Transcribed by Debi Hanes

This county was the first settled by white people, as it was also the first organized in the Upper Peninsula. On its southeastern and eastern boundaries, many of those acts of war, which lend a romance to the history of Michigan, were performed. Within its confines the French explorers found savage hospitality, drew their first converts from beyond the lakes around them, and planted the symbol of their faith on every elevation of the iron-bound coast. Today a portion of the bones of the illustrious Marquette and ten thousand other souvenirs, which link its present with its past history, remain to remind us that there the beginnings of the great west were organized by men who knew not fear, and who comprehended fully the future of the new lands which they came to acquire.

The geological formation of the county is noticed in other pages. The island is made up of the Onondaga salt group of the Upper Silurian system, and the Upper Helderberg limestone group of the Devonian system. The former is twenty-five feet in thickness, forming the base, and the latter is about two hundred and seventy-five feet in depth, forming the body and cap. The face of the south end of the island is most plainly terraced. Beginning with the top of Fort Holmes, more than two hundred feet above the present level of the lake, there are four distinctly marked terraces before we come to the water level, each bearing the undulating line of aqueous formation. Another proof is afforded by the fact that, from the base of Fort Holmes to the present beach, rounded lake pebbles are found two or three feet beneath the surface of any point, all arranged as on the lake shore. The existence of the island is not therefore due to volcanic action, at least in the second place, but rather to a subsidence of the lake water, which may have been gradual for thousands of years.


The Upper Peninsula, its islands, rivers and lakes are phenomenal; so much so, that the more they are seen the more they puzzle and mystify. Nothing is wanting-Nature observes a large scale physically, and oftentimes resorts to uncommon tactics in entertaining those who may visit or settle in this portion of her world. The mirage, aurora, meteor, water-spout, and all such excesses are spread before the inhabitants at intervals.

The people of Mackinac were witness to a majestic spectacle July 17, 1880, a genuine water-spout, the theater of whose gyrations was between Round and Bois Blanc Islands. During the storm, which began shortly before 2 o'clock of that day, a tornado-like cloud was observed coming across the country a half mile south of this village. After it had passed out over the lake, other clouds of ominous blackness were seen moving with great rapidity toward one point; here and there the water of the lake was torn up in great patches and dashed into the finest spray. As the clouds met, a large cone, as black as jet, projected downward toward the water, which was boiling and seething in terrific fury. But a few seconds elapsed before the water and clouds met, and then what every school child has seen portrayed in his geography was seen here in all its grandeur. Resting upon the lake was a perfect cone of water, and resting upon this an inverted cone of cloud. With what force the water was drawn up through the mysterious spout can only be judged by the foam and spray which filled the air on every side. The spectacle lasted about ten minutes, and then the clouds gradually lifted and in a short time all was serene. The storm, which reached its climax in this peculiar manner here, appears to have passed in a northeasterly course over a large part of this county at least.

The moon rising on the night of August 5, 1882, presented one of these scenes, seldom to be observed outside the circle of the northern lake region. It appeared over the horizon as a sail boat wrapt in flame from deck to masthead, and was slow to undeceive the witnesses of its freaks.

The mirage may be seen here at all hours —sometimes grotesque and weird, at other times sublime in its appearances.

The county of Michilimackinac was organized under authority given in the proclamation of Gov. Cass October 26, 1818, in accord with the power granted by Congressional ordinance of July 13, 1787. The boundaries of the county, as then organized, commenced at the White Rock on the shore of Lake Huron, thence with the line of Macomb County to the line between the United States and Upper Canada, thence with this boundary line to the western boundary of Michigan Territory; thence southerly along the western line so far, that a line drawn due west from the dividing ground between the rivers which flow into Lake Superior and those which flow south will strike the same; thence east to this dividing ground, and with the same to a point due north from Sturgeon Bay; thence south to the bay; thence by the nearest line to the western boundary of territory as established by Congress January 11, 1805. The seat of justice was established at the Borough of Michilimackinac by the same proclamation.

Among the first townships was that of St. Ignace.

The township of Holmes was organized April 12, 1827, and the first meeting ordered to be held at the court house on the island in May following. The boundaries of the township were from the point on the Cheboygan River, where Latitude 40*, 30', intersects same, west along that parallel to Lake Michigan; thence north to Latitude 46*; thence east along that parallel until it would intersect a line due north from the place of beginning.

Michilimackinac County, as established under the act of March 9, 1843, embraced all the territory within the following boundaries: Beginning at a point in Lake Huron, south of line between Ranges 2 and 3 east; thence north to the boundary of Town 41 north; west to the line between Ranges 1 and 2 east; thence to the north boundary of Town 42 north; west to the meridian; north on meridian line to north boundary of Town 43 north; west on that town line to line between Ranges 6 and 7 west; north on same town line to north boundary of Town 44 north; west to line between Ranges 7 and 8 west; north to north boundary of Town 45; west on north boundary of Town 45 north, to line between Ranges 12 and 13 west; south on this line to Lake Michigan; thence east along lake shore to place of beginning. The islands attached to the county were Bois Blanc, St. Martin's, St. Helena, the Chenaux, Round Island and Michilimackinac. Organic changes have since been made; still greater changes are looked forward to, and it is thought that within a few years several new counties will be organized.

The organized towns of Mackinac County at present are St. Ignace, Holmes, Brevort, Lakefield, Garfield, Hendricks, Moran and Newton.

The townships of Mackinac in 1860 were Holmes, Moran and St. Ignace. The population of the first, in 1860, was 831 whites, 20 colored and 442 Indians; of the second, in 1860, 104 whites and 140 Indians; and of the third, 76 whites and 325 Indians. In 1870, the population of Holmes was 938 whites and 99 Indians; of Moran, 373 whites and 54 Indians; and of St. Ignace, 405 whites, 132 Indians and 19 colored persons.


The question of removing the county seat was definitely settled April 3, 1882, when the people recorded a full vote.

The whole number of votes given for and against the removal of the county seat was 607.

The votes that contained the words "for the removal of the county seat-Yes," were: St. Ignace, 328; Holmes, 6; Moran, 24; Brevort, 47; Hendricks, 22; Garfield, not canvassed; Lakefield, 25; Newton, 27; total, 479.

Votes that contained the words "against the removal of the county seat:" St. Ignace, 1; Holmes, 117; Moran, 2; Brevort, 0; Hendricks, 2; Garfield, not canvassed; Lakefield, 0; Newton, 6; total, 128.

The vote of Garfield Township was not canvassed.

The special election of June, 1882, decided in favor of the $17,000 loan for the new county buildings at St. Ignace.

The following offers of sites and moneys were made to the committee on building. They go to show that enterprise exists at St. Ignace, and, that the importance of a county seat is fully realized:

Michael Marley offered three bluff sites on Claims 15 and 16; either of these locations to be 300 feet square; and on the four sides of each, streets 100 feet in width to be laid out —with this exception, that if the site offered on Portage street be selected, that street being already of record of a less width, but three sides of the square could have streets of 100 feet width.

The Murrays offered 300 feet square in the heart of the village, to which Mr. Hazleton, of the Mackinac Lumber Company, added $1,000. The Murrays also offered any site the Building Committee might select on their bluff.

Mrs. Amelia Crain offered two locations-one of from three to five acres on the Crain Bluff; a second, of 200 feet front by 100 feet rear on Lake avenue; the first offer commanding a fine view of the Straits from an eminence of nearly two hundred feet: the second, an altitude of perhaps sixty feet, both sites in North St. Ignace.

P. W. Hombach's offer was from three to five acres on Claim 3.

Matilda Wendell, per W. P. Preston, agent, offered two acres on Claim 11.

The Mackinaw Lumber Company, per Manager Hazelton, offered a location 200 feet east of Reagon's shops; also, $1,000 cash if either of the Crain, Murray or Company's sites were chosen.

After viewing the several locations, the committee reported to the board favoring the Marley site, corner of Prospect and Marley streets. The board accepted the report, and subsequently formally located the new county buildings thereon.

A deed of the square is to be conveyed to the county. The chosen site is indeed a handsome one and though many could have wished the Crain Bluff had been taken, because a court house there located would be seen from a great distance lakewards, yet the committee undeniably chose a square nearest the center of the town, having in view the greatest good to the greatest number.


The corner-stone of the new court house which is now in course of erection, and which is to cost something like $18,000, was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the 16th of August, 1882, W. P. Preston, Chairman of the County Board, presiding, and a large number of people being in attendance. Various records and documents, together with copies of Upper Peninsula newspapers, and various coins, were deposited in the box, after which Judge Charles R. Brown, formerly of Kalamazoo, but now a resident of St. Ignace, delivered the address: "Science, art and law, illuminated by the pure precepts of the Gospel of the Old Testament, are keeping step in the great march for the elevation of humanity; in the development of the highest type of civilization. Of this truth, illustrations are to be found on every hand. Two hundred years ago, the pious Father Marquette proclaimed to the untutored savages of this shore the doctrine of peace and good will to men; and, almost within a stone's throw of this spot, erected the cross; and his ashes are today reposing on the shore of our beautiful bay. Who shall say that his labors were in vain? Who shall say that his was not a prophetic vision when he predicted for St. Ignace a glorious future? Who shall say that this is not to be an important center in the world of commerce?

"The old stockades; the little chapel under the hill; the forty dwellings upon the margin of the little-bay; the rude fort held by the two hundred French soldiers of two hundred years ago, have all crumbled into dust. The glorious men of valor and real worth, who bade farewell to the comforts of home to plant Christianity and civilization upon these shores, have gone to their reward, but their 'spirit goes marching on.' The cleared and cultivated fields, which, two hundred years ago, for nearly two miles in width and nine miles in length upon this bay, furnished bread for the savages occupying a territory of more than four hundred miles square, have, as you observe, reared a second growth of forest. Here, in the midst of this forest, the hand of progress, that seemed for so many years to be paralyzed, has again taken the ax and the plow, and promises, at no distant day, to make these hills and valleys 'bud and blossom as the rose.' Already do we hear the busy hum of commerce at our very doors. Shops, stores, manufacturing establishments, dwellings, schools and churches are springing into being on every hand. We may well rejoice that it is our privilege to witness the beginning of this new temple, where, we trust, justice to our children, justice to those who may hereafter unite their fortunes with us, will be meted out with an impartial hand. Let us unite in the hope that it may long stand a monument to the power, the dignity and the justice of law; that, within its walls the private rights of the humblest citizen maybe secure; and that he who dares to violate the law may learn that 'the way of the transgressor is hard.'


