History of Leelanau County
The Traverse Region - H.R. Page & Co 1884 Pg 222-248 Chapter XXXI XXXIV
Northport, Leland, Glen Arbor, Burdickville, Suttons Bay, New Mission, Provement


(Leelanaw and Leelanau are the same)

CHAPTER XXXI
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION—DESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL FEATURES
First Settlement
Biography or Rev. George N. Smith
First Settlement at North port
First Fourth of July Celebration
Reminiscence by James J. McLaughlin

Leelanaw County lies wholly between Grand Traverse Bay and Lake Michigan. It is bounded on the north and west by Lake Michigan, east by Grand Traverse Bay, and south by the counties of Grand Traverse and Benzie. The county is irregularly triangular in shape, its greatest width being twenty-two miles on the southern boundary. Its greatest length is about thirty-nine miles. It has a shore line of more than a hundred miles. There are several hikes within its territory, the more important of which are Glen Lake and Carp Lake. The latter is fifteen miles in length, measuring in a straight line, but considerably more than that if the crooks of the channels are followed. The outlet of this lake is Carp River. At its south end the lake is little more than three miles from Grand Traverse Bay, while its northern extremity approaches to within half a mile of Lake Michigan.

Glen Lake lies within a mile of Lake Michigan, with which it connects through Crystal Creek. This body of water covers about one-sixth of a township. It is over two hundred feet deep. The surface of the country is high and rolling, and heavily timbered. The soil presents the usual varieties of the Traverse Region.

Speaking of the topography of Leelanaw County, Professor Winchell says; "Some parts of the county present hills of somewhat formidable magnitude. Most of the northern part of the triangle is decidedly rough. The ridge of land separating Carp Lake from Sutton's Hay attains an elevation of nearly 400 feet above the bay. The slopes, however, are passable for loaded wagons. Carp Lake is a beautiful sheet of pure water, resting in the bosom of the hills, which, with their rounded forest-covered forms, furnish it a setting of surpassing loveliness. Except for a short space on the east side, south of the narrows, the shores of the lake are occupied by dry and arable land. The region between Glen Arbor and Traverse City is substantially an undulating plateau, lying at an elevation of about 300 feet above the lake, Glen Lake is surrounded by hills, which attain an elevation of 250 to 400 ft. North Unity is a bold bluff of clay and sand, formed by the wasting of the lakewardside of a prominent hill by the action of the forest, and causing the stunted poplars to shrink away in terror at its violence. The pelting sand has polished the exposed surfaces of the larger fragments of rocks to each an extent that they reflect the sunlight like a mirror. Their surfaces are sometimes worked into furrows, pits and grotesque inequalities in consequence of the unequal hardness of different portions of the stone. The "Bear" proper is an isolated mound rising a hundred feet above this desolate plateau and singularly covered with evergreens and other trees, presenting from the lake the dark appearance which suggested to the early navigators the idea of a bear in repose.

Empire Bluff, six miles further south, presents a section of another hill which attains an altitude of nearly 400 feet, and the hills at Point Bees Scies reach an elevation but little less. Seen from the lake, the natural cuts presented between Cathead Point and Carp River, at North Unity, Sleeping Bear and Point Bees Scies look like huge accumulations of blown sand, and convey the impression of a sterile and inhospitable coast, which is quite at variance with the indications of the country a quarter or half a mile back from the shore.

From an eminence about 400 feet high, two or three miles inland from Glen Arbor, on the northeast side of Glen Lake, can be seen one of the most varied and beautiful landscapes to be witnessed in any country, and one which is well worth the pencil of an artist. The view is toward the west, and it should be taken when the sky is clear and the atmosphere is pervaded by that softened haze which fuses the sharper angles of the landscape and thrown over it a thin veil of inscrutable vagueness. From our hill summit we look down on the tops of the trees which cover the plain immediately fronting us. On the left is a portion of Glen Lake, its nearer shore concealed by the forest, and the remoter one exposing a white and pebbly margin, from which the verdant hills beyond rise hundreds of feet above the watery mirror in which their forms are so clearly fashioned. In front of us the green hills separate Glen Lake from Lake Michigan, and conceal from view the desert sand fields of Sleeping Bear. Not completely, however, for the naked and glistening flanks of the northern slope stretch out to view beyond the forest covered ridge, and embrace the placid harbor which struggles through the intercepting foliage, and blends with the boundless expanse of the great lake, still beyond. Farther off in the midst of the water, rises the green outline of the South Manitou Island, bearing on its head a glistening cap of sand. Still farther to the right rises the form of the North Manitou, which seems trying to hide itself behind the towering bluff of North Unity, that guards the entrance to the harbor from the north. Two little lakes nestle in the rich woodland that spreads its verdure between us and the harbor, screening themselves like wood nymphs behind the thick foliage which half conceals their charms. It is doubtful whether a scene superior to this one exists in the country. Another enchanting view is obtained from the bluff at New Mission. From this point the beholder has an exquisite view of Grand Traverse Bay with its eastern and western arms dissolving in smoke in the dim distance, and the broad lake seen through the mouth of the bay sinking beneath the northern horizon. An emerald fringe of forest skirts the opposite shore; the softened outlines of the peninsula emerge from the misty embrace of the two arms of the bay, and all around the framework of this scene loom from the background the purple hilltops looking perpetually down upon the picture.

FIRST SETTLEMENT

In 1840 that portion of the state lying west of the county of Omeena and of Grand Traverse Bay, including the Manitou Islands west of said bay, was laid off as a separate county and designated as the county of Leelanaw.

It is claimed by some that the first white settler within the present limits of Leelanaw County was a Frenchman named Nazaros Dona, who lived about two miles south of the present site of Leland, then called Shemacopink. It is not probable, however, that he lived there except while engaged in fishing, or that he could be considered a settler of the county.

In 1817 John Lerue came from Chicago to the Manitou Islands in search of health. At that time there was a pier, or wharf, on each of the two islands where passing steamers used to call for wood; the one on the north island being owned by Mr. Pickard, that on the south by Mr. Barton. On the north Manitou were two fishermen without families. The light-house was kept by a man named Clark.

There were no white men at that time in Leelanaw County. Farther south, at the mouth of the Betsey River, there was living a white man named Joseph Oliver, with an Indian wife, who supported his family by trapping and fishing. There were no Indians living on the Manitous, but they frequently came there to trade. Finding the climate favorable to his health, Mr. Lerue commenced trading with the Indians, and the next year moved his establishment over to the mainland, locating at what was then called Sleeping Bear Bay, but now Glen Arbor, and was probably the first white settler connected with subsequent history. The most prominent figure in the earliest history of Leelanaw County is that of the late Rev. George N. Smith, a minister of the Congregational Church who had spent ten years in missionary work among the Indians of Black River, in Ottawa County. Visiting the bay in the summer of 1848, iu company with some of the mission Indians, he selected a location on the shore, some distance north of the site of the present village of Northport.

In the meantime, the government gave orders to James McLaughlin, Indian farmer for the Waukazoo band of Ottawas, at Old Wing, Allegan County, to remove to Grand Traverse Hay. In obedience to these orders, Mr. McLaughlin left the mouth of the Kalamazoo River on the 27th day of May, 1819, in the schooner H. Merrill, of which he was owner. There were on board his own family, consisting of six persons counting himself, and that of his brother-iii-law, William H. Case, consisting of three persons. Entering Black Lake, the vessel proceeded up to the place where the village of Holland is now situated, and received on board Mr. Smith and family, increasing the number of passengers to fifteen. After a tempestuous voyage, the vessel passed Cat Head Point on the morning of the 11th of June, and entered the bay.

The arrival and the first experiences of the party are related by James J. McLaughlin, now a resident of Elk Rapids, and a son of James McLaughlin, as follows:

"It was a beautiful morning in the early part of June, 1849, that the schooner Merrill rounded Cat Head Point, and stood up the bay. She had on board three families that were to make the first commencement where Northport now stands, James McLaughlin, the owner of the vessel, who was in the employ of the government. Rev. George N. Smith, missionary and teacher among the Ottawa Indians and William H. Case, a brother-in-law of the owner of the vessel. These parties had been ordered by the government to Grand Traverse, then almost unknown to white men, with an Indian mission from Allegan County in this state. It seemed to us, as we gazed upon the beautiful scenery that met our eyes at every turn, that we had found the "Eldorado." The forests were unbroken; the axe of the white man had not marred its beauty; the beach of the bay was not strewn with the refuse of the saw-mill, but all lay in the state that dame Nature had kept it, beautiful beyond description. The place decided upon as the point to settle, was near the creek where Northport is. The vessel was anchored off there the morning of the 11th of June. The men, armed with their axes, went ashore to prepare to build a house. The women and children enjoyed a walk on terra firma once more. Soon the sound of the ax broke the stillness of the forest, logs were cut, the ground cleared and everything ready for the first raising on the west side of Grand Traverse Bay But right here arose a difficulty; the logs were cut for a house nineteen feet square, good sized logs, too, and there was no team to haul them with. We couldn't go to the neighbors and borrow one, for the nearest neighbors were fifteen miles away, and that across the water. But the pioneer is generally equal to the emergency, at least he was in this case. The vessel was now resorted to and blocks and ropes were brought ashore and a purchase rigged, by which, with the help of every man, woman and child that could pull on a rope, the logs were hauled into their places, and the house began to go up, and in the course of two or three days it was ready for the roof. But right at this point we found there was no roof ready, but taking a few boards that were in the vessel, we stuck one end in a crack, the other on a beam, thus obtaining a sort of a shelter for the beds. We learned that lumber could be obtained at the head of the bay and the schooner was started for some, and in a short time we had a very fair house. It seemed a very short time before what should come along but the Fourth of July; the glorious old Fourth, and that must be celebrated in the good old style. But what were we to do? We had no cannon, no flag, nor any of the prerequisites necessary for celebration, but an old man-of-wars-man that had left the vessel to stay with us on shore, brought to light a red flannel shirt, and with a sheet for the white, he soon made a respectable flag. The morning of the Fourth was ushered in with a salute from all the guns we could muster, and our flag was flying. The whole force of the settlement, numbering fifteen all told, started for a picnic on the little island out in the bay. We ate our dinner, spent the day pleasantly and toward night returned home well pleased with ourselves and everybody else. Thus passed the first Fourth of July celebration in the Grand Traverse Region, a small beginning, but as full of patriotism and love of country as any that has ever been held since. With early fall, preparations were made for a long northern winter, supposing, of course, that in this high latitude, we would have at least six or eight months of winter, but we were agreeably surprised to see the fall months pass away, and no snow until the 12th of December, and instead of the cold dreary winter we had anticipated, it was a mild, pleasant winter that would compare favorably with that of the south part of the state. There was but very little ice in the bay, and not enough at any time to obstruct navigation. The spring opened early, the first of April finding the snow and every vestige of ice removed, and the ground ready for the farmer to go to work, but there were no farmers to go to work."

This first house, in what is now the village of Northport, stood on the bank of the creek, about six rods back from the beach. At a later period, it was used for several years as a store by White & Burbeck.

Mr. Smith had at first chosen another location for himself but soon became dissatisfied with it and removed to the spot which became the permanent home of the family. A tent was erected in which they lived while Mr. Smith was building a log house. Mr. Case built a log house east of the creek, also within the village limits.

A considerable number of Indians, some say forty or fifty families, followed their missionary to the Grand Traverse Bay. A log school-house was built, and an Indian village, called Waukazooville in honor of a noted chief, was established on the present site of Northport. Daring the first years of his residence here, Mr. Smith gave his time and talents to mission work among the Indians. Afterward he organized a Congregational church among the whites, of which for many years he was the pastor. His death occurred on the 5th day of April, 1881, after a brief illness caused by long continued physical exposure. His remains were buried near the home he hewed out of the forest, on the shore of the beautiful Grand Traverse Bay.

BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE NELSON SMITH.

A biographical sketch of Mr. Smith's life was prepared soon after his death by C. C. Tuttle, and will be of interest in this connection. It is as follows: "Fifty-one years ago (1830) deceased began keeping a diary of daily events, reflections, etc., which he continued to do until the day before his fatal illness came upon him. The writer has had access to this mass of memoranda in the preparation of this article, though but a small portion of it has been examined up to this writing. The dates and events here mentioned are therefore accurate and entirely trustworthy.

"The subject of this sketch was born at Swanton, Franklin County, Vermont, Oct. 25, 1807, of parents who from agriculture derived their support. He was of English and Welsh descent. His ancestors figured in the Revolutionary war and that of 1812. When he was six years of age his parents became converted, and this young son first became imbued with religious feeling of an uncommon order for one of his age. During his early boyhood he worked summers upon his father's farm, and attended a district school in winter. This lasted until March, 1827, when the boy had reached his twentieth year. At this time he went to learn the trade of a millwright with Messrs. L. & J. Carpenter, of Highgate, near his birth-place. These men were Universalist's, and sought to graft their doctrine upon young Smith. His parents being Calvinists, from which denomination his early ideas of religion had been obtained, made their attempt futile. Their efforts, however, set the young man to studying the Scriptures for himself, which resulted in his conversion in May, 1828. On the 6th of July following he joined the Congregational Church at Swanton. At this point in his life he says: "From the time of my conversion I had an impression on my mind that I ought to qualify myself for the ministry. This increased until sec. 1, 1828, when I was induced to leave my trade and commence study. During the winter I attended a district school. March, 1827, I visited an uncle in Canada, a physician, where I studied chemistry about four weeks, then returned home. After my return, having received encouragement from the Rev E. H. Dolman, I commenced the study of Latin at St. Albans Academy on May 5, 1829, continuing through the season. "It was during this term that the young prospective preacher became acquainted with Miss Arvilla Almira Powers, of St. Albans, Vermont, who afterward became Mrs. George N. Smith. Of his courtship and marriage he quaintly says: 'In the full (1829) I became acquainted with a young lady of this place. She was small of stature and poor in the things of the world, but she possessed a mind capacious and well stored with useful knowledge. She was pious, kind to all and generous-hearted. Such beauties inclined me to offer her my hand Nov. 1 (after considerable acquaintance), which was cordially received, and, Nov. 25, we mutually agreed that when I should have got through my studies we would join our hands for life. The next morning I started for Russelltown, Lower Canada, to the teaching of a winter school.

"Returning from Canada in April, 1880, be writes: 'On the 16th I visited my friend in St. Albans, and there found all things agreeable to my mind.' He went to board in her father's family, the lady herself then being engaged in teaching a school at a distance from home. June 15, 1880, he writes in his diary, 'She was brought home very ill, which gave rise to a aeries of thoughts unknown to my breast until now. The condition of her health and other circumstances induced the young couple to conclude to marry at once, the young man's studies to be completed afterward. Accordingly they were married at St. Albans, July 4, 1880, by the Rev. Worthington Smith. Their golden wedding-day occurred last 4th of July, and was duly celebrated at Northport His life struggles now began. He was poor and compelled to teach school to support his family and prosecute his studies for the ministry. Having married before his ordination he feared the ardent aim of his life might not be reached at all. Some encouraged, others discouraged him; hut he struggled on, teaching day and singing schools, his wife and himself economizing in all things save mutual affection. He borrowed theological books, being too poor to buy. His willing wife did sewing and teaching to assist him. They began housekeeping at Alburgh, Vt., where he taught school.

"On June 13, 1831, Mr. Smith joined a temperance society at Alburgh, which was the beginning of his career as an advocate of temperance. On the 12th of the following July he delivered a temperance address at Alburgh, which was his first appearance as a public speaker. From his notes it appears that he must have made an impression upon the anti-temperance element of the town, for it resulted in his being assaulted by what he calls 'bacchanal whelps,' some of whom were arrested, but acquitted by the jury who tried them. This he pronounces an outrage, for the attack was premeditated and cruel.

"In April, 1832, he began attending theological lectures by the Rev. Worthington Smith, a very learned and pious man. But about this time the cry of westward ho! rang through the Green Mountain state. The young couple caught the fever, and resolved to emigrate to the land of magnificent distances and equally broad liberty. Ohio was their objective point at first, but hearing a colony was to start for Michigan Territory in May, 1833, they determined to join it, and did so, starting from Vermont on May 8, of that year. A young sister of Mrs. Smith, now Mrs. Daniel McMartin. of Kalamazoo County, accompanied them. The colony, however, and for some unexplained reason, did not go west, and Mr. Smith and family were obliged to make the trip alone.

"On the 22d day of May, just two weeks prior starting, they arrived in Detroit, a portion of the distance having been traveled by Canal, the remainder by steamboat, upon which Mrs. Smith and sister took cabin passage, and Mr. Smith deck. Upon arriving at Detroit the hopeful emigrant found that he had but $1.06 left. To meet his expenses while there he sold his watch for $5.50. The trip from Detroit to Gull Prairie, Kalamazoo County, where they were to settle, was made by horse team, over wretched roads, occupying seven days, making a total of twenty-one days from St. Albans, Vt., while now the trip may be made in about as many hours. The cost of the trip was $70, considerably more than was expected. During the next three years Mr. Smith worked at carpentering at and about Gull Prairie for one dollar per day, when not engaged in teaching a day school. At this early day there was comparatively little building being done in the territory of Michigan, especially in its western portion. Marshall had but two houses and they were of logs. What is now the flourishing city of Jackson then contained but one hotel, and that small and poor. Detroit was a slow- going town. They were at work upon the" University of Michigan building. Kalamazoo was not the large and beautiful place it is now. Grand Rapids, now the smartest business city in the state, was scarcely known at that time. Fever and ague flourished everywhere, and everybody had it. For months consecutively entire families would have it, Mr. Smith's among them, and this was one of the appalling pioneer privations of the day. But all the trials and troubles of the time were not sufficient to drive the young mechanic and teacher from his determination to enter the ministry. He contrived to work days and study nights. To be ordained was the aim of his ambition. He had not succeeded in reaching his goal when he set out for the west, for reasons which will appear further on. On Friday, Feb. 5, 1886, the year Michigan was admitted to the Union, the young student was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of St. Joseph, Mich., at Bronson, and nine days afterward, 14th, preached his first sermon at Comstock, Kalamazoo County. As a minister he was therefore as old as the state. While stationed in Kalamazoo and Allegan Counties Mr. Smith organized Congregational Churches at Gull Prairie, Otsego, Plainwell, Gun Plains, and other places, in all of which he preached. It was the custom then to have three sermons each Sunday —forenoon, afternoon and evening—and for years Mr. Smith preach three times a Sunday, often to audiences miles apart, "On Jan. 13, 1837, he was appointed to do missionary work, stationed at Plainwell, receiving a regular salary of $200 per year, and voluntary contributions. On the first day of February following he attended and took an important part in a state convention of the Michigan Total Abstinence Society, at Marshall, Mich., which some of the most influential men of the state also attended, including late Judge F. J. Littlejohn, late of this circuit. He attended and assisted in organizing the first Congregational Association of Michigan, at Richland (Gull Prairie) March 2, 1887. The constitution and bond of union which was there adopted, with scarcely any alteration, he drafted. About a month Inter, April 7, 1887, Mr. Smith was ordained by this association, which made him the first Congregational clergyman ordained in Michigan. The Rev. James Ballard was the second. It was during this year that the conviction grew strongly that he was called to labor in behalf of the Indian.

"The first record of this conviction occurs under date of Oct. 7, 1887, in which he admits it had existed for a long time. In the January following, 1838, a meeting of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians was called at Allegan for the purpose of talking over a scheme for their colonization. Mr. Smith attended and was the foremost actor in the movement. A good many of the whites interested in the welfare of the Indians, also attended. At this meeting the Western Society of Michigan to benefit Indians was organized, of which Mr. Smith was appointed general agent in the following June. He at once went to work to perfect the colonization scheme, laboring with a will day and night, at all seasons, and not infrequently to the neglect of his own family, so great was his zeal. During this time he traveled much, visiting different tribes of Indians and raising means whenever possible. By December he had perfected a partial organization of the Indians of Allegan and Ottawa Counties, and on the 3d preached his first sermon to Indians, in a temporary building erected for the purpose near the village of Allegan. Three days later he opened his first Indian school in the same building, with seven scholars in attendance. Their number increased daily, however, until twenty five or thirty attended.

"By the following spring a colony of Indians, consisting of about three hundred families had been organized, and the time arrived for locating it. Here began his labors among the Indians in earnest. In hunting a suitable section it became necessary for him to travel over much of western Michigan, from the Straits of Mackinaw to the southern boundary. One memorable trip was made in canoes from Allegan to La Arbor Croche village, north of Little Traverse Bay, the expedition starting April 13, 1839. This trip, occupying a month and three days, was attended with perils by flood and field, and is sufficient in itself for an article which may hereafter appear in the Eayle.

"The Indians finally determined to locate on Black River, in Ottawa County, whither they moved during the summer of 1839. On the second day of August of that year, Mr. Smith also established his family there, having first erected a log house in which to live.

