The Iron Hunter

by

Chase S. Osborn

Transcribed and Contributed by Mark Seeberg
Host of Florence County WI and Winnebago Co IL

Chapters 27-40 

 

 

CHAPTER XXVII

CONCENTRATION OF IRON ORES IN THE UNITED STATES--SIDERITE--MAGNETITE--HEMATITE

At some of the great open pit mines in the Mesaba district of Minnesota, sixty per cent, iron ore has been mined and loaded on the cars for less than five cents a ton, even charging to cost account the outlay for removing forty to sixty feet of overburden that covered the ore lense. When this is taken into consideration and. also the added fact that there are adequate high grade ore reserves developed and undeveloped to supply the world for a hundred years and longer, it is almost amazing that lean ores can be profitably used in America. And yet they are. The high grade iron ores known outside of the United States are of uncertain volume, and those in the Scandinavian arctics and in Brazil and China are not advantageously located. Consequently what are regarded in this country as lean ores are esteemed of great value in other iron- making countries.

I visited the magnetic concentrating plants in Lulea and Dunderland and found them producing a high- grade ore by concentrating processes that are successful. Far more unusual and interesting is the successful use of lean ores in America, where the high-grade ores are not only plenteous but are located perfectly for both economic mining and transportation. On the Menominee Range at Iron Mountain, near my old home at Florence, an ore running about thirty per cent, in metallic iron has been profitably produced at the Pewabic mine. This ore is low in phosphorus and high in silica and is an ideal mixing material with Mesaba ores. On a Minnesota range thirty-five per cent, ores are raised to fifty-eight per cent, by washing. The clumsy "grizzlies? used in this process are most effective. At Duluth, Hayden, Stone & Company and their associates have a large experimental plant where magnetic ores containing thirty per cent, of metal are enriched to sixty-two and one-half per cent, by an ingenious electrical treatment perfected by a Hoosier. They treat one hundred tons of rocklike material a day, which is finally transformed into a rich sinter that is in demand. This method alone will make it possible to utilize millions upon millions of tons of lean magnetite that belts Lake Superior like a containing encasement.

The only place in North America that siderite is concentrated is at the Magpie Mine on the Lake Superior north shore in Canada, above Sault Ste. Marie. The siderite deposits there are very extensive. They are located in a wilderness abounding in caribou, moose, bear and wolves and other wildest animals, where I explored for several years. A formidable plant has been erected for the treatment of these ores by a method adopted from Austria, where siderite was largely and successfully refined before the war. The operations have been of especial interest to American miners of iron ore and metallurgists. Although new and most unusual in this country, the Magpie siderite operation presents no complications and is in fact simple. The roasting is done in regular cement kilns eight feet in diameter, one hundred twenty-five feet long, inclined one- half inch per foot and rotated once in two minutes. The ore is crushed to about three inches and fed into the upper end of this kiln. The lower end of the kiln is fired with powdered coal, pulverized so that ninety per cent, will pass a two hundred mesh screen. A single piece of ore remains in the kiln about three hours; that is, that is the length of time it takes for the ore to work its way from the intake to the discharge end.

Ordinary siderite, without any sulphur present in the form of pyrites, requires very little heat for driving off the CO2 gas and changing the ore into hematite. This is an index of Nature?s method. Magpie ore how- ever contains about one per cent, sulphur and eight per cent. lime. As the lime has a strong affinity for the sulphur, it requires a finishing temperature of about 1100 degrees Centigrade to dead roast the ore, that is to eliminate all the sulphur. At the Helen Mine in the same district there is a siderite which runs somewhat higher in sulphur than above. They experimented with this at the Magpie and found that a rotary kiln will not satisfactorily handle the ore containing over two per cent, in sulphur. The roasting drives off the volatile and at the same time reduces the sulphur to a point suitable for the blast furnace.

The siderite, together with the other carbonates, occurs as a band standing nearly vertical and striking northeast and southwest. This band is broken by folding and faults at several points. The width of the siderite being mined varies from twenty-eight feet to sixty-two feet, the average width being about forty-two feet. The carbonate deposit, as a whole, is a sedimentary bed lying between a series of acid and basic flaws and tuffs of volcanic origin. The wall rock on the south is talcose schist with well defined schistosity, while on the north it is an ellipsoidal basalt showing very little schistosity. The contacts are not well defined and are not clean, so that much care is necessary in mining to make sure that no ore is left on the wall and that no rock is broken into the stopes. Underground the schist on the south wall has very much the appearance of the ore, but the drill cuttings from the holes give a good indication of when the wall is reached. The body being mined has an approximate length of 1350 feet. The carbonate band is very much longer than this but narrows down on either end so that it is not found profitable to mine the ore except in this area.

In roasting the siderite at the Magpie there is a loss in volatile of about thirty per cent, by weight, so that nearly three tons of ore have to be mined to produce two tons of finished material. Taking this into consideration, together with the fact that the actual roasting operation costs are considerable, it was necessary to devise a very cheap mining system in order to make the operation as a whole commercially successful. Several mining methods were studied and approximate costs worked out, but before any method was definitely chosen, it was decided to sink the shaft and open up drifts on two main haulage levels to definitely determine the nature of the ground and the material to be mined.

The shaft was therefore started on the north side of the ore body about sixty feet from the north contact of the ore. The shaft is twenty-four feet by eight feet in the rough, and is timbered with twelve inch by twelve inch sets, so that the inside dimensions are twenty-two feet by six feet. It is divided into four compartments, two skip compartments for balanced Kimberly skips, one cage compartment and one ladder and pipe way. The shaft was sunk two hundred and five feet to the second level. It was decided to use eighty-foot levels and to leave a forty-five foot floor pillar to surface. A crosscut was run on each level from the shaft to the south contact of the ore, and drifts started from here in either direction, these drifts following the south contact as nearly as possible. The nature of the ore passed through in these drifts was closely ob- served and samples taken and analyses made for each ten-foot section of the drifts. No timber was necessary in any of the drifts, but it was noted that the ore showed a great number of slips or cleavage planes. These slips have no general direction but intersect each other at all angles and are extremely smooth. In scaling a new drift, large wedge-shape pieces will fall out from the first blow of the scaling bar, but when a drift is once thoroughly scaled, very little material loosens from later blasting. On account of this feature of the ore, it was necessary to determine on a method of mining which would always keep the miners close to the back and under cover. It was therefore decided to use the sub-level stoping system in mining this deposit.

The ore body was blocked off into three stopes longitudinally, divided opposite the shaft by a fifty-foot shaft pillar, and four hundred feet west of the shaft by a diabase dyke, one hundred feet wide, which cuts the body at right angles. This gives three stopes on each level, approximately four hundred feet long. To develop these stopes, a raise is put up at each end of the block and a sublevel run to connect the raises. The first sub is eighteen feet above the level. The other sublevels are twenty-three feet from floor to floor. On the upper levels, three subs are used between levels, but below the second level four subs are used, making the distance between levels one hundred and three feet. After the stapes have been developed in this manner, the raise at the end of the block nearest the shaft is made into a permanent ladder and pipe way. Air lines are run along the floor of the subs to the far end, and mining commenced. Machines are set to work breaking down around the raise at the far end of the block and this opening is enlarged until the stope is completely cut off. The first sub is then drawn back about fifty to sixty feet. By keeping the first sub back this distance, the muck does not run into the face. This also gives the men working on this sub a chance to hand blast a proportion of the larger pieces which break from the upper benches. Most of these drop so that they can be reached from the first sub. Those dropping in the open stope have to be blasted as they come down into the chutes.

After the stope has been cut off from wall to wall, section cutting is done on each sub. At first it was the intention to carry the subs step fashion with the upper subs overhanging the lower ones, but the ground was found to be so full of cleavage planes that these over- hanging benches fell when blasting out the section cut, so that now all the subs, except the bottom ones, are carried back together, the face of the stope being vertical. In section cutting the stope, the machine is set up in the sub and an eight-foot bench blasted off. This requires five holes, two in front and three behind. These holes are about seven feet deep and break to the bottom. Very little mucking is necessary for the next set-up and little scaling as the back is only eight feet high. This section cut is carried from wall to wall and the stope holes are drilled in the bench below from the same set-ups. The back holes are drilled with stopers after the section cut has been completed. The whole face of the stope is then blasted off with a battery shot Very little powder is required, either in the section cut or in the stope blast, as there is always an open face to break to. When a stope on one level has been drawn back to the starting raise, the chutes are taken out, rails and pipe lines removed and the main level used as a sub. In this way all mucking is avoided. The ore remaining in the bottom of one level, which will not run out of the chutes, is dropped to the level below. On the bottom sub no back holes are used, except in the corners of the stope, as this sub is carried higher than the rest, thus leaving a thinner space between it and the second sub. The rail and pipe lines, removed from the level which is drawn back, are used on the lower level in the development work, so that very few new pipes or rails are required.

On the main haulage level, crosscuts are run off the main drift at twenty-five feet intervals. Raises are put up from these crosscuts so that the raises are spaced about twenty-five feet center to center each way. These raises extend only to the first sub. Ordinary round timber chutes are used in these raises, with three inch round birch stoppers. A large amount of blasting is necessary in the chutes at times on account of the benches coming down in large pieces, but otherwise no trouble is experienced in loading cars. All tramming is done by hand, two-ton cars being used on a grade of one per cent, in favor of the loads. They have done away with cross switches for spotting cars at the shaft. In place of them they use a truck running on rails in a shallow pit transversely across the station and about twelve feet back from it. Cars can be run onto this track from any track and spotted for either skip track or the cage track as may be required. All out-bound loaded cars come up the main crosscut on the one track. The lead for No. 1 skip lies with this main line. Cars to dump in No. 1 skip come up the main, cross the mackinaw onto this lead and dump directly in the skip. Returning they are backed onto the mackinaw, which is then spotted for the return track, through a spring switch out onto the main line and back in again for loading. This spring switch is the only real switch on the level.

Under ordinary conditions, trammers dump their own cars, but when for any reason it is necessary to speed up the hoisting, a gang of dumpers (two men), are put on at the shaft. Trammers coming out leave their cars on the main line and go back with an empty from the return track. The gang at the shaft handles cars on the mackinaw, dumps them and shoves them down the return track. Working in this way, four hundred to four hundred and fifty skips can easily be sent up in a shaft. The siderite, as a whole, in the Magpie ore body is the usual light colored ore with a slightly pink tinge due to the manganese carbonate rhodochrosite, but on either side of the diabase dyke, cutting the body, the siderite is changed to a dense black ore much resembling fine grained magnetite. In the white siderite, the volatile runs about thirty-two per cent., but this volatile gradually decreases near the dyke until it is as low as twelve per cent. The carbonate here contains considerable magnetite and the iron content of the ore is higher than in the light colored ore. The black ore is exceptionally hard, so hard in fact that a three and one- fourth-inch piston drill will drill only from five to six feet of hole per shift. The character of the ore changes gradually as the distance from the dyke increases, so that at about one hundred feet from the dyke the siderite is all white.

The ore is hoisted with two balanced Kimberly skips, which have a capacity of two tons each, and dump directly into the crusher. The hoist consists of a six foot drum, coned at each end and geared to 150 H.P. wound motor, three phase, induction motor. This motor is remotely controlled and automatically protected against overloading. It is only, of course, when hoisting from the bottom level that the cone on the drum is of any use, but the motor has no difficulty in starting a loaded skip from any of the intermediate levels, even though no chair is used and the full load is hanging on the rope at the start. The full load speed of the motor gives a rope speed of seven hundred fifty feet per minute.

The signal to hoist the skip is given to the hoistman by a bell which can be rung from one level--namely the one from which the most tramming is being done at that time. A skip-tender is stationed there and the other levels ring to him when they want the skip, or when they have finished dumping their car, and he re- lays the signal to the hoist man. The crusherman feeding the No. 8 crusher also has a switch by which he can ring the hoistman in case trouble with the crusher occurs and he wants to stop the skip before it dumps. This switch also gives the same signal to the skip tender, so that he knows that the skip has been stopped at the crusher. This stopping for a minute or two is fairly frequent, as a big chunk of ore often has to be broken with a hammer before it will go into the crusher.

The skips dump into a No. 8 gyratory crusher, which breaks the ore to about six-inch ring. The black ore from near the diabase dyke is exceptionally hard, so hard that in fact the cast iron spider which is practically always supplied with these machines, was not strong enough to withstand the strain and had to be re- placed by a cast steel one. Below the No. 8 crasher, the ore passes over a set of grizzly bars and then to two No. 5 gyratory crushers. These are set to about three inch, and from these the ore is carried on a twenty-four inch conveyor belt to the storage bins in the roast plant

The roasting kilns are eight feet by one hundred twenty-five feet long and lined with nine-inch hard fire brick The fuel used is powdered slack coal which gives a temperature of about 1100 degrees Centigrade for about twenty feet in the kiln. This is not hot enough to make the ore sticky and is sufficient to drive off the CO2 and nearly eliminate the sulphur.