The annual session of the Circuit Court of the county began August 15, 1881. Among the lawyers present were: Edwin Hadley, St. Ignace, attorney for D. AM. & M. R. R. Co.; Col. John Atkinson, Detroit; R. E. Frazer, of Sheboygan; T. J. O'Brien, firm of (D. Darwin) Hughes & O'Brien, Grand Rapids; J. J. Brown and Humphrey & Perkins, Sheboygan lawyers; Hon. C. R. Brown, of Kalamazoo, Port Huron and St. Ignace, who once wore the ermine of Circuit Judge, and presided as such at one of the most famous murder trials ever held in the State; S. S. Olds, of Lansing, formerly Secretary of the Republican State Central Committee; also, Lawyers Conner, Cady & Hoffman, and Bennett, of St. Ignace, together with Prosecuting Attorney Packard, Circuit Court Commissioner Butler, Clerk Biddle, Sheriff McLaughlin and (his Deputy) A. F. Stuart.

In the history of Marquette County, reference is made to the courts and bar of early times.

Judge Goodwin retired from the bench August 17, 1881. This gentleman was first mentioned as a delegate from Wayne County to the "second convention of assent," which met at Ann Arbor December 14, 1836, and adopted a resolution giving the assent of the State to the requirement of the act of Congress establishing the northern boundary line of Ohio (cutting off Toledo and vicinity from Michigan), and providing for the admission of the Territory of Michigan as a State. From 1843 to 1846, he was one of the Supreme Court Judges under the constitution of 1835. He was a delegate to and elected President of the convention of 1850, which revised the constitution of 1835, and which is the constitution now in force. He was also a delegate to the convention of 1867, for the further revision of the constitution, which revision was submitted to the people and rejected. He was for many years United States District Attorney for this State. As a judicial officer and lawyer, he early achieved eminence, and, in 1851, was called upon to appear for the people in the great "railroad conspiracy case." He was Judge of this Judicial Circuit for more than twenty years, but was defeated for re-election in 1880 by Joseph H. Steere, of Chippewa, by a vote of 1,084 to 619. His extreme age (eighty-five years) was the most powerful factor contributing to his defeat.

The following is a list of the Clerks of the county from its organization in 1818:

1818-21-Thomas Lyon
1822-24-F. Hinchman
1825-46-J. P. King
1847-52-P. C. Kevan
1853-54-W. M. Johnston
1855-58 —John Becker
1859-63-W. M. Johnston
1864-Charles O'Malley
1865-82-John Biddle


The total number of persons within the county in June,:1880, was 2,902. Of this number, 1,698 were males, and 1,909, females: 2,254 were natives, and 648, foreigners. The whites numbered 2,635, and the Indians, 254, with 13 half-breeds.

The population of the county from 1834 to 1880 is set forth as follows:

Year --Number
* Including twenty-one unorganized counties.

In 1834, according to returns made to the Legislature by John A. Drew, Sheriff, and by J. P. King, who copied the census returns of Mackinac County that year, the number of inhabitants was 899.

In 1847, the whole number of Chippewas on the Beaver Islands was 35; at Manistee River Nation, 73; at Carp River, 75; at Oak Point-Ance's band-92; at St. Ignace, 42; at Chenaux, Huron Nation, 45.

The population of Mackinac County, by political divisions, in 1880, was as follows: Hendricks, 434; Holmes Township, 190; Mackinac Village, in Holmes Township, 720; Moran Township, 306; Newton Township, 286; St. Ignace Township, including Hamlet settlement, 966. The actual population of the township was only 32 in 1880, without the settlement. The total population of the county was 2,902, including 254 Indians.

In 1878, the only Germans in Mackinac County were John Becker, of the Island; S. Highstone, P. W. Hombach and John A. Waltz. Mr. Becker is deceased. His widow is the owner of the Mackinaw House, on the Island. Today, a large portion of the population is made up of the German element.

Mackinac County furnished forty-seven men to the Michigan regiments; ten were produced by draft, eleven drafted men commuted, and twenty-six enlisted under the enrollment system. In the general history, a record is given of the private soldiers and officers furnished to the Union armies from 1861 to 1865.

The aggregate expenditures of Mackinac County for war purposes up to 1866 was $6,727.50, together with public and private contributions for the relief of soldiers' families.

The number of acres of land comprised in this county in 1881 was 704,000; number of farms, 43; number of acres improved, 441.

The number of acres of United States lands open for entry in the county October 1, 1881, was 78,000; of D. M. & M. R. R. lands, 275,666 acres; of State swamp, 120 acres; and of school lands, 34,423 acres.


Mackinac County Sentinel -The first number of this journal was issued April 30, 1880, with James K. Fairchild, publisher. It was published at the old county seat on the Island. In May, 1880, William J. Trotman, formerly of the Belleview Gazette, was appointed assistant editor. In August, 1880, the office of the Sentinel was moved from the Island to St. Ignace. In December, 1880, J. K. Fairchild sold his interest in the paper to Leonard H. Higgins, of Au Sable, and, on December 31, issued his valedictory.

P. D. Bissell, of the St. Clair Republican, purchased this office February 10, 1881.

The Mackinac County Independent was established November 10, 1881, and continued to exist until February 9, 1882, when it was merged into the Northern Spy. The Northern Spy was first issued February 16, 1882, with George H. Hombach, publisher and proprietor. March 9, 1882, Henry Gibson took editorial charge of the Spy, and has conducted the paper up to the present time.

What the future of these eastern counties of the Upper Peninsula will be may be easily surmised. With its lumber and agricultural resources, it gives promise of greatness. Throughout the burnt district, the soil is a clay loam. It does not bake, but, after plowing, slacks up as mellow ashes. There is a large percentage of lime mixed with the soil, so much that if it is burnt in bricks, the lime will slack and burst the brick, and it is thought that the lime contained in the soil is the grand secret of the wheat and other grain crops raised here and on the State road running from Sault Ste. Marie to Point St. Ignace.

There are hundreds of thousands of acres of this rich, fertile land waiting for the industrious farmer to develop it into first-class farms. In the center of this tract of good land there was a flourishing village, sprung up within the last year, where a saw-mill is now running, and lumber can be had at reasonable prices for building. There is also a blacksmith shop in full blast, and a general store, and a good road running from the village to Palm's Station, on the Detroit, Marquette & Mackinac Railroad; also a good road running to Lake Huron, a distance of ten miles. Strongville is the name of the new town. The most of this vast country belongs to the Detroit, Marquette & Mackinac Railroad. The land is held at $4 per acre, one-quarter down, the balance in ten years, at 7 percent interest. Many acres are passing into the hands of speculators, but enough remains to furnish ten thousand families with happy homesteads.


This island is situate about four miles east of the narrow stretch of Mackinac Straits, fifteen miles from Lake Huron, and thirty from Lake Michigan. The area embraced is 2,221 acres, of which the National Park contains 911 acres, the Military Reservation 103 acres, the remainder being held by citizens.

The associations of this island are of great interest to all searchers after ancient history, and when we look back and recall to our minds all the black deeds and murders coming from the hands of the Indians, a panorama is presented of ancient history which is supplied to us by the Indian historian, difficult to supplant by any other in the Northwest. Shortly subsequent to the bloody massacre at old Mackinaw and the setting of the same in flames, the people moved their personal property to the Island for greater protection from the attacks of the savages. One of the first was Dr. Mitchell, who transferred his house from the mainland to the Island.

INDIAN HISTORY The Indians, from the earliest times, have always regarded the Island with awe and veneration; and, in connection with giving the derivation of the name of it, we will also lay before the reader some of the original causes why they viewed it with these feelings.

Indian mythology relates that three brothers of Giant Fairies, in olden times, occupied different islands in this section of country, viz.: The eldest occupied Me-she-nemock- e-nung-gonge (Island of Mackinac), the second, Tim-au-kin-onge, in Lake Michigan, now called Pottawatomie Island; the third, Pe-qua-bic-onge, an island situated in Lake Huron, near the southeastern entrance into Georgian Bay.

The pagan Indians to this day look upon them with awe and respect, and in passing to and fro by their shores, still offer tobacco to propitiate the good will of the Giant Fairies.

Tradition further reports that the present garrison gate overlooks the spot where in olden times an entrance existed to the subterraneous abode of these great or Giant Fairies. This knowledge was obtained from an Indian Chessakee or Spiritualist, who once encamped within the limits of the present garrison garden, which was then a beautiful maple grove, formed of majestic rock maples, similar to those which now grace the base of the garrison hill. He stated that some time during -the night, after he had fallen asleep, a fairy or spirit touched him and motioned him to follow; his spirit or soul immediately left his body and followed his unearthly guide, who led him to an entrance directly below the present fort gate; he was conducted into a beautiful wigwam or dome of vast dimensions, which was illuminated with a bright, unearthly light, the brilliancy of which was increased by reflecting upon a thousand stalactites and crystals of calcareous spar. At the far end of the dome, on a seat of brilliant rock, sat one who appeared to be the leader of the Giant Fairies; diverging from him right and left with the form of the amphitheater, sat numerous fairies or spirits in solemn conclave (the subject was the future fate of the Indian). The Indian Chessakee stood lost in utter astonishment while witnessing the unearthly sight. After an interval, the chief fairy directed that the Indian soul or spirit should be led back to its body, directing him, if asked, to state the fact of their existence, but not to divulge what he had heard, which Chessakee faithfully kept to his dying day.

Another proof of our subject matter is the following: An old Indian chief, upon leaving Mackinac to visit his friends in Lake Superior, thus soliloquized, as the darkness dimly shadowed forth the dark outlines of the Island. "Me-she-ne-mock-e-nung-gonge! Thou Isle of the deep, clear watered lake, how pleasant to think of the transparent waters that surround thee! How soothing it is from amidst the curling smoke of my Opaw-gun (pipe) as seated on the deck of the fire vessel, to trace thy deep blue outlines in the distance, and to call from memory's tablets the stories and traditions connected with thy sacred and mystic character! How sacred the veneration with which thou hast been once clothed by our Indian seers of gone-by days! -how pleasant for the mind to contemplate, as if now present, the time when the Great Spirit allowed a peaceful stillness to hang around thee, when only light and balmy winds were permitted to pass over thee, hardly ruffling the mirror-like surface of thy deep waters! Nothing then disturbed thy quiet and deep solitude but the chippering of birds, the quivering rustling of the leaves of the silver barked birch, and the trembling whisperings of the leaves of the aspen. It was then, also, by evening twilight, the rustling sound of the Giant Fairies was heard, as they, with rapid step and giddy whirl, danced to the strains of sweet, unearthly music, on thy limestone battlements. It was then that the untutored mind of the Indian was led by the mystery that surrounded thee, to look with feelings of awe and veneration to nature's God, and to feel thankful for his many gifts —then he knew not of the existence of fire-water to mar the harmony and blight the beauties of Indian life, which the Great Spirit had surrounded them with."

