WEXFORD COUNTY
MICHIGAN


Cadillac Courthouse 1930's-Contributed by Paul Petosky - Building completed in 1913


The history of the city of Cadillac covers a period of twelve years, opening in the midst of a dense pine forest upon the terraced shore of Clam Lake, and closing in the midst of a busy, rapidly growing city of 4,000 inhabitants, enjoying unusual prosperity, and with its future as hopeful as its past has been successful. In March, 1871, Messrs. Holbrook & May started a store in a little building on the shore of Clam Lake. During that summer the late George A. Mitchell, noting the advantages of this location for a business point, purchased land of Maqueston & Clark and others and commenced lumbering. In October he platted the village of Clam Lake, and in January, 1872, a post office was established with John S. McLain as postmaster.

Mr. Mitchell was not only the founder of the village but a guardian of its interests while he lived. Few men in Mr. Mitchell's position so conduct their affairs as to endear themselves to the community growing up about them, as he did. He was capable of being a successful business man and at the same time a kind and generous friend. His death occurred Aug. 8, 1878. In giving a history of his life we can not do better than to insert here the article published in the Cadillac New* at the time, as follows:

LIFE AND DEATH 0F GEORGE A. MITCHELL.

When on Monday morning, Aug. 5th, the news went through this city that Hon. G. A. Mitchell, then in feeble health, having been suffering for some time from a bilious attack, had been thrown from his buggy and severely injured, by his head striking against a stump, the shock was felt nil through the community.

The accident occurred while Mr. Mitchell was returning from his shingle-mill, on Pine Street, west of the railroad. He was taken to a house near by, and Drs. Wardell and Leeson were immediately called. They found him in a comatose state, with evidence that blood bad been forced from his right ear, by the severe concussion. On examination the doctors agreed that the injury was serious, and feared it might prove fatal.

The doctors desired further medical aid, and Dr. DeCamp, Grand Rapids, was sent for by telegraph. Mr. Mitchell was then removed to his residence. For a little time he partially returned to consciousness so as to be able to answer yes and no to questions asked him by the doctors and his friends. But after a short time lie returned into his former comatose state, in which he continued till he died.

Dr. DeCamp arrived on the four o’clock train, after which a further examination was had, and an operation, which showed what had been suspected from the first, that Ms skull was badly fractured on the back side of the head, extending down to the base of the brain. At a later hour in the evening Dr. Bigelow, of Big Rapids, who had been sent for, arrived. After lingering till late on Thursday afternoon, surrounded by relatives and neighbors, iu tears, he quietly passed away into that still country where the struggle and storm of life is forever hushed to silence.

As soon as it was known that he was no more, all hearts were filled with mourning, and to show their appreciation of the great loss the people had sustained in his death every business house in the whole city was draped in mourning. His funeral took place from his late residence amidst an immense concourse of people. The religious services were conducted by his pastor, Rev. A. Marsh, assisted by Rev. C. A. Munn, of Big Rapids.

The following sketch of his life is taken from the sermon preached on the occasion, and is not an extravagant and overdrawn picture, but simple matter of fact and justice to the life of the deceased.

George A. Mitchell was born in Root, Montgomery County, N. Y., Jan. 8, 1824. He was descended from heroes of the Revolution. His grandfather was present at the battle of Saratoga, as an officer of militia, and was a patriot so prominent and influential that British commissaries were sent for his apprehension with orders to take him “dead or alive.” His mother was descended from Robert Barclay, one of the old colonial governors of New Jersey.

His early life was spent on a farm, and as clerk in a store. He was married at Spraker’s Basin, in his native county, April 22, 1847, to Miss Marietta L. Wilkins, who survives him. Soon after reaching manhood he engaged in a tannery in Sullivan County.

At the commencement of the war he was appointed paymaster in the army. It was here that his business talent first seemed to find full scope for its exercise. So thorough and methodical were his business habits, so accurate were his accounts, such power of organization did he possess and such control of nerve, that he was rapidly promoted, until he became first assistant paymaster, at St. Louis, Mo., with the brevet rank of lieutenant colonel. During the remainder of the war he had entire charge of the pay department, at Little Rock, Ark., and a part of the time at Memphis also, with additional duties at Vicksburg. He frequently had charge of from five to a dozen subordinate paymasters, and had millions of money in his care. His accounts were promptly and accurately rendered to the 13. S. Government, and settled satisfactorily.

The war closed; but his connection with the army continued until the spring of 1867. Then he removed from St. Louis to Kendallville, Ind., and soon after became identified with the building of the G. R. & I. R. R. His connection with this road led eventually to his location at this place. He was one of the first to discover the advantages of this point, as a business center. He came here during the summer of 1871, purchased land, and commenced those lumber operations which have since grown to such large proportions. In October of the same year he platted the village of Clam Lake. From that time he has been identified with the growth and prosperity of this town. And when the city of Cadillac was incorporated his public services pointed him out as the one upon whom the office of Mayor would be most fittingly bestowed. He has taken a deep interest iu the cause of education. To his influence and services, upon our school board, we are largely indebted for the high position which our public schools have taken. He was a pleasant, genial man. His sympathetic disposition and line sound qualities are fondly remembered by those who recall the days of his boyhood. He was warm-hearted and affectionate, making friends of all who came within the circle of his acquaintance.

As a business man he was cautious, yet enterprising; forming his plans with great wisdom ; carrying them out with energy and persistence. The prosperity of our town and our remarkable exemption from business failures, during these late years of depression and panic, are doubtless due to his prudent management of his own affairs and his strong influence over other business men. He was a good judge of human nature, not easily imposed upon. Yet so generous was he, that he would often en-ploy and help those whom he could not entirely trust.

He was a friend of the poor. There are many of the poorer people of this town, who feel to-day that they have lost one of their beat friends. They have often gone to him for help, and have not been turned away with mere empty words.

His interest in the Christian religion has been manifested by deeds, rather than by words or professions. His early associations were with the Dutch Reformed Church. Upon coming west he connected himself with a Presbyterian congregation. This became the church of his choice. Soon after coming to this place, he began to interest himself in the organization and building of a Presbyterian Church. And though he never was a member of the church, yet he gave largely of his means, and of his- time and influence, toward its support. Nor were his benefactions confined to one church. He believed in the Christian religion. Hi's-place in the house of God was seldom vacant. One of my most pleasant recollections of him will be of the deep interest that he took in the services of God's sanctuary. On the last Sabbath of his earthly life, though in feeble health, he was present with us, both morning and evening, one of the most eager and attentive hearers in the congregation. And during the meetings that were held by us last winter, he expressed, by rising, his desire to identify himself with the people of God.

He is gone. We tender our sympathies to the bereaved wife, children, brothers, sisters and relatives of the deceased. May God comfort them! But who is there here to-day, who does not feel that a friend and helper has departed V We must take up the burdens of life again without his strong arm to lean upon. Where now shall we turn for comfort and help, if not to the Living God? “Clouds and darkness are roundabout him, righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne.” And if he, who has gone, could come back and speak to us again with the new knowledge of eternal things which he has already received, would he not say: Mortals, ye who were my earthly companions, remember that you are the children of God; heirs of immortality. Live virtuously. Live as those who know the value of their heavenly inheritance. Live the life of faith iu the Son of God. And if ye seek for eternal happiness, find it in Him who died to redeem a ruined world.

At a meeting of the business men of the city of Cadillac, held on the 9th inst., to take appropriate action on the sad occasion of the death of Hon. George A. Mitchell, Mayor Cummer was duly elected chairman and Henry F. May, secretary. Messrs. D. McCoy, W. M. Gow, William Kelley, H. Groesbeck, Byron Ballou and D. K. McIntyre, were appointed a committee on resolutions. The meeting then adjourned until 8 o’clock to allow the committee time to draft resolutions.

At 8 o’clock the meeting was called to order, and the committee reported the following resolutions: Whereas, Almighty God in his inscrutable wisdom has removed from our midst our esteemed and well-beloved friend and associate, Hon. George A. Mitchell; and Whereas, It is our desire to express in some public manner a sense of our great loss and our profound and heartfelt sympathy to the afflicted relatives and friends, therefore, be it Rewired, That we deplore the untimely death which has deprived the community of an upright citizen, and a reliable energetic business man, who, as founder of our flourishing city gave life to its enterprises and industries, and assisted in its rapid growth and development: whose labors have ever been unselfishly directed to the public good, the advancement of material prosperity, and the moral and social elevation of our people; whose kind heart has invariably responded to the appeals of the needy and afflicted, and whose generous hand has never withheld aid to every charitable mission and every movement for the welfare of our city, which stands to-day as a monument to his untiring zeal and vigilant protection.

Resolved, That the universal sorrow, which covers this community as a pall, has already found spontaneous expression in the tokens of mourning that darken our once busy but now silent streets, and which afford unmistakable evidence of the public grief, rendering any action on our part superfluous. We are confident that all unnecessary business will be postponed, and that quiet demeanor unostentatiously observed by our citizens will be maintained during the obsequies.

Resolved, That to the bereaved family and relatives of the deceased, crushed and broken by the blow which has also shocked and stunned the community, our earnest sympathy is extended. We feel that we are mourners with them, and that their bereavement is ours. We commend them to the healing care of Him who is a "husband to the widow, and a father to the orphan.” On motion of C. M. Ayer, Esq., the resolutions were unanimously adopted.

On motion of J. H. Hixson, Esq., the resolutions were ordered to be submitted to the Cadillac News, and to the leading papers of Grand Rapids for publication, and a copy presented to the family of the deceased.