After passing through the roasting kilns, both the light and dark colored ores have the same appearance and are not distinguishable in any way. The finished ore is nearly black in color, and comes out of the kilns in a very porous condition, in rounded lumps about two inches in diameter, the large pieces breaking up when passing through the kiln. This finished product has the following composition and is admirably suited for the blast furnace both on account of its physical condition and its chemical composition: Fe. 50.00 Phos .018 Silica 9.60 Manganese 2.75 Alumina 1.24 Lime T.69 Magnesia 7.76 Sulphur 196 Loss on Ign .000

So here an elaborate and relatively costly mining and roasting system enriches from thirty to fifty per cent an ore never before used in America, and it is done profitably. I have gone into rather technical details because the entire operation is a unique innovation in America. It will be at once concluded that American ore reserves will be sufficient for many centuries. Inasmuch as the late James J. Hill predicted exhaustion in a couple of decades, this furnishes a satisfying contrast. America manufactures nearly three quarters of the steel and iron used by the world. That this will continue almost without limit as to time and always disproportionately increasing in favor of this country does not admit of reasonable doubt.

CHAPTER XXVIII

ACCIDENTAL FORTUNES FROM IRON ORE

THE tale of how fortunes were made by many men in the Lake Superior iron ore ranges is a story of fortuitous happenings. An iron ore formation surrounds Lake Superior north and south. The first discoveries were made in Michigan. Later the Mesaba and other ranges opened in Minnesota placed that State in the leading place in iron ore production in the world. Almost without exception the iron districts were in regions covered by great forests of virgin white pine--pinus strohus. These trees in instances grew to great proportions. Some of them measured more than six feet in diameter at the base. So light and perfect in texture were these big trees that they were called cork pine. Driving streams threaded the pineries on their way to the Great Lakes. These sup- plied transportation to navigable waters for the logs. Naturally these forests early attracted the attention of lumbermen. When the pineries in Maine began to be exhausted, hardy Yankees of character and courage from the Androscoggin came to Michigan after their idea of a golden fleece. They "took up" vast tracts of land from the Government along the Saginaw, the Tittabawassee, the Shiawassee and other Lower Peninsula rivers. Most always these lands were " entered " at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Bolder spirit^ forged to the northward into the valleys of the Tahquamenon and the Menominee, and on westward to the Wisconsin River country and then into Minnesota. When the timber came into the market it was logged, floated down stream to sawmills and cut into lumber. Only the very choicest, and that nearest streams making a short haul, was cut at first. Piles of skidded logs were left in the woods amidst the resinous tops and limbs. Fire would get into the waste jungles and cause direful loss of life as well as of property. Hundreds of lumber towns have been wiped out and thousands of lives sacrificed on the pyres of carelessness. Even to this day death- breeding forest fires occur in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Just as soon as the pine was cut off, the lumbermen would let the scarfed lands "go back" for taxes, recognizing no other values. Some of these lands are now most fertile farms. On others iron ore was found. When the land was originally purchased the buyer had nothing in view but the timber. If iron ore was known to exist in a certain region, some wiser land owners would hold on to their possessions and pay the low taxes. Others would not. Almost never did they do anything to develop the lands. Prospectors would come along and ask for an option to explore on a lease and royalty basis. They would develop a mine and the land owner would have a fortune he had not turned his hand over to earn. In many cases before or after the timber was cut the owners of land when making transfers would "reserve" the mineral rights on a gamble. These reservations have never been taxed and are still permitted to be made according to law. Not infrequently the original owners would have died and their heirs would be surprised to have a request come to them for an option to explore on lands now owned by others and to which they had no idea they had any claim. The lap gods just dug into the earth for them and filled their pockets with dollars. A great many rich iron mines in Michigan and Minnesota are on lands once purchased from the Government for pine timber. Perhaps the Wellington Burt fortune, of Saginaw, is a typical in- stance of how the economic symplegides opened to people who were blind so far as iron ore was concerned. There are dozens of other cases just like the Burt one, and some of them have an annual income amounting to upwards of a million dollars from accidental royalties.

Government land grants, honest and dishonest, earned and unearned, conveyed billions of dollars worth of iron ore from the public to private owners. Notable examples are the Lake Superior Ship Canal Railway and Iron Company, the Great Northern Grant, and there were many more. Perhaps the accumulation of the pyramidal Longyear fortune is as legitimate a case as any. John M. Longyear was a bright, rather physically weak young man of alert vision and fine character. He was sent to Marquette, on Lake Superior, as the agent of the Lake Superior Ship Canal Railway and Iron Company. This company in selecting the lands allotted in its grant engaged the services of the three Brotherton "boys" of Escanaba. They were the very best land lookers and iron hunters in all the Lake Superior region. Upon their reports all the Canal Company's lands were chosen. These had to be alternate sections. Mr. Longyear had all ^e information sup- plied by the data gathered by the Brothertons. He secured financial backers and bought the lands lying between. the Canal Company's property. It just so happened that most of the mines found turned out to be on the Longyear lands. The fortune that was won in this way runs into the multiplied millions.

The story of the big Chapin mine on the Menominee Range presents facets of exquisite humor and at the same time illustrates how little significance was attached by owners to early land holdings. The Chapins lived at Niles, Michigan. They entered the Chapin Mine forty at a dollar and a quarter an acre equaling fifty dollars. A wedding occurred in the family. To the officiating preacher was given a deed for the forty acres in question. The guileless dominie did not even record the deed and paid no attention to it whatever. A few years later the big mine was found. It has produced ore worth more than twenty million dollars and still has rich reserves. A wide-awake young lawyer heard of the preacher and investigated the story. He had a hard time finding the minister, but finally trailed him to the Pacific Coast in an obscure little town. Suit against the Chapins was begun. After hanging fire in the courts for a more or less tedious time, a compromise was made with the preacher for a cash consideration of two hundred thousand dollars. This was divided evenly with the lawyer and the Chapin mine lawsuit was heard of no more.

Just a little time ago a title to a valuable mine was traced to a Russian servant maid who had returned to Warsaw. The able young lawyer who ferreted it out was sent to Europe by a big mining company. He found the girl, with the assistance of a kindly priest, paid her well, got her relinquishment and came home. The company gave the lawyer a check for twenty-five thousand dollars, paid all of his expenses and gave him a high place in their law department. This recital refers to Raymond Empson, attorney, of Gladstone, Michigan, and to the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, of which William G. Mather, of Cleveland, Ohio, is president. In all of the dealings there was only one desire upper- most in the mind of Mr. Mather and his managing vice-president, M.M. Duncan, and that was to give the poor girl her just consideration and to treat the young lawyer fairly. This is coming to be the policy of modem business and it will go a long way to retard bolshevism. I could go on almost endlessly writing of the romances of iron ore. Stewart Edward White charmingly tells the story of white pine in his popular ?Blazed Trail.'' There are a thousand blazed trails in the adventures of the iron ore hunters.

CHAPTER XXIX

MESABA RANGE IN MINNESOTA, THE GREATEST IRON ORE DISTRICT THE WORLD HAS EVER KNOWN

Very early in its development I visited the Mesaba range many times. At the commencement of every epoch of great importance, or rather while the parts are being marshalled for the making of history, many of the more minute things are lost sight of, and thus the era starts blunted and its history is incomplete. So it is with the discovery of iron ore in Minnesota, and more particularly that portion known as the Mesaba range, the most productive iron ore region ever known in the world.

The original discoverers of iron ore in Minnesota are unknown. The Sioux Indians knew about the ore material and associated rocks but did not know what they were or how to use the raw material. In this they were more backward than African aborigines. In the writ- ten relations of the Jesuit Fathers, who were the first missionaries to these red men, allusion is made as early as 1660 to the existence of economic minerals in the Lake Superior country. Writings by LaGard in 1636, by Pierre Boucher in 1640, Fathers Raymbault and Jogues in 1641 arid Claude Allouez in 1666, tell of the finding of considerable quantities of iron ore in the several localities that are now defined as the mineral ranges of the Lake Superior basin. In 1668 Father Jacques Marquette traversed the northern wilderness and paid particular attention to its economic geology. To the unremitting interest of this venerable priest, the Lake Superior country owes the debt due for its primal and practical discovery.

The first references to the Mesaba district found in literature concern the parts of the district immediately adjacent to the canoe routes offered by the rivers Mississippi, Prairie, Swan, St. Louis, Pike and smaller streams. The first official description was given by Major Z. M. Pike in 1810, and the veteran explorer, Henry R Schoolcraft was there in 1832. In 1841 J. N. Nicollet published a map of the hydrographic basin of the upper Mississippi, on which the Mesaba range, called "Missabay Heights," was for the first time de- lineated, by hachures, although very imperfectly. In 1866 Colonel Charles Whittlesey reported on explorations made in northern Minnesota during the years 1848, 1849 and 1864, mentioning Pokegama Falls, near Grand Rapids. Mesaba, which is spelled in half a dozen different ways, to suit the fancy of the speller, is the Chippewa word for giant, and the name was given the granite range of hills to the north of Hibbing. The early explorers used the word Mesaba to cover the territory now embraced in the regions known as the Mesaba and Vermillion ranges. In 1868, Henry H. Eames, the first state geologist of Minnesota, reported the finding of iron ore at Embarrass Lake near Biwabik. In a second report, published in the same year, Mr. Eames was more explicit, and referring to the general deviated area of the northern part of the State including the Mesaba Range, said:

"In this region are found also immense bodies of the ores of iron, both magnetic and hematite.? From this time on desultory exploratory work was done along nearly the entire length of the range from Rages 12 to LaPrairie River. There is considerable doubt as to who was the first actual explorer to penetrate the wilds of the Mesaba Range, but from all that can be gathered it would seem that the honor belongs to Peter Mitchell. The first examination of this range by a mining expert with particular reference to the occurrence of iron ore in merchantable deposits was made in 1875 by Professor A. H. Chester, of Hamilton College, New York. In this report, published in 1884, may be found this reference to an earlier occupation of the land:

"In the northwest quarter of section 20, in township 60, north of range 12, west, the most important of the workings of Mr. Peter Mitchell, the first explorer of the range, was found. This was a pit six feet in depth, and from it was said to have been obtained the best ore he brought back. This old pit was cleaned and sunk to a depth of eleven and two-tenths feet."

Professor Chester is generally given the credit of having been the first explorer on the range, but we have his own words that Mr. Mitchell was ahead of him, possibly two or three years. Between the time of Professor Chester's examination of the range and the publication of his report nine years later. Professor M. H. Winchell, state geologist, noted the range in two of his reports, mentioning the existence of iron ore on the east end. Up to that time, while it was readily conceded that iron ore existed there, it was not generally believed that the ore was of a merchantable grade or in sufficient quantity to warrant development. In fact, well up to 1890 the range had been looked over by numerous mining experts sent in there by the larger interests, and the reports were not favorable. The portion of the range examined particularly by them was the extreme eastern end, where exposures of magnetic iron are numerous, but even up to the present time no body of ore of workable dimensions has been located at that point. The fact that the range had been turned down by the several mining experts did not deter the hardy pioneer explorers, to whose faith and purpose are due the development of the Mesaba. They believed that rich iron ore in paying quantities was to be found in the district and they continued working diligently, breasting the untold hardships that meet the pioneer in a wild country. The more persistent of the early explorers were the Merritts--Lon Merritt, Alfred Merritt, L.J. Merritt, C.C. Merritt, T.N. Merritt, A.R. Merritt, J.E. Merritt, and W.J. Merritt--of Duluth, and their faith in the range was the first to be rewarded. On November 16, 1890, a crew working for them, under charge of Captain J.A. Nichols, struck iron ore in a homestead claim embracing the northwest quarter of section 3, 68- 18, just north of what is now known as the Mountain Iron mine. The Merritts were not discouraged by the adverse reports made by the experts and the numerous failures of other explorers. The Mesaba was an attractive and promising field, and their faith in it was never shaken, even though their money was spent and two years of the hardest kind of labor remained unrewarded. All who applaud the pioneer are glad to know that these pioneers who were so unresting in their search for iron ore have been richly repaid and that those who remain of the family are enjoying lives of ease due to the early toil that tried their fiber.

The next discovery of importance on the range was the Biwabik property, by John McCaskill, an explorer, who found iron ore clinging to the roots of an upturned tree The Merritts explored the tract. It is interest- ing to note that the first two iron mines discovered have proven the largest shippers from the range. The output of the Biwabik mine up to the close of navigation in 1917 was 4,053,731 tons, while the Mountain Iron mine had made in the same period the stupendous production of 7,254,201 tons. With the discovery of these mines it may be said that the range was fairly recognized as a mining district of commercial importance, and there followed a rush of explorers to the scene of action. Finds of large bodies of ore followed, and mining towns sprung up all along to give attention to the needs of the throngs of people that flocked in.