Here began a residence among Indians, which lasted continuously until white settlers had peopled Northport. The position of missionary was one of responsibility and toil with mighty little glory. He was preacher, doctor, teacher, judge and adviser-general combined. He healed their sick, settled their disputes and educated them. His pay was meager; his duties varied and exacting. He was often compelled to make long trips with the Indians, leaving his family alone in the woods for weeks at a time, and scores of miles from the nearest white settlements. His widow said recently to the writer: 'Many times my children have gone to bed hungry while Mr. Smith was off tramping with the Indians. We have gone cold - too, from the same cause.' His devotion to the Indian seemed greater than that given his family. He believed himself delegated by the Almighty to accomplish a greater work in enlightening the benighted Indians than had ever yet been performed, and to this end labored as faithfully and zealously as mortal ever labored. He thought of the Indian interest by day and dreamed of it by night. It was to him a God-given mission, absorbing all the best of his life. From 1839 to 1849 he served the Black River Indians. In 1847 a colony of Hollanders settled on Black Lake in close proximity to the Indians. It seems the former encroached upon the latter to such an extent as to make it necessary for the Indians to locate elsewhere, as a matter of self- protection. So, in the summer of 1849, the missionary, with his family and forty or fifty Indian families, removed from Black River to Grand Traverse Bay, locating on the land lying between the bay and Lake Michigan, now Leelanaw County. At that time there were only a few Indians scattered about the bay, nearly, or quite all of whom, are now dead. A village was laid out and culled Wakazooville, after the chief, Wakazoo. When a new element had grown up and become strong the name was changed to Northport, which the village now bears.

"All the first years of his residence here Mr. Smith gave his time and talent to the Indians after the manner of his life at the Black River agency. When sufficient white people had settled here he organized a Congregational Church here at Northport. of which for many years he continued pastor. He also preached at the New Mission, the 'Bight' (head of the harbor), over on the lake shore and elsewhere, continuing his Christian labors up to within a short time of his death.

As a politician Mr. Smith was not successful, because of his unswerving honesty and absolute incorruptibility. He never would countenance parly intrigue, or sanction any movement which smelt in the least of dishonesty. For this reason and his unalterable habit of speaking his sentiments in Anglo-Saxon language on all occasions he was not popular among political leaders. Mr. Smith was a Whig, out and out, until the Republican party sprang into existence, when he joined it, living and acting an uncompromising Republican to the end of his days. He was radical and loyal to the core, but would not do dirty party work for himself or others. When this entire region was but one county he served as judge of probate, and after it was divided was elected treasurer of Leelanaw County. He has held nearly all the township and county offices during his long residence in this region, and no man yet doubted the genuineness of his integrity. He was upright from principle; policy never moved him; hope of gain never induced him to do an unworthy thing or a dishonorable act, and for this reason he was often cruelly misjudged. As a clergyman the same spotless integrity characterized every action of his professional life. Educated a Calvinist he was as rigid and unyielding in his views as the everlasting hills. Being thoroughly conscientious he absorbed the hard, relentless, heartless tenets of that church fifty years ago. Total depravity, everlasting punishment, etc., formed a part in his early Christian belief. No personal or family duty was allowed to be neglected from the first of his career. As a husband and father he was kind, yet stern, demanding implicit obedience after the old patriarchial fashion. His out-spoken, fearless manner of assailing from the pulpit on all occasions what he considered wrong sometimes got him into serious trouble.

"As before stated, previous to coming west he was very anxious to be ordained, but having incurred the displeasure—if not the enmity—-of his patron. Rev. E. H. Dorman, the privilege was denied him. This displeasure grew out of the fact that Mr. Dorman was a Mason. When Mr. Smith grew to manhood lie bitterly opposed Masonry, publicly and privately, which in time angered his patron who withdrew his patronage. An instance of the softening of his character is found in the fact that, whereas he railed at the Masonic fraternity in 1830, he became a Mason in 1867, and during his last illness was most kindly attended and eared for by brother Masons. The last sad rites were performed by them, and the kindest friends the family have to-day are Masons. This acknowledgement is richly due to the noble fraternity to which he belonged the joining of which cost him so much in his church relations, but which he never for a moment regretted. But in his later years he became more liberal in his views though not a whit less uncompromising in his warfare for the right. He only used different and probably more effective weapons. His family government, too, assumed a milder, more genial form. His intercourse with men became loss puritanic, though none the less upright and strictly honorable.

"Believing slavery to be unnatural and wholly wrong, Mr. Smith early took an active part in controlling it. Through his instrumentality largely the Allegan County Anti-Slavery Society was organized Jan. 17, 1888. He made antagonism to slavery and intemperance parts of his religion, and fought them early and late to the end of his days, or so long as there was an enemy in sight. "Mr. Smith, considered intellectually, was considerably above the average American, and had his lot been cast in a different sphere he would have been of more than ordinary importance in the history of his time. Devotion to what he considered his duty caused him to waste his talent and ability upon a class of God's creatures scarcely worth the sacrifice it cost himself and family. He was a student always, and in spite of having spent his entire life in the backwoods, principally among Indians, kept well up with the times in which he lived. He was a constant reader of the newspapers and periodicals of the day. There were few, if any, subjects in the whole range of art, science, and literature upon which he was not able to converse intelligently. He possessed a logical, analytical mind. His sermons were not what would be called forcible; but they were plain, clear, thoughtful, and to the point always, therefore effective. That he venerated his Creator, and freely gave his life to his service is demonstrated throughout all his writings and work. He absolutely allowed nothing to swerve him from his idea of duty, growing directly or indirectly out of his calling. His puritan education sometimes made him appear harsh and unrelenting, but to those who knew him best his heart was as tender as a child's, and as affectionate. There was nothing austere in his composition, particularly in the latter years of his life. Age mellowed him into a kind, attentive, solicitous husband and father, and at such his surviving relatives will longest remember him. "His death occurred on the 5th inst, after an illness of ten days' duration, of Blight's disease, induced by long-continued physical exposure. He suffered intensely, but was patient to the end, and died easily and resignedly. But two of his four children and his faithful wife were present at his death. He now lies buried within a few rods of his beautiful home he hewed out of the forest on the shore of Grand Traverse Bay, every foot of which has been nurtured by his toil. He loved the old homestead devotedly, preferring to work upon it rather than be idle away from it. A residence upon it of nearly forty years made it very dear to him. It may be a matter of interest to friends of the family to know that the surviving partner of his toil is to remain undisturbed upon the dear old homestead. Notwithstanding her children have offered her a home elsewhere, she prefers to remain near the grove on the hillside."

Ten children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, four only of whom are now living, vis.: George N., a minister in Chicago, Mary, now Mrs. Paysoh Wolf, of Northport; Arvilla, wife of Joseph Voice, of Leland; Anna E., wife of E. 0. Tuttle, now of New York City. Mrs. Smith has also brought up four grandchildren. Resuming Mr. McLaughlin's narrative, he says.

"The summer of 1860 passed off without any great event happening, except that toward fall, two ladies stopped at our little settlement; The first white women that my mother had seen for about sixteen months. One of these ladies still lives in Grand Traverse, Mrs. H. D. Campbell, of Traverse City. The other was her sister, Mrs. Hillery, on their way from the Manitou Islands to what is now Traverse City. The fall passed off very pleasantly, but the winter set in rather gloomily. The vessel that was to bring the supplies for the people was wrecked on her passage down, and our supply of provisions was cut off when navigation closed. I remember father's coming home with what he could get, and the sum total for a family of six persons was half a barrel of flour, that we had to dig out of the barrel with a chisel, fifty pounds of pork, and some tea, how much, I don't remember; but I do remember that the prospect was not very cheering. We had raised a small patch of corn and a sufficient amount of potatoes to last us through the winter. We secured a barrel of whitefish and a small hand-mill for grinding corn, thus provided, winter closed in upon us. There was one event that happened that I almost forgot, that was along in the latter part of summer, we got some mail. Just think of it, ye that grumble at a weekly and daily mail, of getting mail once a year. The summer of 1819 I wrote a letter back to Allegan County. I sent it to Mackinaw, then the nearest postoffice, and in the summer of 1850 got an answer from it. But the summer of 1850 brought an improvement in this direction as well as in others; a postoffice was established at Old Mission, then the most important place on the bay, and called Grand Traverse. The mail was now brought by the small vessels trading between the bay and Mackinaw, once a month, and this was bringing us in pretty dose contact with the outside world. In the winter the mail was carried on a man's back, he making the trip twice during the winter of 1850 and 1851.

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CHAPTER XXXII

Coming of Early Settlers
Settlements at Leland and Glen Arbor
Early Reminiscence
Biographical Sketch of Soke of the Pioneers
"Manitowaba"
Development Retarded
Glimpse of the County in 1862
Opening of the State Road

In the summer of 1861 John Dorsey located at Glen Arbor. In the fall of that year, Mr. Lerue brought his family into the country, spending the following winter at Northport. Soon after Mr. Lerue's arrival, Mr. McLaughlin, who had previously been engaged in building A. H. Wadsworth'¦ saw-mill at Elk Rapids, removed from Northport to that place, leaving the original number of three families at Northport—Smith's, Case's and Lerue s. In the spring of 1852, Mr. Lerue returned to his former location, at Glen Arbor.

About this time Seth H. Norris built a sawmill on the bay some three miles above Traverse City.

In 1858 Antoine Manseu and his son located at Carp River, near Leland, and in the fall of the same year John I. Miller came and located at Leland. They were followed by John E. Fisher, John Porter, H. S. Buckmail, John Bryant, Sr. and Frederick Cook. Soon after came Dr. W. H. Walker, of Fond du Lac, George Ray, and a man from Ohio named Nutt. The three last named built a pier where the one owned by Charles Rosiman is now standing. For a few years, says Dr. Leach, many of the settlers in Leelanaw County endured great privations. An authentic incident will illustrate the extremity to which they were sometimes pushed, and the shifts they were obliged to make for tho purpose of securing the necessaries of life.

On one occasion, in winter, Mr. Timblin. having left of his supplies a bushel and a half of corn and a dollar and a half in money, proposed to divide with his needy neighbor, Mr. Cook, on condition that the latter should go to Traverse City, get the corn ground, and invest the money in groceries. Mr. Cook was only too glad to accept the proposition. A single ox, which Mr. Timblin had taught to work alone, was the only team the two men could muster. Placing the bag of corn on the ox's back, Mr. Cook drove him across the country by an Indian trail, from the vicinity of Leland to Peshawbatown, the scattered Indian settlement on the shore south of Omena. Procuring a pony and sled of the Indians, he left the ox in their care, and proceeded up the hay on the ice to Traverse City. Having got the corn ground and the money invested in groceries, he started on the homeward journey. Before he reached Peshawbatown, a snow storm came on, which completely hid the shores of the bay from view. Coming to a crack in the ice so wide as to be difficult to cross, he was at a loss which way to follow it, but after some hesitation took the direction which seemed to lead down the bay. Home Indians whom he fell in with advised him by signs to go in another direction, but having little confidence in their ability to direct, he continued his course some distance farther. Finally concluding that the Indians were probably right, he decided to change his course. He thought it would perhaps save travel, if he could get on the other side of the crack. It may or may not have been a foolish attempt, but it resulted in a disheartening failure. The pony jumped just far enough to get his fore feet on the solid ice of the farther side, but, failing to get his hind feet on a firm foundation, both pony and sled went into the water. To prevent the pony from sinking, Mr. Cook seized him by the ears. As he did so his own feet slipped, and he came down in a sitting posture, in the shallow water that covered the edge of the ice. Holding on still to the pony's ears, he called loudly for help. Fortunately the Indians he had met were yet within hearing, and promptly came to his assistance. When relieved, Mr. Cook was be thoroughly chilled as to be almost helpless, borne of the Indians drew him on a hand-sled to Peshawbatown, while others cared for the half dead pony. The meal and the groceries had gone to the bottom of the bay. There was a scene of sorrow when Mr. Cook reached home. Mrs. Cook wept freely for the loss of the little that had seemed to promise a short respite from starvation.

BIOGRAPHICAL REMINISCENSE

There is no part of local history so difficult to obtain with fullness and accuracy as that which relates to the first settlers of a county. The information must be largely gleaned from the recollections of pioneers who are living, and the human memory, so far as dates are concerned, is desperately liable to err. The names of some of the first settlers have already been given and in the following sketches of others of the earliest settlers, is contained information relating to the early days in Leelanaw County.

Antoine Manseau
Deceased, was born in Canada, June 10, 1810. He was by occupation a carpenter and millwright. In company with his son Antoine, now a resident of the town of Bingham, he came to Carp River and built at the point where now the village of Leland stands, a saw-mill on the water power at the mouth of the river, building also the dam at that point. Three years before he had bought the location and at that time there was an Indian village on the hill near where Judge Miller's house now stands. When the Manseaus located and commenced building, the Indiana had left, believing that all the land in the vicinity had been bought. There were no white settlers in the vicinity, but some came soon after. Mr. Manseau was married in 1832 to Julia Decheliot DeCrevier, by whom he had seven children, all of whom came with him to Leland, and are now living, viz.: Antoine, in Bingham Township; Mrs. J. I. Miller, in Leland; Mrs. John Dean, in Nashua, N. H.; Mrs. C. Grant and Mrs. L. Moshier at Provemont, Leelanaw County; Mrs. N. Paulus at Leland and J. L. Manseau at Manistee. The subject of this sketch dud in 1856, and his widow in 1860. Both died and were buried at Leland.

Antoine Manseau, Jr
Miller, town of Bingham, Leelanaw County, is a native of Canada, born in 1881. In 1888 his parents moved to Green Bay, Wis., and from there to Milwaukee, where be remained about two years. At the age of fourteen he went to Portage Creek, Mich., where he assisted his father in the construction of a mill for J. Stronach. Thence they came to Carp River, then known by the Indian name of Chimogohing. Here in connection with his father he constructed a dam and built a small saw-mill. He remained at this point till 1860, when he moved to his present location on a creek three and a half miles north of Sutton's Bay, which he has named Kenosha Creek. Here he built the grist-mill which he has since operated. Previous to the construction of this mill his occupation has been carpenter and millwright work. He was married in 1857 to Mary Jane Lake. His present wife was Mary Thebault. They were married Jan. 11, 1871. He has four children, two by the first and two by the present wife.

John I. Miller
Treasurer of Leelanaw County, was born in Three Rivers, Province of Quebec, Sept. 8, 1822, of English and French parentage. He came to the United States in 1889, and to the state of Michigan in September, 1813, and to Leland, his present home, in September, 1858; was married Jane 20, 1864, to Catharine, daughter of Antoine Manseau. They have raised a family of three sons and four daughters. On the establishment of the postoffice at Leland he was appointed postmaster and held the office till June, 1861. In October, 1861, he was drafted into the service for one year. (He then held the office of county treasurer.) He answered the call by going himself instead of hiring a substitute, as he thought no one could fill his place as well as himself. He was assigned to the Fifteenth Michigan Veteran Volunteers, and served in that regiment till it was mustered out of service at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 18, 18B5. Since returning home be has filled every office in the county within the gift of the people, to their and his entire satisfaction.

John Bryant
Farmer, Leland, was born in May, 1805, in Seneca County, N. Y.; moved to Troy, Oakland County, Mich., in 1826 and took up land from the government and cleared up a farm; remained then several yean, and returned to Seneca County, N. Y.. where he lived till 1840; he then went back to Oakland County, Mich., and was a farmer there till 1854, when he came to Leland and settled on a farm near the present site of the village. He afterward moved to a farm on Section 9, and now lives on the same section. He has deeds from the Government for more than 900 acres of land. He is one of the pioneers of Leelanaw County, and is hale and hearty at the age of seventy-nine years. When he moved to Leland he came by steamboat from Detroit, and besides his household furniture, brought his horses and several head of cattle. When the boat arrived oft* Leland, the captain, being afraid of shoal water, anchored a hall mile from shore, the horses and cattle were pushed overboard and swam ashore, and the household effects were landed in small boats. Married in 1826 to Anna Hodge. They have three sons and four daughters.

John A. Bryant, sheriff of Leelanaw County, was born in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1887; came to Oakland Couuty, Mich., with his parents iu 1840, and in July, 1851. came to Leland. Lived at home on the farm, and has followed farming all his life, till the fall of 1882, when he was elected sheriff, has been township treasurer and highway commissioner several years. Married in 1869 to Lovina Rema, a native of New York. They have four children. John E. Fisher, farmer, Glen Arbor, was born in Salem, Washington County, N. Y., in 1817; at the age of twelve years commenced work in a cotton factory, and in 1882 went to learn the trade of machinist, of Daniel Anthony, of Washington County, N. Y. who was the father of the since famous Susan B. Anthony. He worked at his trade in different towns in New York till 1840, when he went to St. Louis, Mo., from there went to Florida, remaining till the spring of 1841; ho then settled near Fond du Lac, Wis., where he bought a saw and grist-mill; carried on the business of milling till the spring of 1854, when he came to Glen Arbor and settled on Crystal Creek, the outlet of Glen Lake and bought 1,000 acres of land from the government. He was the first permanent settler between Leland and Frankfort, and helped to organize the township; was the first supervisor, and held the office several years; has also been justice of the peace several terms; was the first probate judge of Leelanaw Couuty; was county clerk one term. Married in 1843 to Harriet McCartey, a native of Lewis County, N. Y. They have two sons, Charles A., who has a family, and lives at Glen Arbor is engaged in fishing, and Francis, who also has a family and manages his father's farm.

John Porter
Farmer, Leland Township, was born in Pennsylvania in 1826; remained in that state as a teacher and farmer till 1854, when he came to Leelanaw, then Grand Traverse County, and was employed by the Presbyterian board of missions as a teacher among the Indians. He was engaged in teaching till the spring of 1861, when he bought his farm on Section 11 in Leland Township of the government. He owns 356 acres, has good buildings, orchard, etc.; has been supervisor one term, justice of the peace several years, also held the offices of township treasurer and highway commissioner; is at present (1831) county surveyor. Married in 1852 to Annis McFlavain, a native of Pennsylvania They have two sons and three daughters.

Greilick Brothers, Anthony, John and Edward
Natives of Austria, came to America with their parents, landing in New York City, July 4, 1848; lived in that city six years, then cams to Traverse City. Their father built a saw-mill on Traverse Bay two miles north of the city. The ruins of the old mill are still standing. For two years the brothers were in the employ of Hannah, Lay & Co.; in 1862 commenced building a mill and brewery near their present location; carried on the brewing business about four years and run the old mill till 1877, when they built the mill they now occupy. They have since built one of the best docks on Traverse Bay. In 1861 they bought one-half interest in the saw mill at Sutton's Bay, and in 1883 bought out the interest of the partners in the mill; they are also stocking Darrow's mill on Carp Lake. Their cat of hard wood lumber for the year 1883 was eight and one-half million feet On sale of their brewery they bought and rebuilt the schooner, " Lake Forest," and in 1883 bought the "Granger;" they also own the schooner "Minnehaha," and own the tugs " Drisco " and "Charles C. Ryan."

Peter Nelson
Keeper of Grand Traverse Light, Leelanaw County, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, February 12, 1811. He was been a sailor, serving a seven years' apprenticeship as such, and has spent a large part of his life on the ocean and lakes. Has been nearly all over the world. Was in San Francisco when it was but a trading post. He came to this country in 1835, landing in New York City. Came west by canal and lake to Buffalo in 1842. Sailed on the lakes until 1853, all but the first year as master. Came to the Traverse Region in 1851, bringing Mr. Hannah to what is now Traverse City. In 1853 he bought a water mill on East Bay, four miles from Traverse City. Worked several years for Mr, Hannah, measuring lumber, logs, etc. In 1855 he bought of the government 160 acres of land in Section 10, Town 81, Range 11. Has sold forty acres, retaining the rest. October 24 he was appointed keeper of the Grand Traverse Light, of which he baa since remained in charge. He was married in June, 1866, to Mrs. Alice Bigelow, a native of England, who had two children. Three children have been born to them.

Otis L. White
Farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Pamelia, Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1821. Remained at home till twenty-one years of age, then worked by the month till twenty-eight years of age; then went to Chicago, remained a short time; thence to Berrien County, Michigan, where he spent one summer; then returned to his old home in Jefferson County, N. Y., on account of sickness, and in the spring of 1850 came to Pere Marquette, now Ludington, Mich.; was head sawyer in a steam saw-mill for two years. He then went to Racine, Wis., and carried on a store for a year and a half, then went to Adams County, Wis., and had charge of a mill for one year, and August 19 he landed in Northport. Was engaged in selling goods for fifteen years. Soon after arriving at Northport bought his present farm of government. He now owns 530 acres of land, has good buildings and a fine location on Traverse Bay. Helped to organize the county and township. Was the second supervisor elected in town; has been justice of the peace Three years, highway commissioner several years. Married December 31, 1858, to Sarah Hazel. They have four children.