After appropriate and feeling remarks by Messrs. Groesbeck, Gow, McCoy and Bond, the meeting adjourned.
--------------Jacob Cummer, Chairman.

Henry F. May, Secretary.

These testimonials are every way befitting the man and the occasion demanded them. This city owes a great deal of its prosperity to his interest in all public improvement, which he never opposed, because he must pay a large proportion of the taxes by which such improvements were to be made. His untiring energy and industry carried forward to completion many public enterprises which would have failed in other and less energetic hands.”

THE VILLAGE IN 1872.
Returning now to the early business movements we find that the village was mainly outlined in the year 1872. The firm of Labor, Heath & Cornwell commenced business here in the fall of 1871, and in addition to their mercantile operations they built the City Flouring Mills in 1872.

In March, 1872, A. M. Lamb opened a grocery and crockery store, and other interests of which we shall speak hereafter, gathered at this point.

It is a fortunate circumstance that frequent mention was made of the place at an early day, showing the village as it was at different periods, and we make use of some of them, as they are the best history that can be collated.

We find the following mention of Clam Lake in March, 1872: “Clam Lake is the present terminus of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. It is a place of about five months' growth, but remarkably active and go-a-head-a-tive.

“ Mr. George A. Mitchell, the proprietor of the village plat. commenced operations there in October last Now the village contains about sixty families and a population,of some 800.

“The plat of the village covers about fifty acres. It is divided into some 200 lots, 150 of which have already been sold. “The village contains two hotels, the Mason House and the Clam Lake House, four or five general stores, one hardware store, blacksmith shops, shoe shops, wagon shop—about to open, etc., etc. One steam saw mill, that of J. R. Hale, with a capacity of about 20,000 feet per day, is already in operation. Messrs. Harris & Bros, are building a mill that is expected to cut 1,000,000 per month. Shackleton & Green are also soon to erect a mill that will cut 760,000 in a month. Messrs. M. H. Sc J. P. Hawley are building a planing and shingle mill, which they expect to have in running order on or before the 1st of May. A Mr. Anderson is constructing a dock and has made arrangements for putting a small steamer on the lake.

“Among the mercantile establishments we would make special note of the general store of Messrs. Holbrook & May, and the hardware store of Mr. W. H. Hicks. The firm first named consists of two young men from Plymouth, Mich., who have come to Clam Lake to stay, and build up their business as the country develops. Mr. Hicks, formerly of Big Rapids, has a nice new store and doubtless understands his business.”

A school district has been formed and a school is in successful operation. The Methodists have weekly religious services, and a Presbyterian Church is likely to be organized soon.

It is said the railroad company has 800,000,000 feet of pine timber that may be worked up at Clam Lake, and that other parties have nearly as much more. This being the case, there will necessarily be a large amount of lumber manufactured e«oh year for a long time to come. This insures business to the village, and business, too, of a paying character.

There is said to be a large amount of excellent farming land in the vicinity that will be tributary to the place, help to build it up and sustain it when the pine is gone.

The location of the village is a pleasant one. Little Clam Lake, on the borders of which the village stands, is a beautiful sheet of water, of crystal purity and abounding in fish. The village site ascends very gently from the water, spreading out into a plain covered with a heavy growth of pine. There is a border of young pines along the shore of the lake which we trust “the powers that be,” and that may be hereafter,will carefully preserve. Woodman, spare those trees I

There is talk of opening the channel between the Little and Big Clam, so as to admit the passage of steamers between them. Sooner or later this will doubtless be done.

THE CLAM LAKE NEWS.

June 1, 1872, the first number of the Clam Lake Newt was issued by C. L. Frazier, and a record of local events began to be preserved. Mr. Frazier was also one of the early school teachers, and was prominently identified with the schools of the county. After S. S. Fallas located here he was for some time one of the editors of the News. The office was afterwards sold by Mr. Frazier to J. A. & 0. Whittemore, and became successively the property of Rice & Chapin in 1877, Chapin & Terwelliger in 1881, C. T. Chapin in 1881, and J. W. Giddings in 1882. It was started as a six- column folio, enlarged to an eight-column folio, then to a six column quarto and the name changed to the Cadillac News in 1877, and to a seven-column quarto in 1888. It is a staunch Republican paper, and is one of the best local newspapers in Northern Michigan. J. W. Giddings is the present editor and proprietor.

THE VILLAGE IN 1872 AND 1878.

In the first issue of June 1, 1872, the editor gave a review of the village, as follows:

“But a little more than seven months since, the place where the village of Clam Lake now stands was but a dense forest, and the voice, of a human being was seldom heard. The site being on the G. R. & I. Railroad, upon the banks of one of the most beautiful lakes in Michigan, and a proper distance from large places on either side, the spot was selected as a desirable place for a town. Mr. George A. Mitchell, the original prime mover and proprietor of the village plat, commenced operations here some time in October last. Since that time he has been an earnest and faithful worker in the interests of the place. The liberal spirit which he has manifested in all his dealings has won for him many warm friends. The village plat covers about eighty acres of ground. It borders on the east, and commands a most beautiful view of Little Clam Lake. The railroad divides the town into two nearly equal parts, and the depot is situated in the most central portion.

The village now contains about 126 families, and a population of upwards of 600 actual settlers.

The lakes, called Little and Big Clam, cover an area of about eight square miles; the distance intervening the two is about sixty rode. The channel between the lakes is from two to five feet deep, and from one to two rods wide. The work of clearing it of logs and old rubbish is now progressing, and when opened it will be navigable for steamers of considerable size, and will be very convenient for floating logs that may eventually come from the Big Lake, and through this channel to the mills. These lakes abound largely with excellent varieties of fish, and the country around with wild game, affording a grand field for hunting and fishing; The land bordering on these hikes, and for several miles around, is covered with a heavy growth of pine that will be tributary to them, and here, worked into lumber.

The capacity of the mills now in operation and the two large ones that are soon to start, will be about 4,000,000 feet per month. At this rate it is estimated that it will take fifteen years to consume the pine. Taking this in consideration, the pleasant locality for a town* and the excellent farming lands in the vicinity that will be tributary to the place and support it when the pine is gone, you may judge for yourselves what the future of Clam Lake will be.

We make mention of the following most important places of business:

SAW MILLS

The mills that are now in successful operation are those of J. R. Hale and Slinger & Co. The first named, the Pioneer Mill, been running some five or six months. It is now being finished up in good shape; some new and much needed machinery has been added, and she is now capable of cutting about 25,000 feet per day.

The latter, Slinger & Co's new and improved portable mill, is doing a good business with a capacity of about 25,000 feet per day.

The above named mills arc both under the management of Mr. Lydia, who has been doing everything in his power to supply the great demand for lumber.

The new mills of Shackleton & Green and Harris Bros, are expected to be ready to start by the middle of this month, and when completed will be a credit to the town and to the builders. The first named is 80x96 feet, two stories high, and a boiler house 14x86 feet. There are two boilers eighteen feet long and forty-four inches in diameter. The cylinder is fourteen inches in diameter and twenty-four inch stroke. It will contain one large circular, with top saw and a gang edger. It is expected to be capable of cutting 40,000 feet per day. Messrs. Shackleton A Green are energetic business, men, and every part of their mill is built in a substantial and business-like manner.

Harris Bros.’ mill, which is also expected to be ready for operation by the middle of this month, will, when completed, compare in every respect with any mill in northern Michigan. The main building is 86x115 feet, two stories high, and attached to this is a boiler house 28x50 feet, which is to contain three large boilers, twenty feet long and four feet in diameter. The cylinder is twenty inches in diameter, and forty-eight inch stroke. The capacity of the engine will be 150 horse power to 60 pounds of steam. This mill is to have one large circular, a gang of forty saws and an edger with three saws. It will contain all the latest and most improved labor-saving machinery, and neither time nor money will be spared to make it a first-class mill; Capt. Silas Pelton, of Grand Rapids, has had full charge of the mill from the beginning, and his work proves him to be a man of much mechanical skill and ingenuity.

MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.

Among the most important of which we would make special note is that of Messrs. Holbrook & May, who keep a well selected stock of everything in the line of dry goods, groceries and provisions. They are energetic business men and are having a lively trade, which they well deserve.

The next of importance is the general hardware store of W. H. Hicks & Co. They keep in store a first-class stock, and propose to sell at Grand Rapids prices. Mr. Hicks is a young man of energy and ability, and is deserving of public patronage.

Messrs. Cornwell & Labar have a large store in Messrs. Mosser & White’s building, well stocked with flour, feed, groceries and provisions. They are having a good trade.

Mr. L. Ballou, on Mason Street, also dealer in flour, feed, groceries and provisions, is doing a lively business. He is a young man of good business tact, and is bound to succeed.

Mr. Bunyea, on Lake Street, keeps a good line of groceries and provisions. He was among the first settlers in the place, and is deserving of patronage.

Messrs. Sanders & Morrow are large dealers in dry goods and groceries.

Messrs. Russell & White have opened a meat market on Lake Street, and their stock is new and fresh from Grand Rapids every day.

Dr. Leeson has his drug store in successful operation.

Mr. Brudley has opened a first-class restaurant on Mason Street;

Messrs. Reed & Ferris have a large blacksmith shop and are doing a prosperous business.

J. F. Duval has a boot and shoe shop on Mason Street. We have at present four hotels, all of which are doing a prosperous business. The Mason House, so well known to the public, is being thoroughly overhauled. The rooms are all being newly ceiled, papered and furnished in the most comfortable manner.