It is generally believed that Frank Hibbing, of Duluth, was the first explorer to shoulder his packsack and push his way through the trackless wilderness to the point where now stands the modern city of Hibbing--called the "Gem of the Mesaba," but E.J. Longyear preceded Hibbing to the territory by at least a year. Mr. Longyear cut a road into what is now the Hibbing district and it was he who broke the seal that bound the hidden wealth that has been brought to light since that time. Frank Hibbing was really more of ^ prospector than Longyear. He located a number of promising prospects and acquired interests in lands along the range. Mr. Hibbing was a man without means, but so encouraging were his reports that he soon interested A. J. Trimble, then fresh from many successful ventures on the Gogebic range, in Michigan, with him, and the Lake Superior Iron Company was formed. John M. Longyear, of Marquette, and R, M. Bennett, of Minneapolis, secured options to explore Mesaba Range lands and sent E. J. Longyear with an exploration outfit to give the lands a test. Mr. Lon^ year was then fresh from the Michigan College of Mines, and was one of the first class that graduated from that splendid institution. In the summer of 1891 Mr. Long- year arrived at Swan River, on the line of the old Du-luth and Winnipeg Railroad, now the Great Northern, which was the nearest railroad point to the land he in- tended to explore. He followed the old Wright and Davis tote road to a point about a mile and one quarter west of what is now Nashwauk, and from there began cutting a road through to what is now Hibbing. Having made a passable road, Mr. Longyear established an exploring camp one-half a mile north of the present Ma- honing mine, and the old camps are still there, a mute reminder of the earliest work on that end of the range. Mr. Longyear prosecuted exploratory work with a diamond drill without finding ore in paying quantities until February, 1892, when he found a large body of ore in the northeast quarter of section 22, 58-20. The body of ore, said to measure eight million tons, remains undeveloped. A few years ago it became the property of the old Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines Company and was taken into the holdings of the United States Steel Corporation upon its organization. Mr. Long- year's next find was the Pillsbury mine. This was the first iron mine opened in the Hibbing district, though it did not make a shipment until 1898. The first mine to ship ore from the district was the Sellers, in the spring of 1894. The next mine to be opened in the district was the Burt, followed closely by the Hull, Rust, Sellers and Day mines, in which Hibbing and Trimble were interested, and then the great Mahoning.

The finding of the great Mesaba beds of iron ore opened the eyes of the eastern furnace men, and they met and formed an organization to locate iron properties on this range. W.C. Agnew was chosen as the most suitable man to conduct the work. Mr. Agnew accepted the proposition and arrived with a working crew in the summer of 1893. He started exploratory work on lands where the Mahoning mine was found, one mile west of Hibbing. Mr. Agnew discovered this mine and superintended its development. The Mahoning presents the largest single body of iron ore ever discovered in the world. Imagine an elliptical opening in the earth half a mile long, a quarter of a mile wide and nearly two hundred feet deep, and you will have some idea of what the great Mahoning open pit presents to- day ?? more than forty acres of solid iron ore exposed to view. There yet remains eighty acres of ore uncovered. The first shipment from the Mahoning was made in 1895, and up to the close of navigation, 1917, the total output was 4,791,651. The possible year's shipment out of this mine is to be limited only by the capacity of the railroads for carrying away the product.

After the first excitement of mine discovering subsided somewhat, a financial depression occurred and exploratory work nearly ceased until better times recurred. But at no time was the range and its immense possibilities lost sight of by the financial interests of the country. In 1900 there was a revival of exploratory work, and from that time on there has been a steady increase in ore development and the end is not in sight. After the organization of the United States Steel Corporation, there was a rush of independent mining men to the Mesaba to secure holdings before everything fell under the control of the big organization. The result is that while the Minnesota Iron Company, a subsidiary branch of the Steel Trust, owns heavily of the iron properties, the tonnage of independent concerns holding interests in that district is probably greater than that of the trust. The independent mines include among others the Stevenson and Jordan, owned and operated by Corrigan, McKinney & Company; the Laura and the Winifred, by the Winifred Iron Mining Company; the Albany, Utica and Elizabeth, by the Crete Mining Company; the Longyear, Columbia, Leetonia, Pearce, Morrow and Croxton, by the Sellwood-Drake-Bartow interests; and the Agnew, Shenango, Kinney, Sharon, Grant, Leonard and Susquehanna mines, all in operation. So it will be seen that the Steel Trust has very healthy competition.

Up to the close of navigation 1918, to which period production is usually tabulated, because almost all of the ore is shipped by way of Lake Superior, the Mesaba Range had sent forward a total of 486,319,826 tons. The production of all the Lake Superior districts in 1918 was 63,164,341 tons, of which 43,359,107 tons came from the Mesaba and other Minnesota ranges.

It is estimated that by the end of the season of 1920 the first billion tons of iron ore will have been produced by the Lake Superior district.

CHAPTER XXX

CONSIDERATION OF CHARLES EVAN HUGHES, WOODROWS WILSON AND OTHER SIN SEARCHING FOR A SUCESSOR TO JAMES B. ANGELL AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

Public work came unexpectedly for me to do, just as it will come to all who will try to fit themselves and be willing. In 1908 I was tendered by Governor Warner an appointment upon the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, to succeed the late Peter White, of Marquette. Really to deserve to be a regent of the university and to do the work measurably well is, to my way of thinking, the greatest honor to be had in Michigan.

Any old dub may be a governor or a United States senator, and several have been, but generally the regents have been high grade, well-equipped men. Almost always they have been chosen from the alumni of the university.

Consequently I assumed my new duties with proper humility and not without misgivings. Where I lived as a boy in Indiana, such is the prestige of the University of Michigan, that a house where dwelt a man who had graduated at Ann Arbor was pointed out to all as a famous landmark. With such a man for president as the late James Burrill Angell, there was not much for a board to do but back him up. But he was growing old and wished to retire and was entitled to consideration.

To find a successor to this wonderful man was to be a task that devolved upon the regents. Dr. Angell was the most constructively aggressive man in his inimitable way that I have* ever known, and yet to all he was one, of the sweetest and most peaceful of human beings. He had a way of having others do the fighting. A wizard could not have measured men better. This one was selected for the very thing he could do best and that one for the same reason. When he had made his assignments, he would look on with the face of a calm god and rarely did his man fail him. Best of all, the person selected for an especial work seldom realized it; almost always he would think that he had originated the matter in hand. Dr. Angell never took off for a moment his armor of benignity, but behind it always there was the force of a big man. It was because of his remarkable method of using men and delegating work, that he was able to remain efficient to an age much greater than most men are permitted to retain their faculties, or even life itself.

During the winter after he was eighty-seven years old he had a severe sickness, largely caused by his insistence upon acknowledging in long hand hundreds of loving letters received upon his birthday. His relatives were summoned and all concerned expected the long call. On the nights of February 29 and March 1 it was thought that he would not see the morning.

I was in the office of University Secretary Shirley Smith at about half past ten o'clock the forenoon of March 2. A telephone call came from Dr. Angells brother. Secretary Smith's face was long and mournful, then it lighted up with both gladness and humor.

Instead of the dreaded news, the brother asked the secretary if Dr. Peterson, of the medical college hospital, would not loan a wheeled chair for the use of Dr. Angell. It transpired that just when they thought he was nearest death he rallied, raised himself in bed, and complained of being hungry. He was given a breakfast of coffee, toast, a cereal and an egg, which he actually enjoyed. Then he insisted upon getting up into a wheeled chair. A few weeks later he peacefully crossed the threshold of eternity.

He had nourished his vital forces all of his life upon kindliness of heart, tranquility of spirit and life in an atmosphere of youth. Once he told me that to live long one must be temperate and keep his heart youthful and alert. No wonder he was so much of a factor in causing the University of Michigan to become one of the greatest of the higher educational institutions of the world. He was loved by everybody and most so by the students.

It was this great man that a worthy successor had to be secured for. There were many applicants. Of course, not one of them applied directly, like a hungry man in search of a job. Some of them were just as eager, no doubt, but all went through the form of being proposed by their friends. Many of those who were urged in greatest volume were the most unlikely and unfit.

Serious consideration was given to the name of the then Governor of New York, Charles Evans Hughes. Mr. Hughes had been a member of the Cornell faculty and was looked upon, not only as a big man, but as one who was also an educator. The two qualifications do not necessarily dove-tail.

The place of president of the University of Michigan was tentatively offered to him by a committee of regents appointed for the purpose. Governor Hughes com- posed the usual gracious, and often meaningless, phrases of regret, and gave as his reason that he had a life's work of reform in the political arena of New York State, Otherwise he would have been made happy by taking up the direction of the parent of all popular universities.

Within a few weeks he permitted himself to be side- tracked, even shelved, so far as political reform activities were concerned, by an appointment to the United States Supreme Court. In the light of what he had uttered in such a Parsifallian spirit, I was shocked, and in my eyes Mr. Hughes has worn a broken halo ever since.

Some one proposed the name of David Jayne Hill, United States Ambassador to Germany. He looked like ideal timber. I went to Berlin to look him over. It is proper, I think, to state that I paid my own expenses. Accuracy, at the expense of elegance, requires me to record that I reported to the board of regents that Mr. Hill had taken on too much weight of all kinds.

One of the most interesting candidates, for we were caused to think, at least I was, that he solicited the position, was Woodrow Wilson. At the very first most of the regents jumped at the shining lure of surface brilliance. I do not mean to state that Mr. Wilson is not a profound scholar; only that more than most men of erudition he possesses an exterior luminescence that is distinctive. More sober consideration threw another light upon the retiring president of Princeton, there was a consensus of opinion that he had done good work at Princeton, but that whether he had done more good than harm was a question that could not be so easily answered.

He had gone to Princeton with the unanimous support of the managers of that college and left it with scarcely a friend among them. Practically, it seems, he was dismissed. His gratuitous quarrel with Grover Cleveland was analyzed, and a decision was come to that Dr. Wilson was tactless.

The University of Michigan depends for its financial life upon the people, and the Legislature of a Republican state. It has always had the respect, affection and generous consideration of its State. How long would it take a southern Democrat of Mr. Wilson's peculiar type to destroy the delicate relations that subsist between them? That was the danger that lurked in him. Good enough, the people have said, to be a two-term President of the United States, but the regents did not decide that he was good enough to be president of the University of Michigan.

It was a happy solution of the problem to select Dr. Harry B. Hutchins, dean of the University of Michigan Law College, to be president I opposed his appointment for an unlimited term. In fact, I was not very enthusiastic about Dr. Hutchins, and I proposed that the place be given him for three years, in order that the board might have time to look around without the disagreeable and hurtful consequences of not having a president.

Some of the regents, who knew him better than I did, proposed that I be appointed a committee of one to interview Dr. Hutchins and come to terms with him. This they did, with the suspicious twinkle in their eyes of a ruminating rhinoceros. They expected fireworks. If they could have been within hearing of the session between Dr. Hutchins and myself they would have considered themselves enjoyably justified. I found the Dean a much bigger and stronger man than I had supposed him to be. In fact, he rapidly developed presidential size in my estimation, as we sat vis-a- vis and fought back and forth. We shouted at each other and pounded the desk that was between us. Finally I said to him:

"For goodness sake, don?t act like you are behaving; you remind me too much of myself!"

This, he has said since, uncovered his humorous senses, and we soon had a rational discussion. At first he felt it as a reflection upon him to be offered a limited term. I told him just why we had insisted upon a definite period and I placed the good of the university above everything. The people of the nation only gave their President a limited term, and why should he, in the face of such an exalted example, object to being placed upon the same footing? That was not what appealed to him. It was the good of the university that won his willingness to do anything that would contribute to such an object. I suggested increasing the term to five years, and we agreed, whereupon the board of regents ratified the decision, and Dr. Harry B. Hutchins became president of the University of Michigan.

It is only due him to state that his work as the head of the university has more than justified the expectations of his chiefest admirers.

While I was a regent, a kind of thing came up that must arise continually in the life of every university. Professor R.M. Wenley's philosophical lectures had taken such a wide and free and bold scope, as to attract a great deal of attention which was not confined to university circles, but pervaded the State and farther. He was admired as a man of profound thought and high courage by those who were big enough and sufficiently fair to see him as he is and measure his work.

Those who did not like his methods, and some of the faculty who were unquestionably jealous of him, formed a potential opposition to him that took form in a determination to drive him out of the university. One day Wenley delivered a lecture so Christless and so heartless and so platonic in their estimation as to stir his enemies to extreme action. They interviewed a regent who came to me with the matter. This regent was one of the oldest and best men on the board and an alumnus. He was all wrought up and managed to communicate his feelings to me.