Joseph Voice
Mill foreman, Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in England in 1827. In the spring of 1833 his parents went to Canada, and about 1836, to Chicago. At that time there was but one brick house in Chicago, and but one bridge across the river. He lived in Cook County IL, on a farm, until the fall of 1855, when be removed to Northport and worked in the sawmill of his brother William. He has followed milling ever since. Returning to Cook County IL, he remained two years and then came again to Northport He was sheriff of the county in 1866 and 1867. From Northport he moved to Sutton's Bay in the spring of 1874. He was married July 4, 1858, to Arvilla A. Smith, daughter of Rev. George N. Smith, a pioneer of Leelanaw County whose biography appears in another work. Mrs. Voice was born in 1889, at Gunn Plains, now Wayland, Mich., and came to Northport in 1849. Their children are Arthur L., Emeat A., Annie J., wife of A. Couturier, Austin Ulysses, Minnie A., Lida M., Helen E.. and Florence D.

Frederick Cook Sr
Of Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in France in 1828. His father was a shoemaker, and he learned and worked at that trade, at farming and various other employments. Came to America in 1844, to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he engaged in the boot and shoe business on Fulton Street, employing several workmen. He also kept a large boarding-house. He remained there eight years and then went west to Tocawanda, where he owned and run a canal-boat, being also engaged in farming and gardening. He also took contracts for building there and at Buffalo and vicinity, having learned the trade of carpenter and joiner. Having a contract with Mr. Munger, of Buffalo, for the carpenter work of a mill on the North Manitou, he came there in 1856 and remained about one year, until the mill was completed. He then came to Carp River, where he was employed at carpenter work. He bought a tract of state land on Carp Lake and engaged in farming. He enlisted August 12, 1862, in the Twenty-sixth Michigan Infantry, of the Army of the Potomac, serving as sergeant. In the spring of 1864 he had a stroke of palsy, in consequence of which he was discharged in November of the same year. Is now in receipt of a pension. He was married in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1845, to Walburga Becker, by whom he had four children, two of whom have died. She died in January, 1870. In 1872 he married Aurora Landgreen, by whom he has had five children, of whom two have died. Mr. Cook is now carrying on a meat-market in Leland.

George A. Cracker
Farmer, Leelanaw Township, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Evans, Erie County, N. Y., in 1836. Was brought up on a farm. In 1846 his parents moved to Spring Prairie, Walworth County, Wis., where he remained until he was sixteen years old. He then came to New Mission, Leelanaw County, and was for fourteen years ensured in teaching the Indians farming and manual labor generally. In 1866 he bought a farm in Sections 28 and 26, Town 81 north. Range 11 west. Has now 208 acres in these sections and Section 27, his residence being on 28. Has been county overseer of the poor, and held various town offices. In 1860 he married Mary McConnel, who died in January, 1880, leaving two sons. In 1882 he married Mrs. Margaret M. Say who had one child.

MANITOWABA

Manitowba, a member of the Ottawa tribe of Indians, died at New Mission, July 20, 1873. He was one of the most noted of his race in this part of the country, and was universally known as Doctor, or "the Medicine Man." He attracted attention wherever he went by his fantastic garb and ornaments of silver. It is said that he was present at the Indian massacre at Chicago in 1880, but was always friendly disposed toward the whites, and advised his people to live peaceably with them and conform to their customs. Latterly he lived a hermit life, and it is not known that he had a single surviving relative at the time of his death.

GLIMPSE OF THE COUNTY IN 1862

The development of Leelanaw County was very materially retarded by an extensive Indian reservation, lying in the midst of an active white population. This reservation was made a few months after the settlement of Northport. It extended from the village of Northport south to Township 28, and embraced the entire county as far west as Range 18 west, leaving only the small triangle north of Northport as the sustaining back country for that village. The term of reservation expired in 1806.

In 1858 and 1860 farmers began to come in slowly, and from that time development has been steady. Business centers formed as elsewhere mentioned.

Leelanaw County was mentioned in the winter of 1862 as follows: The county of Leelanaw embraces the entire peninsula formed by Lake Michigan and Grand Traverse Bay and extends south seven miles below the mouth of Betsie River. It is bounded on the east by Grand Traverse Bay, on the west and north by Lake Michigan, and on the south by Manistee. It has eighty six miles of lake and forty miles of bay coast. There are five organized townships, viz: Leelanaw, Centerville, Glen Arbor, Crystal Lake and Benzonia. Leelanaw contains 720 whites and 819 Indians; Centerville 411 whites and 287 Indians; Glen Arbor 252 whites, no Indians; Crystal Lake 127 whites, no Indians. Total 1,008 whites 664 Indians; grand total, 2,157. As Benzonia was only organized last fall we have no means of knowing the number of inhabitants. It includes the Benzonia or Bailey colony, where it is in contemplation to build a college. Many of the best lands in the county are held by and reserved for tho Indians, which has greatly retarded its settlement.

The village of Northport is in the township of Leelanaw. It is pleasantly situated on a safe and capacious harbor of the bay, about ten miles from its mouth, and is the largest village on the bay, containing four hundred inhabitants. The old Indian village of Wau-ka-zoo-ville and Northport are now one and the same, the Indians having sold out and abandoned it. It is an important wooding point for the propellers trading between Chicago and the lower lakes, and has two extensive wharves, five stores, three hotels, several saloons, one saw-mill and a number of mechanic shops.

The new Indian mission under the charge of Rev. Mr. Dougherty is also in this township. It is delightfully situated on a commanding eminence of the bay six miles south of Northport. Centerville joins Leelanaw on the south and extends nearly to the head of the bay, and westerly from the bay to Lake Michigan. It embraces Carp Lake—some eighteen miles long, and from one to two miles wide—a beautiful sheet of water abounding in choice varieties of fish. The principal business point is Leland, at the confluence of Carp River with Lake Michigan.

Messrs. Cordes & Theiss have an extensive wharf here for wooding propellers, and they have also a saw and grist-mill. John I. Miller has a beautiful farm in the immediate vicinity of Leland. There are some excellent farms on and in the immediate vicinity of the bay, among which are those of James, Robert and Thomas Lee, Messrs. Bates, Sutton and Cuteberworth. Farther up the bay Mr. Norris has a tannery, a grist-mill, and an excellent waterpower.

Glen Arbor lies north and west of Traverse City and is an excellent township of land. The settlement is mostly on the western side-of the town in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. There are two villages. Glen Arbor and North Unity, the letter a German settlement. Glen Arbor is at the cone formed by Sleeping Bear Point and is a wooding point for propellers.

Rev. George N. Smith in a letter dated at Northport Feb. 14. 1862, gave the results of his experience in fruit growing, and expressed his firm belief that this region was unsurpassed for that purpose. He was situated on Section it. Town 31 north, of Range 11 west, on the west shore of Grand Traverse Bay. He describes his soil as follows: "My soil is alluvial; granite and lime rock are abundant, but nothing in place—everything is drift, and in the drift almost all the varieties of northern rock are represented. My subsoil is clay; the surface soil sand and gravelly loam. I have been here nearly thirteen years, and commenced cultivating fruit the first season, adding something every year since. I have put out in orchard form about 15O apples of extreme varieties, a great number of peaches, pears, plums, cherries, etc. In general my trees have prospered well, most of them extraordinarily well."

OPENING OF TBE STATE ROAD.

In the spring of 1862 the Northport and Newaygo state road was opened between Northport and Traverse City. -Previous to this the only road between these two places was a tortuous Indian trail, consequently the opening of this wagon road was an important event for the inhabitants along the route. The incidents of the journey of Deacon Dame and wife, William Voice and wife and Capt. P. Nelson, who were the first persons to travel over this road, are graphically portrayed by a writer in the Grand Traverse Herald of March 8, 1862. The only hotel on the road was a "public house" about seventeen miles from Northport. We quote a description of this hotel and its accommodations: "The house is about ten feet square— built of small logs or poles. It is about, four feet high had to enter on all fours, and in the other end of the house there was a place to build a fire, with a hole left in the roof, which was covered with basswood bark, for the smoke to go out, and there were two beds on each side made of hemlock branches." But according to the account the travelers had a good dinner, and as there was no landlord to collect their bills they went away leaving them unpaid, which probably gave the host no uneasiness, as generous hospitality is and always has been n prominent characteristic of the people of this county.

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CHAPTER XXXIII

Civil History
First Towns Organized
Early Supervisors
Leelanaw County Organized
County Officers
Early Acts of Supervisors
First Court
Lawyers
The First Suit
Towns Organized
Biographical.

The organization of Grand Traverse County was completed in 1853 and the territory now embraced in the counties of Leelanaw and Benzie constituted one township called Leelanaw, of which Samuel G. Boice was supervisor.

In 1858 Samuel G. Boice was the supervisor from Leelanaw. Joseph Dame represented the township in 1854 and in 1855 he was succeeded by Lansing Marble. In 1850 George N. Smith held the office of supervisor.

A special meeting of the board of supervisors of Grand Traverse County was held March 6, 1856, and an act passed, entitled. "An Act to organize several townships within the territory of the present township of Leelanaw," as follows: "That all that part of the present township of Leelanaw which lies south of Township 28, except Township 27 north, of Range 13 west, and including the west one-third of Township 28 north, of Range 13 west, and territory west of the some, and Sections 29, 80, 81 and 32 of Township 29 north, of Range 13 west, and including fractional Township 29 north. of Rang'- 14 west, be and the same is hereby set off and organized into a new township by the name of Glen, Arbor. and the first township meeting therein shall be held on the first Monday of April next, at the house of C. C. McCarthy, and that Henry A. Merrill, W. H. Walker and Erastus Matt shall be inspection of election.

"That Townships 27 north, of Range 18 west, and the east two thirds of Township 28 north, of Range 13 west, and Township 29 north, of Range 18 west, except Sections 29, 30, 31 and 32 of said township, and fractional Township 30 north, of Range 18 and 14 west, and the west one-half of 28 and 29 north, of Range 12 west, be set off and organized into a new township by the name of North Unity. The first township meeting shall be held on the first Monday in April next, at the house of William Grilerk, and Leopurett Givlutf, Charles Keil and William Grilek be inspectors of election. "That all that part of the township of Leelanaw, east of and including the east one-half of Townships 28 and 29 north, of Range 12 west, and Township 30 north, of Ranges 11 and 12 west be organized into a new township by the name of Centerville, and the first town meeting be held on the first Monday of April next at the house of Antoine Manseau, Jr., and Antoine Manseau, E. W. Caleff and L. D. Quackenbush be inspectors of election." After this time the respective townships of Leelanaw, Glen Arbor and North Unity, or Centerville, were represented as follows:

LEELANAW CITY ORGANIZED

In the winter of 1862-63 an act organizing the county of Leelanaw passed the legislature. The full text of said act we give below:

AN ACT

Section 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, that all that part of the county of Leelanaw which lies north of the south line of Township 28 north shall be organized, and the inhabitants thereof shall be entitled to all the rights, privileges and powers to which, by law, the inhabitants of other organized counties in this state are entitled.

Section 2. At the township meeting to be held in the several townships in said county on the first Monday in April next, there shall be an election of all the county officers to which, by law, the said county may be entitled, whose term of office shall expire on the first day of January, A. D. eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and when their successors shall have been elected and qualified.

Section 3. The board of county convasseers under the provisions of this act, shall meet on the second Tuesday succeeding the day of election, as herein appointed, in the village of Northport, in said county, at the house of Joseph Dame or at such other place as may he agreed upon and provided by such board, and organize by appointing one of their number chairman and another secretary, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers as in other cases of the election of county officers as prescribed by the general law.

Section 4. The location of the county seat of said county shall be determined by the vote of the electors of said county at a special election which is hereby appointed to be held by the several townships of said county on the first Monday in June next. There shall be written on the ballets then polled by the qualified electors of said county, one of the following names of places, to-wit: Glen Arbor, Leelanaw or Northport, and that one which shall receive the greatest number of votes shall be the county seat of the county of Leelanaw.

Section 5. It shall be the duty of the several boards of township inspectors in each of the townships of the said county to conduct the elections authorized by the provisions of this act and to make returns thereof in accordance with the general provisions of law for conducting elections in this state, so far as the same may be applicable thereto.

Section 6. The board of county canvassers for the special election for locating the county seat shall consist of the persons appointed on the day of such special election by the several boards of township inspectors, and said board of county canvassers shall meet on the second Tuesday succeeding the day of said special election at the house of Otto Thies, in the village of Leland and having appointed one of their number chairman, and the county clerk of said county acting as secretary, shall proceed to canvass the votes and determine the location of the county seat in accordance therewith, and it shall be the duties of the clerk of said board to him a copy of the determination of said board as to the location of the county seat, signed and certified by him, and countersigned by the chairman, with the secretary of state and with the township clerks of the several townships in said county.

Section 7. All that part of the county of Leelanaw which lies south of the south line of Township 28 north, shall be and remain the county of Benzie, and the several townships thereof shall be attached for civil and municipal purposes to the county of Grand Traverse.

Section 8. The secretary of state is hereby directed to furnish the township clerk of the township of Leelanaw with a certified copy of this act, and it shall he the duty of said clerk to give the signed notice of the elections to be held under the provisions of this act that is required by law to be given by the sheriff of unorganized counties.

Section 9. That the said county of Leelanaw when so organized shall he attached to the tenth judicial circuit, and the judge of said circuit shall hold courts in said county as by law in such cases made and provided.

Section 10. All acts and parts of acts contravening the provisions of this act are hereby repealed so far as any provisions therein may conflict with this act.

Section 11. This act shall take immediate effect.
Charles S. May, President of the Senate.
Sullivan M. Cutcheon, Speaker of the House of Representatives. Approved Feb. 27, 1863 - Austin Blair.

COUNTS OFFICERS

In March, 1863, mass conventions were convened at the schoolhouse in the village of Leland, charged with the duty of nominating county officers. On the first Monday of April of the same year, tho following gentlemen were elected the first county officers of Leelanaw County: Judge of probate, John E. Fisher; sheriff. Edward Friend; treasurer, John I. Miller; clerk and register, Gerhard Verfurth; prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner, E. Cromwell Tuttle; surveyor, Joseph C. Glen; coroners, George N. Smith, George Ray.

Thus was the organization perfected, and the business of the county placed in running order. These gentlemen served until Jan. 1, 1865. In November preceding, their successors were elected as follows- Judge of probate, L. D, Quackeubush; sheriff, John Bryant; treasurer. William Gill; clerk and register, John E. Fisher; prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner, E. Cromwell Tuttle; surveyor, Kasson Freeman: coroners. William E. Powers, Harvey C. Sutton.

During the year 1864 a census was taken and the county found to contain some 2,400 inhabitants.

The county officers elected at the several elections since 1861 are as follows:

1860.-—Sheriff, Samuel Wilson; clerk, John I. Miller; deputy clerk, Archibald Butters; register, John I. Miller; treasurer, William Gill; prosecuting attorney, Seth C. Moffatt; judge of probate, L. D. Quackenbush.

1868. —Sheriff, Samuel Wilson; clerk, Archibald Butters; deputy clerk, Alfred John; register, John I. Miller; treasurer; William Gill; prosecuting attorney, Seth C. Moffatt; probate judge, John Dean.

1870.—Sheriff, Valentine Lee; clerk, John E. Fisher; deputy clerk, Stephen J. Hutchinson; register, Jonathan Dewing; deputy register, Seth C. Moffatt; treasurer, William Gill; prosecuting attorney, William H. Bryant; judge of probate, John Dean.

1872. Sheriff, Eusebius F. Dame: clerk, Alfred John: deputy clerk, Geo. N. Smith: register, Simeon Pickard: deputy register, John O. Moffatt; treasurer, William Gill; prosecuting attorney. Seth C. Moffatt. 1874.— Sheriff, Easebius F. Dame; clerk, Alfred John; deputy clerk, Geo. N. Smith; register, Simeon Pickard; deputy register, Geo. A. Cutler; treasurer, William Gill; prosecuting attorney Geo. A. Cutler.

1876.--Sheriff, Geo. T. Carr; clerk, Geo. Ray; deputy clerk, Stephen J. Hutchinson; register, Alfred John; treasurer, William Gill; prosecuting attorney, Benjamin H. Derby.

1878.—Sheriff. John Scott; clerk, Geo. Steimal, Jr.; deputy clerk, Samuel G. Wood; register, Alfred John; deputy register, C. W. Williams; treasurer, Charles W. Williams: prosecuting attorney, Abijah B. Dunlap.

1880. Sheriff, Moses C. Cote; clerk, Charles A. Rosman; register, Alfred John; treasurer, Robert Lee; prosecuting attorney, Geo, A. Cutler; circuit court commissioner, Geo. A. Cutler; judge of probate, Charles W. Williams.

1882.—Sheriff, John A. Bryant; clerk, Alfred John; register, John A. Lee; treasurer John I. Miller; prosecuting attorney, Geo. A. Cutler: circuit court commissioner, John E. Fisher.

EARLY ACTS of SUPERVISORS

The first meeting of the board of supervisors of the newly- pledged county was held in May 1868, at which meeting Samuel G. Wood, of Northport, had the honor of being elected chairman. The record of this first meeting we give in full below:

County of Leelanaw and state of Michigan. The supervisors of the county of Leelanaw in the state of Michigan, held their first meeting at the house of Otto Thies, in the village of Leland, in said county, on the 9th day of May, A. D. 1863, Present. Samuel G. Wood, supervisor of the township of Leelanaw, and Otto Thies, supervisor of the township of Centerville. The meeting proceeded to organize by appointing Samuel G. Wood, chairman of the said board, when the following business was transacted:

The bond of the county treasurer, John I. Miller, was approved by the said board and the amount of said bond board at the sum of $6,000.

James M. Burbeck, John I. Miller, and Geo. Hay. were appointed superintendent of the poor. It was resolved to hold a meeting of the boards of supervisors of the several counties of Leelanaw, Grand Traverse, and Antrim for the purpose of having a settlement between said counties.

The county clerk of the county of Leelanaw was appointed to procure a county seat for the county of Leelanaw.

The sum of $5,000 fixed to be raised by tax in the year 1863, on the taxable property of said county for a Volunteers' Family Relief Fund.

The meeting then adjourned.

At the second or annual meeting of the board, held in October, 1863, the township of Bingham was organized from the following territory:

Commencing at the northwest corner of Town 30 north. Range 11 west, and following the range line between Ranges 11 and 12 west, south four miles or sections, then west on the section line between Sections 24 and 25, to the Narrows of Carp Lake, thence following the east shore of said Narrows and Traverse Lake in a southerly direction, and so on around the shore of the south end of said Traverse Lake until it intersects the line between Sections 9 and 10 of Town 28 north. Range 12 west, and thence following said line south to the south line of said Town 28, thence following said town line east to Grand Traverse Bay, thence following Grand Traverse Bay northerly to the north line of Town 80 north. Range 11 west, and thence following said town line to the place of Spinning.

The salaries of the county officers were fixed at the following amount per annum: Treasurer. $50; clerk. $75; judge of probate, $100.

It was provided that the county seat of Leelanaw should be determined by a plurality vote of the electors, the law requiring a choice to be made between Glen Arbor, Leland. and Northport. The election resulted in favor of Northport, where the county seat remained till 1882, when it was removed to Leland.

FIRST COURT

The first term of circuit court for the county of Leelanaw was held at the village of Northport, May 5, 1861, Judge F. J. Littlejohn presiding.

It was held in a school house on the hill in North port. No cases were tried, the only business appearing by the records as being transacted, was the appointing of necessary county officers and the entering of an order designating the common jail of Grand Traverse County to be used as the common jail of Leelanaw County.

The second term was held on the 15th of September, 1861, at Northport, Judge Littlejohn on the bench, during which term three civil cases were tried.

The find criminal ease appearing on the court journal is that of the People Peter Drew, for adultery. The case is entered on the docket under date of Sept. 14 1865 and was continued until June 19 1866, when a ..... was entered.

The first criminal sentenced from this county was an Indian named Louis Ash-qne-gah-bowe, who was convicted of burglary at the June term of court in 1866, and who was sentenced by Judge Ramsdell to one year hard labor in the state prison at Jackson.

The first grand jurors summoned to serve at a term of circuit court for this county, were summoned for the August term, 1867.

Hon. Littlejohn was the first circuit judge of the circuit of which Leelanaw is a part. The records show that he held four terms of court in this county the first commenced May 5, 1864. and the last Sept. 15, 1865.

Judge Littlejohn was succeeded by Hon, J. G. Ramsdell, who held his first term of court for this county, June 19, 1866. Judge Ramsdell held this office of circuit judge until Dec. 31 1875, holding his last term of court in Leelanaw County in May of that year.

Hon. R. Hatch succeeded Judge Ramsdell, holding his first term of court in May, 1870.

Judge Hatch held the office one term and was succeeded by Judge Ramsdell who is still upon the bench. The first lawyer In the county was C. G. Holden, who located at Northport- Judge J. G. Ramsdell, E. C. Tuttle and Seth Mollat were early attorneys. The only lawyer in the county at the present time is George A. Cutler, of Leland.