The walls which are now known to be made of logs are to be sided on the outside so that it will appear to be a log building no more. Mr. Mason is a pleasant and obliging landlord, and is ready to do anything for the comfort and entertainment of all who are so fortunate as to stop with him. He has placed on the lake for the entertainment of guests a fine pleasure boat that is truly delightful to ride in. The tables arc spread with the very best that the market affords. Everything presents a tidy and tasty appearance.

The American Hotel on Mitchell Street, nearly opposite the depot on the east, quite recently opened, presents a fine appearance and is acknowledged by everyone as having first-class accommodations. The building is 80x00 feet, two-story.

Messrs. Teller & Parks, proprietors of the Clam Lake House, are still occupying their old quarters on Lake Street. Their new building on Mitchell street is now inclosed and will soon be ready for occupancy. When finished it will be the largest and decidedly the handsomest building in town.

Messrs. Sanders & Walker have purchased the new building of Bremyer Bros., and are putting in a stock of groceries and provisions.

Abbott & Turner have opened their new store on Mason Street, having a good line of groceries and confectioneries.

Larson & Motts have their new building on Lake Street inclosed, and when finished it is to be occupied by them for a fruit and vegetable store.

Lamb & Cole have erected a new building on Mitchell Street. They intend putting in groceries and provisions.

Dr. Dillenbeck has the frame up for his new drug store on Mitchell Street.

Mr. Bunyea, on Mitchell Street, is inclosing his large building to be used for groceries.

Mr. Born has purchased the building recently occupied by Mr. Tracy for a dwelling, and is fitting it up for a dry goods, boot and shoe store.

Mr. Kirkbride is putting on the finishing touch to his new furniture rooms on Harris Street, in which you may expect to see a full line of furniture.

Mr. C. B. Earl is making ready to lay the foundation of a large store on Mason Street immediately east of the railroad, in which he proposes to keep for sale sash, doors, blinds, glass, paints, oils, etc.

Mr. Vaughn has purchased of R. P. Thurber the large store and boarding house block, which is to be painted outside, and the rooms now occupied for a boarding-house are to have a general overhauling, and be. fitted up in the most improved manner.

The number of new dwellings that are being erected each week would have to be reckoned by the dozen.

A lot has been selected and given by Mr. Mitchell for the erection of a school building. It covers one whole block, lying on an elevation commanding a most beautiful view of the town. The contract hat, been let for the building of a temporary house to be used for a season, when a building is to be erected that will be an ornament to the village.

The Presbyterian and Methodist societies have selected lots, which have been given by Mr. Mitchell for church purposes. A move is already on foot in which to build suitable edifices for public worship.

Among the local items of the first and second numbers of the News were the following:

Rev. J. Redpath held an open air service last Sunday evening in front of the Mason House;

Rev. J. Redpath will hold services in the open air in front of the Mason House next Sunday morning at half-past ten. A special invitation is extended to all.

George Turner, Esq., station agent, has been making some very noticeable improvements on and about his dwelling on Harris Street.

Quite a number of Swedes are daily arriving and settling on the lands of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad north of this place.

Capt. Hart, of Greenville, has recently placed upon the lake a little side-wheel steamer for pleasure riding.

Mr. J. M. Phrisbie is laying the foundation for a new store on Madon Street.

Mr. Tracy has the contract for building a school-house and the work has already commenced.

Sealed bids will be received at the office of the director of School District No. 6, town of Clam Lake, until 4 o’clock, p. m., of Saturday, June 8, 1872, to build a school-house. Plans and specifications at the director’s office and at the office of A. G. Larcom.

Over four hundred tons of railroad iron are piled up at this place. Track laying on the road north will commence in a few days.

Messrs. Shackleton & Green raised the smoke stack to their new mill one day this week. It is seventy feet high and presents quite an exalted appearance. They expect to steam up next week.

Our town is made lively by pleasure parties arriving on nearly every train, and from all parts of the state, to hunt and fish in and around Clam Lakes and enjoy a pleasant pastime in our village. July 13, 1872, it was stated in the years that Mr. McLain, the county surveyor, bad been enlarging the village plat so that it covered nearly 200 acres. The following week it contained the following with reference to railroad matters:

“The railroad to this point is in excellent running order, well equipped with modern improvements and under the management of efficient and courteous officers and employees. The track is laid about five miles north of the lake, and although five hundred men are now employed on the line, an effort is being made by Talcott & Co., the principal contractors, to double the force. It is expected that the work of grading and ironing ninety miles of road this reason will be accomplished and that next summer the Straits of Mackinaw will be reached."

During 1872 and 1878 the population of the village increased with wondrous rapidity. The greatest activity prevailed, and all the business interests were remarkably prosperous.

In June, 1878, the "News" completed its first volume, and in a review of the year, said.

“The year that is past has been an eventful one in the history of Clam Lake. The village has much more than doubled its population, and has assumed a commercial importance quite unlooked for by those living here at that time. We commenced the News as a six-column sheet and published it as such for the year; but during the latter part we have been forced to issue a supplement with nearly every number. We now commence, an eight-column sheet and hope thereby to do full justice both to our advertisers and our subscribers.

“The village of Clam Lake is situated in one of the most pleasant natural localities iu Northern Michigan, on the east bank of a beautiful lake of the same name. The lake is four miles long and three miles wide, entirely surrounded by pine timber. To the northwest of Little Clam Lake is Big Clam Lake. They are separated by a strip of land about sixty rods wide. Big Clam Lake is about four miles square. Both contain plenty of fish, and those outside who wish to upend a few days in fishing, hunting and in general abandon, can find no better place in the state than this. There is a fine tug on the lakes, and any one wishing to go to any part of them will find the proprietors pleasant and accommodating. The soil in and around the village is ordinarily fertile, and but a few miles away can be found some of as heavy timbered land and as rich soil as is known in the state. Thus much for the natural location of Clam Lake.

“There are now permanently located and doing a good business, the following stores: In the dry goods, clothing and general store line are Messrs. Holbrook & May, Messrs. Hill & Olney, J. M. Ridlon and T. Born. In the grocery trade L. Ballou, Cornwell & LaBar, and A. M. Lamb. Besides most or ail the other stores keep some groceries though not as a specialty. Boots and shoes are kept by Holbrook & May, J. K. Ridlon, Hill & Olney and T. Born, none however making it their exclusive trade. Mr. J. F. Duval and M. H. Dunham have each a custom shop in which all kinds of repairing is done, or new work if desired.

There are two hardware stores, one kept by W. H. Hicks & Co., the other by Cloud & Co.; each has a tin shop attached. There art two exclusive millinery establishments, one kept by Mrs. Olney, the other by Mrs. Abrams. One dressmaker and millinery shop, kept by Misses Teller & Caswell. Two drug stores are now doing a good business, one owned by Dr. J. Leeson, the other by Dr. O. Dillenbeck.

There are now rive hotels, all in good working order and each doing a very good and prosperous business in its line. Three are first-class, via.: The Mason House, kept by Davis & Bowen, the American, kept by Currie & Bennett, and the Mitchell House, kept by Philander Caswell. The Farmers Home, conducted by William Hines, and the Scandinavian, kept by Lawson & Co., are good second-class houses, each well managed iu its particular line, and doing a good business. There are now, also, two restaurants, three billiard halls and three saloons in the place. The saw-mills are five in number, as follows: One is owned and operated by Harris Bros., which is a large and powerful mill running one large circular and a gang, cutting on an average of about 60,000 feet per day. Messrs. Shackleton & Green also have a very fine mill with a capacity of 40,000 feet per day. Coombe Bros. & Co. have a new mill which has just commenced work, of about the same grade, and with a similar capacity as the last one named. This same firm also own and operate a portable mill with a capacity of 25,000 feet in conjunction with the other mill. On the extreme south of the village is the mill owned by Mr. J. W. Cobbs, a fine mill for its size, and doing a very handsome business. Its capacity is about 85,COO feet per day. The railroad has sidings which extend quite to the lumber yards of each mill,, so that the lumber has to only be once handled to be shipped. There is one planing- mill, owned by Mr. Haynes, which is doing a large business and is quite crowded with work. This mill contains all the machinery for dressing lumbar is almost any shape ready for use. There is also one steam grist-mill, owned by Cornwell & LaBar, which is in good order and doing a fine trade.

There are now here four practicing physicians, viz: Drs. Wilcox, Leeson, Dillenbeck and McTaggart. Two law firms, Messrs. Fallass & Sawyer, and Rice & Bice. There is but one newspaper here, the "News".

Nine new stores are in course or construction now and quite a number more are sure to be built during the summer.

The new bakery, owned by Mr. Balfour, will soon be in working order.

The first brick was burned to-day at the new brick yard, so that hereafter brick may be had for all purposes.

About thirty new dwelling houses have been built this summer or are now in course of construction, besides a great many others which have been much improved^ Two churches are now being built, and both will be completed before fall and ready for use. One, the Methodist, is now so far advanced that services are held there. The Presbyterian will be a larger building and will not be completed so soon. A new school-house will probably be built during the summer.

The job for taking the stumps oat of Mason and Mitchell Streets has been let, and the work is now progressing finely. A good deal of work will also be put upon other streets, as there is,a very large road tax to be worked out somewhere.

During the last week Rev. J. Redpath took the census of Clam Lake in order to make his annual report, and found here 968 persons exclusive of railroad men and those who only stay for a few weeks. This proves that there is not far from 1,200 persons who are daily in our village and upon our streets, and we are as yet but one year and a half old.