I agreed to support a resolution dismissing Professor Wenley from the faculty. We had votes enough pledged to pass it. But before it was voted upon all of us came to our senses. The truth seemed to stalk

before me unguided, as the truth needs no guide. It seemed to say: "What right have you to do this thing? Is this a university or a penal institution? Will you strive to give wings to thought and then kill it when it tries to fly? How are you going to combat error if it is not exposed ? Do you not know that the fearless teacher presents every facet of the intellect in action? Next time you oppress an intellectual process it may be the death of a great truth. Where are you going to draw the line inside the demarcation of complete freedom of thought and speech? If the truth can- not withstand the competition of error it becomes error, and error becomes truth."

Then the disgraceful resolution that I had helped to father I helped to kill.

Wenley still shakes things up and I have come to have a large respect for his work without yielding an iota of my Presbyterianism.

CHAPTER XXXI

TOM MAY?S PHILOSOPHY A SOCIAL THERMOMETER

I do not know when I began to learn that the only warrant for a public career is a desire bom of a willingness to serve; to give back to society some of self in payment for the great benefits social order grants to the individual; or when I had my first realization that a republic cannot endure, and civil and religious liberty will not have a collective instrument of protection unless men and women offer themselves freely.

In my early forenoon of life I saw only the selfish side and purpose of both private and public activity. To win was the thing; to take; no thought of paying back.

One night I was guiding Tom May, my cartoonist friend, through a Lake Superior jungle to our hunting camp. It was more, than a quarter of a century ago. He had learned something that I had not even thought of, although we were born the same year--1860.

"Hold on there, old man," he called from behind. "This isn't a Marathon, is it? "

I replied that it was already so dark I could see the compass needle with difficulty and that we must strike the trail a mile farther on if we were to have comfortable going after the night cover all settled down.

Swish! Tom gave a yell.

"I suppose that brush would have cut off my head if you hadn't held it back; as it was it only snipped off my nose and one ear and took a chunk out of my game eye, blast it!"

"But, Tom, I have told you a thousand times, which should be nearly enough for an Irishman, to walk far enough behind so that the switches won't hit you."

?That's all right and when I do, you get out of it and a wolf bites me trousers. Gimme the switch ivery time." Tom always dropped into the soft, sweet, Irish brogue that his soul loved whenever he was not at a city-tension.

On the trail we took our time and visited. Tom said he wondered why rich men did not remember while going through life that there are no pockets in shrouds.

?And they just take and take and grab and scoop and grub to get it, only to hope to square things when they are on their death beds by giving it away. They can't do it. Tickets to heaven are not on sale at a box office, and there are no special reservations for millionaires. And most people are learning that God's books are kept day by day just like the street car companies'. Five- cent fares make big totals. Little daily deeds count up big in life's long run. The fellow who gives most is going to get most in the end, not the fellow who takes the most from others without any thought of paying back, or dividing until the fine old gent with the scythe and long whiskers gets his big spectacles focused on him."

Thus we strolled to camp as Tom preached in big- hearted, Kerry style. It made a deep impression upon me. At another time some years later, obedient to the woods' muse, he said:

?Notice our friends Camaygie and Rockefeller are having a goose race giving away money. Andy is a shade the more anxious and has a wild Scotch glare under the brush that grows over his eyes. Ye see he has a Homestead riot and dead children and women and frinzied men trampin' on his soul. Rocky hasn't anything like that. Maybe he will be able to make a long drive through the pearly gates, but I'll bet Andy will slice or top the pill."

All of this indicated the coming of a new era in public thought. There was a hunger for heart and soul growth. We had only stomach growth up to then or not much more, and we, as a nation and as a people, it would seem, were hunchbacked in front.

Demagogues were vying with honest men in their eagerness to make hay. There was a grasshopper plague of fake reformers in every State and some of them drew the eye of the nation. It was difficult always to pick out the spurious. In fact, I doubt if a good many of the political disciple of the new era could tell just how much they were for self and how much for what they advocated. Men were reformers, insurgents and progressive until they got into office, and were active enough to attract the attention of the fat boys. Only then they dried up like a desert spring or became conservative.

CHAPTER XXXII

I AM ELECTED GOVERNOR OF MICHIGAN

THERE was much dissatisfaction with the state of public affairs in Michigan. Higher ideals of government began to be asserted in many places. A man, perhaps worthy enough, but who was regarded as being very ordinary, had been elected Governor for a third term. The State was bankrupt.

At least one of the state institutions, Jackson prison, was notorious for its mismanagement and worse. The state treasurer. Glazier, was discovered short several hundred thousand dollars in his accounts. He had been closely identified with Warner, personally and politically, and had carried large deposits in the bank in which Warner was a stockholder and officer. The warden of Jackson prison, Armstrong, had been convicted of crookedness in prison affairs and sentenced to a term of confinement. The air was filled with distrust. Charges and rumors pursued each other in the public mind. Consequently when the Warner administration proposed to perpetuate itself by the nomination and election of Patrick H. Kelley, who was Lieutenant-Governor, there was an upheaval of opposition. This took form in several counter movements.

A number of my friends urged me to become a candidate for (Governor. They called attention to the condition of affairs only too apparent in the State. Furthermore they stated that the Upper Peninsula had never been given a governor. Naturally, they reminded me of my experience in state affairs. I was not permitted to forget what they had often heard me say, that I thought every citizen was obligated to serve his country at any time he was needed, in peace or war, and should hold himself in readiness to do so, and should freely and frequently offer. I had not thought of being a candidate but it was not difficult to persuade me to be. Perhaps the one thing that had most to do with my decision, after the duty that I held to be involved, was the possession of an independent temperament, that did not seem to permit a consideration of the countless cautions that come so frequently to all persons in public place.

It really seemed that a person so constituted might render valuable service at this very time. I had in mind a number of things that I thought ought to be given state attention. One of these was a workmen's compensation law. I was heartily in favor pf woman suffrage, and though I could not be called a prohibitionist as the term was defined then, and was not at that time a total abstainer, I was opposed to the saloon and to commercialized booze. I knew that it had the largest control of state and local politics, not only where its interests were involved, but extended its dictation far beyond in a meddlesome way just because it had the power. I proposed to take a shot at this social hyena if I got a chance, and in order to get a shot I decided to stalk it. Moreover, I was in a position of economic independence, with sufficient means so that I did not have to depend upon a public income, nor upon persons who might subscribe to a campaign with the hope and purpose of controlling me, and yet I did not possess so much that my interests ramified in directions where I might suffer injury from those who control the money affairs of the country and destroy the credit of any who oppose them, which is a way they have if one falls into their power.

I became a candidate for Governor. There were three other candidates: Patrick H. Kelley, of Lansing; Amos Musselman, of Grand Rapids, and Justice Robert M. Montgomery, of the Supreme Court of Michigan. At the start it looked as though Mr. Eelley would win easily if the Warner opposition, general as it was, was divided among three. The best-equipped candidate of all, in some respects, was Justice Montgomery. He was a distinguished member of Michigan's highest court and had friends in every part of the State. He had the backing of the Supreme Court, which at that time did not hesitate to sit into the game of politics, and it knew how with the best of them.

There is a constitutional provision in Michigan prohibiting a circuit judge from being a candidate for a political office while on the bench and for one year after retiring from such service. I did not believe that Mr. Montgomery had considered whether it was right for him, as a member of a court whose duty it was to enforce this law, to do that which was a violation of the very principle he was obligated to compel others to observe (nor did Mr. Hughes search his soul deeply in this regard). I was certain he had no moral right to be a candidate and I even questioned his legal right. Against the counsel of all my close advisers, I addressed an open letter to him setting forth the claim that Intimately and ethically he had no right to be a candidate and ending by demanding his withdrawal I was determined at the outset to be open and aboveboard in all of my actions and utterances as a candidate, wherever the welfare of the State was concerned. My statement caused a sensation in political circles. It made the friends of Justice Montgomery very angry, and they were swift to call attention to the act as proof of my backwoods' crudeness and my unfitness to be Governor of a great state. Also for a time, Justice Montgomery was as angry as his friends. Finally, his high sense of honor, his keen, intellectual appreciation of the justness of my position, and his ethical standards caused him to view the situation differently. He was big enough finally to achieve self-mastery. He sent me word, in fact told me personally, that if I would let up on the matter he would retire from the field if a graceful way was presented. At once, I took the matter up with the real friends of the Justice. The result was that he retired from the gubernatorial contest and accepted a place on the newly erected intermediary court at Washington.

This left three candidates. The nomination of Mr. Kelley was freely predicted. He was a cheery, genial, lovable person, who carried the serious things of life lightly and' radiated good-fellowship. As a political campaigner he was supposed to be invincible. His friends said hopefully and warningly: "Just wait until he gets that man Osborn on the platform and watch Kelley clean up on him."

I quite agreed with them that Mr. Kelley might do things to me, but even in secret I was not afraid. I had gone into the fight hammer and tongs, and had made up my mind to give as hard thrusts as I could and take smilingly all the enemy gave to me. While yet a boy I had been taught that in life a man must be just as good as an anvil as he is as a hammer; take blows as well as give them.

There were the usual Lincoln Club, Chandler Club, McKinley Club and Washington Birthday political banquets that are quite peculiar to Michigan where they have been developed to the nth potency. Musselman did not seem to be much in evidence at these feasts. Kelley and I were invited to all of them. At first the attraction was what Kelley might do to me. Afterwards the curiosity centered about what I might say about the Warner-Kelley machine. I had to hook Kelley up to the Warner odium, which was not hard to do, because his generous disposition had influenced him good- naturedly to tag along after Warner.

There was a great deal of distrust felt between the two peninsulas of Michigan. The people of the Lower Peninsula thought of the Upper Peninsula as being controlled by a coterie of mining autocrats who were political despots, possessed of a determination to dodge their taxes and duties and milk the State of its rich resources with no return, or as little as possible. The Upper Peninsula, and especially the people of the mining regions, regarded their Lower Peninsula fellow-citizens as being a lot of hayseeds and rubes, who were not fit for free government and impossible of comprehending the merits of the northern portion of the State. My opponents used this prejudice and fanned it persistently. The population of the State was about two and a half million people in the Lower Peninsula, two- thirds of the area, and about three hundred thousand in the Upper Peninsula. The northern section was overwhelmingly Republican, and had been known, especially when General Alger was beaten in the lower section, to reverse the Democratic decision below the straits. Such fealty had its reward from the Republican managers just to the extent that was thought necessarily to keep it in line. It had never been accorded a Governor and many wise ones predicted that it never would. I do not think there was a time during the campaign when my best friends in the Upper Peninsula thought I could win. I did not worry about that, nor was I deeply concerned about the issue of the contest.

I decided that the battle ground was the Lower Peninsula and there I went, going from county to county, most of the time by automobile. I did not make a speech in the Upper Peninsula. I enjoyed the campaign. It was hard, but it gave me a chance to see and talk to the people which I did with earnest bluntness and direct conviction. I visited every county in the Lower Peninsula and made speeches in all of them, often ten or fifteen in a day, many of course being only a few minutes in length, and many of greater length. When the campaign was at its height as many as thirty automobiles would follow me through the county, as upon a triumphal tour. Bands, banners and enthusiasm made an atmosphere, and the audiences were certain to be good. For the most part I did not talk politics. It was safe to assume that the voters understood. They did. I promised to clean out the Warner gang that had wrecked and disgraced Michigan. That seemed to be what they wanted.

Just before election day Amos Musselman encouraged the editor of the Escanaba Journal to make an attack upon my honesty. Thousands of copies of the paper were circulated over the State. The enemy saw that the libel was reprinted wherever possible. They hoped that it was too late for me to defend myself. I had the editor arrested at once and started suit against Musselman and others. I felt within myself that if the people could be fooled by an eleventh-hour move of this kind, there was no way to prevent it. Knowing my innocence I trusted to the good sense of the voters. At the primaries, I was successful by the following vote: Osborn, 88,270; Kelley, 52,337; Musselman, 50,721. My vote in the Lower Peninsula was the big surprise to the dopesters. Below the straits it was 69,479 and 18,791 above.

As soon as the matters could be forced to an issue, the editor who had libeled me was convicted, and Mussel- man, in humiliation, made public admission that he had done wrong, and the case against him was dropped. As showing his fairness and good citizenship and his realization of his responsibilities as a publisher, I may say here that in 1918 when I was a candidate for the nomination of United States Senator, this editor was one of my strongest supporters.

The state campaign that followed was not as much of a contest as the primary had been, but it was a fight. The late Lawton T. Hemans, of Ingham County, was nominated by the Democrats. Hemans was a strong man. He had been a candidate for Governor before and was well known and respected. As a lawyer and local historian, he had covered much of Michigan creditably. It was a mid-year campaign, between the presidential contests. There was nothing to prevent interest from centering upon a state campaign.