George A. Cutler, attorney at law, prosecuting attorney of Leelanaw County, was born in Girard, Erie County, Penn., in 1846. Following the profession of his father he studied law, receiving his education in Erie County and at Kingsville, Ohio; was admitted to the bar at Erie, Penn.; came thence to Northport in December, 1873, making his home there until the county seat was removed to Leland in 1888, when he took up his residence in Leland. He has been circuit court commissioner ever since his first coming to the county and prosecuting attorney most of the time. He was married Dec. 27, 1875, to Nellie Stimson, of Hinsdale, IL, and has four children.

The first suit of which there is any record of being tried in the county was before Justice S. G. Wood at Northport in December, 1850. It is recorded as Wadenemah vs Mr. Tuece. The plaintiff brought suit for damages for the loss of a dog killed by defendant. George N. Smith was attorney for plaintiff and the amount of damages claimed was $100. The verdict awarded the plaintiff $25 and costs, which established a high market place for dogs considering the primitive state of the country.

TOWNS ORGANIZED.

Townships other than these already mentioned have been organized as follows:

Elmwood was organized by the board of supervisors in December, 1863, and embraced territory described as follows: Bounded on the north by Townships 20 north, of Ranges 11 and 12 west; on the west by Township 28 north, of Range 18 west; south by Townships 27 north, of Ranges 11 and 12 west; and on the east by Grand Traverse Bay. The first town meeting was also held at the home of Charles Norris, and A. B. Dunlap, Ansel Gardner, and Charles Norris were inspectors of election.

Kasson was organized by the board of supervisors in January, 1865, and embraced the territory of Township 28 north, of Range 13 west. The first town meeting was appointed at the house of Thompson Shobe, and Charles L. Williams, Jonathan Dewing and A. M. Heman were inspectors of election.

Empire was organized by the board of supervisors in October, 1865, and embraced the territory described as follows: Commencing at the northeast comer of Township 28 north, of Range 14 west, on the township line between Towns 28 north, of Ranges 13 and 14 west, thence south on said line to the southeast corner of said Town 28, thence west on the township line to the southwest corner of said Town 28, Range 14, thence west on the township line of the south side of Township 28, Range 15, to the shore of Lake Michigan, thence north on the said shore to the north hue of said town, thence east on the township line between Towns 28 and 29 of Ranges 14 and 15 to the shore of Glen Lake, thence cast through the waters or channel of said bike to the place of beginning. The first town meeting was held at the house of Richard Tobin and Robert Green, John Larue and J. R. Perry were inspectors of election.

In 1871 the name of Glen Arbor was changed to Cleveland, and Sleeping Rear to Glen Arbor.

Solon was organized by the board of supervisors in October, 1871, and embraced township 28 north, of Range 12 west, except fractions 1, 12, 18, 21, 25 and 36 west. The first town meeting was held at the house of Don. C. D. Brooks on the first Monday in April, 1872. Inspectors of election were: Don. C. D. Brooks, Chart. A. Hannaford and Moses C. Cate.

The town of Leland was organized by the board of supervisors in the October meeting in 1875. The territory was detached from Centerville and embraced the following described territory: Fractional Townships 30 and 31 north, of Range 12 west, except that part of Sections 25 and 30 of Town 30 north, of Range 12 west, lying on the east side of Carp Lake. The first town meeting was appointed at the store of S. Pickard in the village of Leland. The population of Leelanaw County at different periods has been as follows: 1860, 2,158; 1864, 2,389; 1870, 4,557; 1874, 5,031; 1880, 6,253.

In 1880 the population was divided among the towns as follows: Bingham, 1,833; Centerville, 658; Cleveland, 395; Elmwood, 438; Empire, 419; Glen Arbor, 329; Kasson, 489; Leelanaw, 1,015; Leland, 874; Solon, 303.

POSTOFFICES.

The following postoffices are in Leelanaw County: Bingham, Burdickville, Elm Rock, Empire, Glen Arbor, Glen Haven, Kasson, Leland, Maple City, Northport, North Unity, Omena, Oviatt, Provement, Solon, Sutton's Bay.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

John Scott, farmer, Leelanaw Township, Leelanaw County, was born near Kingston, Canada, in 1836; was bred a farmer. During his boyhood he went to New York State and worked out three years for himself at farm work. Went thence to Racine, Wis., where he remained a year or two. In 1858 he came to Leelanaw County, and bought a farm in Section 18, Town 32, Range 10. He has 530 acres in Sections 7, 17 and 18, his residence being on Section 18. He was married in 1865 to Elizabeth Build, a native of Canada, and has three children. Mr. Scott entered the military service of the United States in October, 1864, in the Fifteenth Michigan Infantry, serving under Sherman in the march to the sea. Was mustered out in September, 1865. He was sheriff of Leelanaw County in 1880 and 1881.

Chauncey Woolsey, deceased, was born in Oneida County, N. Y., in April, 1816. He was by occupation a sailor on the lakes, serving as mate and in command of various sailing vessels and steamers. He was married in 1845 to Caroline C. Johnson, of Erie County, N. Y. They had six children, viz.: Adaline Louisa, deceased; Wallace, deceased; Byron; Hattie L., deceased; Carrie, wife of Charles Cox, of Harbor Springs; and William W., remaining on the old homestead with his mother. In November, 1858, he came from Buffalo, Erie County N. Y., to Leelanaw County, Mich., and preempted 150 acres of land in Section 24, Town 32, Range 11 west. Jan. 14, 1804, he enlisted in the Twelfth Michigan Infantry, serving in the Army of the Potomac. He was killed in a skirmish just after the battles of the Wilderness in May, 1864. Mrs. Woolsey lives on the homestead with her son, Byron, who was born in Erie County, New York, in 1850. He came with his parents to Leelanaw County in 1858. Was married in 1880 to Sarah L. Hall, daughter of Anton W. Hall, of Leelanaw Township, and has three children.

Andrew Scott, farmer, Leelanaw Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Tyrone County, Ireland, in 1829. Came with his parents to Canada about 1833 or 1834. Was brought up on a farm at the Bay of Qninte, lower end of Lake Ontario. In 1851 he went to New York State and there engaged in farming. Moved from there to Walworth County, Wis., in the spring of 1850. Lived at different points in Wisconsin until the fall of 1857. In the spring of 1858 he settled on his present farm, which he bought two years after when it came into market. Has 240 acres in Sections 7 and 8, Town 82, Range 10 west, his residence being on Section 7, southeast quarter of southeast quarter. He was married in November, 1868, to Amanda Avery, a native of Canada, and has five children. Nov. 27, 1861, he went into the military service of the United States in the Fifteenth Michigan Infantry, serving under Sherman. He joined the regiment at Beaufort, S. C, and went thence to Washington, taking part in the Grand Review. Was mustered out in September, 1865, at Little Rock, and discharged at Detroit. The regiment was of the Third Brigade, Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, the corps being commanded by General Logan, the division by General Hazen and the brigade by Colonel John M. Oliver.

Geo. W. Brown, farmer, of the town of Leelanaw, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Salina, Onondaga County, N. Y., in 1818. At the age of nine he began driving on the Erie Canal, continuing in this employment for two years. At the age of fifteen he started in life for himself in New York City, where he was employed in the bleaching and dyeing works of James Bolton, for whom he worked twenty-one years. Thence he went to Racine, Wisconsin, and in 1859 came to the Traverse Region to Torch Lake where he remained two years engaged in clearing land. He then worked at the Bight on Traverse Bay. About 1868 he bought his present farm in Section 22, Township 81, Range 11 west. He has a wife and five children — two girls and three boys. Mrs. Brown was Miss Ann Orrell, a native of England.

Sidney A. Keyes, merchant and farmer, of Leelanaw Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Branch County, Michigan, in 1839; was brought up a farmer. In 1847 his parents moved to Iowa where he remained twenty one years. In 1868 he came with his father, William Keyes, to Mission Farm, which they operated one year. He then went to Northport, where he was employed as clerk by William Gill. Was then in the employ of H. 0. Rose. He then came to his present location in Section 35, Town 31, Range 11 west. Has here eighty acres and other tracts in the vicinity, amounting to about 400 acres. In 1876 he commenced dealing in general merchandise. Deals also in wood, ties, cedar posts, etc. His father died Sep. 5, 1880. His mother resides with him. Mr. Keyes is postmaster of the Omena office.

John Kehl, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Alsace, France, in 1825, and came to Buffalo, N. Y. with his parents in 1828, when the population of the city numbered only 1,100. At the age of twenty years commenced to learn the trade of ship carpenter. Worked at that business two years and then went on a whaling voyage of three years. Returned to Buffalo and worked at his trade till 1858, he then came to Leelanaw Township and settled on 100 acres of land on Section 28. Enlisted in January, 1864, in the Twenty-sixth Michigan Infantry and served in the Army of the Potomac till the close of the war. Was treasurer of the township three years. Has been justice of the peace for the past two years. Married in 1849 to Elizabeth Bosche, a native of Bavaria. They have five sons and two daughters.

Edmund P. Taylor, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., in 1828. Remained at home till 1848 when he went to Ohio and was engaged in farming till 1854. He then went to Buffalo, N. Y., and was circulating the Buffalo Express newspaper till 1866. Then settled on a farm seven miles from Buffalo. Remained there till the fall of 1858, when he came to Northport and lived there till 1861, when he enlisted in the Tenth Illinois Cavalry and served in the Army of the Southwest till the close of the war. When discharged from the service he located a homestead of 160 acres on Section 15, where he now lives. Married in 1858 to Elizabeth Wilcox, who was born in Connecticut, Jan. 10, 1825. They have four living children.

William Thomas, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Wales in 1818. Came to America in 1848, landing in New York. Settled in Pennsylvania and worked at the carpenters' trade til 1856, he then came to Northport, lived there one year, then settled on Section 21, remained there till 1869, then moved to his present home on Section 22, where he owns 200 acres of land. Has good house and barn, orchard, etc. Married in 1846 to Jane E. Davis, a native of Kent County, England, only four miles from the city of London. They have six sons and two daughters. Their oldest son served three years in the late war in the First Michigan Sharpshooters, was wounded in the battle of the Wilderness and discharged at the close of the war.

Charles Oberst, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in 1829 in Baden, Germany, came to Buffalo, N. Y., in 1851. Worked as house and ship carpenter till 1855, when he came to North Manitou Island, in Lake Michigan, and chopped cord wood to supply the propellers running on the lakes, and in 1858 moved to Northport and chopped cord wood two years, and in 1860 bought the farm he now lives on. Owns eighty acres. Married in 1851 to Sophia A. Beck, a native of Germany. They have three sons and four daughters.

Joshua S. Middleton, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., in 1824. Remained at home till the age of twenty years; he then removed to Trumbull County, 0hio. Was engaged in farming in that county till 1845, when he, in company with four others, went to Mackinaw, and there hired a fisherman with his boat to bring them to Old Mission, Grand Traverse County. From there they came to Northport and worked at building a dock. Finally moved his family in 1855 and settled on Section 24, and now owns 160 acres of good land. Enlisted in 1864 in the Twenty-sixth Michigan Infantry and served in the Army of the Potomac till the close of the war. Was wounded in the battle of the Wilderness. Has been justice of the peace four years, highway commissioner three years and township treasurer two years. Married in 1847 to Harriet A. Bernan. They have six sons and two daughters.

Joshua B. Middleton, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Ohio in 1849; came to Northport with his parents in 1855. He owns 120 acres of land on Sections 18 and 24. Married in November, 1871, to Elvira A. Ayers.

Edmund J. Stebbins, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Lebanon Chenango Co., N. Y., in 1819. Brought up as a farmer. When twenty-one years of age went to Cattaraugus County, N. Y., and remained there as a farmer till Dec. 13, 1861, when he enlisted in the One Hundred and Fourth Regiment New York Infantry. Was soon after taken sick, and discharged Aug. 20, 1862, for disability. Returning home he worked in Wales, Erie County, N. Y., for some time and finally moved to Mt. Morris, Genesee County, Mich., and worked a rented farm. Moved thence to Tuscola County, Michigan, and was in company with Enos Goodrich for three years in the lumber business, and Oct. 7, 1866, landed at Northport and settled on Section 15, Leelanaw Township, where he now owns a fine farm of 120 acres, with new house and barn. Married in 1848 to Amelia A. Locke, of Cattaraugus County, N. Y. They have two sons, Chester J. and Wallace E.

Fred Baumberger, farmer, Leelanaw Township, was born in Switzerland in 1844. Came to America with his parents in 1852, and located in Buffalo, N. Y. They remained there five years, then moved to Monroe County, N. Y. Lived within eleven miles of the city of Rochester. Was engaged as a farmer, and worked part of the time as a painter. He moved to Kalamazoo County, Mich., in 1866 and learned the trade of shoemaker, and in 1868 came to Northport and worked in a saw-mil one year, then moved to Bingham Township, bought a farm, remained on that farm six years, and in 1875 moved to the farm he now lives on, which is on Section 27. Has a fine farm of two hundred acres with very fine house and barns. Raises cattle, sheep and horses quite extensively. Was treasurer of Bingham Township four years. Married in 1870 to Mary E. Inwood, the daughter of Augustus H. Inwood, who came from St. Joseph County, Ind., in 1861 and settled in the farm now owned by Mr. Baumberger. They have four children.

Edgar E. Chase, farmer, town of Leelanaw, Leelanaw County, was born in Lake County. Ohio, in 1832. He learned the trade of engineer in Buffalo, N. Y. Many years of his life have been spent on the lakes in sailing vessels and steamboats. Owned and lost The steamer Mermaid. In 1854 he went to Minnesota, took up a claim on government land and engaged in farming, living for several years surrounded by the Sioux Indians. This farm he still remains. In October, 1861, he enlisted in the Third Minnesota Infantry, serving in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Took part in the siege of Vicksburg, the battles of Stone River, Little Rock and many other battles. Was of the provost guard of Gov. Johnson, provisional governor of Tennessee. He was captured with his whole regiment at Murfreesboro by Gen. Forrest, taken about eighty miles south and paroled. The regiment then returned to Nashville and thence to St. Louis to await exchange, and meanwhile, was sent in 1802, to Minnesota and Dakota to fight the Sioux, being in the first fight of that campaign. Mr. Chase was slightly wounded by a sabre cut on the head at the battle of Murfreesboro. At one time he served two weeks as a spy, being two hundred miles within the Confederate lines; was captured and condemned to be shot but was saved by the intercession of a Confederate officer who had formerly been a steamboat captain. He was mustered out in September, 1865, and returned to his home in Minnesota. During his military service he was repeatedly offered a commission but declined it. In 1873 he came to Leelanaw County on account of his health, he being at that time almost blind. He has a farm of seventy and one-half acres in Section 8, Town 31, Range 11. He has been sheriff of the county one term, Was married in 1855 to Abigail Tucker, a native of Ohio, and has four children.

S. C. Darrow, mill owner and merchant, at Bingham postoffice, was burn in New Hampshire in 1810. Came to Genesee County, N. Y., with his parents in 1851. Lived in that county til 1863, when he came to Sutton's Bay and remained two years then Settled on a farm in Bingham Township. He bought the mill he now owns in 1881. It is situated near the head of Carp Lake. Is run by steam power and has a capacity of 12,000 or 15,000 feet of hard wood lumber per day. The lumber is hauled across the country three miles to his docks on Traverse Bay and thence shipped direct to Chicago, Milwaukee and other markets. This seagull's cut will amount to two million feet of hard wood lumber for Greilick Brothers, of Traverse City, besides one-half million feet for farmers. Mr, Darrow is partner in the store at Bingham and is postmaster. Married in 1872 to Eunice J, Gilland, a native of Michigan. They have three children living.

H. F. McFall, merchant, Bingham postoffice, was born in Erie County, Ohio, in 1853. Came to Bingham Township in August, 1860, until settled on a farm on Section 29 and was engaged in farming till 1883, when he bought on interest in the store at Bingham postoffice owned by S. C. Darrow. They keep a general stock of dry goods, groceries, etc. Married in 1872 to Minerva Barnhart, a native of Canada, who died in 1878. They had one daughter. Second marriage in September, 1882, to Kate O'Gonnell. They have one child.

William Hawkins, farmer, Bingham Township, Leelanaw County, was born in London, Canada, in 1840. Came to Port Huron, Mich., in 1861 and was engaged in farming near that city till 1867, when he came to Bingham Township. Now lives on the shore of Traverse Bay on Section 22. Married in 1870 to Jane E. Cumberworth, a native of Macomb County, Mich. They have two children.

John A. Lee, farmer, Bingham Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Wayne County, Mich., in 1840. Came to Bingham Township with his parents in 1858. They settled on on Section 15, where Mr. Lee now lives. Has been engaged in farming and getting out cord wood to be shipped to Chicago and Milwaukee. Has been township treasurer one term. Is at the present time county register of deeds. Married in 1808 to Mary Weighted, a native of Wayne County, Mich. They have two sons and two daughters.

Henry Smidt, farmer, Bingham Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1844. Came to America with his parents in 1840, who first lived in Milwaukee, Wis., where he remained till 1868, when he came to Bingham Township and settled on Section 34, where he now owns three hundred acres of land. Has been supervisor and held other township offices. Has been engaged in lumbering and getting out cord wood for the Chicago and Milwaukee markets in connection with his farming. Married in 1808 to Louise Piatt, a native of Germany. They have six sons and one daughter living.

William Cork, farmer, Bingham Township, Leehmaw County, was born in Liverpool, England, in 1842. Came to Canada with his parents iu 1840. He came to Detroit, Mich., in 1861, and to Bingham Township in 1862, and settled on Section 10, where he now lives. Owns 413 acres of as good land as there is in the county. Enlisted iu 1864 in the First Michigan Light Artillery, and served iu the Seventeenth Army Corps till the close of the war. Married in 1867 to Margaret McFarland a native of Michigan. They have six children.

William Mebert, farmer, Bingham Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Germany in 1830. Came to America in 1854 and lived in Chicago about four years, then settled on a farm in Cleveland Township, Leelanaw County. Remained there till 1864. when he settled on Section 17 in Bingham Township, where he now lives. Has been county surveyor two years, supervisor of the township one year, highway commissioner and justice of the peace several years. Married in 1861 to Lavina H. Lindley, a native of Indiana. They have two sons living.

George S. Middleton, carpenter, of Leelanaw County, was born in the town of Leelanaw in 186O. He is a son of Joshua S. Middleton. Was educated in the school at Northport and learned the trade of carpenter at Northport and Traverse City. Is at present employed on the summer resort hotel which is in course of construction on New Mission farm.

James Murray, farmer, Bingham Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Canada in 1849 and was bred a farmer. Came to Michigan in 1871 to Ionia County, and to Leelanaw County in 1872. He bought a farm in Section 4, Township 29, Range 11, town of Bingham. Has 103 acres, about forty-eight of which are cleared. Is supervisor of the town, having held that office the three terms of 79, '8O and '83. Has been justice of the peace and held various other offices. He was married August 12, 1878, to Catherine Hickey, a native of Canada, and has four children.

Frank Payment, farmer, Empire Township, was born in Canada 1812. Moved with his parents to St. Lawrence County, N Y., in 1861. Remained at home engaged in farming till 1863, when he enlisted in the Seventy-fifth New York Infantry and served in the Army of the Potomac with his regiment till 1864, when the three years' men were mustered out of service. He was then transferred to the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Infantry, and before the war closed was again transferred to the Ninety-first New York Infantry. Mustered out of service in 1865. He had taken up 160 acres of land on Section 23 in Empire Township in 1862. After the war closed in 1865 he settled on his farm and has since been clearing it up, putting up buildings, etc. Married in 1873 to Louisa Bow, a native of Ogdensburg N. Y. They have two children.

Charles E. Ferris, teacher, Solon Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Henry County, Ohio, in 1865. Came to Solon with his step-father, John White. Was educated in Ohio. Is now (1884) teaching in School District No. 2, Leelanaw Township.

H.D. Pheatt farmer and mill owner, of Cleveland, Leelanaw County, was born in Oswego County, N.Y.,in 1819. From boyhood he has been a sailor, forty-one years of his life having been spent on the lakes, and thirty-six years in command of sailing vessels and steamers. He sailed first on Lake Ontario. In 1863 he came to Leelanaw County and built a dock on Good Harbor Bay and at that time bought the farm where he now resides, on Section 14, town of Cleveland. Has here two hundred acres. In 1868 he built a saw-mill near his dock, selling it, however, the following year. Nov. 2, 1882, he completed a grist-mill on the stream which connects Lime and Traverse Lakes. In 1830 he married Susan E. McMillan, a native of Jefferson County, N. Y., born in 1824. They have one son, J. T., who lives near them, and one daughter, Mrs. J. W. Krafft, of New York. Capt. Pheatt's home before his coming to Leelanaw County, Mich., was mostly in Cleveland, Ohio.