The first week in July the work of clearing streets seems to have been vigorously prosecuted, as in the issue of July 5, the mentioned the work as follows: “The job of pulling the stumps from the principal streets of the village is now progressing finely. The stump machine is now opposite our office on Mitchell Street, and rapidly moving down the street toward its southern end, leaving a very hard road to travel in its wake.”

Not long after this it was stated that every store in the village, whether finished or unfinished, was either occupied, or rented to be occupied as soon as finished, and several business men who desired to locate here were unable to procure rooms. We will now notice more in detail the religious and educational progress of the village.

CHURCH HISTORY.

While the foundation of a prosperous business community was being laid, the moral welfare of the people was not neglected. In fact, from the first movements at this point to the present time the liberality with which religious efforts have been encouraged is worthy of special emphasis.

The Methodist Episcopal denomination was the first to be represented here. Early in December, 1871,Rev. A. L. Thurston, an M. E. minister, came here and preached in a log cabin situated near the shore of the lake and belonging to J. S. McLain. He preached a few times and then services were suspended until the following spring.

In May, 1872, an M. E. class was organized with the following members: C. L. Frazier and, wife, Dr. John Leeson and wife, Ira S. Saunders and wife, and William,H. Brown. Services were held for a time in Dillenbeck’s Hall, and after the school-house was built that was used. In May the Presbyterian society was represented here, and of their, particular work we will speak hereafter. In September, 1872, Clam Lake was set off and designated as one charge and Rev. A. J. Wheeler sent here in charge of the work. He arrived the last of September and found a class of about twenty-five members.

Nov. 28, 1872, the M. E. Society was fully organized as a civil corporation, and the following trustees elected: H. N. Green, Dr. John Leeson, Levi T. Olds, C. B. Field and Ira S. Saunders. Rev. John W. Miller was presiding elder.

In the spring of 1878 a house of worship was begun on a lot donated by Mr. Mitchell. In April, 1878, the local paper mentioned the progress of the work as follows: “The progress during the week of the erection of the new M. E. Church is' most encouraging, indeed. Considerable amount has been added in subscriptions, and lumber is being moved to the planing-mill for the siding and flooring.”

Again, on June 7, 1878, the piper contained the following: “A little less than four weeks ago the first work was done on the M. E. Church, yet last Sunday services were held there and will continue to be in the future. Great credit is due Mr. Wheeler, the pastor, for his untiring work in this good cause. He has labored long, earnestly and hard, sometimes under peculiarly discouraging circumstances, yet always with the same determination to succeed in this good work. The people of Clam Lake should long remember him for the good he has done them in this respect.”

The ladies of the church wore also active and raised money for furnishing by giving various entertainments. A series of "socials” was inaugurated in November, 1878, and continued through tho following winter at Earl's hall.

In September, 1878, a new bell was put on the church. It weighed 500 pounds and cost $125.

Rev. W. L. Tilden succeeded Mr. Wheeler, as pastor, in September, 1878, and remained two years. At the close of his pastorate in September, 1875, a review of his work was made, which we give as follows:

When the Michigan Conference of 1878 appointed Rev. W. L. Tilden to Clam Lake charge, the society was in its infancy and gave very poor promise for the progress it has made since that time. The church then had a membership of but twenty-five, and was weak in wealth and influence. A church edifice had been commenced by the society during the pastorate of Rev. A. J. Wheeler, and was dedicated shortly after Mr. Tilden’s advent. This edifice cost about $2,500, and at the time of its dedication there remained an indebtedness of about $900, which was provided for in pledges. The panic soon came on with its disastrous results, and many who had made pledges to the church moved away, and in various ways about half their pledges became valueless, leaving about $500 to be provided for anew. This is now provided for. Mr. Tilden, on his arrival found the church without a parsonage, and took steps to supply this want. As a result the church has a parsonage 22x28, which has cost up to the present date $650. It is yet incomplete, although Mr. Tilden and his family have- occupied it since it was inclosed. Its completion will cost 1800, but there is no indebtedness for the work already done. The incomplete tower on the church has for a year and a half been a sad commentary on the energy of the church and the public spiritedness of our citizens generally. But this will no longer smite our consciences. Mr. Tilden last financial operations were to collect $126 for the completion of the steeple, and calcimining the walls of the interior, which is greatly needed. This will leave the church in good condition in all its material interests, holding property free from debt, valued at nearly $4,000.

“The church has made large progress in its spiritual interests and in numbers. Two years ago the church numbered but twenty- five communicants, now there are ninety-seven. Of this increase, fifty are converts and the balance have united by letter. The past winter was signalized by revivals both in the village and at the branch society in the Hollister neighborhood. There was no Sunday-school in the charge when Mr. Tilden commenced his pastor. rate; now there arc two, with 150 pupils, receiving instruction in divine things through their instrumentality.

“Mr. Tilden has done a noble pioneer work as the above very flattering record of the past clearly shows, and he has done it in the face of difficulties from which most men would have shrunk. He has done it on compensation, with which none of us as business men endowed with talents of even a much lower order, would be content. During the first three months he taught school in addition to his other labors, and received $300 in all shapes from the congregation and $200 missionary appropriation. The past year the missionary appropriation was $175 and he has received from the church about $500, including house rent. Besides the salary the church has paid for incidental and running expenses during the past conference year $200.”

Since that time the pastors have been as follows: Rev. L. Dods, W. R. Stinchcomb, W. Barrett, E. II. Day, and G. Daniels. The society is in a flourishing condition and has about 140 members.

The Presbyterian denomination was first represented at Clam Lake by Rev. J. Redpath, now a resident of Boyne Falls, and who has done a large amount of pioneer work in the Traverse region. About the last of May, 1872, Mr. Redpath came here and first preached in the open air in front of the Mason House. July 6 the local paper contained the following announcement:—“ Rev. J. Redpath, of the Presbyterian Church, has been commissioned at this place for a year. This will please the people of the place, are his work so far has shown him to be an earnest and faithful Christian worker. He is highly esteemed as a gentleman and a preacher, and will have the co-operation of all.”

The organization of a society and first services in Earl’s Hall were mentioned in the News of Nov. 28,1872, as follows: “The Presbytery of Grand Rapids held an adjourned meeting in this village Nov. 14, 1872. In the absence of the moderator and clerk, the Rev. J. B. Hall was elected moderator, pro tern, and Rev. J. Redpath, clerk. Rev. George N. Smith was received into this Presbytery from the Congregational Association of Grand Traverse. Two churches were also received, the Old Wing Mission and the First Presbyterian Church of Concord. These churches are mostly composed of natives. The First Presbyterian Church of Clam Lake was organized, consisting of fourteen members. A hall has been secured as a place of worship. Measures have already been taken to erect a church the coming season. The following gentlemen were elected officers and trustees according to the laws of the state of Michigan:—President, George A. Mitchell; secretary, H. F. May; trustees, George Shackleton, L. 0.' Harris, William Bennett, Thomas* Whaley, Tobias Born, Charles Potter, George Holbrook, William Carrie.

“Religious services were held in the new hall over C. B. Earl’s building, last Sunday, for the first time. The usual services were held in the morning and in the evening it was dedicated by the Rev. J. Redpath, m a sermon of much power. Alluding briefly in the course of his remarks to the work he came here to accomplish, he stated emphatically that it was no merely sectarian one, that his aim was to make Christians and not members of his church. He concluded by giving a cordial invitation to all to attend the services which will continue to be held there during the winter. Since he has been here, Mr. Redpath has been an indefatigable worker, laboring in season and out of season, and has good reason to be proud of the success which has crowned his efforts.”

About the first of June, 1878, the foundation of a new church building was laid, arid work begun on the superstructure. The lot was donated by Mr. Mitchell.

About two weeks after work was commenced the "News" contained the following: “ On Thursday evening a large force of men gathered at the Presbyterian Church to put the timbers of the basement together. They worked hard, but it became late before the work was completed; and then somewhat more than a million mosquitoes having gathered upon each individual, there was a general abandonment of the work until Friday evening, when the job was completed. The work on the church building will now be rapidly pushed to completion.”

Aug. 16 it was announced that 44 the Presbyterian services will hereafter be conducted in the basement of their new church until the audience room is completed. The Sunday-school will also be held at the church at the same hour as formerly; the basement being all finished except plastering, it will be quite as convenient as the hall where services have been held heretofore.” The basement was used for the next year while the audience room above was being finished.

In October, 1874, the church was finished, and at the dedication Rev. Mr. Redpath slated the cost of the Presbyterian Church to have been about $5,000. Of this sum $750 was secured from the Church Erection Society, of New York, and the balance was raised by private subscription.

Rev. Mr. Redpath was succeeded by Rev. A. Marsh, who remained until 1888, when he was succeeded by Rev. James Lamb, the present pastor.

The bell for the church was purchased in 1877.

The Free Methodists were first represented in the county by Rev. J. G. Witham, who organized a society in Colfax in 1878, In the summer of 1875 Rev. L. D. Russell came to Cadillac, then Clam Lake, and organized a society with about thirteen members. A house of worship was built by the help of persona outside the society. The pastors have been, Revs. L. Owen, A. Mudge, C. McKay, M. De Yolit, E. Cook, Watson and F. A. Smith. A parsonage was built during Mr. McKay s pastorate, and another during the pastorate of Mr. Smith. The society has now about fifty members. There are also societies at Colfax and Cherry Grove.