Republican dissatisfaction and insurgency were in the air. The Taft administration program of blunders was just becoming known. Only seven States in the Union were carried by the Republicans. I received one of the largest majorities given a Republican Governor that year, 1910. The vote on election day was Osborn 202,803; Hemans, 159,770, or a plurality for me of 43,033. During the campaign the Democrats had combed my record with particular care, but found nothing they could use.

CHAPTER XXXIII

I START A FIGHT AGAINST THE SALOON THAT KEEPS UP TO THE END

After election in the autumn of 1910 I retired to Deerfoot Lodge where Justice Steere, the Honorable Boys J. Cram and I have kept open house during the deer season for nearly a quarter of a century. It is a beautiful spot in a primeval forest of maple, birch and beech. Pine plains furnish a change in one direction, and deep swamps flank the hardwood and give lair for bear and wolf and lynx. Shadowy hemlocks, with limbs bedecked with old man's beard, like Spanish moss, and red-berried yew shintangle as carpet make a wild garden where the fawns hide in spring, and bucks snort, paw and horn trees in autumn.

Here I wrote my inaugural message on some rough scraps of paper; no library but my thoughts, and no reference book but my heart. Deerfoot was then only a modest log shack of one room, where friends came and rolled in on the floor, and roughed it in a way to take the city stiffness out of body and spirit. Here I wrote down briefly my views upon the liquor question for my message as follows:

Temperance is a matter of personal discipline and is more of a moral and social problem than political. The regulation of the liquor traffic is largely a political function. The upheaval and interest in Michigan and over the country along these lines are, in my opinion, aimed more at the liquor traffic than at the temperate use of alcoholic beverages. It appears that temperance is handicapped unless those who believe even in rationalism become excited and militant. The saloon of today is a social saprophyte. Always it has been a breeding place of lawlessness and a culture ground of vice. So arrogant had it become that government by saloon and rule by brewery was the practical condition. The candidate who did not bow to the joint keeper and the local official who did not recognize the political power of alcohol, as manifested through low groggeries, were in for a fight all of the time to save their political lives. Breweries were not contented with a distribution to such saloons as might naturally exist. So they entered upon an artificial policy of starting saloons at all convenient places where the consumption of their product would be increased. There is intense competition between brewers for the installation and control of saloons. Conditions became intolerable. The people broke out in contagious rebellion, all invoked by the exaggerated commercializing of alcohol.

A desire for better conditions exists in the heart of every good citizen. The average man does not wish to be fanatical or intolerant. He does not wish to apply sumptuary laws that abridge personal liberty beyond the point of public good. But government by saloon and brewery must go and artificial stimulation of the traffic in beer and whiskey must be discontinued. In a degree it is true that the saloon is the poor man's club. But the rich man's club affects only the more or less useless few, while the poor man?s club, if low in character and degenerating in influence, injures the useful many. Society can stand crumbling at the top, for that is the natural spot of decay, but it cannot survive necrosis of its foundation masses. The local option policy is good and out of it can come improving conditions. In communities where saloons exist there should not be more than one to a thousand population, and breweries should be divorced from their ownership. The license should be higher but more attention should be paid to the character of the Saloonkeeper and the conduct of the saloon than to the amount of the license. I would suggest a law providing for fuller state supervision of saloons. The State dispensary system is ideal, but proved a failure in South Carolina. In Russia, where alcohol is a government monopoly, the dispensary system is fairly commendable. In Pennsylvania the courts regulate the liquor traffic, give and revoke licenses. In Canada the hotel system prevails.

I would like to see the question studied for Michigan by an honorary commission to be composed of some of the most noble, courageous and unselfish citizens of the State.

This is an age of stimulation. The physical tensity of our civilization makes for it The quantities consumed in this country alone of alcohol in various forms, opium, cocaine, tea, coffee and tobacco are startling and transfix with horror when contemplated, commanding the interest of every person concerned in the welfare of society. Over stimulation is the source of disease, pauperism and crime. In the long run these conditions can be corrected only by going to the foundation of things. Man must not drive man so hard. Conditions of life for the masses must be better. Rest for the weary, food for the underfed, entertainment and respite for those whose monotony of life is caused by over-work must be provided and finer human fellowship must come to prevail.

While these ideals are working out, proclaiming the coming some day, of the superman, the State must see that selfish and careless individuals do not over capitalize the appetites of man. Wholesome regulation cannot grow out of fanatical intolerance or exaggerated extremity. Oppressive rule by majority is only another form of the application of might. The greatest good to the greatest number should be succeeded by the aim to accomplish the greatest average good for all. This will, I believe, be your inspiration for suggested corrective legislation.

I had stalked within range of the most deadly thing I knew of and was to take this shot at it. No recent Michigan governor had referred to it. The subject was politically taboo. I knew that it would bring to me all the trouble the whiskey makers and whiskey sellers could oppose me with. There was no halfway realization of it upon my part.

The effect of this and other things I proposed to attempt to do was to arrive at the decision that I would not be a candidate for a second term. All of my advisers endeavored to dissuade me from making such an announcement, and especially at the outset. But I could not be deterred by their convincing arguments that it was not good politics. I was not playing politics, had not been and did not intend to start. That was the trouble with everything in public Michigan. Everybody had been playing politics every minute until things had reached an impossible mess. The one thing I hoped to convey to the public was that I had no personal political object in view as a result of any act; nothing but the public good. It seemed to me that the only way to start fair was to make an honest one-term decision, announce it and stick to it. Down deep within my being I knew the danger to my plans that lurked in a desire for a second term.

So insidious are the operations of desire that it may almost be said of it when it exists that no act of a man's life is independent of it He may be as honest as is humanly possible and as unconscious, but his acts will be influenced. So I burned all bridges behind me and felt better when I had done so. There was very much to do, and I did not wish the handicap of trimming or playing politics for a second term

CHAPTEB XXXIV

FIGHTING FOR THE LIFE OF MICHIGAN AGAINST THE HUMAN BLOODSUCKERS THAT SUBSIST ON SOCIETY EVERYWHERE

THE first of January, 1911, I was inaugurated as Governor of Michigan. In order to devote every energy to the program of accomplishment I had outlined, I had determined that I would leave the office at the close of my two-year term and would not be a candidate for reelection. There was much to do and I realized that I would have strong opposition to the passage of the measures I advocated* The political organizations of Detroit were powerful at the state capital. Detroit control had passed long before into the hands of a local Tammany that would stop at nothing. The organization, unwritten, but understood, included men in both the Republican and Democratic parties, grading up from convicts to semi-respectables and connected with men on both sides occupying positions of trust and prominence, but ready at all times to profit by their political relationship to this tong, and just as ready to be parties to questionable political practices that they might not think of resorting to if proposed in their professions. This gang was ?The Vote Swappers' League," named such by E. G. Pipp, manager at that time of the Detroit News. Most of the men had double standards of practice; one for politics and another for business. Most of those who aided the crooked league in the work were well known. The Republicans were even worse than their Democrat partners, because they presumed to hold their heads a little higher, cloak themselves in a bespotted mantle of respectability and patronize the town clubs and the golf links, and even go so far as to identify themselves with a church if it served a purpose. These fine bucktails divided the offices among their faithful, controlled the Council, boasted of their standing in the several judicial strata and most thoroughly removed the political viscera from any reformer or citizens' movement that started any Taiping revolution. I had to decide whether I would serve Michigan or the Vote Swappers' League. I chose the flag of Michigan. The word was passed to the Detroit gang that I could not be controlled. This started a war upon me that has gone the length of bitterness.

The fight was staged first in the Legislature. I found myself as Governor at first unable to secure a majority for anything for which any credit or responsibility attached to the Governor's office. Gradually the legislative opposition wore down. Finally I had a certain majority in the House and soon after in the Senate. The failures in legislation were few and only of measures that required a two-thirds majority.

A multitude of things came up in the executive office. I had succeeded an administration unfriendly to me, and things were not made easy for me, which did not alarm or dissuade me. I had been accustomed to long hours and there was keen delight in putting them in now.

The very day I was inaugurated a plot was discovered to blow up Jackson prison with dynamite. The warden was new and there was much nervousness. Dependable guards were not known from the ones in league with convicts.. I counseled with Warden Russell, of Marquette prison, and Warden Fuller, of the Ionia Reformatory, both officials of long experience and high ability. I succeeded in getting a line on the bad men in Jackson. I had them brought to the executive office one at a time and between two and four o'clock in the morning, so that absolute secrecy might be secured. I succeeded in obtaining enough information to locate and remove quantities of high explosives, and to break up the convict gang, distributing the members among other prisons. While at this task I learned many other incidental facts. My greatest surprise was caused and my indignation was particularly aroused by the indisputable knowledge that a traffic in pardons and paroles was going on. I forced at once the resignation of the Board of Pardons and a new Board was appointed. I appointed a complete, new bi-partisan Prison Board of big men.

I learned that one of the Tax Commissioners of the State was also the retained attorney of a big manufacturer of automobiles. Of course the lawyer could not serve two masters for conflicting interests. I asked him to resign and he did so. Another Tax Commissioner gave very little time to the work and his performance was very unsatisfactory. In fact, the Commission was in a rut. I asked this man to resign. The epidemic phrase was "Go to hell.? This fellow applied it and I removed him. This removal made completely new three important boards. I cleaned out every vestige of the old administration that seemed to be necessary to wholesome state administration. In doing so I only kept faith with the people. It was what I had promised them I would do.

When I became Governor a deficit existed in the state treasury of about a million dollars. I was determined to wipe this out. Many economies were inaugurated in the management of state institutions. In this work I was aided by every institutional superintendent in Michigan and by all the appointive heads of departments. It was easy to save the State's money if one managed with anything like the same care with which private business is conducted.

The new constitution of Michigan gives the Governor unusual fiscal authority. In fact, it imposes in him the power and responsibility practically of financial manager. The Governor can veto all or any part of an appropriation bill. I carefully went over every bill with those interested in it. As a result I cut out nearly enough to pay the state indebtedness. This financial use of the veto constitutes a precedent.

But it was in saving through economies introduced everywhere that the big results were obtained. At the conclusion of my administration the State was out of debt and the treasury contained a surplus of more than two million dollars. This was achieved and at the same time more money was appropriated for good roads than the estimate and more for the state university than ever before. The tax rate was also reduced. Also this saying improved the conditions at all state institutions, because the very care that made economy possible naturally conduced to improvements in every detail of service.

The regular session of the Legislature adjourned.

Early in 1912 I called a special session and followed it immediately with a second special session. Under the Michigan constitution the Governor is empowered to summon the Legislature in extraordinary session. At such only those measures submitted in message by the Governor may be considered. The effect is to compel legislative concentration and to focus the eyes of the public upon important measures. At a regular session there is pulling and hauling and trading and confusion, until the public is lost in a muddle of vexatious circumstances and the legislators are nearly as badly off.

Very near to my heart I had the matter of a work-men's compensation law. I had given the subject considerable study in Germany and England and had talked it over often with my intimate associates and many others. The Legislature in regular session had empowered the Governor to appoint a commission to study the question and draft a form of a bill embodying a suitable law. The commission appointed, serving without pay, had given earnest attention to the important subject and had submitted a report of indubitable value. To obtain action upon this was my chief first purpose for a special session. Also I wished to utilize this meritorious measure to further define and stiffen partisan lines in the Legislature, so that I might feed in good measures that otherwise would not carry. The workingmen's compensation act passed. The Legislature empowered the Governor to appoint an Industrial Accident Board to administer the law. The success of the new law might largely depend upon the practical foundation laid for it in its earliest application and interpretation. I secured for the board the only two members of the commission that framed the law who could be secured for state service. By virtue of the understanding and administration of this law by the first board, it came to be recognized as one of the best compensation enactments in America. It has been copied by many other States. Gradually it will undoubtedly be brought nearer to perfection.

Police Commissioner Croul, of Detroit, an official of rare courage and capacity, had told me that of some seventeen hundred saloons in Detroit quite twelve hundred were owned by brewers and distillers. It was their practice to start a booze joint on every likely comer they could obtain and especially near factory doors. Brewery-owned saloons were the worst of all. I saw to it that a bill was introduced making it illegal for brewers and distillers to own or encourage saloons. Forthwith fell upon me the liquor people. The Royal Ark, an association of saloon keepers in Detroit, endeavored to intimidate members of the Legislature. Conditions of much bitterness arose. But the bill became a law.