References are made in other pages to the Indian wars. Here the following story of Sau-ge-mau is given, as it is archaeologically and historically connected with the Island. The writer, William M. Johnson, accepts the matter as history. It agrees with the Schoolcraft and other legends. The harbor of Moneto-wauning on the eastern side of the Great Manitoulin Island, in Lake Huron, presented in appearance and sound, a wild, exciting and novel spectacle. The drum and she-she-gwon (rattle) of the Ojibway and Ottawa tribes were assembling and marshaling their forces of painted and athletic warriors. Above the din of voices, drum and rattle, at intervals, was heard the sau-sau-quan (yell of defiance) of some young brave who, forgetting all restraint, gave vent to his overwrought feelings.

The combined portions of the great tribes of the Ojibways and Ottawas were under the chieftainship of Ningau-be-on and Sau-ge-mau, both noted of old in Indian song and story. They had the year previous selected some of their conquered villages for their future occupancy, and the present warlike and emigrating expedition was for the object of taking possession of these sites. Fifty large canoes led the van, filled with warriors- the center canoes contained the aged, the women and children —the rear was protected by a like number.

In this order they passed Drummond's Island, and encamped for several days at the present detour. Here the chiefs consented to divide their forces —Ning-au-be-on going up the Sault Ste. Marie River, west, and Sau-gemau following the lake southwest with his warriors, passing the Chenaux, he finally encamped on the East Moran Bay, and subsequently his band occupied the West Moran Bay and Oak Point.

Two years previous, the combined bands drove the Ause-gun-ugs from Point St. Ignace and from the southeast side of the present Round Island. These Indians fled from these two points and concentrated their forces at Pequotonong (Old Mackinac). Sau-ge-mau, after locating his band, proceeded across the straits, and after a bloody encounter, drove the Au-se-gun-ugs from Old Mackinac, who fled, following both shores of Lake Michigan, west and south.

The present Cross and Middle Villages were then occupied by Indians called Mush-co-de-insh-ug. A delegation of these Indians met him at Point Waugoschance asking peace and their adoption as brothers. Sau-ge-mau preceeded to their villages, where he was hospitably received. After much feasting, ceremony and counciling, peace and their adoption as brothers was concluded.

The season being well advanced, Sau-ge-mau returned to Moran Bay. He found that, during his absence, a delegation of Iroquois had waited upon his chief in charge of the village, asked and obtained permission to form a settlement upon the extreme point of St. Ignace; their numbers were considerable, mustering 200 warriors.

The following spring, Sau-ge-mau, with a portion of this band, took possession of Pequotonong (Old Michilimackinac), making it his headquarters. From here he sent the wampum war-belt to the Sault, Manitoulin, and to the Cross and Middle Villages, calling the Indians to a grand council. In a few days, Pequotonong shook to the tread of hundreds of plumed warriors, who passed their time in feasting and dancing-while their aged wise men and chieftains assembled in council and planned the conquest of the country south of Old Michilimackinac.

These plans Sau-ge-mau carried out with a large number of warriors; he overran all the country southwest, until he reached the present site of She-gog-onge (Chicago). Some of his parties reached the Illinois River, which they descended or followed until they reached the Mis-sis-zebee (Mississippi) River-extending everywhere. The Iroquois, in the meantime, had occupied their settlement (Nau-dowa-qua-au-me-sheeng)-now Point St. Ignace. A portion of these warriors went east to visit their friends, but, previous to leaving, they had insulted some of the Ottawas, and two or three of them had been murdered. The party going east were suspected. Upon their return, they had reached Point St. Vital, twenty-five miles from Moran Bay, east, when they were decoyed ashore.

A head-dress, adorned with scalp-locks, had been presented to Sau-ge-mau by one of his warriors, which he, without inspection, wore to a feast given by the remaining Iroquois. He thought that he attracted more observation than usual, especially from the Iroquois women. This scrutiny was caused by the head-dress of scalps, displaying light-colored hair; for by this time the Iroquois suspected that their friends had all been killed. Toward night, Sauge-mau came near being assassinated by them. He, however, managed to escape, and reached East Moran Bay. But, previous to leaving, he told them, "Who are you that assume to control matters on my lands? You live here by my bounty. Tomorrow I will visit you." Runners were ordered to go that night to West Moran Bay and Oak Point, directing the warriors to be in attendance on the chief by dawn. On the morrow, by daylight, the Iroquois were attacked and defeated. Not a warrior was spared, except the aged, women and children, who were ordered to embark and leave the country, which they did in haste; but, instead of going east by the Chenaux, they crossed over, in their fright, to the Island of Mackinac.

In the meantime, the warriors from Old Mackinac had crossed over, too late, however, to participate in the morning's action; they felt angry, and, for an excuse, said that their sacred Island was polluted by the Iroquois dogs. They crossed in pursuit, and found the canoes on the beach, in the present harbor of Mackinac. They pushed them off, and a strong west wind carried them out in the lake, and they were destroyed.

The Iroquois, afraid of their lives, and preferring rather to die in the woods than have their scalps taken, fled into the interior of the Island, and found Skull Cave, in which they took shelter. The warriors of Sau-ge-mau were unable to find them. They, however, kept a strict watch for many days; but the miserable Iroquois had mysteriously disappeared forever. Many years afterward, Alexander Henry, after the massacre of Old Fort Michilimackinac in 1763, happened to be secreted in this very cave. He says, in his narrative: "I mentioned to my Indian friend the extraordinary sight that had presented itself in the cave to which I had commended my slumbers." His Indian friend had never heard of its existence before, and, upon examining the cave together, they saw reason to believe that it had been anciently filled with human bones. Wa-wa-tum, Alexander Henry's friend, belonged to the Sault Ste. Marie branch of the combined bands, and probably had not heard of this portion of Sau-ge-mau's history, and of the mysterious disappearance of the Iroquois at this place nearly a century before, which accounts for his ignorance of being uninformed of these historical facts as now recorded.

The Iroquois, to avenge their friends, sent two expeditions into this part of the country. One reached Point Iroquois, sixteen miles above Sault Ste. Marie, where they were attacked by the Ojibways and all killed with the exception of one, who had his ears and nose cut off, and sent home to inform his tribe of their total destruction. Their skulls and bones were seen by the first whites who passed Iroquois Point, bleaching in the sun. The place is called Naudo-wa-we-gun-ing (Place of Iroquois' Bones). The other party reached Point Waugoschance, where they were also totally defeated by the Ottawas, and only one canoe, manned by a small number, escaped to tell of their loss.

The foregoing appears to be the only reasonable and authentic account for the human bones being found in the Skull Cave. The translation of these scraps of tradition solves the enigma which has puzzled scientific inquirers, travelers and our oldest inhabitants respecting them. The first American officers who garrisoned the fort speak of masses of bones and skulls lying at that time upon the surface, but, since first discovered, two-thirds of the mouth of the cave had fallen in, nature herself covering the last remains of her sons and daughters of the forest.


The action of St. Lusson at the Sault de Ste. Marie gave to France a nominal possession of the Northwest. Up to this time, however, none of her fur-traders -none of her missionaries- none of her agents -had yet reached the Mississippi -the great river concerning which so many marvels had been heard. Now, however, the hour was at hand in which would be solved the problem and be revealed the mystery of the "'great water" of the savages. The Governor of Canada was resolved that the stream should be reached and explored. He made choice of Louis Joliet, who was with St. Lusson when the Northwest was for the first time claimed for the King of France, and who had just returned to Quebec from Lake Superior. This was in the year 1672. Said the Governor on the 2d of November: "It has been judged expedient to send Sieur Joliet to the Maskouteins [Mascoutins], to discover the South Sea, and the great river called the Mississippi, which is supposed to discharge itself into the Sea of California." "He is a man," continued Frontenac, "of great experience in these sorts of discoveries, and has already been almost at the great river, the mouth of which he promises to see."

Joliet passed up the lakes, and, on the 17th of May, 1673 (having with him Father James Marquette and five others), started from the mission of St. Ignatius, a point north of the Island of Mackinac, in the present county of that name, in the State of Michigan, journeying in two bark canoes, firmly resolved to do all and to suffer all for the glory of re-discovering the Mississippi. Every possible precaution was taken, that, should the undertaking prove hazardous, it should not be foolhardy; so, whatever information could be gathered from the Indians who had frequented those parts, was laid under contribution before paddling merrily over the waters to the westward, and up Green Bay to the mouth of the Fox River. The first Indian nation met by Joliet was the Menomonees. He was dissuaded by them from venturing so far into ulterior regions, assured that he would meet tribes that never spare strangers, but tomahawked them without provocation; that the war that had broken out among various nations on his route exposed him and his men to another evident danger -- that of being killed by the war parties constantly in the path; that the "great river" was very dangerous unless the difficult parts were known; that it was full of frightful monsters who swallowed up men and canoes together."

We know the result of that journey; while the fatefulness of an accident has left a cloud which envelops the deserved fame of Louis Joliet, the lovely character of Pere Marquette, his story of their tour to the Mississippi, his struggles and death, has also led us to forget that Joliet was first entitled to the laurel wreath for that exploration and discovery. The reward bestowed by the French sovereign upon Joliet for that distinguished service was rather a barren one, being the Island of Anticosti, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The gift proved an unlucky one; his island, in 1691, was captured, and himself and family made prisoners, by a British fleet under Sir William Phipps, suffering the entire loss of his estate. Shea says: "He died apparently in the last year of the seventeenth century." Louis Joliet, the son of a wheelwright, was born in Quebec in 1645. He was educated at the Jesuit College of Quebec, but afterward engaged in the fur trade in the West, and was selected by the Government to lead the expedition in 1673, for the exploration of the Mississippi.


The most remarkable character among the explorers of the Mississippi Valley, in the latter half of the seventeenth century, was Robert Cavelier de La Salle. Viewed in the light and sense of worldly enterprise, he is to be considered as surpassing all others in lofty and comprehensive aims, in determined energy and unyielding courage, both moral and physical. He faltered at no laborious undertaking; no distrust by nerveless friends; no jealous envy or schemes of active enemies, no misfortune damped the ardor of his plans and movements. If there was a mountain in his track, he could scale it; if a lion beset his path, he could crush it. Nothing but the hand of the lurking assassin could quench the fire of that brave heart. We may briefly say that La Salle was born in the city of Rouen, France, November 22, 1643. The name La Salle was borrowed from an estate, in the neighborhood of Rouen, belonging to his family, the Caveliers. Robert was educated at one of the Jesuit seminaries, and as one of that order he continued a short time; but, in 1666, he came to America, and it is said that he made early exploration to the Ohio, and was possibly near the Mississippi before Joliet and Marquette's voyage hither. We can here only allude to a few items and facts in La Salle's career. It was a marked incident, and so appears on the historic page, when La Salle, in 1679, voyaged to Green Bay on the Griffon, the first sail vessel of the lakes above the falls, which he had built on the bank of Cayuga Creek, a tributary of the Niagara. But that business trip was a mere pleasure excursion when compared with the efforts required of him to engineer and bring about certain indispensable preparations, involving ways and means, before the keel of that renowned craft should be laid, and before she spread her wings to the breeze and departed outward from Buffalo Harbor of the future. And what an unhesitating morning walk was that of his, in 1680, when he set out on foot from the fort, which (not him) they termed ' Broken Heart," where Peoria is, to go some twelve hundred miles, perhaps, to Fort Frontenac, where Kingston is, at the lower end of Lake Ontario. His unyielding purpose was not to be delayed, but accelerated, by the avalanche of misfortune which had fallen on him. He could not wait for railroads, nor turnpikes, nor civilization; he could not even wait for canoe navigation, for it was early spring-in the month of March-when the ice still lingered by the lake shores, and was running thickly in the streams. So, with one Indian and four White men, with small supply of edibles, yet with a large stock of resolution, he took his way. The journey was accomplished, and he was back on Lake Michigan in the autumn ensuing. It has been suggested that his own enduring, iron nature, as it might be called-unbending as it was in its requirements of others-served, perhaps, to create enmities and to occasion the final catastrophe. It may have been so; but whatever view may be taken, the doings of La Salle must be called wonderful, his misfortunes numberless, and his death sad. The day on which La Salle was killed is said to have been March 19, 1687.