The Congregational society dates from June, 1882, at which time Rev. C. H. Beale came here and began to hold preaching service in the opera house. In January, 1888, a society was organized with Jacob Cummer, N. L. Gerrish, J. G. Mosser, E. F. Sawyer, and F .H. Messmore trustees. There were about thirty members. The following June a house of worship was begun which was finished and dedicated Dec. 14, 1888. The cost of the church property including parsonage was $8,500. The church or ecclesiastical society was organized Nov. 11, 1888, with twenty-eight members. Rev. Mr. Beale remains the pastor.

In the winter of 1874 Mr. Mitchell gave lots for the erection of a Swede church. A building was erected and quite a large society formed, and a few years later another church was built. St. Ann’s Catholic Church was begun in 1881 by Father Ziegler, of Traverse City. The first resident priest was Rev. Marenus Willigan, who came in 1888, and finished the church building. The pariah now numbers about eighty families.

Other denominations have occasional services in the city. The Baptists have quite a representation in the city, but at the present time there is no society in active operation.

EARLY SUNDAY-SCHOOL WORK.

Early in the summer of 1872 n Union Sunday school was organized by H. N. Green, and successfully conducted through the summer and fall. In December the school was divided and the Methodist and Presbyterian societies each carried on separate Sunday school work.

SCHOOL MATTERS.

The first school was kept in the building of Mosser & White in the spring of 1872. During the spring the ground since occupied by a school building was secured, and in June a school-house was built. It appears to have been a temporary affair, for a new one was soon afterward needed.

Aug. 31, 1872, the following announcement was made in the "News." The first regular annual school meeting in Clam Lake will be held at the school-house Monday evening, Sept. 2. Several important questions will come before the meeting, among which is that of building a new and suitable school building, one that will be a credit to the place. It is hoped that every voter and property holder in Clam Lake will be present next Monday evening, to aid in carrying out every measure that will tend to promote and increase the educational interests of the place.”

The school census was taken in September, and according to the report the village had 105 children between the ages of five and twenty years. During the fall the school-house was repaired, and December 16 the winter term commenced, with C. L. Frazier as principal, and Miss Nettie Brink as assistant in the primary department.

The spring term opened April 28, with George Addison, of Big Rapids, as principal, and Miss Born assistant. One hundred pupils were enrolled the first month.

In September, 1878, the "News" referred to the school-house as follows: “ There is going to be not quite a new school-house this fall, but an addition to the one now in use for the primary department. The whole building when completed will be thirty-six feet long and the same width as now. The school board have determined to reseat the whole building with good iron seats which can be used in the new building when it is built.”

In November, 1878, the "News" contained the following mention of the schools.

“We paid our village school a visit this week. The first thing that attracted our notice on nearing the school ground, was the growth of the school building. The primary department has been enlarged by the addition of sixteen feet to the east end, making its total length thirty-two feet—no more than sufficient to accommodate the sixty pupils now registered in this department. Upon the west end of the main room is being added sixteen feet, intended for a recitation room, which is much needed on account of the present crowded condition of the school.

“The two departments are under the management of Mr. George Addison as principal, and Miss Born assistant; both are highly prosperous and reflect credit upon the teachers. On entering the grammar department, we found present about sixty pupils under the tuition of Mr. Addison. We were pleased to notice the interest manifested upon the part of the pupils, and the system and good order prevailing throughout. It is clearly evident that there is too much work for one teacher in this room. The four grades of pupils necessitate a large number of recitations, which greatly shortens the time allotted to each. We hope that the school board will see this matter in its true light, and employ an assistant for this department as soon as the room is ready for use.

“We now pass to the primary department under the supervision of Miss Born. Here we find present forty bright youths, in nearly the same crowded condition; but a prospect for a better state of things, as the new room is to be seated next week, which will make sufficient loom for all. We withhold all criticisms, knowing the many disadvantages under which the teacher has labored. Miss Born is a thorough, earnest worker, and is doing all that can be done with the conveniences at hand.”

Rev. W. L. Tilden, pastor of the M. E. Church, taught during the winter of 1874.

In March, 1874, the "News" said: “Prof. W. A. Fallass, of Lowell, has been secured as principal of the village school of this place for the coming term. He will enter upon his duties the 9th of April. We are glad to welcome Prof. Fallass to our midst, knowing him to be a thorough gentleman and a good scholar.”

The rapid growth of the village soon made increased school accommodations necessary, and in August, 1870, a new' school building was completed which was described in the "News" as follows:

"The new school building is now fully completed, ready for the seating and furniture, which have been purchased of the Triumph School Desk Company, of Chicago, and is of the patent styled the ‘Triumph’ which by the building committee was considered the very best desk and seat combined offered.

“The contract for the building, above the foundation, was let to Messrs. Mosser & White, builders, of this village, and was to have been completed by the 25th of this month. The contract for the foundation and plastering was taken by Charles Thompson, also of Clam Lake; and the furnishing of the doors, windows, and all the hardware of the entire building was undertaken by our enterprising hardware firm, Messrs. Hicks & Peck. The last mentioned firm also did the painting of the entire building.

“ The main building is 28x02 feet, and the front of the building, containing the entrance and stairway, is 20x88 feet, exclusive of the open porches. This gives four very handsome school-rooms, 26 feet 4 inches, by 29 feet 4 inches, with a 13 foot ceiling, deadened floors, and complete ventilation. There are four very handsome open porches, which add beauty as well as utility to the house. There is also a closet opening into each room. The entrance and stairway are roomy and pleasant, and the stairs themselves are broad and easily climbed. The rail, etc., is of black walnut, giving a beautiful contrast to the white walls and wood-work surrounding them. A handsome belfry tops the front part of the building, from which a view of the village, the lakes, and the surrounding country can be had, such as is not to be had from any other locality in or about Clam Lake.

“ The contract price for the building above the foundation was $8,600."

This building was added to as was required. In the winter of 1880 it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt during the following summer.

The first term in the new building commenced in September, 1876, with Prof. H. 8. Groesbeck, Miss Hattie Caswell and Miss Carrie Sipley as teachers.

Prof. Groesbeck remained until the fall of 1878, and was succeeded by Prof. F. C. Pifer, who remained one year, and was succeeded by Prof. H. M. Enos, the present principal.

The number of pupils enrolled in the fall of 1888 was 595, with an average number belonging of 444 postoffice.

The postoffice was established in January, 1872; became a presidential office Jan. 1, 1878; and a second-class office Oct. 1, 1881.

The names of the different postmasters who have had charge of the office and the period of service is as follows: John S. Mc- Lain, from Jan. 25. 1872, to July 12, 1872; Henry P. May, from July 12, 1872, to April 1, 1874; Byron Ballou, from April 1, 1874, to April 10, 1875; J. A. Whitmore, from April 10,1875, to July 1, 1877; Jared Hixson, the present incumbent, from July 1, 1877. The office has been furnished with a large number of Yale lock-boxes, and has been refitted from time to time as the requirements of the public seemed to make necessary. The name of the office was Clam Lake until the name of the village was changed to Cadillac.

In June, 1878, the business of the office was reported as follows: Receipts for quarter ending June 80, 1872, $172.98; for quarter ending Sept. 30, 1872, $274.75; for quarter ending Dec. 81, 1872, $395.95.

INCORPORATION.

Early in 1874 the people of Clam Lake reached the conclusion that their interests would be advanced by being incorporated under u village charter. In February of that year a visitor to the place gave a brief outline of its business interests as follows: “Clam Lake is not three years old, yet it has a population of 1,500 thorough-going people. It is the present northern terminus of the G. R. & I. Railway.

“To show at a glance the genuine and healthful growth of this busy town one needs only to mention the mercantile firm of Holbrook & May, dealers in general merchandise. They began trade here only two years since with a nominal capital and now have a store 180 feet long, and do an annual business of $80,000. “Ranking next is the house of High Bros. & Co., who are men of energy and integrity.

"La Bar, Heath & Co., are dealers in lumbermen's supplies. They lead the trade in this line, and are, withal, genial gentle- men.

“D. C. McKinnon & Co., are a heavy lumber firm and are just now engaged in building one of the largest hotels in Northern Michigan in tho well founded belief that summer pleasure travel will tend in this direction.

“Clam Lake is not without that necessary adjunct of a well ordered village, a sprightly weekly newspaper. The Clam Lake "News" is an honor in the town and sufficient evidence of the journalistic ability of its editor and proprietor, Mr. C. L. Frazier. “Regretting that space and time forbid further extended notice, we would mention as worthy of remark the following business people and firms; McIntyre & Rice, attorneys; F. H. Huntley, jeweler; F. R. Osgood, boots, shoes and groceries; John Turner, groceries and cabinet ware; J, H. McKinnon, groceries and crockery; Cornell & Roy, restauranters; Lydell & Kennedy, blacksmiths; Hill & Olney, genial merchandise; H. Crandell, deputy sheriff; Ferris & Co., blacksmiths; E. H. Reynolds, stock dealer; W. H. Hicks & Co., hardware; A. McCullom, restauranter; Mrs.N. Abrams, millinery; McCarty & Struble, restauranters; G. W. Kirkbride, manufacturer of an excellent quality of mineral paint, and the inventor of a new car coupling, likely to come into general use; Dr. John Leeson, druggist; Culver & McCarty, Occidental dining rooms.

“Mr. L. D. Stuart is the genial and hospitable proprietor of the Mitchell House, an attractive and well kept hotel, and worthy of the fullest patronage.