I found the Michigan Bonding Company to be the most hurtful and the boldest source of evil in the State. It was organized under a law that gave it the practical control of all the saloons in the State. If a saloon keeper did not obey its behests, his bonds were refused. It charged big fees and was strong financially. It had one or more agents in every county and cleverly selected them from among the best-equipped attorneys. By means of a retainer it secured the services of lawyers who would not naturally line up with it. Thus equipped, the Michigan Bonding Company became a dangerous entity. Of it men were afraid. It was the core organization around which was built the opposition to woman suffrage, prohibition and all related reforms. I asked the Legislature to repeal the law giving it existence and I made a fight against it that was nearly successful.

The fight at Lansing while these bills were pending became a vicious one, with enough bad feeling and personal passion almost to obscure reason for a time. I received as many as ten letters in one day threatening my life. To these cowardly messages I paid no atten- tion. They only indicated the feeling that existed among the whiskeyites. Dynamite was placed under my house but it did not explode. My residence was on fire twice mysteriously. One of these fires occurred at two o'clock in the morning. I was attacked on all sides. Throughout all the conflict I did not worry nor lose sleep.. My wife stood it bravely but confesses now she was deeply worried and wearied. But only words of cheer and courage came from her then. As for myself, I thought I was right and I think so now when the embers of thought are colorless from fire. Perhaps I took on some of the spirit of the crusader. At least I placed my trust in God and calmly asked divine approval and direction.

Those who were advocating woman suffrage were not united. Some of them, including most of the women propagandists who came to Lansing, were fearful that a measure submitting the question to the people could not pass the Legislature and that its failure would prove a setback. After discussing the matter with Representative Charles Flowers, a veteran partisan of the cause, and with several others, I decided to present the question. It carried nicely. Later, when it was submitted for popular consideration, it undoubtedly carried in the State. However, the liquor interests succeeded in obscuring and invalidating the result Its next submission was in the spring, when the country vote is light as compared with that of the cities, and suffrage was then unquestionably defeated.

When the returns of the vote began to indicate that the measure had passed at the first plebiscite, those opposed held back the reports from polling precincts that they controlled, giving the impression that whatever totals were necessary to accomplish the defeat of the women would be supplied. There were signs of a sharp practice that was used by the vicious elements to obtain a momentary end. Apparently the only adequate redress for such is an aroused public that will finally act so decisively as to brook no resistance or trickery.

I do not say that all of those who oppose votes for women are vicious, but I do say that wherever I have been familiar with conditions, the management of the campaign against suffrage has been controlled either above the surface or below it by those who are inclined to lawlessness and who make it their instinctive business to fight anything that tends to improve the public tone or widen the zone of influence of those who would be most likely, in the nature of things, to endeavor to cure those evils that are eating cancerously at the foundations of the human family.

Women are the matrix of the race. They occupy a sphere that man, a mere fertilizing agent, never enters. Consequently woman knows instinctively when her own is imperiled. Fundamentally this is the raison d'etre of the woman movement. All talk of liberty and equality is incidental. Nature, always operating to make life dominant over death, and in ways often most obscure and indirect so far as man's vision and comprehension are concerned, is the author of the activity that has for its purpose the bringing to bear of the powers of woman directly against the jeopardy of her children. The tendency may be delayed or misdirected but it cannot be defeated, any more than the precession of the equinoxes can be controlled by human agencies.

My messages to the Legislature, in special sessions, are a true guide to my state of mind, my thought processes and convictions at that time. I had not yet convinced myself that there could not be some compromise with alcohol. I hoped that if there was any good in it that it might be separated from the much that was bad, and the desirable retained and the objectionable rejected. I had visions of state control that would be more successful than the dispensary experience by the State of South Carolina. It was my nebulous hope that the whiskey traffic might be completely taken out of trade whereby man's degeneracy was made a source of profit. It was a passing dream in which I saw pure whiskey, beers and wines served at cost in temperate quantities in clean environment to those who might be cheered but not poisoned.

But I was nearing the time when I became convinced that life and alcohol cannot exist together any more rationally than life and death. I saw the constant struggle of nature against death and all of the agencies of decay; the finely maintained equilibrium of wild animal and vegetable life; the self -pruning processes of primeval forests and many of the visible efforts of the war of life against death. Because of the limited visual powers of man, there are more invisible activities than those that we can see. But there are also many that we are slow to see because we do not wish to see. So I saw in the world's growing social array against alcohol simply a great movement of life against death. As such it will succeed in spite of man's blindness and opposition, just because of the world-old truth that man is ever the weak proponent and God is forever the mighty disponent.

Michigan voted in favor of state-wide prohibition at the election of November, 1916, and in favor of woman suffrage in 1918.

CHAPTER XXXV

MY PART IN THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN OF 1912

The second year of my service as Governor wais a year of presidential campaign. A successor to Mr. Taft was to be selected. Early it became apparent that there was great dissatisfaction with President Taft. No matter what merit he might have, and forgetful of his great public services in the past, it was plain that a majority of his party would not and did not approve or trust him politically. They could no longer see good in him or in anything he proposed. Because it was a Taft proposition, the proposed Treaty of Canadian Reciprocity, a measure of great merit, was bitterly opposed. I was, I think, the only governor in the United States who supported that treaty, at home and at Washington. It was passed with difficulty, after long hearings and delays that aided in perverting the Canadian view and supplying fuel for its subsequent repudiation across the border.

Always in public life and in politics I have clung to certain ideals of citizenship and its responsibilities. Like millions of others I have looked upon Theodore Roosevelt as personifying most nearly these mind and heart types. He was human and made errors, but he was heartful and earnest, courageous and honest. He worked at the job of being a citizen when with another temperament he might have been a loafer, because he never had to work for bread, that great industrial incentive. Always active and giving of himself , spending and being spent, he has the highest batting average of public service in the modem history of the nation. And as such things are usually interpreted his work has been unselfish. In a higher way of thought his labors have been the essence of worthy selfishness for social and individual welfare including himself.

First with all good citizens comes the good of the nation ; then the good of those agencies that contribute to the nation; then the man: Country, party, individual.

I cared only in this way. It seemed to me that the Republican party had attracted to itself the greater volume of genius for government. As is always true in a successful party the bad entered with the good. Virtue in party should be and always will be at friction with vice in party. Those who, as participants in or agents for intrenched privilege, believe in government by the few will be naturally opposed by those who believe in government by all for all.

Mr. Taft might be nominated by force, but he would be defeated. The midyear's elections foreshadowed that certain result. What was the party to do if it would achieve the success within itself that would preserve in control its best element, and continue it in governmental power and direction? A candidate other than Mr. Taft must be found. This thought was one common to many earnest minds. The field to select from was not large. But there were some good, earnest, courageous public men, and more were being created out of an atmosphere growing from an aroused public conscience. Of these the first and greatest and clearest and most consistent and courageous was Theodore Roosevelt. His own idea, as he had told me and all who talked with him, was to be ready to serve in peace or war at any time his country, that had so honored and trusted him, demanded. But he would not be a candidate. He must be drafted and the call must be unmistakable.

Now it is one thing for a king to call and another thing for a people. There may be ever so much material for a chorus, but it is always scattered, untrained and undirected. A big Roosevelt movement began all over the land. He was unmoved by it. In fact it was so intangible as to be difficult of measurement. No one man or men started it. But it was still in no form to carry convictions of duty and sacrifice to Oyster Bay.

Alexander Revell headed the Roosevelt movement in Chicago. Edwin W. Sims was associated with him. Mr. Sims was from Michigan. Perhaps that is why he came to me.

"There is only one way that I can think of that will formulate this Roosevelt movement so that it will compel him to be a candidate

; that is to call a conference of Republican governors and pass resolutions urging Colonel Roosevelt to come out and do his duty.?

It was the idea of Mr. Sims. It appealed to me. I signed a call for a meeting of the governors. There were not many Republican governors, only nine or ten. The States had fallen like bean-poles before the anti- Taft hurricane. There were eight governors at the meeting. Seven of them signed the call eagerly. The message was carried to Oyster Bay. Colonel Roosevelt became a candidate. The steam-roller national convention in Chicago nominated Taft. Then came the revolt. The followers of Roosevelt entered upon the formation of a new party. This I opposed. At the first meeting in Michigan I succeeded in preventing the formation of a progressive party. There was no progressive principle that I did not and do not believe in and advocate. The thing was to decide what instrumentality would most quickly secure the adoption and application of progressive reforms in government. I am firmly convinced that the great majority of the Re- publican party was progressive and is so today. The only thing to do as I saw it^ was to remain in the party and wrest control from the leaders who were abusing it. This had already been done in Michigan and other States, and it seemed particularly unwise to desert and leave behind all the good work that had been done up to date. Suffering from a broken foot, I had managed to attend the Lansing meeting, though on crutches. An inflammation in the injured member prevented me from attending the convention at Jackson where Senator Dixon, of Montana, swept men off their feet who had promised me not to secede, and the Progressives in Michigan were organized.

Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson ran. I made it plain that I would remain in the Republican party and would vote for Roosevelt as a Republican, and I advised other Republicans to do the same. I was at Deerfoot Lodge when I got the news that Colonel Roosevelt was shot. In a flash I reviewed the early part I had played in getting him into the fight. A decision to go and help him now that he was hors du combat was acted upon at once. I tendered my services and asked to be sent wherever the committee had difficulty in getting or keeping speakers. After several speeches in Chicago, St. Louis and other places in Missouri, I was sent to Oklahoma. My progress in Oklahoma was such that William Jennings Bryan was sent to follow me. I closed the campaign in Indiana, too far away to enable me to reach Sault Ste. Marie in time to vote.

CHAPTER XXXVI

OFF FOR MADAGASCAR, ASIA AND AFRICA FOR A LONG TOUR IN THE UNUSUAL PARTS OF THE WORLD

My term of office as Governor was nearing a close. There had been a fight for some good cause every day and I had enjoyed every moment of it. It was touching to me to witness the evidence of regard so plainly shown by good men of all parties. It made me forget there had been any such thing as opposition or bitterness. I felt that I was over-appreciated and too well paid. The University of Michigan and Olivet College and also Alma College, had conferred upon me the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. I was the first governor of Michigan to be thus honored; not the first to deserve but the first to receive. Olivet and Alma are splendid denominational colleges. Their recognition of me could not be interpreted as political by my most bitter enemy.

At the end I was given a dinner at Hotel Downey, Lansing. Republicans, Progressives, Socialists and Democrats came to do the honor. It was a thank God thing and I was overcome. The Democratic Govvernor incoming was present and said he would model his administration after mine. I had inducted him into office with all kindness, respect and assistance. The speeches at the dinner were of such graciousness as few men live to hear. Reviewing my work as Governor, one of the great dailies of Michigan said editorially: "Throughout its course, the Osborn administration has been free from the touch of scandal. To be sure it has not been untroubled, but those troubles have been of the clean sort, in which men could oppose each other with honest differences of opinion and without shame. They have been storms rather than embarrassments. But the fact is the troubles of his administration have been brief in duration and inconsequential in effect and may be easily forgotten.

"Some of the things Governor Osborn set out to do two years ago have been accomplished. In other things disappointment has been his portion. But in success or disappointment, he displayed in all his official acts and life a spirit which made the fortune of the hour seem a matter of small moment. He met his every de- feat with an attitude that commanded the admiration which usually is the tribute to success alone.. In friendly or in hostile sympathy with his administration as one may be, yet the name of Osborn cannot be denied place beside that of Blair, the war Governor, and of Pingree, the first insurgent, in the roll of Michigan Governors. " Reflect now on the two years of Osborn's governor- ship, and consider not only the immediate results of it, but the impulse it has given to a finer, stronger conception of government by the people of this State of ours. The injury that Osborn has done is solely to Chase S. Osborn?s political aspirations if any he has. The good that Chase S. Osborn has wrought is the inalienable possession of the State."

The House of Representatives passed resolutions officially commending my work.

My brief exaugural address was well received by the Legislature and by the public. I was deeply content There was much I wished to do. I had not finished the earth in travel and study. There remained portions of Africa and all of Madagascar. My wife and I left at once for the East and across the seas. We stopped en route in Washington, where I addressed the Michigan Society, upon the invitation of Judge Montgomery, with whom I had sometime clashed, but who is so big that he has forgotten it and forgiven me. At the State Department I could get almost no information about Madagascar. This made me decide to proceed to France. Madagascar is a French Colony. France took possession of it one year before the United States acquired the Philippines. It furnishes a splendid opportunity of comparing the methods and colonial potentiality of the two nations.

We took passage on the French liner La Touraine, with the same captain who had sent the Titanic a wire- less warning of the iceberg, that was unheeded.

Either at the wharf at Havre, or on the train between there and Paris, our trunks and bags were broken into and robbed. I mention this because we have only suffered from such depredations while traveling in France, Italy and Spain.