A. J. Goffar, farmer, Cleveland Township, was born in Belgium in 1838. Came to America with his parents in 1856 and settled in Chicago. Was engaged there in shoemaking till 1862, when he came to Glen Arbor and settled on Section 81. Remained on his farm in that township till 1868. He then bought his present farm on Section 8. Owns 160 acres. Has thirty-five acres cleared. Has a good frame barn, and is preparing to build a house. Since moving on his farm has worked seven years at shoemaking, which has kept back his farming. -Married in 1861 to Catherine O'Brien, a native of Ireland. They have one son and two daughters. Mr. Goffar has been postmaster at North Unity since 1870. Has been supervisor two years, township clerk ten years, and superintendent of schools three years'.

John Foote, tanner, Elmwood Township, Leelanaw County, was born in Oneida County, N. Y - At the age of sixteen be went to Otsego County where he served an apprenticeship of four years to the tanning and leather business. He then traveled three years through the southern states working at his trade. Then resided ten years in Wyoming County, N. Y., being engaged in the leather business with his father. Was then a resident of Livingston County. N. Y., in the same business, until 1870 when he came to Manton, Wexford County, Mich., where he engaged in farming. He also engaged in the leather business with the Norrises in Leelanaw County, town of Elm wood. After ten years' residence in Wexford County he moved to Traverse City. June 19, 1857, he married Virginia Jennison, of Gainesville, Wyoming County, N. Y. They have four children. Mr. Foote, in company with his sons, under the firm name of John Foote & Sons, is about constructing a tannery on an extensive scale in the vicinity of his residence, in the town of Elmwood, on the west shore of Traverse Bay. It is to be operated by steam, is to be fully equipped with the latest improved machinery, and is to be first-class in every respect. His product will be from 5,000 to 10,000 hides per year.

R. H. Monroe. M. D., Oviatt postoffice, was born in Ontario County, N. Y., Jan. 5, 1822. After he was of suitable age was engaged in lumbering in New York, Pennsylvania and Michigan till 1861, when he enlisted in the Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry. After the first battle was appointed hospital steward and held that position till early in 1863, when he was appointed surgeon of his regiment and served till the close of the war in the Western Department. After being mustered out of service he returned to Indiana and carried on the business of wagon making a short time, and May 28, 1866, came to Inland, Benzie County, Mich., helped to organize the township, and settled there as a practicing physician, and has been practicing medicine in the Traverse Region since that time. Has lived at Oviatt Postoffice, Kasson Township, since April, 1882. Married in 1844 to Margaret E. Crouch. They had five children. Second marriage in September, 1872, to Elizabeth A. Monroe, a native of Indiana. They have three children.

H. C. Pettenqill, merchant, Oviatt postoffice, was born in Mt. Morris Genesee County, Mich., in I838. Remained in that county and worked at farming in summer, and teaching school in winter till 1878, when he came to Oviatt and has been engaged in selling goods since that time. Keeps a stock of dry goods, groceries, etc. Has been school superintendent two years: also township treasurer two years. Married in 1861 to Mary M. Baldwin. They have three sons and four daughters.

Jonathan Dewing, farmer, of Kasson, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Vermont in 1820. Was brought up to farming. In 1862 he came to Michigan and preempted 160 acres of land in Section 21, Town 28, Range 13. This he afterward changed to a homestead entry. His residence is now on Section 28. Has owned 500 acres of land, most of which now belongs to his son. Mr. Dewing was married in 1846 to Mary Davis, of Vermont. They have two children, Joseph P., who carries on the farm and is clerk of the town, and Mrs. William Richie, of Kasson.

When Mr. Dewing came to Kasson there were little else but trails through this section of country. He was obliged to cut three miles of road to reach his place. There were then but few settlers in the town. Mr. D. mentions John Wilson, Van Ostrand and Eli Dunning on Section 5, and Mr. Reale on Section 10. Mr. Dewing was first supervisor of the town, and held the office nine or ten years. At the organization various names were suggested, among them Kearsurge and Hermon. Mr. Dewing suggested the name Kasson, in honor of Kasson Freeman, the oldest man in town, then living with his daughter on Section 4.

Marshall Farrant, farmer, Kasson Township, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in the Province of Quebec. Canada, Nov. 28, 1852. Was brought up a farmer. He remained in Canada until he was seventeen years of age, the last year of that time being engaged in sailing. In 1869 he came to Leelanau County and bought his present farm, northeast Quarter of southwest quarter of Section 18, town of Kasson. He spent several years working at different points in northern Michigan in lumber camps, on the river, etc, and in the fall of 1878 settled on his farm. He was married Aug. 6, 1878, to Mary Favrean, a native of Ogdensburg, N. Y. They have one boy. Two boys have died.

William Hulme, farmer, of Kasson, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Cheshire, England in 1834. During his younger days he worked in a cotton factory. remaining at home until 1852 when he went to sea, and has been a sailor ever since on the ocean and the lakes until about 1880. Has sailed to China, the south seas, and nearly all over the world. In 1858 made a voyage to Australia. Was one of the party who made the first survey of Murray River, Australia. Came from Australia to America in 1860 and commenced sailing on the lakes, shipping first at Buffalo July 10. March 17, 1862, he took up under the graduation act the southeast quarter of Section 4, Town 28, Range 18. He afterward changed this to a homestead entry. Has since sold forty acres. He was married in 1864 to Esther Ann Mayall, a native of Yorkshire, England. They have four children living. About three years ago Mr. Hulme sold his vessel interest and has given his whole attention to farming. He was town clerk for the term ending in 1888.

Henry Ziegler, farmer, Kasson Township, Leelanaw County, Mich , was born in Germany in 1812. His early occupation was that of woodsman, overseeing government forests. He was also a musician. He came to America, New York City, in 1862, and worked there about one year Then went to Rochester, N. Y. He came to Leelanaw County in 1878 and bought his present farm of about seventy-four acres in Section 82, town of Kasson. He was married in 1842 to Liza Relke, and has five children.

Thomas Brooks, farmer, town of Kasson, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in England in 1838. During his boyhood he was employed in lead mining, and later in running a steam engine. He came to America in 1850, and has since been employed iu various mines, iron, nickel and lead. In 1850 he went to the upper peninsula of Michigan and remained about six years, employed in the Minnesota mine, about twelve miles from the mouth of Ontonagon River. In the fall of 1865 he came to Leelanaw County and homesteaded 160 acres of land in Section 29, Town 28, Range 18. Has since sold eighty acres. He was married in 1858 to Caroline Opie, a native of England. They have ten children; three have died.

William Harrington was born in Canada, Jan. 22, 1812. During his early life, and while a resident of Canada, was mostly engaged in farming and lumbering. In the fall of 1858 he moved to New York where he remained until the spring of 1868, when he came to Leelanaw County, Mich., arriving at his destination April 20. Here he homesteaded the fractional west half of northwest quarter of Section 18, Town 28, Range 12, about thirty-three acres. He was married in 1885 to Mary Woods, and has eight children, five boys and three girls; two children have died. Mr. and Mrs. Harrington reside with their son, Nathaniel W., in the town of Kasson. The latter was born in Canada in 1842, and was brought up a farmer. In 1858 he went with his parents to New York. July 18, 1861, he enlisted in the Twelfth United States Infantry, serving in the Army of the Potomac. He was wounded in the left leg at the battle of Gettysburg. Recovering sufficiently from his wound to do duty he remained in active service. Was in the battle of the Wilderness and other battles. Was mustered out at Petersburg. July 4, 1866 he married Eunice Rickett. They have three children. In the fall of 1867 he came to Leelanaw County and homesteaded 160 acres of land in Section 18, Town 28, Range 13, where he now resides. He still suffers from the effects of his wound, and is in receipt of a small pension.

Moses 0. Cate, farmer, town of Solon, Leelanaw County, was born in London, Merrimac County, N. H., Aug. 23, 1828. He remained on the home farm until he was nineteen years of age, when he learned the trade of painter, at which he worked three years. He then worked at shoemaking in New Hampshire and Ohio for twelve years. In 1862 he enlisted in the One Hundred and Third Ohio infantry, serving in the Army of the Ohio. The regiment was mostly in Kentucky and Tennessee, and under Sherman as far as Atlanta. He was orderly sergeant of his company. Was mustered out in June, 1865. Came from Ohio to Leelanaw County, Mich., in 1866, and took up as a homestead the southwest quarter of Section 18, Town 28, Range 12, town of Solon. He was married Dec. 2, 1855, to Mary L. Barnard, of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and his three children, one son and two daughters. Mr. Cate was first supervisor of his town, in 1872, and held the office seven years. Was elected supervisor in 1883. Has also been justice of the peace. Has been postmaster, of the Solon office since 1871. Was sheriff of the county in 1881 and '82. William F. Hannatod, farmer, town of Solon, Leelanaw County, was born in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, in 1888; was brought up to farming; learned and worked at the carpenters trade before the war. In the summer of 1862 he enlisted in the One Hundred and Third Ohio, Volunteer Infantry, serving in the Army of the Ohio, served as private and sergeant until May, 1865, when he was mustered out and returned to Ohio. In the summer of 1800 he came to Leelanaw County and took a homestead of 100 acres in Section 18, Town 28, Range 12. In 1871 he went back to Ohio, and returned again to his home in Michigan in 1882. He has been supervisor of the town two terms. It then included the present towns of Solon and Elmwood. He has also been justice of the peace four terms. Was married in 1858 to Jula M. Barnard, of Ohio. They have three children, two died in infancy.

John B. Nash, farmer, Kasson, was born in Hillsdale County, Mich.,in 1840; moved with his parents in 1845 to Branch County: remained there till 1861 when he enlisted in Company I Forty-second Illinois Infantry, and served in the western army till near the close of the war; saw service under Generals McCook, Sheridan and Howard. After being discharged from the service he returned to Branch County and was farming and railroading till 1874; he then moved to Kasson and settled on Section 10 where he owns 100 acres of good land; has been inspector of schools several years. Married in 1864 to Almena Langs, a native of Franklin, Portage County, Ohio; they have four sons and two daughters.

Howard Cluff, farmer, town of Kasson, Leelanaw County, was born in Connecticut in 1852 and was there brought up, being mostly engaged during his younger days in lumbering. In 1868 he came to Muskegon, Mich., and was employed there and at Manistee and other points at mill work until 1875. He came to the town of Kasson and bought a farm of eighty acres in Section 8 where he now resides. In 1878 he was married to Catherine Smith. They have five children.

A. L. Grandy, farmer, Kasson, was born in St. Lawrence County, N. Y., in 1829; remained in the same county at work at the ship carpenter's trade till 1864, when he came to Glen Arbor, Mich., where he worked at his trade till 1872, then made a trip to Kansas and Missouri and spent a year; was finally satisfied to return to northern Michigan. In 1878 bought the grist-mill at Glen Arbor and ran it four years, and in 1870 bought the farm he now lives on which is on Section 21; has been township treasurer two years. Married to Miss Caroline Newman, a native of Jefferson County, N. Y. They have three children.

Charles W. William, farmer, Kasson, was born iu Mt. Morris, Livingston County, N. Y., in 1881. He came to Genesee County, Mich., with his parents in 1838; was brought up on a farm and remained in that county till May, 1864, when he came to Kasson and settled on Section 20, where he owns 160 acres of land; has been supervisor four years, town clerk six years, justice of the peace eight years, school inspector several years; was postmaster at Kasson six years; was elected probate judge in 1876 and still holds the office; has been county treasurer two years; married in 1859 to Betsey E. Rice, a native of St. Lawrence County, N. Y. They have two daughters.

S. C. Greary, farmer, Kasson Township, was born in Lucerne County, Penn., in 1832; moved with his parents when a child to Ohio. In 1842 moved to Jackson County, Mich., and in 1852 he went to California with a wagon train across the plains; worked at mining and packing provisions across the mountains with a mule train. In 1858 returned by Butterfield's overland stage through Mexico, Arizona and Indian Territory to Michigan and made a visit; he then went to Fort Smith, Arkansas, and worked for the Government in the quartermaster's department till the war broke out, then returned to Michigan, being obliged to travel across the country on foot to avoid being pressed into the rebel army; then settled in Berrien County, Mich., and was engaged in the grocery business, and has extensively engaged in bee culture, own at one time 100 colonies. In 1865 he went to California by way of New York by vessel; was shipwrecked in the Caribbean Sea and lost $11,000 in cash; escaped with his companions to an island and was rescued by gun boats and landed at Aspinwall; finally arrived in California and remained till 1870, then returned to Michigan by way of the Pacific Railroad; then moved to Dubuque, Iowa, and worked at wagon making three years. While in the western country he was often engaged in battle with the Indians. He came to Kasson Township in 1874 and settled on Section 36, where he owns 225 acres of land; has been engaged in lumbering and farming since that time; in 1876 lost all his out buildings by fire, losing his seed grain, potatoes, etc.; married in 1862 to Nancy Wing, a native of Michigan, who died in 1870; they had two children; second marriage in 1870 to Jennie Brown, a native of New York; they have one child.

Rev. J. B. Hall, Kasson Township, was born in St. Lawrence County, N. Y., in 1826; attended school at Platte burg, N. Y., and there fitted himself for college. He graduated at the State University at Burlington, Vt., and was licensed to preach at the age of thirty years by the Congregational Association of East Hampshire, Mass. He spent two years at the Union Theological Seminary in New York and one year at Auburn. His first pastorale was at Lysander, Onondaga County, N. Y., where he preached seven years. From there he went to Rensselaer County and pleached four years, the last two years preaching at Olivet in that county, and in May, 1869, came to Kasson Township and bought about 800 acres of land on Sections 33 and 34. His object in coming to northern Michigan was for the benefit of his health; has preached at Elk Rapids, Mich., nine years; since that time has lived on his farm: was employed for a short time during the war by the Christian Commission in the Army of the Potomac; married in 1858 to Eugenia F. Campbell, a native of Montpelier, Vermont. Tiny have two sons living.

Winthrop C. Hall, farmer, Kasson Township, was born in Lysander, Onondaga County, N. Y., in 1862 ; came to Kasson with his parents in 1869; remained at home attending school till 1882 when he went to Lansing and attended the State Agricultural College for one year; is now (1884) at home on account of sickness; expects to return to college and graduate.

F. A. Becker, farmer, Kasson Township, was born in Onondaga County, N. Y., in 1812; brought up on a farm: came to Kasson in 1842 and took a homestead of 100 acres on Section 8; has spent nine or ten winters in lumber woods for Hannah, Lay A Co., Traverse City, also worked for Gerlish & Son, near Saginaw; has been highway commissioner and school inspector; married in October, 1870, to Susie Nye, a native of New York. They have one son.

Abner S. Fritz, farmer, Kasson Township, was born in Genesee County, Mich., in 1840; was employed at home on the farm till sixteen years of age; he then commenced his apprenticeship to cabinet makers' trade; went to Pontiac, Oakland County, Mich., in the spring of 1857 and worked at his trade till July, 1861, when he enlisted in the First Michigan Cavalry; served in the Shenandoah Valley under Generals Hanks and Sheridan; was in the battle of Winchester and other battles and skirmishes, and was in Banks' retreat down the valley in May, 1862; discharged for disability in the spring of 1863, returned to Pontine and was married Sept 18, 1868, to Charlotte A. Eagle, of Pontine. They have three sons and two daughters. He worked at his trade in Pontiac till 1871, and on April 27 settled on his present farm, east half of northwest quarter and southwest quarter of northwest quarter of Section 18, Township 28, Range 13 west. At that time the place was a wilderness except two acres; he has cleared about sixty acres. He was supervisor in 1881, 1882 and 1883; has been justice of the pence twelve years in succession; was township clerk four years.

M. Keller, farmer, town of Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in Wittenberg, Germany, in 1836; came to America about the year 1851 to Williamsburg, N. Y., where he worked at his trade of baker. He also learned the trades of miller and butcher from his father who followed those occupations. From New York he went to Chicago where he tended bar two years. In 1859 he came from Illinois to the Traverse Region and settled on his present farm in Section 1, Township 80, Range 12. He has eighty acres of which about fifty are cleared. He was married in 1858 to Catherine Egeler, a native of Wittenberg, Germany. They have five children living; eight have died. When Mr. and Mrs. Keller came to their present home there was not a load a mile out from Leland, but Indian trails only. No teams were to be had if they could have been used, and all their supplies and household furniture, even to their stove, had to be "packed" in. Even the logs of which their house was built were brought to the site selected on men's shoulders.

Ralph Pyrus, farmer, Leland Township, was born in November, 1828, in England, and in 1850 came to America; lived three years in Pennsylvania, then moved to Ypsilanti, Michigan, where he remained till 1859, when he came to Leland Township and settled on Section 1, where he owns 180 acres of land; has been a farmer all his life; Was held the office of supervisor two terms, township treasurer two terms, and has been county superintendent of the poor for the last five years; married in June, 1850, to Emma Moore, a native of England. They have one son living, he is employed as shipping clerk by Hannah, Lay & Co., of Traverse City, and one daughter living at home; had a son twenty-two years of age drowned in Carp River, near Leland, in June, 1877.

C. H. Kahrs, farmer, Leland Township, was born in Germany in 1831; came to America in 1854 and was clerk in a grocery and provision store in Williamsburg near New York City, and in 1855 came to North Manitou Island and was in the wood business till 1857, when he returned to Germany on a visit of a few weeks; returning to the island he remained a year. In 1860 he made a trip to Missouri and stayed through the winter, and in the fall of the same year bought his farm on Section 12, Leland. He owns 140 acres; married in 1852 to Catherine Hagenah, a native of Germany. They have one son and three daughters.

Noel, Couturer, merchant, and postmaster of Provement postoffice, Leland Township, was born in Lower Canada iu 1835: came to Grand Traverse County, Mich., in 1855 and settled on the Peninsula, and was engaged in farming till 1862, when he moved to Leelanaw County and settled on a farm on Section 2, Centerville Township, which he still owns; carried on his farm in connection with the buying and selling of stock till 1881, when he built the store he now occupies. He keeps a general stock of dry goods, groceries, drugs and medicines, boots and shoes, etc.: was appointed postmaster in 1882; married in 1853 to Elmira Ganthier, a native of Lower Canada. They have seven sons and three daughters living; have lost five children by death. Chapter XXXIV
Early History of Villages
Northport, Leland, Glen Arbor, Burdickville, Sutton's Bay, New Mission, Provement
Early Settlers at the Various Points and Pioneer Interests

In the general history of the county mention has been made of the early settlement at various business centers, and we will now return to the events more particularly connected with the villages.

VILLAGE OF NORTHPORT

The village of Northport, in 1884, includes the Indian village of Waukazooville founded by Rev. George N. Smith, as has already been described, and the plat of Northport made by Dea. Joseph Dame.

The efforts of Mr. Smith were wholly connected with the Indians, and the first business operations were begun by Dea. Dame. We give herewith a brief biographical sketch of him as follows;

Dea. Joseph Dame, deceased, was born in Barnstable, N.H. July 28, 1796. (His headstone reads born 23 Jan 1796) He was, in early life, engaged in brick making, lumbering, etc. From New Hampshire he went to Searsmont, Me., where he was engaged in the lumbering business. Moved thence to Erie County. N. Y., where he remained several years in the same business. In 1840 he went to Mackinaw, Mich., on a trading expedition, dealing in lumber and in goods including clocks, of which he brought with him a considerable stock. He was for a while employed there by the government in the instruction of the Indians. Removed thence to Old Mission, on the peninsula of Traverse Bay, where he was employed in teaching farming to the Indians. Remained there-until 1845 when he went to Wisconsin and bought a farm in Spring Prairie, Walworth County. He made his home there seven years and then returned to the Traverse Region, and, leaving his family at Old Mission, bought a tract of land where now stands the village of Northport. He commenced the construction of a dock, engaged in trade and platted a village to which he gave the name of Northport. Writing at that time to the New York Tribune he gave such a description of the country that it speedily attracted attention, and from this and other causes the tide of immigration turned in this direction.

This was the opening of the country, Northport being the landing for the whole country around and the distributing point of travel and supply. Mr. Dame built and kept the Traverse Bay Hotel, the first house built for that purpose, though he had previously kept a hotel in his own house, enlarging it from time to time to meet the growing demand. This was afterward called the Exchange Hotel. He was for several years justice of the peace and was generally active in public affairs. Assisted at Old Mission in the organizition of the first town which included a large extent of country. Dea. Dame was married Nov. 19, 1819, to Ursula Mitchell, of Maine. The family was as follows: James, born May 21, 1821, in Searsmont, Me., and now of Rockford, IL, Olive Maxey, born Jan. 17, 1828, in Searsmont, Me., now Mrs. Ansel Salisbury, of Whitewater, Wis.; Samuel, who died in infancy, Nov. 28, 1824; Maria, born Feb. 26, 1826, widow of Russell Clark and now residing at Adams Basin, near Rochester, N. Y.; Eusebius, born May 26, 1829, at Searsmont, Me., and now of Northport, Mich.; Almira, born Nov. 14, 1881, at Searsmont, Me., now Mrs. A. B. Page, of Jasper, Col., and Mary, born April 19, 1884, at Evans, Erie County, N. Y., now Mrs. Fred Saunders, of Atchison, Kan. Dea. Dame died at Whitewater, Wis., Jan. 11, 1884. Mrs. Dame died Feb. 21, 1877.