There is much of romantic interest in the life of Henry de Tonty which will ever attract attention to the story of his experience in the wilds of America. He was born in Naples, Italy, in or near the year 1650. In a memoir, said to be written by him in 1693, he says: "After having been eight years in the French service, by land and by sea, and having had a hand shot off in Sicily by a grenade, I resolved to return to France to solicit employment." It was at the time when La Salle had returned from America, and was getting recruits of means for his Western enterprise. The prime minister of Louis XIV, he that was called the great Colbert, knowing the soldier Tonty well, specially provided that the important project to be undertaken by La Salle should have the benefit of the personal aid of Tonty, who, though maimed and single-handed, was yet ready to go forth to dare and to do. He sailed from Rochelle on the 14th of July, 1678, and arrived at Quebec on the 15th of September following. His death occurred at Fort St. Louis, Mobile Bay, in 1704.

Marquette's Visit to the Island -Father Marquette thus described the Island in 1671:

"Michilimackinac is an island, famous in these regions, of more than a league in diameter, and elevated in some places by such high cliffs as to be seen more than twelve leagues off. It is situated just in the strait forming the communication between Lake Huron and Illinois (Michigan). It is the key and, as it were, the gate for all the tribes from the south, as the Sault is for those of the north, there being in this section of the country only those two passages by water; for a great number of nations have to go by one or other of these channels in order to reach the French settlements.

"This presents a peculiarly favorable opportunity, both for instructing those who pass here, and also for obtaining easy access and conveyance to their places of abode.

"This place is the most noted in these regions for the abundance of its fishes; for, according to the Indian saying, 'this is the home of the fishes.' Elsewhere, although they exist in large numbers, it is not properly their 'home,' which is in the neighborhood of Michilimackinac.

"In fact, besides the fish common to all the other tribes, as the herring, carp, pike, goldfish, whitefish and sturgeon, there are found three varieties of the trout- one common; the second of a larger size, three feet long and one foot thick; the third, monstrous, for we cannot otherwise describe it, it being so fat that the Indians, who have a peculiar relish for fats, can scarcely eat it. Besides, the supply is such that a single Indian will take forty or fifty of them through the ice, with a single spear, in three hours.

"It is this attraction which has heretofore drawn to a point so advantageous the greater part of the savages in this country, driven away by fear of the Iroquois.

"It is worthy of notice that those who bore the name of the island, and called themselves Michilimackinacians, were so numerous that some of the survivors yet living here assure us that they once had thirty villages, all enclosed in a fortification of a league and a half in circuit, when the Iroquois came and defeated them, inflated by a victory they had gained over 3,000 men of that nation, who had carried their hostilities as far as the country of the Agnichronnons.

"In one word, the quantity of fish, united with the excellence of the soil for Indian corn, has always been a powerful attraction to the tribes in these regions, of which the greater part subsist only on fish, but some on Indian corn. On this account, many of these same tribes, perceiving that the peace is likely to be established with the Iroquois, have turned their attention to this point, so convenient for a return to their own country, and will follow the examples of those who have made a beginning on the islands of Lake Huron, which, by this means, will soon be peopled from one end to the other, an event highly desirable to facilitate the instruction of the Indian race, whom it would not be necessary to seek by journeys of two or three hundred leagues on these great lakes, with inconceivable danger and hardship.

'In order to aid the execution of the design, signified to us by many of the savages, of taking up their abode at this point, where some have already passed the winter hunting in the neighborhood, we ourselves have also wintered here in order to make arrangements for establishing the Mission of St. Ignace, from whence it will be easy to have access to all the Indians of Lake Huron, when the several tribes shall have settled each on its own lands.

"With these advantages, the place has also its inconveniences, particularly for the French, who are not yet familiar, as are the savages, with the different kinds of fishery, in which the latter are trained from their birth; the winds and the tides occasion no small embarrassment to the fishermen.

"The winds: For this is the central point between the three great lakes which surround it, and which seem incessantly tossing ball at each other. For no sooner has the wind ceased blowing from Lake Michigan than Lake Huron hurls back the gale it has received, and Lake Superior in its turn sends forth its blasts from another quarter, and thus the game is played from one to the other; and as these lakes are of vast extent, the winds cannot be otherwise than boisterous, especially during the autumn."


Peter Francis Xavier Charlevoix, who was born at St. Quentin, France, October 16, 1682, was for some time a teacher in the Jesuit College, made a tour from the St. Lawrence to New Orleans, via Lake Michigan, in 1721. About the same time, he visited the Island, and also St. Joseph's Island, in the St. Mary's River. His death occurred at Lafleche, France, in 1761.

The American Fur Company.-John Jacob Astor, a German by birth, who arrived in New York in the year 1784, commenced work for a bakery owned by a German acquaintance, and peddled cakes and doughnuts about the city. He was afterward assisted to open a toy shop, and this was followed by trafficking for small parcels of furs in the country towns, which led to his future operations in that line.

Mr. Astor's great and continued success in that branch of trade induced him, in 1809, to obtain from the New York Legislature a charter incorporating "The American Fur Company," with a capital of $1,000,000. It is understood that Mr. Astor comprised the company, though other names were used in its organization. In 1811, Mr. Astor, in connection with certain partners of the old Northwest Fur Company (whose beginning was in 1783, and permanently organized in 1787), bought out the association of British merchants known as the Mackinac Company, then a strong competitor in the fur trade. This Mackinac Company, with the American Fur Company, was merged into a new association, called the Southwest Fur Company. But in 1815, Mr. Astor bought out the Southwest Company, and the American Fur Company came again to the front. In the winter of 1815-16, Congress, through the influence of Mr. Astor, it is understood, passed an act excluding foreigners from participating in the Indian trade. In 1817-18, the American Fur Company brought a large number of clerks from Montreal and the United States to Mackinac, some of whom made good Indian traders, while many others failed upon trial and were discharged. Among them was Gurdon S. Hubbard, then aged sixteen years. He was born at Windsor, Vt., in 1802; moved with his parents to Montreal, left that city for Mackinac, May 13, 1818; arrived July 1, and proceeding to Chicago, arrived there November 1, 1818.

Mr. Astor's attempt to establish an American emporium for the fur trade at the mouth of the Columbia River failed, through the capture of Astoria by the British in 1814, and the neglect of our Government to give him protection. The withdrawal of Mr. Astor from the Pacific coast left the Northwest Fur Company to consider themselves the lords of the country. They did not long enjoy the field unmolested, however. "A fierce competition ensued between them and their old rivals, the Hudson Bay Company, which was carried on at great cost and sacrifice, and, occasionally, with the loss of life. It ended in the ruin of most of the partners of the Northwest Company, and merging of the relics of that establishment, in 1821, in the rival association." Ramsey Crooks was a foremost man in the employ of Mr. Astor in the fur trade, not only in the East, but upon the Western coast, and has been called "the adventurous Rocky Mountain trader." Intimately connected, as Mr. Crooks was, with the American Fur Company, a slight notice of him will not be out of place. Mr. Crooks was a native of Greenock, Scotland, and was employed as a trader, in Wisconsin, as early as 1806. He entered the service of Mr. Astor in 1809. In 1813, he returned from his three years' journey to the Western coast, and, in 1817, he joined Mr. Astor as a partner and for four or five years ensuing, he was the company's Mackinac agent, though- residing mostly in New York. Mr. Crooks continued a partner until 1830, when this connection was dissolved and he resumed his place with Mr. Astor in his former capacity. In 1834, Mr. Astor, being advanced in years, sold out the stock of the company, and transferred the charter to Ramsey Crooks and his associates, whereupon Mr. Crooks was elected President of the company. Reverses, however, compelled an assignment in 1842 and with it the death of the American Fur Company. In 1845, Mr. Crooks opened a commission house, for the sale of furs and skins, in New York City. This business, which was successful, Mr. Crooks continued until his death. Mr. Crooks died in New York, June 6, 1869, in his seventy-third year.


Among the curiosities of Mackinac are the entire set of books of the old American Fur Company at the John Jacob Astor House, which, complete as it is in appointments as a hotel at present, was the headquarters of the company. The books contain not only the full accounts of the company from its formation to its close, but all of the correspondence between the officers of the company and John Jacob Astor and son in New York. The letters are interesting not only in tracing the rise and growth and transactions of the company, its history and rapid and marvelous extension, but in excellence of style and in giving a clear conception of the early location and settlements in the Northwest, and of the habits of the voyageurs. They form, in fact, a history of the entire Northwest, and one as replete with narrative and interest as has ever been written. I doubt whether in the annals of this country there can be found business letters which in point of literary excellence will compare with those of Ramsey Crooks and Robert Stuart. The letters detailing the operations at the various trading points and the adventures of the hardy and daring voyageurs are, some of them, as exciting as the novels of Fennimore Cooper. The books, considering their age, are in a marvelous state of preservation.

In addition to letters to the Astors, there are letters to Gen. Cass, to James S. Abbott, to Gov. Woodbridge and to many other well-known characters in the history of Michigan.

Mackinac was the center from which the operations of the American Fur Company radiated from the head-waters of the Yellowstone to London, England; from the Red River of the North all along the borders of Lake Superior to the southern boundaries of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Nor did the Ohio River form an impassable barrier. Kentucky was invaded and made to yield her quota of peltries in spite of an organized opposition.

In reading the correspondence in these books, one knows not what most to admire, the enterprise of the directors and chiefs of the company, or the intrepidity and hardihood of the voyageurs.

At Mackinac, the traders' brigades were organized, the company selecting the most capable trader to be the manager of his particular brigade, which consisted of from five to twenty batteaux, laden with goods. The chief or manager, when reaching the country allotted to him, made detachments, locating trading houses, with districts clearly defined, for the operations of that particular post, and so on, until his ground was fully occupied by traders under him, over whom he had absolute authority.