One gets the idea that the average of honesty is low among the European Latins. I say European Latins because we have found the South American Latin peoples as honest as any others in the world. We have been warned in every South American country to beware of thieves while traveling, just as the American traveling public encounters "beware" signs in depots and hotels, at home and on ocean steamers. In thousands of miles of travel in South America I have never lost an article, and I grew to be less watchful there than in most countries. Friends living in South America uniformly tell me that petty larceny and sneak thieving are uncommon there, which accords with my experience.

Ambassador Herrick was very kind to us in Paris. He saw that I had access to all official sources of in- formation. I was also permitted a more intimate knowledge of Dr. Alfred Grandidier, the famous biologist, and his work. Grandidier is an authority upon nearly every branch of scientific knowledge pertaining to Madagascar. When he completes the volumes he is writing they will form an exhaustive treatise upon that big and interesting island.

We sailed from Marseilles on a stormy day. The Mediterranean was the roughest I had ever seen it and it grew worse. Off Crete we nearly foundered. The storm continued for four days. For two days it was a hurricane and during thirty-six hours our ship just headed into it, and the log did not record a single knot of progress. Mrs. Osborn remained in our stateroom because it was too rough to dress. She was compelled to live in the upper berth on account of the depth of water in the room. Other women were hysterical, and men were down on their knees in prayer, just as they always rush to God in danger and helplessness and so often forget Him at other times. No one was permitted on deck. Even the captain wrung his hands. He had ordered me below a number of times. Finally learning that I was working with the deck hands helping to rig the auxiliary steering gear and doing other things, he made me a member of the crew. During all of it my brave wife was as calm as could be, and only asked me to tell her and give her enough time to put on a life preserver, if it became necessary. Many passengers, both women and men, wore life belts for two days.

We had seen trying storms in the Cape Horn region, in the China Sea, in the North Atlantic and North Pacific and in Biscay and the Indian Ocean, but nothing worse than this. The fearful thing on the Mediterranean in a bad gale is lack of sea room, which is the great menace also on Lake Superior and the other great lakes of the world. I have seen Lake Titicaca so storm-swept that hundreds of balsas were destroyed. Fancy a storm on the roof of the world in a lake more than two miles up in the clouds. One really feels as if he might be washed into illimitable space.

It was our fourth trip to Egypt, but neither my wife nor myself had seen the Sahara as it must be seen to be comprehended. In order to do so I organized a caravan for the purpose of journeying over the sands that are finer than when they reposed, unmoved, on the vast floor of the ancient ocean that once existed over the Bedouin domain. We planned to go some hundreds miles and also visit the Fayoum Oasis, either outward bound or upon our return.

We have the slides to contend with at the Panama Canal. At the Suez, dredges are kept at work constantly by the boiling, slipping, flowing ooze that comes in at the bottom and sides. Compared with the Panama Canal the Suez is not much of an engineering product; nor when compared with the St. Mary's Falls locks, at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where the lock problem was solved for Panama and for the world.

CHAPTER XXXVII

SOME REFERENCES TO BURMA, CEYLON, COCHIN-CHINA, TURKESTAN, PERSIA

In Madagascar I was made an honorary member of the Academie Malgache. There are only half a dozen honorary members, including the President of France.

The French authorities jealously guard the rare fossils that have been found in Madagascar, where so much of the flora and fauna, ancient and modem, belongs alone to Madagascar.

They were very courteous to me. I was lucky enough to discover a perfect specimen of the egg of the Aepyornis Titans, the greatest of the extinct prodigious birds, and was permitted to remove it from the country in order that I might present it to the University of Michigan. Also I obtained bones of the Aepyornis, flying and amphibious lemurs, and a complete skeleton of the pigmy hippopotamus, a rare fossil. I shot a large modern hippo in Africa to contrast the Lilliputian with. They now form a striking contrast in the museum of the University of Michigan.

The Colonial geologist and mineralogist aided me in obtaining a complete collection of the minerals and rocks of Madagascar for the Michigan College of Mines.

English missionaries have done a praiseworthy work in Madagascar. They went there nearly a hundred years ago. Now out of a population of between three and four millions, there are more than five hundred thousand enrolled Christians.

At Fort Dauphin we found an American Swedish Lutheran mission establishment of cheerful, wholesome, self-sacrificing missionaries doing fine work. No one could have been extended more consideration and kindness than we were given by all the missionaries. The most unusual Consul Porter, British official representative, stationed at Antananarivo, could not have done more for his King than he and his charming family did for us.

The United States Consul to Madagascar, a high- grade Negro, Mr. James G. Carter, at Tamatave, was thoughtful, polite and efficient. The color line is not drawn officially or socially and Yankee Consul Carter was having the time of his life.

Madagascar is apart from routes of common travel. It is never visited by the tourist class and has not been spoiled. I am referring to Madagascar very briefly here because I am at work upon a more elaborate manuscript concerning it, which I hope to complete for publication.

In Ceylon we visited the Anuradhpura district where extensive ruins dating from the golden days of Buddhism are being uncovered and preserved. It is a fever stricken region. Not unlikely this caused the decay of the strong peoples that competed successfully in their time in all the activities of the known world. They were at their best about 300 b.c. One has only to go to Ceylon and read the Ramayana to have both regard and respect for the ancient Cingalese.

We reached Burma in time to participate in the hundredth anniversary of the arrival of the American Baptist missionary Adoniram Judson. He really opened Burma. The British followed as they have been often guided by the blazed trails made in remote portions of the world by American missionaries.

No river trip in the world surpasses in interest that of the Irawaddy. When we were at Bhamo the Tibetans, Chinese and English were guarding their frontier and frequent clashes came.

The most productive ruby mines in the world are along the Irawaddy. American drillers have developed rich oil fields just as they have done at Baku. Mandalay had the plague and three hundred a day were dying from it when we were there.

Fascinating indeed is Old Pagan, once the mightiest seat of Buddhism and still showing eight thousand pagodas and dagobas. When Genghiz Khan appeared before it in the thirteenth century, there were standing thirteen thousand temples of Buddha. The King tore down five thousand to obtain material for use in strengthening his fortifications. The Great Khan captured and sacked the city despite all this and a brave defense.

Our English word "pagan'' comes from here just as our word "meander" is from the tortuous river that laves the ruined foundation of Diana's ancient Ephesus.

In Siam we found an American, Jens Westengaard, of Chicago, living in a palace as adviser to the King, and ranking only next below the sacred white elephant. The story of Westengaard and his splendid work in Siam, and his potential life throughout is dramatic and exhausts the imagination. He is indeed a creditable American.

Cochin-China, French China, is well administered. Saigon is a miniature Paris. The French manage their colonies with sympathy, understanding, real interest and , strive for unalloyed justice. The colonial work of the highest and most unselfish character in the world is that done by our country in the Philippines. Next comes France.

In Persia we encountered the failure of Morgan Shuster. If he had been permitted to carry out his plans, Shuster might have done wonders for Persia. But it was not in the cards. England and Russia were as determined upon the ravishment of Persia as the latter has been of Turkestan, and the former of India. Mr. Shuster's absolute tactlessness, and complete failure to grasp the situation, only hastened the clenching of the iron bands.

All of the countries engaged in the great European holocaust have at one time or another despoiled and oppressed weaker peoples of the world. One of the most guilty is Belgium. Her Congo brutalities curdled the blood of all who knew them. Do nations reap as they sow? Like individuals?

I think so. In Turkestan and throughout the "sealed dominions of the Czar" we found, as all must find who go or read, much to engross one and arouse conjecture and imaginative thought. Old Maracanda and Merv, and the valley of the Granicus, where Clitus saved Alexander's life, only to be stabbed to death by him in a drunken fit a short time afterwards. Alexander did not die of a broken heart because of no more worlds to conquer. There were plenty. He died of remorse, at thirty-three, because he had, while drunk, murdered his favorite general and best beloved friend Clitus, to whom he owed his life. There is much evidence that in a fit of sorrow over his crime he committed suicide. No, Alexander did not die for want of worlds to master. He died because he failed to conquer himself.

The country is bleak along the Perso-Turkestan frontier and much of it a desert. At oases there were nomadic peoples, with home-woven, camel?s-hair tents and garments, and many camels, sheep, goats and asses. Most of the shore line of the Aral and Caspian Sea is forbidding, gray and ashen as death. Baku is a busy, but not an attractive city. Krasnovodsk, Enzeli and Resht are as nearly impossible as human hived can be. Resht is a disease-breeding mudhole, considerably below the level of the Caspian. Kiva and Bokhara are just as they were in Biblical times.

Once in Transcaucasia all is different. The valleys contain a people that have spirit. Russia is building throughout with unusual activity, and the work is done to last. Just as much life as in the most exciting boom days of Oklahoma, and in addition everything is done with a view to permanency.

Tashkent, in Turkestan, is quite a modern city. Tiflis in Transcaucasia, is much more so. Between them the space is unfinished. At Geok Tepee, where Skobeleff captured the beards of the prophet, horsetail battle flags mark the final conquest.

In Siberia there is a great development going on. In many ways Siberia is the hope of Russia. Men and women of independent thought and courage were exiled there. Often when their term of exile had finished they remained in their new abode. George Kennan's picture of Siberia is unjust, unkind and untrue. I have been three times across the remarkable domain that the robber Yermak gave to his Czar, and have tried to know Siberia fairly. It is not as cold as Saskatchewan either in summer or winter, and always they raise more wheat than the railroad can haul. Irkutsk is really the literary and modern art center of Russia, because tolerance in Russia for the humanities first began thereabouts.

Siberian and Russian towns generally are not over- churched. They are classified practically as one church, two church and three church towns and so on. If a community can support one church that is all it is permitted, until it grows to a point where, without great difficulty, it can support two. I am inclined to think that religion in Russia is less an economic burden than in any other country in the world. There seems to be a gradual rapprochement of the Greek and Episcopal churches. Their amalgamation would be a good thing for them and for the world no doubt.

It was the early part of the year 1914. Everywhere we saw Russian soldiers moving towards the Austrian and German borders. There is an old Bengali saying that when soldiers are on the move watch for trouble. We had been away from newspapers for many weeks. Nevertheless I concluded that war was going on or about to start. In a few weeks it burst on Europe like an elemental demon, leading hosts of vampires and furies.

Rabindranath Tagore, of whom we saw much and delightfully while in Calcutta, had in conversation predicted, like a prophet of old, that the world would quake with wholesale murder and India would be avenged. He could not have dreamed it would be so soon. I was in his home when the money of the Nobel prize for literature was handed to him. He cared deeply for the generous recognition of the East by the West, but there is no East or West in the world of love and art. But he cared most because he could further endow his boys' school at Bolpur, where he is training young men who will carry on the dream of his life. That is the restoration of the pure ancient Brahmanism, the first monotheistic religion the world knows anything about It has degenerated into a depraved animistic Hinduism.

To call Tagore a Hindu as is commonly done, is to call Bergson a disciple of Nietzsche.

Through home missionary organizations called Brahmo Samaj, they are endeavoring to convert the bull kissing Hindus.

I told Tagore what he was teaching is really Christianity. He agreed with me, but added that it was better policy to name it Neo-Brahmanism.

It is the spiritual hope of India.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

I DISCOVER ANTOHER GREATIRON ORE RANGE THAT WILL SOME DAY HELP TO SUPPLY THE WORLD

WHILE following a Sakalava native trail in Madagascar, just like a Kaffirr path in Africa, I came to a stretch where the dust of the path was red. Searching on either side I found bowlders of hematite iron ore. These I traced to a ridge of which they were the talus. I traced this hogback for forty miles and came to neither end. In many places along it I found rich iron ore.

Specimens I procured showed a metallic iron content of sixty-four per cent, and nine-thousandths of one per cent, of phosphorus. The analyses were made by a chemist in the laboratory of one of the great iron mines of Lake Superior.

It is a new range of iron ore that has never been seen to be recognized by any other than myself. There it lies to supply mankind when busier and nearer deposits are exhausted. It is located almost as conveniently to the markets of the world as the Chilian deposits, back of Coquimbo, that Mr. Schwab is developing, and per- haps more so than the Minas Geraes district of Brazil, where American capital is interested.

This new range is in a country where the government is stable and just, and taxation is low. There is an unlimited supply of native, low-cost labor. At present the lands are wild ; that is they are owned by the government and may be bought for a few cents an acre.

I feel that I am quite within the limits of reason when I state that this new iron range is likely to produce as much high grade Bessemer ore as some of the world's greatest iron regions. I am making further investigations. After completing this work I shall inform the world of the location of this discovery.

It goes to prove further the statement of Professor C.K. Leilhy of the University of Wisconsin, made in his paper on the "Conservation of Iron Ore," at the New York meeting, February, 1916, of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, to the effect that there is no danger of immediate exhaustion of the iron ore reserves of the world.