Dea. Dame commenced the construction of a dock on 1853 or -'54, which was afterward completed by H. 0. Rose. At the opening of navigation in 1855 it was still in an unfinished condition, a part of it, for want of planks, being covered with poles. A list of residents of the settlement for 1855 and -'56 contains the following names: Joseph Dame, H. 0. Rose, Amos Fox, Wm. Voice, Capt. Peter Nelson, A. B. Page, S. W. Wilson, Thomas Retford, J. M. Burbeck, 0. L. White, Henry Boyes, A. C. Stevens, Theodore Woodruff, Hiram Beckwith, Jesse Morgan, William Gill and William Thomas. Of these the greater number were heads of families, but a few were unmarried men. In 1855 there was not a frame house in the place — only a part of one, a structure in size about fourteen feet by twenty, which now constitutes a part of the dwelling occupied by W. F. Steele. The first one complete was built by Mr. Thomas for Mr. Woodruff in 1850. Mr. Voice commenced, in 1855, the construction of a saw-mill, which was got to running in the summer of the following year. In 1855 no roads had been opened, except one leading to the Indian settlement called Cat Head Village, some three miles distant. There was not a horse team in the settlement, and only two or three yoke of oxen. During that year only one propeller, running between Grand Haven and Buffalo, made calls at the half-built wharf.

Mr. H. O. Rose came to the place in June, 1851, and, as already intimidated, purchased the wharf privilege owned by Deacon Dame, pushing to completion the wharf already commenced. In September, 1855, he sold a half interest in the property to Mr. Amos Fox, the two entering into partnership under the firm name above mentioned, their principal business being dealing in wood. At that time the steamers running on the lakes depended almost wholly on wood for fuel. The wharf built by Mr. Rose, and after ward twice enlarged by the firm, was the first in Grand Traverse Bay at which a propeller could stop. It was easy of access and not far oil the route of steamers plying between the ports on the lower lakes and those on the western shore of Lake Michigan. In 1850 the firm supplied, by contract, the Northern Transportation Company's line of boats plying between Ogdensburgh and Chicago, handling that season about 5,000 cords of wood. Afterward contracts were made with other lines of steamers In 1858 the firm handled from 18,000 to 15,000 cords, and for several years after the amount of wood annually sold did not materially diminish.

In the winter of 1856 and '57 Messrs. White & Burbeck built a wharf three miles north of the present village of Northport, and engaged in selling wood and shipping hemlock bark and cedar posts.

Mr. Rose was the first treasurer of Leland Township, which at that time embraced the whole of Leelanaw and Benzie Counties. He relates having traveled over nearly the whole of it, going as far as Glen Arbor to collect the annual tax, the amount of which did not exceed six hundred dollars.

In 1864 Messrs. Fox & Rose engaged in a similar enterprise at Charlevoix, and in 1878, again at Petoskey. Mr. Rose is now a resident of the latter place and Mr. Fox of Charlevoix.

The log school-house built by Messrs. George N. Smith and James J. McLaughlin in 1850, is still standing near the shore of the bay, a monument of days gone by.

In 1855 Northport was organized into a school district under the common school law, being the first regular public school organized within the present limits of Leelanaw County. The above still remains District No. 1 of Leelanaw Township.

In 1856 a small one story frame building was erected on the site of the present school building, and of which it now forme a part.

In 1867 a two story upright was attached to the school building, thus furnishing three convenient school rooms for the use of the schools in the district.

Early in the history of the Northport schools, active measures were taken to establish a township library for Leelanaw Township.

This library now contains about 800 volumes which have evidently been selected with care, most of them being works of real worth.


The school at Northport is at present organized under the graded school law.

In 1855 the postoffice of Northport was established with A. B. Page as postmaster. J. M. Burbeck, however, attended to The business of the office, and afterward succeeded Mr. Page as postmaster. Mr. Burbeck was succeeded by Rev. S. Steele, and he by William Gill, who has held the office since 1868.

The Congregational Society was not formally organized until February, 1868, although there had been preaching since Mr. Smith began in 1849. The society was organized with about fourteen members, and a Sunday-school had been organized about three years previous. Mr. Smith preached at intervals and some of the time the society was without a pastor. In 1868 steps were taken toward building a church, and in July, 1869, the work was mentioned as follows: "The foundation is completed and the frame for the new Congregational Church building at Northport was all ready to raise last Monday, and is probably up ere this. The location of the site is admirably chosen, and the mulling, when completed, will add largely to the looks of the place."

The building was finally completed in August, 1870. The pastors have been Revs. &. Kirkland, McClellan and Van Auken. There are at the present time about fifty members. The cost of the church building was $2,600.

In 1858 Rev. Lewis Griffin came to Northport and organized a Methodist class, and services were held in the old school-house. In 1859 Rev. S. Steele came as presiding elder. The early ministers were Revs. N. M. Steele, E. Baird and J. W. Miller. Soon after they came to this district Mrs. Steele organized a Sunday-school with forty scholars. She procured books from various sources and the school has continued without interruption to the present time.

In 1870 Rev. 8. Steele was resident pastor. He preached that year without compensation and gave $200 toward the building of a church. The year previous Rev. Mathias was pastor and succeeded in building a shanty on the hill for a place of worship. He was an Englishman, and designated the building a chapel; the remainder of the community, however, called it a wigwam.

The corner-stone of the new church was laid in May, 1871, and was an interesting event. From an account published at the time we quote as follows:

"According to announcement the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the M. E. Church, at Northport, took place on Wednesday. Something over 200 persons were present on the occasion. "At the hour appointed the Masons formed in procession at their hall.

"The grand offices were all filled by proxy, Rev. S. Steele acting as grand master. The procession marched to the place where the stone was to be laid, near which an arch of evergreen had been erected; through this the procession passed. A hymn was sung, when the grand treasurer, by the grand master's command, placed the following articles in the stone:

"An official record of the M. E. Church at Northport, a copy of the discipline of the M. E. Church, transactions of the grand lodge of the state of Michigan, a copy of the Traverse Bay "Eagle", a copy of the Benzonia Citizen, various silver and copper coins of the United States, Canada and Norway.

"The stone was then put in its place, and the principal architect presented the working tools to the grand master who applied the same to the stone and pronounced it to be a well formed, true and trusty.

"A prayer was made by Rev. Mr. Camburn. The golden and silver vessels were brought and delivered to the grand master who poured the corn, the wine and the oil contained therein on the stone, saying:

"May the all-bounteous Author of nature bless the inhabitants of this place with all the necessaries, conveniences and comforts of this life; assist in the erection and completion of this building; protect the workmen against every accident, and long preserve this structure from decay; and grant to us all a supply of the corn of nourishment, the wine of refreshment and the oil of joy."

"Response by the brethren: 'Amen. So mote it be."

"The grand honors were then given, after which a hymn was sung and the meeting addressed by Rev. J. M. Reid, D. D., of Chicago. Dr. Reid spoke about thirty minutes in a very pleasing manner, giving the reasons for, and the uses and benefits of, such ceremonies.

"After the close of the address an appeal was made to the audience for material aid to assist in the erection of the building, and the sum of $1,350 was pledged. This places the question of the early completion of the building beyond a doubt."

The building was pushed forward to completion, and Rev. Deitz was the first pastor in the new church. The society has about thirty-five members, and Rev. S. Steele is again pastor. Mr. Steele is one of the pioneers of the Traverse Region, as the reader of this work will see. He was born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 12, 1812. His boyhood was spent in Connecticut, and at an early age he was licensed as a local preacher. In 1889 he joined the Michigan Conference; which then included northern Ohio, and in 1859 came to the Traverse country. His experience after coming here is told on other page.

The following mention was made of Northport in March, 1867; "There are two wood docks here, one owned by Messrs. Campbell & Goodrich, at which we landed; the other by Messrs. Fox & Rose, over which there are from twelve to twenty thousand cords of wood shipped and sold annually. Two miles north there are two more docks, one owned by Mr. Pickard, of the Manitou Islands, the other by Messrs. Burbeck & White, of this place. Each of the dock owners has a store, which is generally well filled with the necessaries and even comforts and luxuries of life in the supposed extreme northern region. Father Woolsey runs the only wagon-shop, and Walter Wilson is the solitary 'village blacksmith.' Mr. Moffatt, senior, is professor of ideal gunnery, at the little old school-house on the hill; and the young Mr. Moffatt furnishes legal advice to the people of the entire county, being the only practicing attorney in the county. Mr. William Gill attends to the postal affairs, and sells drugs, groceries and dry goods. Uncle Billy Voice has a firm foundation laid for a saw and grist-mill, to be completed next season.

"Mr. D. S. Jones and his obliging lady will be ever ready to entertain us, while sober, at the 'Sherman House,' in tho most approved style. Mr. Nelson superintends the 'Traverse Bay Hotel.' Mrs. S. G. Wood also keeps a hotel with good accommodations.

"Northport is the county seat, although there are no county buildings, save the jail, to be met with. The various county officers have a joint office over the postoffice near the Union Dock." The county seat was located at this point from 1863 until 1883, when it was removed to Leland.

Northport Lodge, No. 265, F. & A. M., was installed March 5, 1869. The officers were installed as follows: J. M. Burbeck, W. M.; Rev. S. Steele, S. W.; H. W. Nelson, J. W.; Rev. L. W. Calkins, S.

The event was one of considerable interest in the village, and the exercises included a supper at the St. James Hotel. The lodge now has about twenty-five members. The officers in 1884 are: W. M., Rev. S. Steele; S. W., John Scott; J. W., Andrew Scott; Sec, Charles Lee; Treas.. - Litney.

Feb. 18, 1860, a lodge of Good Templars was installed at Northport by Rev. S. Steele, D. D., G. W. C. T., and the following persons elected officers: Mrs. Margaret McClelland, P. W. 0. T.; S. Donaldson, W. 0. T.; Horatio Brooks, W. V. T.; S. A. McClelland, W. S.; William Gill, W. T.; William Mason, W. C; Elias Powers, W. M.; Miss Mary Mason, W. D. M.; Miss Olive Nichols, W. I. G.; Albert Barnes, W. 0. G.; Mrs. Martha Gill, W. R. H. S.; Mrs. S. Mason, W. L. H. S. This society continued for some time, but finally suspended and has not been re-organized.

A Woman's Christian Temperance Union was organized in the winter of 1881 that is doing effective work. The president is Mrs. H. S. Spencer; secretary, John McPhea; corresponding secretary, Miss Jennie (rill; treasurer, Norman Morgan.


William H. Franklin

THE TRAVERSE BAY HOTEL.

This is one of the pioneer institutions of the village, having been built by Deacon Dame, about the year 1860. In March, 1860, William H. Franklin came here from Old Mission and rented the property. Two years later he purchased it, and has kept the hotel to the present time. Mr. Franklin was born in Morenci, Lenawee County, Mich., Sept. 7,1836. Married Dec. 17, 1862, at Old Mission, to Catharine Sweeney. They have three children. Mr. Franklin first went to Old Mission while a single man and worked at farming. At one time he kept a hotel at Elk Rapids. He holds the office of supervisor at the present time.

The firm of Johnson & Hitchcock now own the old Fox A Rose dock.

During the winter of 1884 N. C. Morgan built a new and substantial dock, about midway between the two old ones.

The location of Northport is interesting and peculiar. The harbor is one of the best and most commodious on the lakes. The village is built upon terraces, and has somewhat the old look of a rural village in New England. The surrounding farming country is excellent, but limited in extent, as less than three miles distant to the west is the shore of Lake Michigan.

The Leelanaw Tribune was started at Northport by A. H. Johnson, in June, 1878. During the winter of 1877 and 78 Mr. Johnson removed it to Sutton's Bay. In 1880 it was sold to the Tribune Publishing Company. The name was shortened to Tribune and the office removed to Traverse City, when, after a short time, its publication was discontinued. Mr. Johnson was editor during the whole period of its existence. Politically it was Republican until sold to the publishing company, when it was changed to u Democratic paper.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

In the following personal sketches will he found information pertaining to the business and history of Northport:


Residence of Wm. Gill - Northport MI

William Gill, merchant and postmaster at Northport, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in England in about 1828; came to the United States in 1849; spent one summer in New York and then went to Illinois, where he remained six or seven years. He came to Northport in 1855 an invalid in search of health. Engaged to some extent in farming. In 1863 he began a mercantile business which he has continued to the present time. In the spring of 1863 he was appointed postmaster at Northport, having served as such since the previous fall, and has held the office continuously since, a period of twenty years. He has also held the office of county treasurer fourteen years, and has held various town offices. He was married in 1851 to Martha Eastebrook, and has four children.
Buried at Leelanau Twp. Cemetery

General Charles Barnes, farmer, Northport, was born in Burton, Geauga County, Ohio, in 1820; moved to Steubenville, Ohio, in 1840; remained there till 1844, and was captain of a steamboat on the Ohio River; then removed to Pittsburgh. Penn., and was agent for the steamboat company till 1861. He recruited Company E, of the Ninth Pennsylvania Reserves Infantry, and served three years as captain and major of his regiment and was in command of the regiment when they were mustered out of service; he then recruited and was appointed colonel of the Sixth Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery or Two Hundred and Twelfth Infantry, containing 1,000 men, and served with his regiment in the defense of Washington till the close of the war, and was breveted brigadier-general for meritorious services during the war. He was wounded at Glendale, Va., and again at the battle of Second Bull Run. On his return to private life at Pittsburgh he was engaged in the insurance business for about three years. Served three years as sealer of weights and measures. He came to Northport in 1882 and settled on Section 11 in Leelanaw Township, and is now engaged in farming. Married in 1842 to Margaret J. McCausland. They had one daughter. Second marriage to Marian C. daughter of the late Col. Cyrus Bosworth, of Warren, Trumbull County, Ohio. They have four sons.
Buried at Leelanau Twp. Cemetery

Samuel Gagnon, mill owner, Northport, was born at Bay St. Paul, near Quebec, Canada, in 1831, and in 1885 came to Detroit, Mich., with his parents; remained at home till the age of sixteen years, when he commenced sailing on the lakes, and in 1855 went to work in the Detroit copper works, and in 1857 came to Northport and bought eighty acres of land and pre-emptied one hundred and twenty acres more, and was engaged in farming till the fall of 1883; bought the flouring mill in Northport which he is now running. His mill is run by water power; has two run of stones and a capacity of eighteen barrels of flour per day. He was married in 1855 to Miss Goolah, a native of Canada. They had nine children. His wife died in 1865. Second marriage in 1865 to Margaret Lalonde. They have ten children.
Buried at Leelanau Twp. Cemetery

H.R.Hitchcock, merchant, Northpont, was born in Waukegan, IL, in 1850, and remained at home till 1867, then moved to Wisconsin. Was engaged as clerk in a dry goods store; remained there till 1872; he then went to Chicago and was a bookkeeper till November, 1886, and in March, 1884, with his partner, Mr. Putnam, bought the store they now occupy. They keep a general stock of dry goods, groceries, etc. Mr. Hitchcock was married in 1876 to Lizzie E. Chase, who died in April, 1877. Second marriage in November, 1888, to Hattie A. Wirt, of Trenton, Ontario.

Jesse Motto an was born in Vermont, and in 1849 came to Old Mission, Grand Traverse County, Mich.; was engaged in farming, and in 1857 came to Northport and bought a farm. Enlisted in 1861 and served in the Army of the Potomac till 1864, when he died of disease contracted in the service, leaving a widow and two sons.


Residence of N.C. Morgan - Northport MI

N. C. Morgan, merchant, Northport, was born in Northport in 1858: has lived in the same place since that time. At the age of seventeen years was engaged as clerk in the same store he now owns, and in the spring of 1879 commenced selling goods on his own account, and in August, 1888, bought out the store he now occupies. Carries a general stock of dry goods, groceries, boots and shoes, etc. Married in 1879 to Abbie Voice, a native of Northport.

William W. Aldrich, retired farmer, Northport was born in Dover, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Oct. 17, 1817; is the son of Aaron and Elizabeth Aldrich, who were natives of Rhode Island; his father, A. Aldrich, was born April 27, 1798, and Elizabeth, his wife, was born Dec. 22, 1795, her maiden name being Winsor. Married Sept. 11, 1814. In 1816 they moved to Dover, Ohio; it took them six weeks to make the journey with a team, passing through Cleveland, where there were but three dwellings. He died in Dover, Ohio, May 27, 1850; his wife died Dec. 21, 1869. William W. Aldrich, the subject of this sketch, received the advantages of a good common school education until twelve years of age, and for three years after that time he attended school during the winter months, with this exception he worked faithfully on his father's farm till he was twenty-one years of age. He then hired out to his father for one year, at eleven dollars per month, and the next year worked the farm for one-third of the crop. At the end of that time he bought a farm of his own, with only twenty-five dollars with which to make the first payment. At the end of five years he owned a farm of seventy-five acres. Soon after the death of his wife's father, who was killed by lightning, April 6, 1842, he took possession of the old homestead, buying out the heirs to this farm of 108 acres. He added many other acres. In 18444 he commenced the slaughtering business; increasing trade led him to build a slaughter house, from which for twenty-five years he supplied the Cleveland markets. At the same time he was engaged on Lake Erie in a general coasting trade. Wood, lumber, limestone and coal kept busy three scows. In the spring of 1870 Mr. Aldrich moved to Elyria where he purchased a large farm and was engaged in breeding Hereford cattle, which he continued till a short time since. Was one of the leading breeders of these cattle in Ohio. He moved to Northport, Mich., in the spring of 1881 and bought 300 acres of land. The first year he came he built a house, cleared twenty acres and built two miles of board fence. Married, Feb. 5, 1840, Martha Bassett. They had ten children. Mrs. Aldrich died Nov. 29, 1875. Second marriage, Jan. 21, 1878, to Mrs. Lorinda Hilliard, of La Crosse, Wis.

William H. Nelson, physician and druggist; of Northport, Leelanlaw County, is a native of Erie County, N. Y. Was educated In Erie County, receiving his medical education at Buffalo Medical School. In 1863 he was appointed assistant surgeon of Eleventh Michigan Infantry of the Army of the Cumberland, and served until the close of the war. He came to Northport in 1868 and established a general merchandise and drug store, still continuing the practice of medicine. In 1857 he married Adaline A. Wirts, of Buffalo, N. Y. They have six children: Pascal P., who is book-keeper for Ware & Hecox, Delta Mills, Bay County, Mich.; W. C, editor and proprietor of the Leelanaw "Enterprise" at Leland, Mich.; T. F., of Nelson & Palmeter, editors and proprietors of the East Jordan Enterprise; C. A., who is assisting his father in business and engaged in lumbering; Alice M., at home assisting in the store, and E. H. who is learning the printer's art with his brother at Leland.

Capt. C. E. Wilbur, of Northport, Leelanaw County, was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1858. In 1857 came with his parents to the Manitou Islands, and in 1859 to Northport. Has been a sailor on the lakes since his boyhood. Has been in command of steamboats for the last eight years, and for the past five years of the steamer "City of Grand Rapids," owned by Hannah. Lay & Co., and running between Traverse City and Mackinaw. He was married Dec. 31, 1883, to Rosa Risley of Northport.

William H. Porter, merchant, of Northport, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Illinois, in 1841. In 1848 he came to Manistee, Mich., with his parents, and remained there eight years, when he removed to West Bend, Wis. There he learned the trade of carpenter and joiner. In November, 1861, he enlisted in the Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry, serving with the Army of the Cumberland and under Sherman in the march to the sea. He went into service as a private and served one year, was then detailed to the regional band and subsequently to General Howard's headquarters hand. Was mustered out in July, 1865. In 1864 he was married to Elizabeth W. Dowland, of West Bend, Wis., and has two children. One boy died at Northport in the spring of 1863. Mr. Porter is carrying on a restaurant and pool hall in connection with his grocery
Buried at Leelanau Twp. Cemetery

F. F. Dame, carpenter, Northport, Leelanaw County. Mich., was born in Searsmont, Maine, May 26, 1829. His father Deacon Joseph Dame, was one of the earliest settlers of the Traverse Region. Mr. Dame has been prominently connected with the public affairs of this section of country, having been sheriff of Grand Traverse County, which formerly included Leelanaw County, for two terms, and sheriff of Leelanaw County two terms. He has also held various offices in his own town. He was married March 14, 1863, to Ella E. Sanford, a native of Kent County, England. They have five children. Myrta C. born Jan. 29, 1864: Gilman Marston, born March 26, 1866; Eusebius James, born June 10, 1868: Isaiah Livingston, born June 19, 1870, and Oscar Edmund, born Oct. 17. 1873.

Samuel Warwick, principal of Northport school, Leelanaw County, was born Jan. 29, 1858, in Walsingham, Norfolk County, Canada. Was educated principally at St. Thomas Collegiate Institute. He has taught school most of the time since his graduation in Canada and Michigan. Took charge of the graded school at Northport, Sept. 3, 1883. He was married July 3, 1883 to Miss Jennie Robertson, a native of Traverse County, Mich., daughter of Alexander Robertson, of Garfield Township, Traverse County.