In the month of June, 1820, Rev. Dr. Morse, father of the inventor of the telegraph, visited this island, and preached the first Protestant sermon ever delivered in this portion of the Northwest. Becoming particularly interested in the condition of the traders and natives, he made a report of his visit to the United Foreign Mission Society of New York, in consequence of which Rev. W. M. Ferry, a graduate of Union College, was sent, in 1822, to explore the field. In 1823, Mr. Ferry, with his wife, opened a school for Indian children which, before the close of the year, contained twelve scholars. In 1826, the school and little church passed into the hands of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; and, as Mackinac was easy of access to the Indians of the lakes and the Upper Mississippi, it was determined to make it a central station, at which there should be a large boarding school, composed of children collected from all Northwestern tribes. These children were expected to stay here long enough to acquire a common-school education and a knowledge of manual labor. Shops and gardens were provided for the lads, and the girls were trained for household duties. The first report of the mission made to the American Boards of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was at the meeting held in New York September, 1827. It contained the following facts: Number of teachers, eight; Rev. William M. Ferry, Superintendent; John S. Hudson, teacher and farmer; Mr. Heydenburk and wife, Mrs. Hudson, Miss Eunice Osmer, Miss Elizabeth McFarland and Miss Delia Cooke, teachers; there were 112 scholars in the school, who had been collected from the whole region extending from the white settlements south of the Great Lakes to Red River and Lake Athabasca; there had been several interesting cases of conversion.

During the winter of 1828-29,-a revival influence prevailed. Thirty-three were added to the church, and ten or twelve others appeared to have become penitent for sin.

Instances of conversion occurred even in the depths of the wilderness, among the traders. The church now numbered fifty-two members-twenty-five of Indian descent and twenty-seven whites, exclusive of the mission family. The establishment continued prosperous for several years. At times there were nearly two hundred pupils in the school, among whom were representatives of nearly all the Indian tribes to the north and west. Owing to the great expense of the school, the plan was modified in 1833, the number of scholars being limited to fifty, and smaller stations commenced in the region beyond Lake Superior and the Mississippi. In 1824, Mr. Ferry was released from the mission; and, in 1837, the population having so changed around Mackinac, and the resort of the Indians to the Island for purposes of trade having so nearly ceased that it was no longer an advantageous site for an Indian mission, the enterprise was abandoned.

The mission house was erected in 1825, and the church in 1827-30. After the close of the mission, the property passed into the hands of the present occupant.


A bill to establish a National Park on Mackinac Island was introduced in the United States Senate by Hon. T. W. Ferry March 11, 1873. This bill passed March 3, 1875. From his address on the subject, in 1873, the following extracts are taken: Old Mackinac, on the main land of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, was where the British first erected their fort, following in the wake of the Indian choice of the like spot as the commanding one of the Straits. The island of Mackinac was not till 1780 selected as a locality of any importance, and then by the British as a place of security by its isolation from the surprises and incursions of war-like savages. The massacre of the British garrison at Old Mackinac, by hostile Indians in 1763, led to the selection of Mackinac Island as the more secluded, and consequently safer, rather than the most commanding location for the military defense of the Straits. The island falling into our hands by the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, retaken by the British in 1812, and restored by the treaty of Ghent in 1814, has, by these successive transitions, historically grown into military fame. The observant and instinctive Indian chose better when he established his point d' appui at Old Mackinac, where the Straits are but four miles wide, and the narrowest point, rather than, as the white man since has done, on an island seven miles distant from the course of commerce. It will hence be noticed that whatever may be the reasons for retaining possession of the island for Government uses, it cannot chiefly be considered as of much military significance to the nation. Of traditional and historical value, it possesses much to endear it to the people, and as one of the earlier landmarks of national boundary and history, it will not easily pass out of annals or recollections. In the estimation of the natives, who made it a point of interest bordering upon veneration, the island was not only of singular beauty, but made sacred to them by legends and traditions from immemorial tribes and races. Its antiquity is worthy of note. As early as the Puritan landing, it was trodden by whites, for the French occupied and roamed about it in 1615. At Old Mackinac, Pere Marquette established his mission in 1671, and following his death, this mission of peace was transformed into the seat of war. Thousands of Indian warriors held their councils and dances, and planned their murderous forays at these notable chief quarters. The confederate tribes gathered here to devise ways and means to capture and destroy tribal foes. It was the grand place of meeting and point of departure for trade and war. Here the scalps were brought and counted, the wampum distributed, and the warrior decorated. So near this scene of warlike sway, where whoop and song made nightly orgies more terribly hideous, it was not strange that the superstitious Indian, beholding in the distance an island of much natural beauty and grotesque crest, 300 feet above the watery surface, naturally clothed its striking features with the supernatural, naming it the "Island of Great Fairies." To this day the Indian looks upon and treads the surface of the Island with much of the veneration which inspired his fathers’ when they dedicated it to the Great Spirit.


The following description and history of this military post is abridged from Lieut. Kelton's work on the history of the Island. The old block-house on the left was built in 1780, by the British troops under Maj. Patrick Sinclair; beyond, to the left, are two buildings, officers' quarters, built in 1876; passing along toward the flagstaff, we come to another set of officers' quarters, built in 1835, and another old block-house, the upper part of which is used as a reservoir, into which water is pumped, by horse-power, from a spring at the foot of the bluff, and distributed through pipes into various buildings. This innovation on the old-time water-wagon was made in 1881, in accordance with a plan devised by, and executed under the direction of, Lieut. D. H. Kelton, Post Quartermaster. Water was first pumped October 11, 1881.

While re-enforcing the flagstaff in 1869, a bottle was taken out of the base, containing a paper, upon which was written:


This Flagstaff erected on the 25th day of May, 1835, by A and G Companies, of the Second Regiment of Infantry, stationed at this post.

The following officers of the Second Infantry were present:

Capt. John Clitz, A Company, Commanding Post
Capt. E. Kerby Barnum, G Company
First Lieut. J. J. B. Kingsbury, G Company
Second Lieut. J. W. Penrose, G Company, A. C. S.
Second Lieut. J. V. Bomford, H Company
Assistant Surgeon George F. Turner, U. S. A.
David Jones, Sutler

Absent officers:
First Lieut. J. S. Gallagher, A Company, Adjutant
Second Lieut. J. H. Leavenworth, A Company, on Special Duty
Col. Hugh Brady, Brevet Brigadier General, Commanding Left Wing, Eastern Department, Headquarters at Detroit
Lieut. Col. Alexander Cummings, Commanding Second Regiment, Headquarters Madison Barracks, Sackett's Harbor, N. Y.
President of the United States, Andrew Jackson
Builder (of Flagstaff), John McCraith, Private, A Company, Second Infantry

Another paper was added and the bottle re-entombed.

Going down the steps to the right, we are brought face to face with one of the old landmarks of this country, the old stone quarters, built at the same time as the blockhouses, with walls from two and a half to eight feet thick; formerly the windows had iron bars across them. In July, 1812, the basement of this building and the old blockhouses were used as prisons, in which Capt. Roberts detained the men and larger boys of the village, after the capture of the fort, until he decided what to do with them. Those who took the oath of allegiance to Great Britain were released and allowed to return to their homes; the others were sent to Detroit. Mr. Dousman, however, was not disturbed, and there have always been doubts as to his loyalty to the Americans.

In 1814, the basement of this building and the blockhouses were used as a place of refuge for the women and children of the village, while the vessels containing the American troops were anchored off the island. The building is now used as private quarters for officers, the east end being occupied by Lieut. E. H. Plummer, and the other end by Lieut. D. H Kelton. Before the new quarters were built, the west end was always occupied by the commanding officer.

The old wooden building on our right, now used as a Quartermaster's storehouse, was built for a hospital, in 1828, on the site of the original hospital, built by the British.

The long, low wooden building at the other end of the stone quarters, formerly officers' quarters, is now used as a storehouse; facing it are the barracks, a two-story frame building, built in 1859, occupied by two companies of soldiers, one on each floor, with mess-rooms, etc., complete for each.

We come next to the guard-house, built in 1828. Turning toward the barracks, we have on our right, first, the Commissary, built in 1877, on the site of the old stone magazine; here are stored, in addition to the rations, various articles for sale to officers and soldiers.

In summer, the commissary supplies are obtained monthly from Chicago; and in fall, a supply for winter. The clothing and other equipments are obtained, as required, from the various United States depots and arsenals.

In the small building, adjacent to the commissary, are the offices of the commanding officer and Adjutant, and next door, the office of the Post Quartermaster, which is connected by a passage-way with the storehouse beyond, built on the site of the post bakery of early days.

Going up the path from the guard-house, we will examine the "reveille gun,"' and take a glimpse at the magnificent view from the gun-platform. Below, at the foot of the bluff, are the Government stables, blacksmith shop and granary; beyond them, the company gardens, where the buildings of the United States Indian Agency stood in earlier days; to the right, at the corner of Astor and Fort streets, is a neat little cottage, with an observatory on top, now owned by Mr. N. P. Harrison, of Chicago. A building which preceded this one was used as the retail store of the American Fur Company; the basement is the same, and in this occurred an accident, the result of which is known to the medical fraternity throughout the world. We refer to the accidental shooting, on June 21, 1821, in the left side, of Alexis St. Martin, a Canadian, eighteen years of age, in the employ of the American Fur Company.

St. Martin was not more than a yard from the muzzle of the gun, which was loaded with powder and duck-shot. To be brief, a hole was made into the stomach, which healed, but never closed. Through this aperture, the action of the stomach on various kinds of food was observed. These experiments, extending through a series of years, gave much valuable information. Dr. William Beaumont, at that time Post Surgeon, attended the wounded man, and afterward made the experiments. Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard, of Chicago, was present when the shooting occurred.

The large building beyond on the same street is the Astor House, formerly the headquarters of the American Fur Company; previous to the erection of this building, in 1822, the headquarters were in the old building adjoining Fenton's Bazaar, on the northeast side.

Beyond the Astor House is the old court house, and a little farther on, on the opposite side of the street, the old Catholic Cemetery. In this cemetery lie the remains of First Lieut. Joseph Gleason, Fifth Infantry, who died at this post March 27, 1820. His grave is unmarked and un-honored.

The lot on Fort Street, in rear of Mr. Harrison's cottage, belongs to the Protestant Church. To our left is the village schoolhouse, built in 1838; next to that the Island House; next, the residences of Dr. John R. Bailey and Hon. C. B. Fenton; next, the St. Cloud Hotel; a little beyond, the Roman Catholic Church; and still farther on, the old mission church, and beyond it, the mission house, both built in 1826-27, by the Rev. William M. Ferry, father of Senator T. W. Ferry, of Michigan, who was born in the mission house June 1, 1827.

