Wells.—The only flowing wells noted in this county are in the southwestern part near Fife Lake. Walton Blue has a well in a valley near the center of sec. 7, Springfield Township, 22 feet in depth, which flows a weak stream. About a mile southeast, at an old sawmill site, in the western part of sec. 17, is a flowing well 63 feet deep, which discharges a 1-inch stream.
It is probable that flowing wells may be obtained in the vicinity of Rapid City and Barker Creek at the foot of the moraine in the northwest part of the county, for they have been obtained in similar situations a few miles to the west at Williamsburg and Traverse City.
The wells in the Fletcher settlement go down 60 to 70 feet to water and have very little head.
In the moraine east of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway wells run from 40 to over 100 feet, the ground-water table being generally about on a level with (lie inland lakes and streams. The moraine is loose textured and largely gravel and sand below a few feet of surface till.
In the sand plain along the railway wells are also sunk to a general water-table in harmony with the streams and lakes, and range in depth from 10 feet near Kalkaska to about 80 feet in the northern part of the county. The moraine in the northwestern part has wells of various depths from 25 to 200 feet, there being no general water table. The deep wells, however, go to a level about as low as the sandy plain in tho northwest corner. On that plain water is only a few feet below the surface, or in harmony with Torch and Round lakes.
So far as ascertained no wells have reached rock, and it is probable that the rock surface lies at a depth of several hundred feet throughout the county.
Miscellaneous village supplies.—Barker Creek is on the slope of the moraine south of Round Lake, in the southwestern part, at a level about 40 feet above the lake, or 630 feet above tide. Wells obtain water at 16 feet, and there are large springs in the vicinity which supply part of the residents.
Rapid City is on the sand plain near Torch Lake, and has wells 16 to 20 feet deep.
Kalkaska, the county seat, is on Boardman River, and wells are obtained at 10 to 24 feet. There is a waterworks plant, which pumps its supply from the river, and is mainly used for fire protection and street sprinkling. The water, both in wells and river, is soft enough for laundry and boiler use. In wells 10 to 16 feet deep it is softer than in the deeper ones, probably because of more thorough leaching of the upper part of the sand.
Below are given two partial analyses,—one of a shallow-well water and one of a river water at Kalkaska. There has been much typhoid in the town, and the shallow waters must be regarded as unsafe. The data were furnished by M. O. Leighton, of tho United States Geological Survey.
Leetsville, though in the same sand plain as Kalkaska, is 50 feet higher, and has wells correspondingly deeper, the usual depth being 65 feet.
At Westwood, which is north of Leetsville on the sand plain, wells are 50 to 60 feet deep.
At South Boardman wells arc 18 to 40 feet, the town being on the uneven slope of the moraine that lies east of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway.
At Spencer and Sharon wells are only 12 to 20 feet deep, for they are on low tracts bordering Manistee River.