of the board of public works, was chosen mayor of Negaunee in 1922, and in 1925 was elected chairman of the board of public works. His administration of the city offices that he has held shows him to be a man of more than ordinary ability in matters pertaining to municipal government, for he shares the respect and the confidence of the people. Mrs. Iva (Steele) Klinglund, who was born at Lockport, New York, is a member of the Negaunee Woman's club and the Episcopal church. Mr. Klinglund is a Thirty-second Degree Mason, a Shriner, and a member of the Elks.

Claude Henry Tripp, manager of the H. W. Gossard Corset company, of Ishpeming, has held that position since 1921, and during the five years that have elapsed since that year, he has shown himself to be one of the able business men of this section of the county and Upper Peninsula. Born at Belvidere, Illinois, June 19, 1894, he is a son of Edward and Hattie E. (Manchester) Tripp. The elder Tripp was a native of England, was a jeweler, and died December 4, 1919, while his wife was born in Syracuse, New York, June 26, 1860, and died March 9, 1916. After graduating from the high school of Belvidere, Claude Henry Tripp studied at the college of Rockford, Illinois. Completing his education, he entered the employ of the Gossard Corset company of Canada, with whom he remained until he was promoted to manager of the company's establishment at Ishpeming in 1921. Since that time, he has directed the affairs of the concern at this point and has taken an active interest in the commercial and industrial life of the community in general. While he was in Canada, Mr. Tripp enlisted in the flying corps and served in France for a period of eighteen months as a pilot. On August 23, 1920, Mr. Tripp married Grace Stupple, who was born at Whitstable, England, June 20, 1900, and they have two children, Robert Donald, aged five years, and Marjorie Claire, nine months old. Mr. Tripp is a Thirty-second Degree Mason and a Shriner and a member of the American Legion and the Knights of Pythias.

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