“ The remaining hotels arc the Lake House, F. G. Vosburg, proprietor; the American House, conducted by Currie A Bennett; and the Mason House, under the direction of its proprietor, Mr. S. C. Mason.”

The foregoing may not be perfect in all respects, but it gives a general idea of the mercantile business of the place. The village was incorporated by the board of supervisors under the law of 1878, and the first election was held in May, 1874. The law under which the village had been incorporated was declared unconstitutional and a new law passed by the legislature of 1875. Under the new law the village was re-incorporated by act of legislature, approved April 25,1875, and embraced the following described territory to-wit: The northwest quarter of Section 3, and all of Section 4 in Township 21 north, of Range 9 west, and the southwest quarter of Section 38 and the southwest quarter of Section 84, in Township 22 north, of Range 9 west.

In 1875 George J. Shackleton was elected president, and the trustees were Robert Christenson, L. O. Harris, A. M. Lamb, S. F. Long, D. McKay and Mr. Pratt. Clerk, E. F. Sawyer.

1876: There were 220 voters registered and 136 votes cast. President, George J. Shackleton; clerk, David A. Rice, treasurer, George Holbrook; trustees, Messrs. Henry F. May, L. O. Harris, J. B. Cornwell.

In the winter of 1877 the people of the village determined, if possible, to incorporate under a city charter. The necessary steps in that direction were taken. A bill was introduced into the legislature, and late in April a public meeting was held, and means provided for securing the passage of the bill.

The bill was passed by the legislature and became a law, providing as follows:

“ That the following described territory, to wit: The northwest quarter of Section 3 and all of Section 4, iu Township 21 north, of Range 9 west, the southeast quarter and the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 33, and the southwest quarter of Section 34, in Township 22 north, of Range 9 west, in the county of Wexford, and state of Michigan, be incorporated into and the same is hereby made, constituted, and organized into a city, to be known as (he city of Cadillac.

“ Immediately after this act shall take effect, the board of trustees of the village of Clam Lake, Wexford County, Mich., shall proceed to divide the territory herein incorporated into such number of wards as they shall deem necessary, not exceeding three in all, and the division shall be so made as to make the territory and population of the several wards as nearly equal as m»y be.

The said city of Cadillac shall, in all things not herein other- wise provided, be governed by, and its powers and duties defined and limited by an act entitled ‘An act for the incorporation of cities, being act number 178, of the session laws of 1873, approved April 29, 1878, which act is hereby made and constituted a part of the charter of said city of Cadillac, except as herein otherwise provided. Provided, That the mayor and aldermen of said city shall servo without compensation. And provided further, That the sums raised by general tax for city-purposes (exclusive of the sums raised for schools and school purposes), shall not in any one year exceed one per cent on the assessed value of all the real and personal property in said city made taxable by law.

" In case sufficient time shall not intervene after the division of said city into wards to give the required notice of election, on the first Monday in April, in the year of our Lord 1877, then the first election in said city shall be held on the first Monday in September, in the year of our Lord 1877, and the manner of holding said first election, and the giving of notice thereof shall be the same as near as may be, as is prescribed in Sections 11, 12, 18 and 14, of Chapter I, of an act entitled An act for the incorporation of cities, approved April 29, 1878.

Act No. 886 of the session laws, 1875, approved April 22, 1875, is hereby repealed.”

In 1879 the charter was amended 60 as to include the following described territory within the city limits: Sections 8, 4 and 5, the north half of the northeast quarter of Section 8, and the northwest quarter of Section 9, all in Township 21 north of Range 9 west, the south half of Section 88, and the west half of Section 84, in Township 22 north, of Range 9 west.

A union convention was held to nominate a city ticket, and the following named gentlemen were put in nomination: Mayor, George A. Mitchell; marshal, Horton Crandell; clerk, Lorenzo Ballou; treasurer, Daniel F. Comstock; collector, Horton Crandell; street commissioner, Charles Cole; school inspectors, Levi 0. Harris, three years, Jacob Cummer, two years, Charles M. Ayer, one year; justices of the peace, Holden N. Green, four years, Eugene F. Sawyer, three years, John B. Roosevelt, two years; Robert Christensen, one year; aldermen at large, Milton J. Bond, two years, Daniel W. Peck, one year.

City officers since then have been as follows: 1878: Mayor, Jacob Cummer; clerk, L. Ballou; treasurer, W. W. Mitchell; street commissioner, J. J. White; marshal, H. Crandell; collector, J. J. White; school inspector, W. Kelley; alderman at large, H. C. Larsen; aldermen, L. G. Lawson, N. Haynes, E. Lapham, John Mosser.

1879:—Mayor, Daniel McCoy; treasurer, W. W. Mitchell; city clerk, Henry Ballou; city attorney, D. E. McIntyre; marshal, D. E. Cooke; aldermen at large, Alvin A. Mitchell, George A. Dillenbeck; first ward, L. G. Lawson, William Saunders; second ward, Edward Lapham, M. J. Bond; third ward, J. G. Mosser, J. W. Cobbs.

1880:_Mayor, Daniel McCoy; treasurer, John M. Rice; clerk, W. H. Wood; marshal, D. E. Cooke: collector, H. N. Green; street commissioner, J. C. Born; school inspector, H. N. Green; alderman at large, G. A. Dillenbeck; aldermen, Norman D. Haynes, George Holbrook, Ronald McDonald.

1881 Mayor, Daniel McCoy; city attorney, John B. Rosevelt; city clerk, Chauncey Guest; city treasurer, John M. Rice; city collector, S. F. Long; city marshal, William Cassler; street commissioner, John C. Born; city surveyor, A. J. Teed; aldermen at large, G. A, Dillenbeck, E. L. Metheany; first ward, N. Haynes, L. G. Lawson; second ward, George Holbrook, D. W. Peck; third ward, Henry Ballou, Charles M. Ayer. 1882:—Mayor, Byron Ballou; city attorney, Rollin L. Rice; city clerk, E. M. Hutchinson; city treasurer, F. H. Messmore; city collector, E. George; city marshal, William Cassler; street commissioner, G. W. Heath; city surveyor, A. J. Teed; aldermen at large, E. L. Metheany, Austin W. Mitchell; first ward, L. G.

Lawson, William Crippens; second ward, D. W. Peck, Charles Haynes; third ward, Henry Ballou, Osmond Reed.

1883:—Mayor, E. L. Metheany; city attorney, M. L. Dunham; city clerk, E. M. Hutchison; city treasurer, F. H. Messmore; city collector, E. George; city .marshal, William Cassler; street commissioner, M. W. Heath; city surveyor, A. J. Teed; aldermen at large, W. W. Cummer, Austin W. Mitchell; first ward, A. L. Scoby, William Crippen, second ward, F. C. Sampson, Charles Haynes; third ward, L. J. Law, Osmond Reed.

1881:— Mayor, E. H. Huntley; city attorney, M. L. Dunham; city clerk, F. A* Clary; city treasurer, James Haynes; city collector, E. George: city marshal, William Cassler; street commissioner, W. H. Arms; city surveyor, A. J. Teed; aldermen at large, W. W. Cummer, Austin W. Mitchell; first ward, L. G. Lawson, N. D. Haynes, second ward, F. C. Sampson, Edward Lapham, third ward, T. J. Jennings, S. H. Merritt.

WOMANS CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION.

March 2, 1877, a number of the ladies of the city of Cadillac met at the M. E. Church, and a 44 Woman's Christian Temperance Union” was organized through the influence, and by the aid of Mr Cameron, of East Saginaw.

After the reading and adoption of a constitution and by-laws, and the reception of members, the society proceeded to the election of officers, with the following result: President, Mrs. H.N. Green; first vice-president, Mrs. John Turner, second vice-president, Mrs. C. M. W. Earle; secretary, Mrs. S. S. Fallass; treasurer, Mrs. G. A. Mitchell: executive committee, Mrs. L. Rockwell, Mrs. A. K. Moyer, Mrs. George Holbrook, Mrs. Ada Cummer, Mrs. Laura Towle; finance committee, Mrs. W. H. Hicks, Mrs. H. Crandell and Mrs. A. Gallenger.

This society has maintained on active existence to the present time. The principal officers are: President, Mrs. George Mitchell; secretary, Mrs. Ella Stevens; treasurer, Mrs. Wellington Cummer.

SECRET ORDERS. Clam Lake Lodge, No. 281, F. A. M., was instituted in the spring of 1875. The officers in 1888 are W. M., J. R. Bishop; S. W., Frank C. Sampson; J. W., Isaac Murphy; treasurer, J. J. Moser; secretary, Henry Skelley.

Cadillac Chapter, No. 108, R. A. M., was chartered in August, 1878. Officers in 1888:—H. P., J. U. Hixson; K., J. G. Mosser; scribe, John M. Rice; secretary, Frank C. Sampson; treasurer, Chas. L. Andress.

Viola Lodge, No. 259, I. 0. 0. F., was organized in June, 1875, with about seven charter members. The present member- ship is about 180. In 1881 this lodge erected a new hall, which was dedicated Nov. 1, 1881. The occasion was honored with the presence of the Hon. Schuyler Colfax, ex-vice president of the United States, and Grand Master Samuel Adams, of Detroit, who conducted the ceremonies and was assisted by District Deputy S. F. Long, Past Grand S. S. Fallass and other members of the fraternity in this city. The ceremonies were public and the new hall was well filled .with people, who listened attentively to the brief but somewhat impressive exercises. After concluding the dedicatory ceremonies, Grand Master Adams addressed some highly complimentary remarks to the Odd Fellows of this place, whose enterprise and zeal is shown in the substantial new brick structure erected and now dedicated to the use of the order. On retiring from the position of presiding officer on the occasion he introduced Past Grand Master Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, who gave to the audience one of the most eloquent and impressive addresses. The officers in 1888 are, N. G., George A. Cummer; V. G., George Gilhooley; secretary, E. J. Haynes; F. 8. David Adley; treasurer, N. Lauka.