Young Ferry's boyhood days only were spent here. Of the life of Michigan's young and favorite Senator we will briefly say:

Thomas W. Ferry received a public-school education; has been engaged in business pursuits; was a member of the House of Representatives of Michigan in 1850; was a member of the State Senate in 1856; was Vice President for Michigan in the Chicago Republican Convention in 1860; was appointed, in 1864, to represent Michigan on the Board of Managers of the Gettysburg Soldiers' National Cemetery, and was re-appointed in 1867; represented his State on the Congressional Committee which accompanied the remains of the martyred Lincoln to Springfield, Ill.; was elected to the Thirty-ninth, Fortieth and Forty-first Congresses, and was re-elected to the Forty-second Congress, but did not take his seat, having been subsequently elected to the United States Senate, to succeed Jacob M. Howard, Republican. He took his seat in the Senate March 4, 1871; Chairman of the Committee on Rules, he reported a reclassification and revision of the rules of the Senate, which were unanimously adopted without amendment; he was a member of the Special Committee of the Senate that framed the Resumption Act of January 14, 1875. He was chosen President pro tempore, March 9 and 19, and again December 20, 1875, and by the death of Vice President Wilson, he became Acting Vice President, serving as such until March 4, 1877. While Acting Vice President, he was called upon, in the absence of President Grant, to deliver the address and preside at the Centennial Exhibition, at Philadelphia, July 4, 1876, and also to preside over the impeachment trial of the then Secretary of War, and the sixteen joint meetings of Congress during the electoral count of 1876-77, after which he was, for the third time, re-elected President pro tempore of the Senate by the unanimous vote of the Senate. He was re-elected Senator January 17, 1877, and was re-elected President pro tempore of the Senate March 5, 1877, February 26, 1878, April 17, 1878, and March 3, 1879.

In front of us is Round Island, where, for a long time, there was a large Indian village, the only remnant of which is an Indian burying-ground, on the southeastern part of the island. There is also an old burying-ground on Bois Blanc Island. It is a singular fact that all these Indian graves were dug due east and west.

Wauchusco, a celebrated spiritualist of the Ottawa tribe, lived on Round Island for several years previous to his death, which occurred September 30, 1837.

To the left of Round Island is Bois Blanc Island.

The building in our rear is the hospital, built in 1858; leaving it to our right, we pass another old block-house, over the old north sally-port, just outside of which, early on the morning of July 17, 1812, the British troops stood in line and presented arms, while Lieut. Porter Hanks and Archibald Darragh marched the American troops out, with arms reversed, to ground them where the pump now stands, and receive their parole as prisoners of war; they were sent to Detroit, arriving there July 29.

Lieut. Porter Hanks was killed August 16, while still on parole, by a shot fired from the Canadian side while he was standing in the gateway of the fort at Detroit.

The well was not dug until 1830; good water was reached at a depth of twenty-four feet, but the supply is not constant. Passing on, we come to the schoolhouse, in charge of Sergt. Fred J. Grant, the only building in the fort into which strangers are admitted, unless accompanied by a commissioned officer; from here we can see the row of little cottages occupied by married soldiers, and off to the right, last, but by no means least, the powder-magazine, the only brick building on the island.

When built, the fort was enclosed by a stockade ten feet high, made of cedar pickets, into the tops of which were driven irons with three sharp prongs projecting. Formerly all the buildings belonging to the fort were within this stockage, and were provided with ample cisterns to enable them to sustain a protracted siege. The old gates still remain in place at the south sally-port, near the guardhouse.

The post of Michilimackinac, over which the flags of three nations have successively floated, was established by the French in 1673. As a consequence of the surrender of Quebec, on the 18th of September, 1759, the French Canadian posts were given up to the British, but the latter did not arrive at Michilimackinac until 1761.

The garrison was massacred by Indians June 2, 1763, but the fort was not destroyed, and was re-garrisoned in the summer of 1764.

In 1779, arrangements were made for occupying the island, but the troops were not transferred until July 15, 1780. In 1796, the island was transferred to the Americans.

The British troops withdrew to St. Joseph Island, in the St. Mary's River, where they established a post.

Fort Mackinac is embraced in the division of the Atlantic, commanded by Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock; and the present garrison consists of Companies C and D, Tenth United States Infantry, with the following officers present: Brevet Maj. E. E. Sellers, Lieut. D. H. Kelton, Lieut. W. T. Duggan and Lieut. E. H. Plummer; Dr. W. H. Corbusier, Post Surgeon.

The non-commissioned staff is composed of Ordnance Sergt., William Marshall, Commissary Sergt., D. F. Driscoll, Hospital Steward, Louis Pauly and Quartermaster Sergt., Charles Scruby.

Ordnance Sergt. William Marshall is the veteran soldier of the United States Army, having originally entered the service in 1823, enlisting in Company A, Fifth United States Infantry, then commanded by Second Lieut., David Hunter. He served in the Mexican, Florida and Black Hawk wars, and was one of Gen. Scott's favorite orderlies. He lives in a little cottage a short distance from the western gate of the fort. He has raised a large family, and two of his sons are keepers at Spectacle Reef light-house; William being in charge. Senator Ferry has tried to reward Sergt. Marshall for his long and faithful service, by having him appointed a Lieutenant and placed on the retired list, but thus far has been unsuccessful.

Sergt. R. Reynolds, of Capt. Buel's company of the Second Regiment, traveled from old Fort Jefferson, via the St. Joseph River to Lake Michigan, and thence northeast to Michilimackinac, during the summer of 1791. A portion of his report to Mr. Lear was published at Philadelphia October 19, 1792, and furnished to the Secretary of War. He says: The British fort Michilimackinac is garrisoned by a company of sixty men, commanded by Capt. William Doyle, of the Twenty-fourth Regiment. The fortification is of stone, and of a circular form, with two bastions at each corner of the front. Reynolds was not allowed to go within the fort. Indians were daily coming in and going from the forts; he saw arms and ammunition, scalping knives, provisions, etc., given to them; but whether sold as from the traders or given on other accounts, he could not learn.

The soldiers of the garrison appeared to be inveterate against the Indians; he heard nothing of the grand council to be held. Fourteen chiefs went down to Canada; it was said, for the purpose of consulting the Governor with respect to the war with the Americans. After remaining at Mackinac twenty days, he received a passport from Capt. Doyle to go to Montreal in a boat of Mr. Champion's, and set out, via Lake Huron, 240 miles to French River; thence to the lake called by the French Nipsang; thence down Ottawa or Grand River to Montreal, and lastly through Vermont to Philadelphia. He knew not the strength of the tribes. The Indians of Lake Superior had joined the hostile tribes, and it was then said that never before was there such an Indian confederacy opposed to any nation. Reynolds met several of the prisoners taken by the Indians on November 4 —all were slaves —some were treated kindly, others harshly.

Arch Rock is on the prolongation of a line drawn from the village wind-mill, at Bennett's Wharf, over the village schoolhouse; to find it, start from the gate near the magazine, follow the road to the right, some three hundred feet, to the fork in the road at a corner of the fence, take the left-hand road (the right leads along the bluff to the mission-house, and there are paths leading from it to the Island and St. Cloud Hotels), keep on the road which bears gradually to the left until, at the distance of about half a mile, a small clearing on the right of the road is passed, at the farther edge of which a road turns abruptly to the right; this will take you to the arch, one-fourth of a mile distant. Upon returning to the main road, in the clearing, if you turn to the right, the road leads past Sugar Loaf, and gradually inclining to the left, takes you to the crossroads; here, the road leading to the right will take you to 'British Landing," the one in front in a roundabout way to the village, and the one to the left past the cemeteries back to the fort.

Old Lime-Kiln and Stone-Quarry — The old lime-kiln which you will see on your right, just after ascending the low bluff, was used while the fort was being built, in 1780. A few yards farther on, you come to a carriage road, directly across which is the old quarry from which stone was taken to build the Fort. The main road on your right leads to Sugar Loaf; turning to your left, a few steps bring you back to the magazine.

Fort Holmes and Sugar Loaf-Fort Holmes is in the direction indicated by a line drawn from the village windmill to the flag-staff, and Sugar Loaf is in the same direction and about five hundred yards farther on.

To find Fort Holmes, follow the road to the left from the gate near the magazine, for about fifty yards, to the target-range, near a corner of the fence. Fort Holmes is on the brow of the hill and directly above the target-butts, from which a path leads up to it. This fort was built while the British held possession of the island, in 1812 and 1814. The inhabitants of the village were all forced to contribute a certain number of days' labor to aid in building it.

It was called by the British Fort George, in honor of the British King; afterward re-christened by the Americans in honor of Maj. Andrew Hunter Holmes, who was killed August 4, 1814, during an unsuccessful attempt by the Americans to regain possession of Fort Mackinac.

The old ditches can be plainly seen; the parapet was protected by cedar pickets, so planted in the side of the ditch as to render scaling impossible without a ladder; the covered ways, constructed to shelter the troops, have fallen in. In the center of the enclosure, there was a building used as a block-house and powder magazine; it was removed by the Americans, and is now used as the Government stable. A well was sunk to the depth of upward of a hundred feet, but no water was found.

The platform that now crowns the summit, and commands a magnificent view of the Straits and the surrounding country was built by Lieut., afterward Gen., George E. Meade, during a survey of the lakes in 1852. As you stand on this platform, 320 feet above the level of the surrounding water, facing toward the flag-staff in the fort, on your right is Point St. Ignace, four miles distant, the southern extremity of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan, and the terminus of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad; nearly in front of you lies Mackinaw City; eight miles distant, on the northern point of the southern peninsula, the terminus of the Mackinac Division of the Michigan Central Railroad; a little to the right is where old Fort Michilimackinac stood, where the massacre of June 2, 1763 (part of the programme of the conspiracy of Pontiac), took place; a little farther to the left, Cheboygan, eighteen miles distant; and off to the left, where the northern shore and the water seem to mingle and disappear together, is the mouth of the St. Mary's River, thirty-seven miles distant.

Leaving Forts Mackinac and Holmes behind, and following the bluff on the right of the clearing, you soon obtain a view of Sugar Loaf, on the plateau below you and about two hundred yards distant.

Skull Care and Cemeteries.-By following the road leading to the left from the magazine, you will pass Skull Cave, beneath a large rock on the right of the road, about a quarter of a mile beyond the target-range; this cave is said to be the one in which Mr. Alexander Henry, an English fur trader, who was taken prisoner at the massacre at old Fort Michilimackinac, was afterward secreted, while the Indian, to whom he belonged, enjoyed a drunken carousal in the Indian village on the beach.

Farther on you pass through the cemeteries, the Roman Catholic on the left, and the military (enclosed by a picket fence) and Protestant on the right; in the military cemetery are buried sixty soldiers and one officer, Capt. John Clitz, who died while in command of this post, November 7, 1836 two of whose sons, Gen. H. B. Clitz, of the army, and Rear Admiral J. M. B. Clitz, of the navy, are too well known to need further mention.

British Landing —The road passing through the cemeteries leads in nearly a direct line through Early's (formerly Dousman's) farm to "British Landing."