VILLAGE of LELAND

In 1848 Antoine Manseau and John I. Miller, both of whom were mill men, prospected about this part of Michigan, in search of a desirable location for a mill site. Mr. Manseau partially decided to locate at a point just above Traverse City, afterward called Norrisville, but the land being entered ahead of him he and Mr. Miller located at the mouth of Carp River. At that time there was an Indian village on the hill near where Mr. Miller's house now stands. They left soon after, believing that the land had all been bought by white men who would shortly take possession.

Nothing was done at this point until June, 1858, when Mr. Manseau and his son Antoine came and built a sawmill on the river. A dam was also constructed and the mill put in operation. The following September Mr. John I. Miller arrived and settled on his land, where he still lives. The elder Manseau died in 1856, and his widow in 1860. Antoine, Jr., lives near Suttons Bay. John I. Miller remains the oldest settler at Leland, on his homestead, which is upon an elevation near the village, and is one of the finest sites on the shore. Biographies of these persons are given elsewhere in this work.

Mr. Miller was the first postmaster at Leland, and held the office until June, 1801, when he was succeeded by Simeon Pickard, who served seven years. Since then the postmasters have been: Charles Ayer, Gerhard Verfurth, E. A. Doty and W. W. Barton, who has held the office since 1875.

In 1859 Mr. Manseau sold out to Cordes & Thies, who built a dock, and also put up a saw and grist-mill.

Simeon Pickard came here from Northport, and engaged in the mercantile business. Valentine Lee came over from the island and was foreman for Cordes & Thies.

John Bryant had settled on a farm near the village in 1854. Henry S. Buckman, John Lake, L. D. Quackenbush, and perhaps two or three others were also living here.

In 1861 Christopher F. Reynolds came to Leland and built a dock and engaged in the wood business, which he carried on about ten years. Another dock was afterward built by Barton & Pickard.

The first religious worship at this point was conducted by Father crack, one of the early Catholic missionaries, who began to visit Leland in 1855. After him came Fathers Young and Herbstrit.

In 1870 the society built a church edifice. The society is designated as "Holy Trinity," and numbers about twenty-five families.

In July, 1805, the Congregational Society was organized by Rev. George Thomson a somewhat noted African missionary, who resided here for a time. A church edifice was built at a cost of $2,500 which was dedicated in the winter of 1872. After Mr. Thomson left the society was supplied by Rev. McLellan, of Northport. Then Rev. David Laseron came here from England and remained a short time. When he left he carried with him the records of the society, and all efforts to recover them have proved unavailing. He was succeeded by Rev. C. W. Carrick, who remained until June, 1884. The society at the present time is not as flourishing as formerly.

There is also a Lutheran society and church building in the place. The latter was built about the same time as the Congregational Church.

The village is in School District No. 1, of the town of Leland, which was organized soon after the first settlers became located here. A school-house was built which is still in use.

In March, 1867, the dam was carried away, which seriously interfered with business for a time.

We find mention of the village in March, 1867, as follows; "This is a small village of about two hundred inhabitants, whose principal business, like those of all the villages located along the lake, is that of manufacturing wood for shipping purposes, and that of-wooding the many propellers and steamboats that ply our western lakes. There are three docks here; one owned and operated by Messrs. Cordes & Thies; one by Messrs. Pickard & Barton, and the third by Christopher F. Reynolds. Each of these parties also have a general store connected with their wood business.

There is one saw-mill, a stave and heading manufactory, one hotel, kept by M. E. Tilley, some shoe and blacksmith shops.

Located, as it is, between Carp Lake and Michigan, with Carp River connecting, fine facilities are offered and improved, for converting the stately forests surrounding Carp Lake, into wood, staves, etc. by means of tugs and scows. Mr. John I. Miller, the present clerk and register of the county, resides here engaged as a farmer, doing his official business at Northport by deputies.

"This is also the residence of the Rev. G. Thomson a somewhat celebrated African traveler and missionary, author of several books on Africa."

In 1869 a company of Detroit men began the erection of an iron furnace, which was completed and commenced operations in 1870. This company was known as the Leland Lake Superior Iron Co. In January, 1870, operations at this point were noted as follows:

"The village of Leland, situated on the Lake Michigan shore, at the mouth of Carp River, contains, I think, one of the most beautiful and eligible sites for a commercial and manufacturing town in the northwest. There seems to be but one drawback, and that is the want of a good, natural harbor, which the Iron Company intend to remedy by building an artificial breakwater, driving spikes a distance of 800 feet northwest and 250 feet northeast, cribbing up the whole distance and tilling up with cinders and stone from the furnace which, it is said, will cement and grow together like solid rock after being three or four months under water.

"Leland has three stores, two saw-mills and a grist-mill, all doing a good business, I believe; also a good school house, used for educational and religious purposes, and a commodious and very respectable looking Catholic Church, as yet unfinished." The same letter mentioned the furnace. And again in July of the same year:

"Building is going forward at an unprecedented rate, and new dwelling-houses are springing upon every side. Since the Iron Company located here there have been several large additions made to the village plat; such as Brown's, Barton's, Miller's and Thompson of Reynolds.

"The company employs at present about 150 men, all of whom live in the village or in its immediate vicinity. "Intoxication is strictly forbidden among its employees by the company's rules; and no liquor is sold in the place except on the sly or from some steamer touching to wood. As a consequence drunkenness is very uncommon. In this respect this place appears in marked contrast with most small villages into which a new enterprise has caused a large influx of inhabitants from the surrounding country. There is not a saloon in Leland.

"With regard to the progress of the iron works, there is considerable to be said. The furnace proper is completed all but laying up the hearth, which is to be commenced immediately; the tire-brick, the hot blast and water pipes and water-table plates being all on hand and the bottom stone cut. This will take about two weeks, so that by the 1st of August the furnace will be ready to put fire into. The casting house is framed and raised all but the roof.

This is a large structure and is to be lined with brick. The water tank, to contain 220 barrels, has been raised to the top of the elevator. This is to hold water to work the elevator and supply the water pipes of the furnace. The flume has been entirely completed and is now ready for the reception of the two Houston wheels which are now daily expected to arrive. The ten kilns are all completed except turning the last four.

"Wood has been brought down from Carp Lake for the last month at the rate of from fifty to eighty-five cords per day. The amount is to be doubled as soon as the requisite number of scows is completed, there being only three out of the six now ready. This work of scow building is being rapidly pushed forward, however, under the supervision of Mr. James Washburn, who is widely known as an efficient ship-builder throughout this region; and the wood will soon begin to come down at the rate of 126 cords a day."

The following is a list of the officers of the company: A. H. Dey, president First National Bank, Detroit, president; D. Betthune Duffield, vice-president; William G. Thompson, secretary and treasurer; Gen. William W. Duffield, president manager.

The Leland Lake Superior Iron Company appears not to have been very successful in carrying out their project, for early in the summer of 1872 the entire capital of $150,000 had been sunk, and the property was sold to Capt. E. B. Ward, of Detroit, who assumed the indebtedness of $110,000. Capt. Ward sold a half interest to W. G. Thompson, and the firm name adopted was E. B. Ward & Co. The furnace was rebuilt and operated. Subsequently it passed into the hands of the present company. The works are now capable of turning out about forty tons of iron a day, although that is more than the average product. The furnace has twice burned and been rebuilt.

The furnace is an important industry, but for several reasons it is a check upon the general prosperity of the village. A large amount of village property is owned by the company, and is kept out of the market, while the kilns being located in a central part of the village render a large area unfit for occupancy.

The population of the town of Leland in 1884 is 839, find of the village 870. The county seat was removed from Northport to Leland in 1882, but the advantages accruing to the new site are not material as yet. The location of the village site is exceedingly fine, commanding an extensive view of Lake Michigan, Carp Lake and Manitou Islands. The country back of the village is a good farming country, the roads are excellent and the boating and fishing are not excelled anywhere. There are a few stores, but the business of the place is mainly confined to the interests of the iron company.

There are two hotels, the Cummings House and the Leland House. The former is the favorite with summer travelers.

THE ENTERPRISE

The Leelanaw "Enterprise", William C. Nelson, editor and proprietor, was established in October, 1877, at Northport by 15. H. Derby. In October, 1879, Mr. Nelson took charge of it. Following the change of the county seat it was moved to Leland in January, 1883.

Mr. Nelson is a native of Buffalo, N. Y., born in July, 1859, came with his parents to Northport in 1874. He commenced his career as printer on the Leelanaw "Tribune"; Has been employed on various other papers in the Traverse Region. The Leelanaw "Enterprise" is now the only newspaper published in Leelanaw County.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

Adam N. Pickard was born in Madison County, N. Y., in 1792. Moved to Niagara County in 1820, and lived on a farm till 1864. He then moved to Leland, Leelanaw County, Mich., where he died in 1868. Married in 1816 to Nancy Ehle, a native of New York, who died in 1881. Three children survive them: Simeon Pickard, Mrs. B. B. Ellis and Mrs. W. W. Barton, all residents of Leland.

Simeon Pickard, Leland, was born in Madison County, N. Y,, in 1825. His parents moved to Niagara County, N. Y., in 1820. The subject of this sketch came to the North Manitou Island with his older brother, Nicholas, and engaged in supplying boats with wood. At that date the travel was all by the lakes, as there were no railroads through Michigan. Boats called at the island daily each way, and the small colony increased rapidly. There were no white people living on the mainland between Manistee and Presque Isle on Lake Huron except at Mackinac Island. There was at this time an Indian village where Leland now stands containing about three hundred persons. They used birch-bark canoes and often visited the island to fish and buy goods, as there was no place where they could trade nearer than Mackinac Island. In 1854 Mr. Pickard built a pier and established a wooding station on the west tide of the island. Sold out in 1857 and moved to Northport and in 1859 came to Leland and has taken in the mercantile business since that time till two years since. Has been county register of deeds four years, postmaster at Leland seven years and has held several township offices. Married in 1855 to Almerine Beaman, a native of Trumbull County, Ohio. They have four daughters and two sons. His sons are in the mercantile business at East Jordan, Charlevoix County.

Jasper Robinson, superintendent of the Leland Iron Works, was born in Vermont in 1830. In 1844 his parents moved to Ohio, near Cleveland. In 1859 he came to Michigan and engaged with Judge H. H. Emmons, farming and stock raising during the summer, and in the winters getting out wood for E. H. Ward at Wyandotte. He remained there until 1866, when he went to the vicinity of Toledo for the Manhattan Iron Company, and was engaged in putting down railroad track for the transportation of wood. Returned to Wyandotte in 1867 and engaged with E. R. Ward to furnish coal for furnace one year. Then again to the Emmons farm, farming and stock raising summers and getting out wood winters us before. Remained there till 1878, being seventeen years in all on the Emmons farm. During that time he took out about 150,000 cords of wood. In 1878 he went to Wyandotte and engaged in the lumber business with a son of Judge Emmons. In the fall of 1879 he came to Leland as superintendent of the Leland Iron Works. He was married in 1854 to Elizabeth Proctor who died in 1882, leaving four children. His present wife is Emma Dalton, of Leland. They have one child.

L. J. Groben, merchant, Leland, Leelanau County, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He remained there several years when he went to Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw County, and clerked for Delister & Sons. Came to Leland in 1870 and bought the mercantile business of the Peter A. Cordes' estate. He carries a full stock of general merchandise and deals also in wood, ties, etc. He was town treasurer for two terms. Married in 1881 to Ida Barton, a native of Northport, Leelanaw County. They have one child. F. G. Weyant, bookkeeper for the Leland Iron Company, was born in Orange County, N. Y., in 1885 on the same farm where his father was born and brought up. He was four years employed as book-keeper of the Sterling Iron Railway Company, of Orange County, N. Y. In 1872 he went to Bangor, Mich. Kept books for the Bangor Furnace Company three years and was superintendent of the same one year. He then had charge of the coal kilns and general business of the company about six years. Came to Leland and to his present employment April 7, 1872. He was married in 1861 to Effie M. Gurnee, of Rockland County, N. Y. They have three children. One son seven years of age was drowned in the summer of 1888 in Carp River.

C. J. Allard, fisherman, of Leland, Leelanaw County, was born on Mackinac Island in 1830. At the age of fifteen he commenced life as a sailor on the lakes, following that occupation six years. Served on« year on the revenue cutter Erie, Capt. Dobbins commanding. He then engaged in fishing, following that occupation fourteen summers at Gull Island. In 1879 he moved to Good Harbor and thence to Leland. He was engaged in the Mormon war, so called, and was burned out four times in succession. Nov. 80, 1853, he married Margaret Metty, a native of Detroit. They have had thirteen children, of whom six have died. Mr. Allard's father, Simon Allard, was a native of Montreal, Canada. He spent thirty years of his life on Lake Superior in the employ of the American Fur Company. Was afterward for a number of years in the employ of the government under the Indian Bureau on the island of Mackinaw working at his trade of blacksmith. Thence he went to Depere, Wis., when there were but three or four houses in the place. He remained there four years, working at his trade. He returned to Mackinaw Island, where he died in 1880, aged eighty-seven years. Mrs. Allard died May 11, 1841. She was Elizabeth, daughter of Patrick McGulpin, from whose family McGulpin's Point, near Old Mackinaw, took its name. His brother William was a soldier of the war of 1812, serving at Old Mackinaw.

John Dalton, foreman for the Leland Iron Company, of Leland, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in New York in 1827. The first seventeen years of his life were spent on a farm. He then left home and went to Wisconsin, where he remained until 1848, being mostly engaged in running a threshing machine and in breaking land. In 1848 he went to the Manitou Islands, where he was employed to the wood business and in charge of dock. Came from North Manitou to Leland in 1866, and since the Iron Works were started has been yard-foreman and in charge of the wood business of the Leland Iron Company. Has been several years justice of the peace and now holds that office. He was married to September, 1858, to Amanda Dexter. They have had eight children, of whom seven are living. Mrs. Dalton is a daughter of Moses H. Dexter, a blacksmith by trade, who settled on North Manitou in 1849. He is now living in Walworth County, Wisconsin, at the age of eighty- four.

Anthony Pohoral, manager of the Leland Iron Company's Store, was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1855; in 1857 moved to Chicago with his parents, and in 1863 came to Traverse City; remained there till 1873 when he came to Leland and has been engaged in his present business since that time. Married in 1880 to Harriet Drake, a native of Canada. They have one living child.

C. H. Dunkelan, proprietor of livery stable, Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in Germany in 1854, and in 1857 came to America with his parents, who settled on a farm near Leland. He was brought up to farming, continuing in that occupation until 1881, when he established a livery business at Leland.

Napoleon Paulus, restaurant keeper, Leland, was born in 1834, in Canada. Came to Leelanaw County, Michigan, in 1858, and settled on Section 24 in Bingham Township; was engaged in farming in that township and in Leland till 1881. Enlisted 1884 in the Fifteenth Michigan Infantry and served till the close of the war under General Sherman. He opened a restaurant in Leland in 1881 and still continues the business; married in 1858 to Philomena Manseau, a native of Wisconsin. They have eight living children. Henry J. Dunkelan, saloon keeper, Leland, was born in Germany in 1848; came to Leland in the fall of 1860 with his parents, who settled on a farm in Leland Township; he remained on his father's farm till nineteen years of age; he then went to Long Island, N. Y., and worked in a tin factory one year, then went to Chicago and worked in commission store nearly a year; came to Manistee, Michigan, in 1870, and was engaged in lumbering; remained there till 1875. when he returned to Leland and opened a saloon and has carried on the business since that time. Married in 1879 to Odelia Egler, who died in 1880.
Buried at Paulus Cemetery

Christopher F. Reynolds, farmer, Leland, was born in Ireland in 1820; came to America in 1840 and landed in Brooklyn City, L. I., and worked on a farm near the city two years, and then moved to St. Clair County, Michigan, and bought a farm; lived in that county till 1861, when he came to Leland, built a pier and was engaged in the wood business till 1871; since that time has been a farmer. He now owns over four hundred acres of land on Section 16, Leland. Married in 1847 to Mary Casey, a native of Ireland, who died in 1862. They had eight children.

Valentine Lee, of Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in New York City in 1828. Seventeen years of his life have been spent as a sailor on the ocean and lakes, and he now holds a captain's commission. In 1858 he went to the North Munitou and remained nearly two years, being engaged in running a ferry between North Manitou and mainland. In 1859 he came to Carp River and was in charge of the wood dock of Cordes & Theiss. He spent four years in Detroit, where he was deputy U. S. marshal, and during tho war provost-marshal and engaged in the recruiting service. In 1866 he returned to Leelanaw County. In October, 1882, he bought a farm of forty acres in Section 24, town of Leland. Is also engaged in the wood business. Married at Leland, in 1864, to Jane Voorhes, who died in 1877. In 1880 he married Clara Anderson. He has three children. Mr. Lee was sheriff of Leelanaw County in 1872.

Barton B. Ellis, hotel proprietor of Leland, Leelanaw County, was born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1827. From there he went to Niagara County where he engaged in farming and worked at his trade of carpenter and joiner. Came to Leland in the fall of 1868 and clerked in a store one season. Built several stores and other buildings at Leland and had charge for eight or nine years of the saw-mill, and subsequently of the mill at Sutton's Bay. Milling has been his business a good part of his life. He was supervisor of the town of Leland one term, and superintendent of schools several terms. He was married in 1851 to Mary Loveland, who died in 1861, leaving two children. In 1871 he married Eliza Ann Pickard.

Alfred John, county clerk, Leelanaw Co., was born in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, in April, 1836. In 1837 his parents moved to Illinois where he was brought up on a farm. At the age of thirteen he lost the use of his right leg. At the age of fourteen he started in life for himself, being given his time by his parents. He learned the shoe-making trade at which he worked fourteen years. In 1866 he went to New York and remained until the fall of 1867, when he removed to Northport, Leelanaw County. In 1860 he commenced his official life as town clerk. Following this was justice of the peace. Since 1872 he has been either county clerk or register of deeds, and while he has held one of these offices has been deputy of the other. He was married Jan. 26, 1870, to Hannah E. Wiegand, niece of Robert Lee, one of the first pioneers of the Traverse Region. They have six children. Mr. John's father, who for the last fourteen years has been a member of his family, died February 11, 1881, aged nearly seventy-seven years.

Andrew Halmond, captain and owner of the schooner G. Barber, was born in Germany in 1846, and in 1852 came with his parents to America and lived on Grand Island near Niagara Falls, N. Y., and in 1857 came west and settled on North Manitou Island where his father died in 1861; his mother died on the island in 1858. At the age of twenty years he commenced sailing on the lakes, and in 1876 became master and owner of his vessel. He owns five hundred acres of land three miles south of Leland, and during the winter season is engaged in getting out cord wood and carries it with his own vessel to Milwaukee. He has lived in Leland since 1872. Married in 1882 to Minerva Putnam, a native of Canada.

Cornelius Jones, proprietor of the Leland House, Leland, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Prussia, May 8, 1818. He was bred a farmer. Came to America in 1842 and settled in New York where he was employed in farming until 1849, when he came west and engaged in the wood business of the North Manitou. Came to Leland in 1855 and bought 110 acres of land in Sections 25 and 26, where he lived until 1865, when he came to Leland village and tended dock for Christopher Reynolds, Mrs. Jones having charge of the store. He has been also engaged in the real estate business, buying and rebuilding houses, etc. Bought the Leland House in 1869; has added to it and has been ever since then its proprietor. He was married January 15, 1849, to Barbara Schaub. They have had one child, who died in infancy.

GLEN ARBOR

The first settlers at Glen Arbor were John E. Fisher and Dr. William H. Walker, who came from Wisconsin in 1854. They landed on Manitou Islands and came to the main shore with their families and goods in small boats. The next season George Bay landed here with two families from Ashtabula county Ohio, bringing with him a small saw-mill. They landed from the propeller Saginaw, August 28, 1855. That was the first boat that ever made a landing in this bay. The next summer Mr. Ray, with a partner, commenced building a dock, which was completed in 1857 and afterward known as the Central Dock.

The first religions meeting in the town was held at Mr. Ray's house in 1856, by Rev. Charles E. Bailey. The first political meeting was also held at his house by Messrs. J. G. and T. J. Ramsdell.

In 1860 the dock passed info the bands of Capt. A. W. Rossman and M. D. Todd.

In 1862 Thomas Kelderhouse built another dock in the northeast part of the bay about three miles distant from the Central Dock.

In 1865 C. C. McCartey built another dock on the northwest part of the bay, which afterward passed into the hands of the Northern Transportation Co., of Cleveland.