Cadillac Camp, No. 98, L O. O. F., was organized in October, 1882, and has about thirty members. Officers:—C. P., H. F. Askam; S. W., 8. S. Fallass; J. W., 8. F. Long; H. P., C. G. Reed; scribe, George A. Cummer.

Garfield Temple, P. C., was started in 1888, and has nineteen members. Officers:—Oracle, G. A. Cummer; vice oracle, C. G. Reed; marshal, S. S. Fallass; secretary, John Graham; treasurer, J. P. Knudson; guard, R. McPherson.

The George A. Mitchell Council of Royal Arcanum was organized Jan. 28, 1882, with about twenty charter members. The following officers were chosen for the ensuing term:—R., C. W. Higgins; V. R., C. H. Drury; P. R., D. E. McIntyre; secretary, C. L. Rogers; colonel, L. J. Law; T„ Fred Tracy; C., Dr. H. F. Askam; G., C. C. Dunham; S., Dr. J. M. Warden. Officers in the fall of 1883:—R., S. S. Fallass; V. R.f J. B. Rosevelt; orator, H. F. Ankara; secretary, L. J. Law; treasurer, Frederick Trafy; chaplain, C. T. Chapin; guide, G. E. Adamp; warden, George Glass; sentry, C. A. Rysdale.

Washington Post, No. 82, G. A. R., was fully organized in February, 1888. Officers installed Feb. 8th: — Past commander, C. S. Brodt, senior vice-commander, George Wheeler; junior vice-commander, Harvey Smith; adjutant. M. A. Watrous: quartermaster, Harry Goff; surgeon, — Holmes; chaplain, Z. Gillett; officer of the day, R. P. Orser. Officers in 1888:—P. C., C. S. Rrodt; S. V. C., 0. S. Whitmore; J.V. C., Harvey Smith; adjutant, E. M. Watrous; Q., H. H. Goff; surgeon, Oscar Holmes; chaplain, Z. Gillett; O. D., R. P. Orser; 0. G. W. S. Ormes. There are about ninety members.

Clamenia Lodge of Good Templars was organized in January, 1874, with the following officers:—W. C. T., F. R. Osgood; W. V. T., Mrs. Julia Hopkins; W. S., A. M. Lamb; W. T., J. G. Moser; W. M.. W. H. Brown; W. I. G., Miss Ada M. Osgood; W. O. G., W. S. Spaulding; W. F. S., Frank Goodrich.

This lodge appears to have become inoperative after a time/ and in August, 1880, Cadillac Lodge was organized with twenty* seven charter members, and the following officers:—W. C. T., C. W. Higgins; W. V. T., Mrs. William Saunders; W. secretary, C. L. Frost; W. F. secretary, A. D. Brodbier; W. treasurer, Bert Haynes; W. 0. G., Fred Canfield; W. I. G., Miss Susie Saunders; W. M., Frank Craine. During the first year the membership reached as high as 106 active members. Officers in the fall of 1888:—W. C. T., E. J. Haynes; W. V., Sate Austin; secretary, Frank H. Goodman; W. F. S., Lena Hartwell: W. T., Henry Knowlton;.W. M., A. G. Stearns.

Cadillac Lodge K. of P., No. 46, was organized in October, 1883. Officers:—P. 0., C. E. Miller; C. C., M. C. Wheaton; V. C., E. L. Metheany; P., R. J. Cummer; K. of R., Frank Clary; M. of F., Henry Ballou; M. of E., Charles H. Drury; M. of A., E. D. Snow.

The Forrester Club is one of the important Societies of the city. The club-house and opera-house described in another place, is the property of this club. The officers elected at the last election were as follows: —President, J. G. Mosser; vice-president, J. M. Rice; secretary, J. H. Hixson; treasurer, F. II. Messmore. Also the following trustees: — C. L. Andress, F. A. Koegol, E. L. Metieary, G. A. Dillenbeck and J. M. Wardell.

THE CADILLAC TIMES.

The Cadillac Weekly Times was started under another name at Mendon, St. Joseph County, in June. 1882, and removed from thence to Cadillac. The founder, Alf Ridge, has been the only publisher and .editor. It was commenced as a seven-column folio, and in August, 1882, was enlarged to a seven-column quarto. Politically it is independent.

THE OPERA HOUSE.

In 1881 the Cadillac Forrester Club erected a large building on the lake shore, a portion of which was finished off for an opera-house, which in all respects is adapted to the needs of the city in the way of a suitable place for holding public entertainments. The city is furnished with wafer works and all the modern improvements. The water-works building was burned in April, 1882, but immediately rebuilt.

The McKinnon House is a first-class hotel. It is the largest house in Cadillac. It has tine sample rooms, and is fitted out with electric bells. C. L. Andress is proprietor.

BIOGRAPHIES

THORP, Thomas J., clerk and register of Wexford County, is forty-seven years old and a native of Allegany County, N. Y. He was educated at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. listed at the breaking out of the rebellion in the Eighty fifth New York Regiment; served with distinction during the peninsular campaign; was wounded at Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill, Va.; in 1802 he was made Lieutenant Colonel of the One Hundred and Thirtieth New York Infantry. After the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., his regiment was mounted and afterward known ms the famous First New York Dragoons, and took an active and prominent part in all the great cavalry battles until the dose of the war. In June, 1804, Col. Thorp was wounded and taken prisoner at Travillion, Va. In December, of the some year, he was made full colonel of his regiment. On the 4th of July, 1804, while in the prison stockade at Macon, Georgia, Col. Thorp made a 4th of July speech which was interpreted as incendiary, and for which he was taken out of the stockade to be hung, but the confederate authorities became convinced from the demonstrations made by the 2,000 prisoners in the stockade that the safety of the city of Macon as well as the lives of their guard would be better conserved by returning him to the stockade, which was done at the dose of that day. In March, 1865, Col. Thorp was mode brigadier general for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field. July 17, of the same year, he was honorably discharged from the service of the United States, after a service of four years and seventeen days, during which time he participated in forty-six engagements. On his return to civil life he engaged in farming in Livingston County, N. Y. In 1871 he sold his farm and came to Wexford County as a pioneer, where he cleared up and equipped an elegant farm in the town of Selma. In 1872 he was called to take charge of a large public school in the city of Buffalo, N. Y., where he continued in educational work five years. At the close of this engagement he made two extended trips to the Pacific Coast in the interests of A. S. Barnes & Co., publishers of New York, after which he returned to his farm in Wexford County. He is at present serving his second term as clerk and register of said county.

Cobbs & Mitchell, Cadillac, Mich., manufacturers and dealers in pine and hemlock lumber.

Jonathan W. Cobbs formerly resided in Butlerville, Ind., and was for many years engaged in manufacturing hard wood lumber at that place. Mr. Cobbs came to Cadillac in the year 1872 and purchased the property known as the Hall mill site, the mill being the first built on the shore of Clam Lake, and manufactured lumber for George A. Mitchell until the year 1877, when the firm of Cobbs & Mitchell was organized.

William W. Mitchell formerly resided at Hillsdale, Mich., attending Hillsdale College until coming to Cadillac in the year 1878, where he first commenced his schooling in the lumber business as tallyman in what was known as the Coombs mill, subsequently being associated with A. B. Mitchell in a few logging enterprises until 1874, when he assumed the duties of foreman in George A. Mitchell's lumber yard at the Cobbs mill until the firm of Cobbs & Mitchell was formed in 1877.

At the time of organizing the firm purchased the saw-mill of J. W Cobbs and Section 5, Township 21 north, Range 9 west of the G. R A I. R’y Co.

Until the year 1879, the mill continued sawing in the daytime for George A. Mitchell, and at nights for themselves, at which time the mill was rebuilt and its capacity increased from 80,000 to 50,000 feet per day of eleven hours.

For the stocking of above mill pine land was purchased as follows, viz: Fractional Section 4, Township 21 north, Range 9 west, part of Sections 31 and 19 and all of Section Township 22 north, of Range 9 west; Section 7, Township 21 north, Range 8 west, and Section 11, Township 21 north, Range 9 west.

Iron track logging railways, with steam power being built from Little Clam Lake through Section 11 to Section 7 southeast, and to Sections 19, 80 and 81 north.

In 1881 the firm bought of E. J. Copley Section 13, Township 22 north, Range 9 west, together with saw-mill located on shore of Round Lake on Section 7, Township 22 north, Range 8 west, and also purchased of Bradley Bros., of Milwaukee, Wis., parts of Sections 26, 84 and 86, Township 23 north, Range 9 west; contracting with said E. J. Copley for the logging and delivery of all timber on the section 18 and Bradley purchase into Round Lake.

The saw-mill at Round Lake burned in April, 1882, and was rebuilt the same season, at which time a system of waterworks was built for fire protection, with fourteen two-inch hydrants, costing $2,500.

Lumber shipped up to June 1. 1884: In 1880, 14,058,000 feet; in 1881, 21,612,000 feet; in 1882, 20,066,000 feet; in 1888, 26,924,000 feet; in 1884, to June 1.11,111,000. Lumber on yards, 17,000,000 feet; standing pine on hand, 50,000,000.