When the late James J. Hill was trading on his Minnesota iron lands, he was quoted as making a statement that the iron ore of the world would be exhausted in twenty years. It caused much comment. Mr. Hill denied making the statement. It bulled the iron ore land market for a time, and increased the standard of measurement of values of iron ore in the ground which had been entirely too low. It was during the period of low values and restricted demand that Mr. Carnegie and Mr. Rockefeller secured their great Lake Superior holdings.

CHAPTER XXXIX

MANY PEOPLE OF MICHIGAN AGAIN URGE ME TO TAKE UP THE GONFALON FOR BETTER THINGS IN THE STATE

We had been in the almost unknown world for upwards of two years. Much of the time we were beyond reach of civilized communication. Some of the time I was where no white man had trodden before. Now in the spring of 1914 we were entering the alive world again. At Baku on the Caspian Sea I received cablegrams from several citizens of Michigan asking me to be again a candidate for Governor of Michigan. When I arrived at Paris on the way home I found a mass of cablegrams and letters asking me to make the race. It was all much opposed to my inclination. Nothing except a sense of duty could influence me to consent. I was poisoned with malaria and had been bitten by the tsetse flies and was not in good health. That I should make the matter one demanding full and very earnest consideration was the advice given to me by Ambassador Herrick. He was the first American I had seen in more than a year. He said I owed it to my State and to the party to enter the contest.

In Paris at the time were several prominent Michigan men for whose character and judgment I had great respect. They repeatedly urged me to be a candidate as a matter of duty. On the way across the Atlantic on the Imperator, I discussed the details of the situation several times with J. Sloat Fassett. He was a conservative and I a progressive Republican; Fassett a "standpatter" and I an " insurgent." But I found him always very big and generous and gracious in his personal views and statements. Looking to the welfare of the party in the nation he urged it as my duty to become a candidate.

Very clearly in my mind was the wish that I would not find conditions such as to force me to enter the contest. This was my state of feeling when I landed at New York. Equally plain was the determination on my part to do my duty if I could come to see it clearly, and to come to know the way was my daily prayer. At New York a Michigan delegation met me and urged me to become a candidate. I had said that I could imagine no conditions that would make it necessary for me to do so. And I deferred a decision. On my way home to Sault Ste. Marie I was asked to stop at Lansing where a reception and banquet had been arranged in my honor. At Lansing the situation was made very plain. There seemed to be a real demand for my services as a candidate. My physician told me it would kill me to go into a campaign in the then condition of my health. I told him kill or no kill, I would run. It was late. Other candidates had been at work for months. I went from county to county speaking from ten to twenty times a day. Great crowds came to hear me and to welcome me home. I told them the heart's truth about everything. Every day and often at night I suffered intense pain, but the pain seemed to be a pleasure when borne for a good cause. I enjoyed the campaign and once in it I tried to justify the work of my friends by putting every pound of strength I had into the fight. It was fine.

I won the nomination for Governor, but was defeated for election.

I was very happy. To me the interpretation was that I had strength enough to make the fight, defeat certain agencies and sow seed for public ripening and wholesome harvest by and by, but not enough to go on with life's battles until I had rested, recuperated and driven out the jungle poisons that gripped me. Now I was freed so as to be allowed to do this.

Wars are not always won by single battles, any more than life's work is done by lone achievements. One very often wins when he appears at the time to lose. In the essences the thing is to offer to serve. There is a heavy load to carry; perhaps a public burden. You offer eagerly, willingly to take it up and bear it. The task is given to another. Therein is the responsibility; the exaction. The only thing you, who have been rejected at the time, must do, is to be ready to offer freely and unselfishly again to serve.

That the public was slow to believe what was charged against my opponent is to the credit of the people; to their fairness and sense of justice. They really thought, or a great many did, that the stories were libels and pure campaign fiction. Now they know better. I have ever found the public ready to be more than generous and just. Like the wholesome individual, all it wishes is to see the right way and it will take it.

Soon after this election occurred, in the fall of 1914, I was invited to speak at many important places in Michigan and elsewhere. Everywhere, including Lansing, I was greeted by larger and kindlier audiences than I ever had spoken to before. It was as if it had begun to dawn upon the public that I had tried to render a service and they sought to give me belated appreciation. That was unnecessary because Michigan has given me many honors and always has recognized me beyond my deserts.

Shortly after I went into Johns Hopkins Hospital at Baltimore interluding treatment there with quail hunting and pruning pecan trees in southern Georgia where I belong to a little club of close^ fine friends and where also we have a bungalow. Much benefit came to me in a physical sense. Then Mrs. Osbom and I started for the Panama-Pacific Exposition, via the Panama Canal. On the steamer, in California and everywhere I appeared, I was treated with that generous consideration and kindliness that only the truly independent and spirited American citizenry knows how to show. I was especially pleased with my reception when I spoke at the University of Missouri ; the University Club of Chicago; The National Geographic Society at Washington ; and the Chicago Geographic Society.

When the dissolving ice and snow permitted I again buried myself in the wilds. At Duck Island, in the St. Mary's River, I discovered what all those to whom the matter has been presented, agree is the solution of the mystery of luminosity in fireflies and other animal life. It is produced by enzymes, is one hundred per' cent, in efficiency as compared with fifteen per cent, for electricity. It is entirely possible that enzymic light may be developed to be of practical service to mankind and commercially valuable.

I am studying the aurora borealis and the aurora Australis. To several scientists I have submitted my discoveries and theories concerning the auroras and they have been interested and encouraging.

CHAPTER XL

IN CONCLUSION

I HAD been widely mentioned for the presidency. The Chicago Evening Post and other prominent high-grade newspapers presented my name for consideration. There was more evidence of comforting confidence and encouraging belief in me given by a public wider than my charming circle of personal friends. In the autumn of 1918 I became a candidate in the primaries for the Republican nomination for United States Senator from Michigan. My war work had taken every moment of my time. I had held over four hundred war meetings, without other compensation than the deep satisfaction one has in actively manifesting a desire to serve. I received nearly fifty thousand votes, but was defeated. The younger men to whom I most appealed were off to the war : almost two hundred thousand of them. I felt my defeat not at all, because I had only offered to try to carry a big, spinous load for Michigan.

They gave it to another. The reaction of America to the conditions created by the world's war followed quickly a first dim sensing and then a clear perception that the permanence of the social structure builded here by the people for themselves was seriously imperiled. "No matter what designation of word or phrase was used to etch this in the composite mind there was a feeling, all of a sudden, that safety and insurance of independent government demanded our participation in the war. To most people making the world " safe for democracy " meant next to nothing tangible. They instinctively felt that the success of the attempt to impose the German system upon us meant the death of cherished ideals and fragrant hopes. It did not matter to them whether our government is more or less efficient than an autocracy : it is their government^ is what they wish and make of it good or bad, and there in deep confidence that in time it will be perfect enough for mundane purposes if the people are not molested in progress by the iron hand of a selfishness so singularly personified as to be impossible of coming under their control. Many even realized that in the German Empire was an efficiency that permitted a scientific exploitation of the people to the last degree; even comprehending meticulous human care in order to conserve and selfishly utilize their man power. And at the same time they also knew that in the United States there are strata beginning with the economic enslavement of certain workers and ending in irresponsible and lightly bound economic social groups. Perhaps our masses could not have made an analysis and framed a deduction. Their intuition springing from fountains of self-preservation bid them unite against the Germans with coherent effectiveness. At the bottom of it all the masses in our country feel in terms varying from the nebulous to the concrete that this is their country and that they are responsible for it and that it can only endure if they protect it against foes from without or within. This is the guaranty of intelligent popular will where any of the genius of government is possessed. It will be our protection from the plague of bolshevism and even demands that all parties demonstrate an ability to conduct the affairs of government sanely if they are to be entrusted with it for any long period. Somehow the sense of order and proportion attends this sense of possession. The people see about them in the universe the application of the laws of order in the diurnal procession, the coming and going of the months, the rising and setting of the sun, the recurrence of moon and stars. Perhaps they could not discourse philosophically upon these beautiful phenomena, but they have deeply ingrained the lessons they teach. One average man said to me that the socialists are like a man who is hungry for an apple pie : he has all the materials of flour, shortening, apples, spices, sugar and the fire and a hunger, but he cannot make an apple pie. How true it is. To be able to distinguish those who can perform the services of government safely is the first requisite of a free people and popular government. Uncle Sam is an iconographic individual made up of all his hundred million parts; and there are more parts than this, though not all visible, in the individual unit. Some of the hundred million of Uncle Sam are souls, some are brains, others are lofty urges and sentimental desires; some are legs and arms and spine and heart and soul and liver and spleen and so on ; some are eczema and psoriasis ; some just waste material. To a degree the individual may elect his part and his function ; all cannot, because some are hopeless, inert derelicts, operating negatively as more or less dangerous ferments. But after all the wholesome parts will protect, defend and keep the body of the nation alive, just as the phagocytes and their aids expel pathogenic germs in the individual and cure disease. In the individual there is a time limit fixed beyond which there can be only disintegration with no hope of tangible physical renewal. In the national entity there is complete renewal every thirty-seven years. which is the average of longevity among our people. In that lies the great hope; the death of the aged; the birth of the new essence. The babe cries lustily at birth as the old man moans his departure. We do not know much about what becomes of us, nor does it matter much to us while in this sphere. It is comforting to know that theologians and scientists are one in pro- claiming immortality. Thomas Crowder Chamberlin, head of the department of geology at the University of Chicago, chief among the cosmic philosophers of the world, in the closing paragraph of his recent book upon the " Origin of the Earth " says:

''It is our (Professor Chamberlin's) personal view that what we regard as merely material is at the same time spiritual, that what we try to reduce to the mechanistic is at the same time volitional, hut whether this he so or not, the emergence of what we call the living from the inorganic, and the emergence of what we call the psychic from the physiologic, were at once the transcendent and the transcendental features of the earth's evolution."

This is beautiful. It is an admission by a great scientist of the insufficiency of the human mind. Many other intellectuals are brave enough and fair enough and sufficiently without the dominating ego to agree with Professor Chamberlin. Thus are the profound minds grouping to convey the final fact that where man ends God begins. Subsumed with religion it creates a perfumed hope. And yet man is so human and cowardly at times and superselfish. While the war was going on mankind rushed towards God as in the resurgent days of the Crusades; peace has come and will man forget God when he is not terrified by necessity for higher help? It has been ever so.

To justify the war we must. rebuild. the world; nor must we hide the fact from view that man's selfishness, man's inhumanity, man's intolerance have created the conditions that have sprung all the wars forever and ever. Is it unkind or unjust or unfair to recall that within the brief cycle of a century Great Britain, Russia, France and Italy, not to forget our part too, have seized nearly two-thirds of the surface of the earth? Subject peoples in India, Burma, Trans-Caspia, Africa, Madagascar and elsewhere numbering a billion souls have been wrung for head taxes. Just a little time ago Great Britain, at the time of the Sepoy uprising, loaded live Indians into cannon and shot them out for schrecklichkeit. More recently we gave the Moros the water cure for the same example. Within a half dozen years the inhuman atrocities in the Belgian Congo perpetrated by the Belgian Government, with no madness of war to cause insane acts, shocked the world. Now it would do no good to call attention to these better forgotten blood marks were it not necessary to determine whether an indictment of a present people can be made for the crimes of their progenitors. We of to-day cannot be to blame unless we condone and continue the sins of yesterday. Consequently upon this very day we are called upon practically to decide whether we will permit to continue the era of intolerance and antagonism or supplant it with a period of tolerance, justice, cooperation and sincere goodwill. Platitudes will not be sufficient for the stomach of our people no matter how musical they may sound to the senses. There must be a clear admission that the human derelicts of to-day are the blighted usufruct of the injustice of yesterday ; the economic unfairness.

No brighter ray illumes the world's political firmament than our policy in the Philippines. We really I seem to have done more in two decades to advance a less apt people there than the British have achieved in India during more than a century. It is not intended that these comparisons shall be odious, for we have done better with our suzerain peoples than with many of our citizens at home. It is surely demanded that we shall do more than talk our best ; we must do our best ; not in spots; everywhere.

After all there is progress, even if the world does fall over the edge of the precipice every so often and flounder in what appears to be abysmal despair. It is not satisfying to survey the social growth by decades, but if we will begin with the Java man and his Neanderthal contemporary and carry our vision on to the Cromagnon and the Vazimba and then on to Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson and Roosevelt, we can have some food of assurance that the growth tendency will continue until we shall have to scratch more deeply to uncover the carnivorous cave dweller. It took eras for the eohippus to become a horse and the dodo to become an aeroplane. Perhaps our greatest concern comes from a tendency to regard ourselves and our times too seriously. If I were to endeavor to coagulate wisdom into a short sentence it would be : Do your best and do not quarrel with Providence.

The dearest hope of mankind lies beyond the horizon of the present. We shall attain it.

Chapters  1-15
Chapters 16-26
Chapters 27-40

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