Glen Arbor was made a port of entry in 1865, and George Ray was appointed inspector and deputy collector of customs. In March, 1867, mention was made of Glen Arbor as follows :

"Glen Arbor is completely nestled 'among the pines' and oaks, which give it a very pleasant appearance at all seasons of the year. It has, I think, about 200 inhabitants, one wood dock, owned by the Todd brothers, who also have a store; another store by Mr. William H. Cooke; blacksmith and cooper shops, etc. This village is also situated between the elegant little Glen Lake and Lake Michigan and businessmen of the town propose to cut a canal to connect the two lakes. Mr. C. C. McCartey, owning and occupying a dock about three-fourths of a mile from the other dock, has already placed a tug on Glen Lake, which is used in scowling wood. Mr. McCartey is a man of energy and ability —in short, a true gentleman.

"John E. Fisher has a residence about two miles out of town, on Glen Lake"

July 5, 1863, Rev. A. Joy, originally from Vermont, but directly from Ohio, landed at Glen Arbor. He was, at that time, by reason of age and infirmities past his active and constant labors in the ministry, and came into the region to find a home for himself and family, for his declining years. He was, however, disposed to do for religion in general and for his own, the Baptist denomination, in particular, whatever was in his power. As this morning was the Sabbath, he stopped at one of the first houses that looked like affording a home for the day. The place at which he stopped was the house of Mrs. Dorr, and he learned that she and other ladies were engaged in an effort to sustain a small Sunday-school, and at the appointed time he accompanied her to the place of assembling. This was a small unfinished house, one room of which was occupied by their weekly school. He found present three ladies as teachers, and about fifteen children. Mr. Joy made an appointment to preach in that room at five o'clock in the afternoon. There were present at the preaching service twenty or twenty-five persons. This is said to have been the first sermon preached by a Baptist minister in this region. Mr. Joy subsequently settled on a homestead in the town of Joyfield, Benzie County.

The Congregational Church at Glen Arbor was re-organized Aug. 11, 1867, by a Congregational Council. It had been organized some time before as a Union Church. Rev. Daniel Miller was ordained as pastor in 1868. He had been for many years a local preacher in the M. E. Church.

BIOGRAPHICAL

George Ray, of Glen Arbor, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Great Barrington, Berkshire County, Mass., in 1819. He went thence to Ohio in 1882 and clerked and taught school until he was twenty-one years old, when he engaged in merchandising. In June, 1855, he came to Leelanaw County, Mich., and selected several hundred acres of land. Returning to Ohio and thence to Buffalo he chartered the steamer Saginaw, loaded upon it a sawmill, household furniture, two cows and other freight needed for a new settlement and came to Sleeping Bear Bay. This was the first steamer which ever entered the bay. There were fourteen passengers for this point. Besides Mr Ray and his family there were W. D. Burdick and Erasmus Nutt and other families and others without families. Soon after his arrival a postoffice was established, and Mr. Ray was appointed postmaster, holding the office nearly all the time since. He has been county clerk, coroner, U. S. commissioner for the western district of Michigan, government agent for the sale of revenue stamps, customs house officer, and town clerk and justice of the peace most of the time since his coming. Mr. Ray was married in 1816 to Jane S. French, a native of Massachusetts. They have two sons, Welby C., who is with his parents, and Edmond F. in Ludington, Mich.

L. F. Sheridan, merchant, Glen Arbor, was born in Oswego County, N. Y. in 1837; remained in that county till 1850, then made a trip to Pike's Peak in company with two others; fitted out a train at St. Joseph, Missouri, taking out twenty-seven passengers; remained through the season; then returned overland to his old home in New York, and in 1860 went to Saginaw and worked at lumbering till 1861, when he came to Glen Arbor and engaged in fishing, and in 1863 took as a homestead 100 acres of land in Section 32 in Cleveland which he still owns. In 1870 he went to Maple City and bought an interest in the shoe peg manufactory; remained there until 1878, when he was appointed government light-house keeper on South Manitou Island; remained there till 1883. He then opened a store at Glen Arbor, where be keeps a general stock of dry goods, groceries, provisions, hats and caps, boots and shoes, etc.: is also manufacturing a washing machine called the Ladies' Friend; is a partner of Kasson Freeman, of Grand Rapids, Mich., in the manufacture of a fire escape which they consider very valuable. He was supervisor of Cleveland Township seven years. Married in 1862 to Mary A. McCollman, a native of Jefferson County, N. Y., who died in September, 1883. They had three sons and one daughter.

Charles Durbrill, miller, Glen Arbor, Was born in Canada in 1829, remained at home till 1846 when he left to learn the miller's trade; worked at milling in Canada till 1863. He then came to Glen Arbor and lived a few months; thence to Glen Haven and run McCarthy's mill, the only flouring-mill within thirty miles. In 1864 the mill was bought by Mr. Burdick and moved to Burdickville. He took up a homestead of 160 acres, a large portion of it in Glen Arbor Township, the balance of the farm being in Cleveland. He worked on his farm during the summer season, running the mill at Burdickville in winter for two years. He still owns his farm which he has improved by building a house and barn and planting a good orchard. He thinks of retiring to his farm soon and give up the mill to his son. In 1866 he went to work in a mill near Glen Arbor, built by the late Mr. Kedderhouse. He run that mill two years, then went to Glen Haven and run a mill built by the Northern Transportation Co.; run that mill one year until it was burned, then went to work on his farm; remained there three years; is now running a fine new mill built by Mr. Kedderhouse one mile east of Glen Arbor. Married in 1861 to Mary Jane Hilton, a native of Canada. They have three sons and one daughter.

Nicholas Pickard, deceased, was born in Madison County, N. Y., in 1817. In 1846 he came from Buffalo, N. Y., where he was engaged as his uncle's agent in supplying wood to the steamboats, to the Manitou Islands and established a station for the supply of wood to the steamers plying between Chicago and Buffalo. There were then but two or three families on North Manitou and a wooding station on South Manitou. No settlers were on the mainland from Manistee to Presque Isle. In 1847 he sold his interest in the business at North Manitou and removed to Buffalo where he remained two years, and returned to North Manitou, engaging again in the wood business and operating a sawmill; his family residing in Buffalo during the winters and on North Manitou in summer.

He removed to Leland in 1878 and commented the construction of a pier on his property at that point, still continuing his business on North Manitou. He was married in 1847 to Mrs. Nancy Buss, of Niagara County, N. Y. They had eight children of whom two only survive, viz: Burnside N. and Mrs. C. A. Rossman, both of Glen Arbor, Leelanaw County, Mich. Mr. Pickard died in April, 1876; Mrs. Pickard lives with her son, B. N.. at Glen Arbor. The latter was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1861. He engaged in his present business of general merchandising at Glen Arbor in 1879.

Daniel Miller, farmer, Glen Arbor Township, was born in Dansville, Livingston County, N. Y., in 1866. Remained in that county till 1841. He then moved to Clayton, Genesee County, Mich. Was there engaged in farming and the manufacture of potash and saleratus till 1862, when he moved to Glen Arbor Township, Leelanaw County, and bought 160 acres of land of the government on Section 29. His farm lies on an elevation which gives him a fine view of Lake Michigan and the South Manitou Island, and the winds from the lake make it a fine fruit country. He has been highway commissioner one year. Married in 1831 to Ann Hart, a native of Livingston County, N. Y. They have seven sons and two daughters; one son living in Genesee County, Mich., one in Nevada, and five near their father's home, on Miller's Hill. One daughter lives in Genesee County and the other is at home.

Wells B. Miller, farmer, of Glen Arbor, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Dansville, Livingston County, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1833. During his boyhood his parents removed to Genesee Comity, Mich., where he remained until 1861. In May of that year he, with his father and brother, came to Leelanaw County prospecting. He preempted 145| acres of land in Section 30, Town 29, Range 13. This pre-emptied he afterward changed to a homestead entry. On this tract; is the elevation known as Miller's Hill, the view from which is said to be the finest in northern Michigan. Mr. Miller moved in with his family in October, 1861. Mrs. Miller was Cynthia Johnston, a native of Ohio. They were married in October, 1854, and have five children. Mr. M. has held the office of town treasurer two years, and of justice of the peace three years.

Sutton's Bay

Sutton's Bay, like many other villages in Leelanaw County, has a charming location, but except in cordwood, ties, bark, etc., its business is limited. In January, 1866, the following mention was made of this point:

"A new village has also sprung into existence near the head of Sutton's Bay, which, in honor of Mr. H. C. Sutton, the former and early owner of the soil upon which it stands", has been christened Suttonsburg, by the acting register of deeds. This infant, Suttonsburg, bids fair to become quite a boy within a few years; and if it does not then the fault will be in itself, for Nature has dealt nobly with it. The bay, at the head of which this village is built, is a body of water four or five miles in length, and about two miles in width; is tributary to Grand Traverse Bay, intersecting it from the west, about twenty-four miles from its junction with Like Michigan; is deep enough to float any steamboat on the lake. Extending in a southwestern course, as it doe-, there is but one direction from which the wind can approach and be at all violent; and then it is not sufficiently boisterous as to materially affect boats lying at its dock. The site of the village is a pleasant one, gradually rising from the bay and extending westward over an even, fertile piece of land, broad enough for a city of an untold number of inhabitants. Suttonsburg is situated about three and a half miles from the geographical center of the county, and, therefore, if the county seat should ever be removed from Northport, will probably be the point fixed upon by a majority of the people for its permanent location."

Mr. Sutton is now a resident of one of the western states. In the spring of 1871 Rev. A. Herbstrit, a Catholic: priest, made purchase of about 6,000 acres of land on Sutton's Bay, and laid out the village of Pleasant City. He was unable to carry out his project and the scheme was a good dial of a fiasco. In 1880 mention was made of the village as follows:

"Sutton's Bay is a lively place of 250 or 300 inhabitants, containing four stores, two hotels, a tine brick school-house, a sawmill, printing-office, blacksmith and shoe shops, etc. Quite an extensive mercantile business is transacted at this place, and beyond, situated in the center of a tract of valuable farming land, it must inevitably become a village of importance. The Catholics have a good church edifice at this place, and other denominations hold religious services in the school building. There are three docks in the village. An extensive wood trade is carried on here."

The Leelanaw Tribune; which was published here for a time, was afterward moved to Traverse City. The school-house above mentioned is the finest school building in the county. Michael A. Heuss, carpenter, of Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw County, was born in Germany in 1835. He learned there the trade of carpenter and joiner. Came to America in 1851, to Wisconsin, and worked there a year. Came to Sutton's Bay, June 2, 1871, and has since made this his home. He was married in 1864 to Alice Lee, a native of Michigan. They have four boys and three girls. Mr. Lee has been supervisor of the town of Bingham two terms, clerk several terms, and has held other offices. Has been notary public for ten years. He is the operator of the Western Union Telegraph office at Sutton's Bay, the office being in his house. Mr. Heuss, in company with Geo. Steimel is about to construct a planing-mill at Sutton's Bay, to be in operation during the summer of 1884. The machinery is already on the ground.

William Parkes, engineer, Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in England in 1846, and learned there the trade of engineer. Came to America in April, 1864, to the state of Ohio, where he remained about three years, following his profession. About the year 1867 he came to Maple City, Leelanaw County, where he assisted in the construction of the shoe peg factory of J. T. Sturtevant. Built also a mill at Bingham for W. B. Boone. His been employed in engineering and in the construction of mills at Manistee and at many other points in the state. Came to Sutton's Bay June 18, 1883, and took charge of Greilick Bros. mill, which he is now operating. He was married in 1860 to Annie Tremaine, of Maple City, who died October 15, 1882, leaving two children.

Capt. J. C Anderson, hotel-keeper at Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw County, was born in Norway, March 19, 1830. Came to Buffalo, N. V., as a sailor. Had been sailing on salt water since 1840. Has been master of a vessel since 1852. Continued to sail on the lakes till 1879, when he bought the Union Hotel at Sutton's Bay which he has kept since that time. Married in 1857 to Sarah Goldburn, a native of Norway, who died in 1862. They had two sons. Second marriage in 1864 to Emma Goldburn, a native of Wisconsin.

George Steimel, hotel keeper, Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw County, was born in Germany in 1824. Came to Canada in 1854 and was there engaged in farming till 1864, when he moved to Sutton's Bay and bought a farm in Bingham Township. Carried on his farm till 1874, when he built the hotel called the Bay House, and has kept the house since that time. Married in 1819 to Emma Banagor. They have four sons and three daughters.

George Steimel Jr., druggist at Sutton's Bay, was born in Germany. Came to Canada with his parents in 1851 and to Sutton's Bay in 1863. Spent most of his time farming till 1874. Since that time has been in the mercantile business. Now keeps a drug store. Has been township treasurer two terms. Still holds the office. Married in 1871 to Elizabeth Mook. They have one child.

Burdickville
Burdickville was mentioned in July, 1873, as follows: "This village is located on an elevated table land near Glen Arbor. William Burdick came to this place some sixteen years ago, cleared land and built a saw-mill and grist-mill, which burned down some four years ago. John Helm moved here in 1867 with a stock of general merchandise, and has built up a nourishing business. He has lately built a store which is the best building in the place. S. S. Burnett brought a stock of general merchandise here some eighteen months since. There is also a blacksmith and tailor shop in this place. Burdickville, together with many frontier towns, is without a church organized. It is rumored that Mr. G. W. Stetson intends building a hotel here next season. The inhabitants of the place anticipate having a flourishing town at no very distant day, as they arc located in the midst of a splendid farming country."

The place is at present a local business point, drawing quite a trade from the surrounding country.

John Helm, merchant, Burdickville, Leelanaw County, Mich., was burn in Canada in 1837. Was raised on a farm. Came to Michigan in 1851 and attended school at Grand Rapids and Lamont in winter, and worked at carpentering and other employments in summer until the spring of 1860, when he went to Missouri where he was in a surveyor's office in Hannibal until the war. May 24, 1861, he enlisted in the Sixteenth Illinois Infantry. Served under Rosecrans, Sherman and Thomas. Mustered out June 19, 1864. He then served us clerk of the quartermaster department in Gen. Stanley's corps for a year. In the fall of 1865 he came to the Traverse Region and took up a homestead. The same fall he started a general merchandise business at Glen Haven. Came to his present location, Burdickville, in the fall of 1867 and engaged in merchandising. Has continued here most of the time since. He spent the remainder of 1870 at Washington as a clerk in the general land office, Mrs. Helm carrying on the business at Burdickville. Mr. Helm was married in July, 1866, to Nancy Campbell, daughter of Lockland Campbell, one of the first settlers of this section of country. They have five children. Nettie S., Neil Walter, Edna E., Nannie A., and Maggie K. Mr. Helm was appointed postmaster on the establishment of the office at Burdickville in 1868, and held the office until 1876 when he resigned and Mrs. Helm was appointed. Mrs. Helm is also notary public, Mr. H. has been supervisor of his town two terms and treasurer two terms. Was census enumerator in 1880. For the past two years he has been doing a commission business for parties in his vicinity, making frequent trips to Chicago for that purpose.

Provement, situated at the "Narrows" in the town of Leland, was a prospective village of considerable notoriety, about the years- 1867 and 1868. Mr. A. DeBelloy was an early settler at this print, and in 1867 "The Grand Traverse Bay Mineral Land Association" sunk a well expecting to strike oil, but failed of their object. There is, however, an artesian well some 700 feet deep, from which spouts a stream of mineral water about six inches in diameter, rising to a height of twelve or fifteen feet. This water possesses valuable medicinal qualities.

Glen Haven is a steamboat landing on Lake Michigan, a short distance from Glen Arbor, and contains a dock, hotel, store, etc.

P. P. Smith, of Glen Haven, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, in 1831; was brought upon a farm. In 1855 came to Sleeping Bear Bayou the steamer Saginaw, which brought a party of fourteen to this point. He stopped at what is now Glen Arbor, where he labored at various employments until August, 1862, when he enlisted in the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Infantry, going to Milwaukee, Wis., with others for that purpose. His regiment served in the Army of the Cumberland, under Buell, Rosecrans and Thomas. He was mustered out in June 1865. The same year he visited Ohio, where he married Fannie L. Decker, who died in July, 1882, leaving an infant son. He returned to Glen Haven in 1865 and has ever since been in the employ of the Northern Transportation Company and its successors, being their foreman for about thirteen years. He curried the first mail between Glen Haven and Traverse City. This was in the winter of 1855 bud '56. The route was not requalify established until the following year, and Mr. S. carried the mad under the best contract. He was one of the organizers of the town of Glen Arbor. Has held the office of justice of the peace about eight years. Was appointed postmaster at Glen Haven in 1880, and now holds the office.

John Tobin, hotel proprietor at Glen Haven, Leelanaw County, Mich., was born in Canada in 1846. In the fall of 1880 he came to Leelanaw County, with his parents, who settled on a farm at the Narrows, on the south side of Glen Lake, He learned the carpenter's trade, and has worked at that and at milling in Wisconsin, in Manistee, Mich., and at other points. For the past eleven year*he has resided at Glen Haven and Glen Arbor, engaged in mill work and carpentering. In November, 1883, he took the hotel at Glen Haven, and is now operating it. He was married in August, to Kate King, a native of Wisconsin. They have four children.

Maple City is a postoffice center in the town of Kassen, and does a local business.

Fred. F. Cook, merchant of Maple City, Leelanaw County, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1850. In 1856 his parents came to the North Manitou, where they remained one year, and then moved to Leland or Carp Lake He was brought up to farming; learned also the carpenter's trade, at which he worked eight seasons. In October, 1882, he went to Maple City and engaged in merchandising. Has spent about two years in traveling and selling goods. He was married in 1871 to Mary Jane Thomas, of Leelanaw Township, a native of Pennsylvania. They have three children, two boys and one girl.

William H. Crowell, proprietor of Maple City Mill, Leelanaw County, was born in Trumbull County, Ohio, in 1887; was brought up to farming. In the summer of 1862 he enlisted in the One Hundred and Twenty fifth Ohio Infantry, serving in the Army of the Cumberland. He served two years as a private soldier and one year as lieutenant and quartermaster of his regiment. He mustered out in 1865, at the close of the war. Resided in Cleveland about ten years, engaged in the sewing machine business and in real estate. In 1875 he came to Maple City and engaged in manufacturing, purchasing the shoe peg factory of J. T. Sturtevant. This was burned in 1880, and in 1882 he built his present saw-mill, in which he has also a planer and shingle machinery. He is also engaged in farming, having 205 acres in the town. Married in 1865 to Letticia Haynes, and has three children, two boys and one girl. In 1875 Mr. Crowell secured the establishment of a mail route from Traverse City to Maple City, and was appointed postmaster, holding the office ever since.

Harvey Tremain, miller, Maple City, Leelanaw County, was born in Canada, in 1857. During his early boyhood his parents moved to New York, and when he was seven years old, to Leelanaw County, where they settled on a farm in Section 2, Township 28, Range 10. At the age of fourteen he left home and worked on railroads, in the lumber camps, and on the river. Learned the trade of miller and blacksmith. Has run several different flouring mills in the county. He was married March 22, 1882, to Danna 0. Fish, a native of Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Tremain's parents are among the earliest settle is in the town of Kasson. At the time of their coming there were no roads in the town and only a trail from Glen Arbor to Traverse City.

The early history of New Mission has already been told. In 1868 Mr. Dougherty sold the farm, consisting of 500 acres, 100 of which were improved, to Valentine C. Mills, of Iowa, for $5,000. The following, which appeared in the Grand Traverse Herald, in the spring of 1884, tells the present status of this point: "Some months ago the "Herald" noted the purchase of the New Mission property by a party of Cincinnati gentlemen, who would rebuild the large mission house and improve the property for a summer resort. This work is now being done under the superintendency of J. A. Mossman, who will have general charge of the property.

"The tract embraces 568 acres of land. The harbor is one of the finest on the lakes. New Mission Point is about twenty miles from Traverse City, eight miles from Sutton's Bay and the same distance from Northport. The view from the mission house is magnificent. In a clear day Elk Rapids, Torch Lake, Norwood, Charlevoix and the point beyond, Northport, Sutton's Bay, and far up to the bead of Traverse Bay, where Traverse City is located, can be distinctly seen.

The old mission house is being thoroughly rebuilt. It will be three stories and mansard roof, and is to be 60x76 feet in size. This building stands 118 feet above the bay. It is seventy-six feet from ground to top of cupola and this is surmounted by a flag-staff twenty-six feet high. An easy flight of stairs extends from ground floor to cupola. The building contains thirty-live sleeping rooms, two parlors, spacious halls, verandas, dining room, etc., etc. There is an ice house with a capacity of sixty-eight tons.

"The grounds can be made very fine. There are now 2,500 fruit trees on the place. There is no finer location for a summer resort on the entire shore of Grand Traverse Bay. It needs money to improve such a spot, and the gentlemen who have undertaken the matter will use all that is necessary."

From descriptions already given, it will be seen that Leelanaw possesses some peculiar features. Its geographical position is decidedly singular. There is not a village of any commercial importance, and not a railway in the county. Its resources of climate, soil and scenery are, however, unsurpassed, and it promises to become a rich agricultural and fruit growing region.

The people are intelligent and industrious, and good schools are maintained in all parts of the county.

In 1868 a county agricultural society was organized, which is till kept up, and is in a flourishing condition.

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