Up this road came the British and Indians under Capt. Charles Roberts, of His Majesty's Tenth Royal Veteran Battalion, during the nights of July 16 and 17, 1812, having come over from the island of St. Joseph. They took oxen from Michael Dousman's farm to haul their cannon, which they planted in the road, in the small hollow, about fifty yards from the turn-stile on the north side of the parade ground. Up this road came also, on August 4, 1814, Col. George Croghan with American troops into the ambuscade laid for them by the British and Indian allies under Capt. Roberts.

After entering the gate and passing through the narrow belt of timber, you come to a slight ridge, which crosses the road, passing diagonally through an orchard on the left. On the south side of this ridge the British troops were concealed, with their field-piece on the right of the road; the Indian allies were on both flanks, parallel to the road, concealed in the woods; at that time there was very little cleared land, and when the Americans approached within short range, they were met by an unexpected and destructive fire, compelling them to retire, leaving their dead on the field, among whom was Maj. Holmes, who was killed about half-way between the farmhouse and the small hillock in the field in front of it; his body was carried to the rear by his servant and concealed under leaves and rails in the edge of the woods at the farther end of the field; all the other bodies were mutilated by the Indians. A boat came to the island the next day (August 5) under a flag of truce, landing at "Shanty Town," where it was met by a detachment of the British troops. A search was made for the body of Maj. Holmes, under the direction of Capt. Roberts; it was found and delivered to the Americans. The road leads on to "British Landing." A short distance before reaching the landing, a narrow road turns to the right and leads through the woods past Friendship's Altar to Scott's Cave, a mile and a quarter distant.

Robertson's Folly -The prominent rocky bluff a little beyond the Mission House. Cedar Point Cottage, owned by Mr. Alanson Sheley, of Detroit, is snugly ensconced near its base.

The following legend, as related by Lieut. Kelton, is in connection with this bluff:

Capt. Robertson was a gay young English officer and a great admirer of the ladies. One pleasant summer evening, as he was strolling in the woods at the back of the fort enjoying his pipe, he suddenly beheld, a few rods before him and just crossing his path, a female of most exquisite form, feature and complexion; she seemed about nineteen; was simply dressed; wore her long black hair in flowing tresses; and as for a moment she turned on him her lustrous black eyes, her whole countenance lighting up with animation, the gallant Captain thought he had never before seen so beautiful a creature. He politely doffed his cap and quickened his steps, hoping to engage her in conversation. She likewise hastened, evidently with the design of escaping him. Presently she disappeared around a curve in the road, and Robertson lost sight of her.

At the officer's quarters that night, nothing was talked of but the young lady and her possible identity. She was clearly not a native, and no vessel had been known to touch at the island for many a week. Who could she be? Capt. Robertson could hardly sleep that night. A rigid inquiry was instituted in the village. The only effect was to engender as intense curiosity in the town as already existed among the garrison.

As the shades of evening drew near, the Captain was again walking in the pleasant groves enjoying the delightful lake breezes and the whiff of his favorite pipe. He was thinking of last evening's apparition, and blaming himself for not pressing on more vigorously, or at least calling to the fair specter. At this moment, raising his eyes from the ground, there she was again, slowly preceding him at a distance of scarcely more than thirty yards. As soon as his astonishment would permit, and as speedily as he could frame an excuse, he called to her: "Mademoiselle, I-I beg your pardon."

She turned on him one glance, her face radiant with smiles, then redoubled her pace. The Captain redoubled his, and soon broke into a run. Still she kept the interval between them undiminished. A bend of the road, and again she was gone. The Captain sought her quickly, but in vain; he then rushed back to the fort and called out a general posse of officers and men to scour the island, and, by capturing the maiden, to solve the mystery. Though the search was kept up till a late hour in the night, not a trace could be found of her. The Captain now began to be laughed at, and jokes were freely bandied at his expense.

Two days passed away, and the fantasy of Capt. Robertson began to be forgotten by his brother officers, but the Captain himself maintained a gloomy, thoughtful mood the truth is, he was in love with the woman he had only twice seen, and who he felt assured was somewhere secreted on the island. Plans for her discovery revolved in his brain day and night, and visions of romance and happiness were ever flitting before his eyes. It was on the evening of the second day that he was irresistibly led to walk again in the shady path in which the apparition had twice appeared to him. It led to the brow of the precipice at the southeastern corner of the island. He had nearly reached the famous point from which we now look down perpendicularly 128 feet into the placid waters of Lake Huron, when, sitting on a large stone, apparently enjoying the magnificent scene spread out before her, he discovered the object of his solicitude. Escape from him was now impossible; silently he stole up to her. A crunching of the gravel under his feet, however, disturbed her, and turning, her eyes met his.

"Pretty maiden, why thus attempt to elude me? Who are you?" There was no answer, but the lady arose from the rock and retreated nearer the brink of the precipice, at the same time glancing to the right and left, as if seeking a loop-hole of escape.

"Do not fear me," said the Captain, "I am commander of the garrison at the fort here. No harm shall come to you, but do pray tell me who you are, and how you came on this island!"

The lady still maintained a stolid silence, but in the fading light looked more beautiful than ever. She was now standing within three feet of the brink with her back to the terrible abyss. The Captain shuddered at the thought of her making an unguarded step and being dashed to pieces on the rocks below. So he tried to calm her fears lest, in her agitation, she might precipitate a terrible catastrophe.

"My dear young lady," he began, "I see you fear me and I will leave you; but for heaven's sake do pray tell me your name and where you reside. Not a hair of your head shall be harmed, but Capt. Robertson, your devoted servant, will go through fire and water to do your commands. Once more, my dear girl, do speak to me, if but a word before we part."

As the Captain warmed up in his address, he incautiously advanced a step. The girl re-treated another step, and now stood where the slightest loss of balance must prove her death.

Quick as thought, the Captain sprang forward to seize her and avert so terrible a tragedy, but just as he clutched her arm, she threw herself backward into the chasm, drawing her tormentor and would-be savior with her, and both were instantly dashed on to the rocks below.

His mangled remains were found at the foot of the precipice, but, singular as it may seem, not a vestige could be found of the woman for whose life his own had been sacrificed. His body alone could be discovered, and it was taken up and buried in a shady nook near the middle of the island. He was long mourned by his men and brother officers, for he was much beloved for his high social qualities and genial deportment; but by-and-by it began to be whispered that the Captain had indulged too freely in the fine old French brandy that the fur-traders brought up from Montreal, and that the lady he professed to see was a mere ignis fatuus of his own excited imagination. But the mantle of charity has been thrown over the tragedy, and a commonplace explanation given for the name the rocky point has acquired of "Robertson's Folly."

Prominent Elevations.-Prof. Winchell, State Geologist, in 1860, surveyed the several objects of curiosity on this island, and the following table of heights is the result of his calculations:

Top of arch, at Arched Rock, 140 feet
To highest summit of Arched Rock, 149 feet
To top of buttress facing the lake, 105 feet
Height of the arch, in the middle, in the clear, 41.6 feet
Span of the arch, at its spring, 24 feet
Depth of the arch-work at the keystone, 15 feet
Robertson's Folly, 126.6 feet
Bluff facing Round Island, 147 feet
Fort Holmes, 318 feet
Summit of Sugar Loaf, 284 feet
Chimney Rock, 131 feet
Lover's Leap, 145 feet

Temperature of spring water on the island, 44 1/2 degrees.

French and British Officers.-The following-named officers were at Fort Michilimackinac on the dates given; their names are the only ones (of French and British officers) which appear in the old and official records:

August 12, 1742, Mons. de Blainville, Commandant of Michilimackinac
January 6, 1744, MiLons. de Vivehevet, Commandant of Michilimackinac
July 11, 1744, -- de Ramelia, Captain and King's Commandant at Nepigon
July 11, 1745, and May 23, 1747, Duplessis de Morampont, King's Commandant at Cammanettigsia
August 25, 1745, and June 29, 1746, Noyelle, Jr., Second in command at Michilimackinac
* August 25, 1745, Louis de la Come, Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac
February 7, June 20, and September 1, 1747, Mons. de Noyelle, Jr., Commandant of Michilimackinac
February 28, 1748, March 11 and June 21, 1749, Mons. Jacques Legardeur de St. Pierre, Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac
January 27, 1749, Louis Legardeur, Chevalier de Repentigny, second in command at Michilimackinac
August 29, 1749, Mons. Godefroy, Officer of troops
March 24, 1750, and June 4, 1752, Mons. Duplessis Faber, Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac, Knight of the Royal and Military Order in St. Louis
October 8, 1751, Mons. Duplessis, Jr., second in command at Michilimackinac
June 4, 1752, Mons. Beaujeu de Villemonde, Captain and King's Commandant at Camanitigousa
July 18, 1753, and August 15, 1754, Mons. Marin, King's Commandant, Post of La Baie
July 18, 1753; May 8, 1754; February 23, June 29, July 16 and October 17, 1758; January 30, 1759; May 25 and September 8, 1760, Mons. de Beaujeu de Villemonde, Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac
July 8, 1754, and May 25, 1755, Mons. Herbin, Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac
January 8, 1755, Louis Legardeur, Chevalier de Repentifgay, King's Commandant at the Sault
August 24, 1755, Louis Legardeur, Chevalier de Repentigni, Lieutenant of Infantry
April 28, 1756, Charles de L'anglade, Officer of Troops
June 19, 1756, Mons. Hertelle Beaubaffin, King's Commandant at-July 19, 1756, Mons. Couterot, Lieutenant of Infantry
July 2, 1758, Mons. de L'anglaide, second in command at Michilimackinac
July 13, 1758, Louis Legardeur, Chevalier de Repehtigni, Officer at Michilimackinac
1774 to 1779, A. S. De Peyster, Major commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies
1779 to 1782, Patrick Sinclair, Major and Lieut.-Governor, commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies
May 10, 1782 to 1787, Daniel Robertson, Captain commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies
July 31, 1784, Phil. B. Pry, Ensign Eighth, or King's Regiment
July 31, 1784, George Clowes, Lieutenant Eighth, or King's Regiment
November 15, 1791, Edward Charleton, Captain Fifth Regiment Foot, Commanding Michilimackinac
November 15, 1791, J. M. Hamilton, Ensign Fifth Regiment Foot
November 15, 1791, Benjamin Rocha, Lieutenant Fifth Foot
November 15, 1791, H. Headowe, Ensign Fifth Foot

American Officers.-The following-named officers of the United States army have served at Fort Mackinac. The year of their arrival, their actual rank at that time, and the organization to which they belonged, are given:

1796, Henry Burbeck, M.fajor, Artillerists and Engineers
1796, Abner Prior, Captain, First Infantry
1796, Ebenezer Massay, Lieutenant, Artillerists and Engineers
1796, John Michael, Lieutenant, First Infantry
1796, Thomas Farley, Surgeon's Mate
1801, Thomas Hunt, Lieutenant Colonel, First Infantry
1802, Francis Le Barron, Surgeon's Mate
1803, Josiah Dunham, Captain, Artillerists
1803, Joseph Crass, First Lieutenant, Artillerists
1803, William Clark, Second Lieutenant, Artillerists
1807, Jonathan Eastman, First Lieutenant, Regiment of Artillerists
1810, Porter Hanks, First Lieutenant, Artillerists
1810, Archibald Darragh, Second Lieutenant, Artillerists
1810, Sylvester Day, Garrison Surgeon's Mate
1815, Talbot Chambers, Major, Rifles
1816, John McNeil, Major, Fifth Infantry
1817, T. F. Thomas, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1817, A_ T. Crow, Hospital Surgeon's Mate
1817, John Greene, Captain, Eighth Infantry
1817, Daniel Curtis, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1817, Benjamin K. Pierce, Captain, Corps Artillery
1817, L. Taliaferro, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery
1817, John Sullivan Pierce, Second Lieutenant, Corps Artillery
1818, E. Brooks, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1818, G. S. Wilkins, First. Lieutenant, Corps Artillery
1819, J. P. Russell, Post Surgeon
1819, Joseph Gleason, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1819, William Lawrence, Lieutenant Colonel, Second Infantry
1819, W. S. Comstock, Surgeon's Mate, Third Infantry
1819, P. T. January, Second Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1819, J. Peacock, Second Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1821, W. Beaumont, Post Surgeon
1821, T. C. Legate, Captain, Second Artillery
1821, E. Lyon, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery
1821, J. A. Chambers, Second Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1821, Joshua Barney, Second Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1822, J. M. Spencer, First Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1823, A. C. W. Fanning, Captain, Second Artillery
1823, William Whistler, Captain, Third Infantry
1823, S. W. Hunt, First Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1823, A. M. Wright, Second Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1823, G. H. Crossman, Second Lieutenant, Sixth Infantry
1823, S. Cowan, Second Lieutenant, Third Infantry
1825, W. Hoffman, Captain, Second Infantry
1825, R. S. Satterlee Assistant Surgeon
1825, C. A. Waite, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1825, Seth Johnson, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1826, D. Brooks, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1826, A. R. Thompson, Captain, Second Infantry
1827, J. G. Allen, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1827, E. James, Assistant Surgeon
1827, E. K. Barnum, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1827, E. V. Sumner, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1827, Sam P. Heintzelman, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1828, C. F. Morton, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1828, S. Burbank, Captain, Fifth Infantry
1828, R. A. McCabe. Captain, Fifth Infantry
1828, William Alexander, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1828, A. J. Center, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1828, A. R. Hetzel, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1828, J. H. Vose, Major, Fifth Infantry
1829, James Engle, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, Amos Foster, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, E. Cutler, Lieutenant Colonel, Fifth Infantry
1829, M. E. Merrill, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, Ephraim Kirby Smith, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, Isaac Lynde, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, C. C. Sibley, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, W. E. Cruger, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1829, Louis T. Jamison, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1830, H. Clark, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1831, John T. Collinsworth, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1831, Robert McMillan, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1832, George M. Brooke, Colonel, Fifth Infantry
1832, Waddy V. Cobbs, Captain, Second Infantry
1832, Joseph S. Gallagher, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1832, George W. Patten, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry 
1832, Thomas Stockton, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1832, Alex R. Thompson, Major, Sixth Regiment
1832, John B. F. Russell, Captain, Fifth Infantry
1833, W. Whistler, Major, Second Infantry
1833, E. K. Barnum, Captain Second Infantry
1833, J. R. Smith, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1833, J. W. Penrose, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1833, Charles S. Frailey, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1833, George F. Turner, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1834, J. H. Leavenworth, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1834, John Clitz, Captain, Second Infantry
1835, James V. Bomford, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1835, J. J. B. Kingsbury, First Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1835, M. R. Patrick, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1836, Erastus B. Wolcott, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1836, J. W. Anderson, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1839, S. McKenzie, Captain, Second Artillery
1839, A. E. Jones, Second Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1840, H. Brown, Captain, Fourth Artillery
1840, J. W. Phelps, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1840, J. C. Pemberton, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1841, H. Holt, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1841, P. H. Gait, Captain, Fourth Artillery
1841, G. C. Thomas, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1841, G. W. Getty, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery 
1841, A. Johnston, Captain, Fifth Infantry
1841, W. Chapman, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1841, S. Norvell, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1841, H. Whiting, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1841. J. M. Jones, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1842, Rev. John O'Brien, Chaplain
1842, Martin Scott, Captain, Fifth Infantry
1843, L. H. Holden, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1843, M. E Merrill, Captain, Fifth Infantry
1843, W Root, First Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1843, J. C. Robinson, Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1844, J. Byrne, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1845, C. C. Keeney, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1845, G. O. Westcott, Second Lieutenant, Second Infantry
1845, S. Casey, Captain, Second Infantry
1845, J. P. Smith, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1845, Fred Steele, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry
1846, J. Martin, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1847, F. M. Winans, Captain, Fifteenth Infantry
1847, M. P. Doyle, Second Lieutenant, Fifteenth Infantry
1847, M L. Gage, Captain, First Michigan Volunteers
1847, C. F. Davis, Lieutenant, First Michigan Volunteers
1847, C. F. Chittenden, Lieutenant, First Michigan Volunteers
1848, W. N. R. Beall, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry
1848, C. H. Larnard, Captain, Fourth Infantry
1848, H. Dryer, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry
1849, J. B. Brown, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1849, J. C. Tidball, Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fourth infantry
1850, C. H. Laub, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1851, D. A. Russell, First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry
1852, T. Williams, Captain, Fourth Artillery
1852, G. W. Rains, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1852, J. Culbertson, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1852, J. H. Bailey, Captain, Medical Department
1854, Joseph B. Brown, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1855, J. H. Greland, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1856, E. V. Bagley, Second Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1856, W. R. Terrill, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1856, J. H. Wheelock, First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery
1856, John Byrne, Assistant Surgeon, Medical Department
1857, G. D. Bailey, Second Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1857, A. Elzey, Captain, Second Artillery
1857, H. Benson, First Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1858, H. C. Pratt, Captain, Second Artillery
1858, J F. Head, Captain, Medical Department
1858, H. A. Smalley, Second Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1859, G. L. Hartsuff, First Lieutenant, Second Artillery
1859, W. A. Hammond, Captain, Medical Department
1860, A. Hartsuff, First Lieutenant, Medical Department
1860, G. E. Cooper, Captain, Medical Department
1862, -- Wormer, Captain, Stanton Guards, Michigan Volunteers
1862, C. W. Le Boutillier, Assistant Surgeon, First Minnesota Regiment
1866, J. N. Hill, Captain, Veteran Reserve Corps
1866, W. L. Wood, Second Lieutenant, Veteran Reserve Corps
1867. J. Mitchell, Captain, Forty-third Infantry
1867, E. C. Gaskill, First Lieutenant, Forty-third Infantry
1867, J. Stommel, Second Lieutenant, Forty-third Infantry
1869, L. Smith, Captain, First Infantry
1869, J. Leonard, First Lieutenant, First Infantry
1869, M. Markland, Second Lieutenant, First Infantry
1870, S. S. Jessop, Captain, Medical Department
1871, T. Sharpe, First Lieutenant, First Infantry
1872, W. M. Notson, Captain, Medical Department
1873, C. Carvallo, Captain, Medical Department
1874, C. J. Dickey, Captain, Twenty-second Infantry
1874, W. W. Dougherty, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1874, J. McA. Webster, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1874, J. V. DeHanne, Captain, Medical Department
1875, A. L. Hough, Major, Twenty-second Infantry
1876, J. Bush, Captain, Twenty-second Infantry
1876, T. H. Fisher, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1876, F. L. Davies, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1877, C. A. Webb, Captain, Twenty-second Infantry
1877, J. G. Ballance, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1877, T. Mosher, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1877, P. Moffat, Captain, Medical Department
1878, O. D. Ladley, First Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry
1879, E. E. Sellers, Captain, Tenth Infantry
1879, C. L. Dawes, Captain, Tenth Infantry
1879, D. H. Kelton, First Lieutenant, Tenth Infantry
1879, W. T. Duggan, First Lieutenant, Tenth Infantry
1879, B. Eldridge, Second Lieutenant, Tenth Infantry
1879, E. H. Plummer, Second Lieutenant, Tenth Infantry
1879, G. W. Adair, Captain, Medical Department
1882, W. H. Corbusier, Captain, Medical Department

Of the officers who have been stationed at Fort Mackinac since 1869, the following have deceased: Capt. J. Mitchell and Lieut. Stommel, Forty-third Infantry; Maj. William M. Notson, Surgeon United States Army; Capt. C. Carvallo, Assistant Surgeon United States Army; Capt. T. H. Fisher, Twenty-second Infantry; Maj. C. A. Webb, Sixteenth Infantry; Capt. Moffat, Assistant Surgeon United States Army; Lieut. C. D. Ladey, Twenty-second Infantry. The whole number of officers stationed here in the meantime has been thirty-one, so the death-rate has been remarkably heavy-about one in four. Most of the dead had seen severe service during the rebellion and on the plains.

Enlistment.-As a matter of curiosity, we here give place to the following true copy of an enlistment into the United States Army, which took place March 1, A. D. 1812, on Mackinac Island:

MICHILIMACKINAC Territory of Michigan

I Henry Vaillencourt born in Michilimacinac, Aged 9 years, 4 feet, 4 inches high, of Dark complexion, Black eyes, Dark hair, do hereby Acknowledge to have this day Voluntarily enlisted as a Soldier in the Army of the United States of America, for the period of five years unless sooner Discharged by proper authority do also Agree to accept such bounty, pay, rations and clothing as is, or may be established by law And I Henry Vaillencourt, do solemnly swear that I will bear true faith and Allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against their enemies and opposers, wheresoever, and that I will observe and obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me according to the rules and articles of war. (Signed) Sworn and Subscribed to at Michilimackinac this 1st day of March, 1812.
P. Hanks, J. P. T. M.
Henry X (his mark) Vaillencourt

A Marriage Notice -The following is a transcript of a marriage notice performed on the Island in 1787, which we copy from one of the old books in the County Clerk's office.

MICHILIMACKINAC, 10th May, 1787.

This day was married by Daniel Robertson, Esq., commandant of the said post, before the undersigned notary and in the presence of the subscribing witnesses, William Arkon of Dumfries, in Scotland, Bombadier in the 4th battalion of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, to Elizabeth McDonald, daughter of John McDonald, late sergeant in the Eighth or King's Regiment of foot, by his lawful wife.
JAMES GRUIT, Acting Notary
I do hereby certify to have performed the above ceremony, the day and date above. DANIEL ROBERTSON

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