Mitchell Brothers, lumber manufacturers, office at Cadillac, Wexford County, Mich., mill located at Mitchell, Missaukee County, on the Missaukee branch of the G. R. & I. R. R. Firm consists of Austin W. and William W. Mitchell. Their mill was completed and began sawing in September, 1882. They have connected - with their mill and lumber-yard a complete system of water works, which furnish ample protection from fire. They also have adjoining their lumber-yard a complete planing-mill, where the rough lumber is manufactured into flooring, siding, ceiling, etc., etc. They employ about seventy-five men, thirty of whom work in the mill. They own about 50,000,000 feet of standing pine.

Austin W. came to Cadillac iu the spring of 1879 and made a purchase of standing pine at Bond's mill, and entered into a contract with Bond Kysor for sawing the logs, which took effect in March, 1879. Since then, they together with Daniel Kysor, their successor, have sawed 24,000,000 feet for him, and he has, had manufactured for other parties about 10,000,000 shingles. William M. came to Cadillac in 1878, and became a member of the firm of Cobbs & Mitchell in 1877, and of Mitchell Brothers in 1882, and is now connected with both firms.

James Haynes & Sons, pinning mill, Cadillac. Their business was-established in October, 1872, by James Haynes, who brought the machinery from Decatur, Van Buren County, Mich., and built the mill which he ran till April 14, 1877, when it burned, and within fifty-nine days after that time the mill now owned by the linn, and known as mill No. 1, was running. Mill No. 2 was built in 1881. In 1879 he took his three sous into the firm as partners. One Inis since retired. They carry on an extensive business; are dealers in dressed lumber, moulding's, pickets, lath and shingles. James Haynes was born in 1825, iu New York, and spent the first years of his life near Rochester city. At the age of ten years he moved to Michigan and lived near Marshall a short time; then went to Van Buren County, Mich., remaining in that part of the state till he came to Cadillac in 1872. Married in 1848 to Mary M. Bierce, of New York. They have three sons and one daughter. Two of the sons are members of the firm; one son is in the same business at Mitchell, Missaukee County, Mich. The daughter is Mrs. Louis De Champlain, of Cadillac.

Captain L. J. Newson, wholesale and retail dealer in liquors, cigars and tobacco, was born in Canada in 18-41; came to Elk Rapids, Antrim County, Mich., in 1861, and was in the employ of Dexter Noble & Co. for nine years as captain of steamboats and tugs. Came to Cadillac in 1870, and engaged in his present business. He is one of the first settlers. Married in October, 1878, to Mrs. Matilda Smith, a daughter of Mitchell Gay, who came to Traverse City in 1847; was employed by Mr. Boardman, the first settler there, and who built the first mill.

Fred S. Kieldsen, wholesale and retail grocer, and dealer in lumbermen's supplies. Successor to Holbrook & May. Bought out that firm in 1881; was employed by them as a salesman for ten years previous to that time. Was born in Denmark in 1849; came to Cadillac in 1870. In connection with his mercantile business he owns and manages a farm of 840 acres, with 180 acres improved, two and one-half miles from the city. Keeps a dairy of forty-five cows; is a breeder of Holstein cattle, and is one of the first settlers in Cadillac. Married in 1873 to Flora Cheney, of Buffalo, N. Y. They have two sons.

John G. Mosser, contractor and builder and dealer in stone, lime, plaster, brick, hair and cement, also manufacturer of handmade and pressed brick, Cadillac, Mich., was born in Canada in 1840. Came to Michigan in 1865; built all the bridges on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad between Sturgis and Petoskey. Built and owned the first frame house in Cadillac; located in Cadillac in 1873, and has carried on the business of a builder since that time. Married in 1875 to Sadie A. Kent, a native of Pennsylvania. They have one child.

John Mansfield, county treasurer of Wexford County, was born in Connecticut in 1842. Enlisted in 1861 in First New York Cavalry, part of Custer's division, and was discharged in 1865. Married Adelaide Holmes, of Manchester, Mich. They have four children. Mr. Mansfield came to Wexford County in 1872, and located in the Township of Boon, where he purchased 400 acres of land. He was supervisor of the township from the time of its organization until 1880, when he was elected county treasurer.

Samuel James Wall   Biography

Eldon L. Metheany, agent Grand Rapids & Indiana R. R., was born at Lima, Ohio, Dec. 5, 1860. Commenced railroading in the employ of the Cincinnati, Hamilton it Dayton Railroad as ticket and freight clerk at Lima. Continued in that capacity until Feb. 1, 1877, when he removed to Cadillac to accept the position of station agent on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. At that point he has served in that capacity since that time. At the spring election in 1881, he was elected on the straight ticket as alderman-at-large to the city council for the term of two years. At the spring election of 1888 he was elected mayor of the city, in which position he served one full term.

E. Eugene Haskins, attorney-at-law, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in New York in 1849. His earlier education was at Auburn. Studied law at Grand Rapids, and was admitted to the bar Dec, 22, 1877, in circuit court, Kent County. Came to Cadillac in December, 1880. Has been United States court commissioner for the western district since 1881. Married in February, 1883, to Mae Consaul, native of New York.

Donald E. McIntyre, attorney-at-law, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born at Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1852, Was graduated from the literary department of Ann Arbor University in 1870, and from the law department in 1872. Commenced practice at Big Rapids, where he remained about one year. Came to Cadillac in 187?, and has continued practice here. Was city attorney several years, and member of the county board of supervisors. Elected prosecuting attorney for the county in the fall of 1882. The firm of Marthinson & White was established May 18, 1888. It consists of Charles Marthinson and James L. White. Their lumber-yard is two and one half miles west of Luther, Lake County. (Office on W. Mason Street, Cadillac. They deal in lumber, timber, shingles, and in pine lands. Handle from twenty to twenty-five million feet of lumber per year. Mr. Marthinson was born in 1845, in Denmark, where he remained until twenty-one years of age. Came to America in 1866, and spent a short time in Wisconsin. The same year came to Michigan to work in the pineries. Engaged in business in 1877 on the Manistee River, in lumber, logging and pine lands. Removed to Cadillac in 1870, and has since made this place his home.

F. H. Huntley, jeweler, and mayor of the city of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Allegany County, N. Y., in 1840. Remained there' until he was fifteen years of age, when he came with his parents to Kalamazoo, Mich., where he was for several years employed in a store. His health failing, he engaged in teaming and other out-door employments. In 1862 he enlisted in the Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, serving in the Army of the Potomac; was wounded in the hand at South Mountain. Mustered out iu February, 1868. Returned to Kalamazoo, and thence to Saranac, Ionia County. Came to Cadillac in 1878 and engaged in his present business of jeweler and watch-maker, commencing business with a cash capital of two dollars and a half. He has been alderman two terms, and was elected mayor in the spring of 1884. His family consists of a wife and-two sons.

A. J. Teed, civil engineer and land surveyor, of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born at Tecumseh, Mich., in 1844. Educated at Kalamazoo College. Taught in that college, in Franklin College, Ind., and in various other schools, being engaged in teaching five years. Was county surveyor of Van Buren County three years. Has followed civil engineering and surveying in northern Michigan for the last six years, coming to Cadillac in 1877, and making his home here. Has been county surveyor of Wexford County four years, city surveyor five years, and justice of the peace four years. During the last six months of the war of the rebellion, Mr. Teed served in the United States Navy. He was married in 1876 to Letty Edson, and has two children.

C. K. Russell, proprietor of the American* House, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in New York in 1826. His home, until his coming to Michigan, was in Connecticut. A portion of his early life he spent as a sailor, being master of a vessel at the age of twenty- one. He came to Kent County, Mich., in 1876, and remained three years, returning to Connecticut in the spring of 1875>. The same year he came to Cadillac and bought the American House in August. This house he has enlarged, improved and refurnished, making it one of the best, most commodious, convenient and comfortable in this section of the state. It has sixty-seven sleeping- rooms. Is centrally located on the southeast corner of Mitchell and Harris Streets. Mr. Russell was married in 1819 to Henrietta J. Smith. They have one daughter, the wife of Dr. J. N. Coleman, of Grand Rapids. Three children have died.

Lewis G. Lawson, of Cadillac, Wexford County, is a native of Norway, born in 1882. Many years of his early life were spent as a sailor on the Baltic and North Seas. He came to America at the age of twenty, settling in Canada, where he worked at shoemaking, having learned that trade in the old country. After a residence of five and a half years in Canada, he came to Michigan and was engaged in farming in St. Clair County. Dec. 16, 1804, lie enlisted in the Third Michigan Infantry, serving in the Army of the Cumberland. Was mustered out as corporal at Victoria, Tex., May 25, 1866. Lived in Detroit about two years, then moved to Grand Rapids, where he was in the grocery and saloon business about three years. Came to Cadillac in October, 1871, and built the Lake House, of which he was proprietor about two years. After working a few years at his trade of shoemaking, he, in 1878, started his present business of letting boats upon the lakes. Is located on the shore of Clam Lake and has a fleet of twenty row and sailboats. Owns and runs also the steam yacht St. Clair, for excursions on the lakes. His family consists of a wife and seven children; four children have died. Mr. Lawson has been an alderman of the city for eight years, and has contributed largely to make Cadillac what it now is.

William H. Parks, of the firm of Parks & Dunham, attorneys at law, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Cayuga County, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1819. In 1823 his parents moved to Michigan and settled at Troy, Oakland County, where he was brought up on a farm. Was educated at a branch of the State University, located at Pontiac. At about the age of seventeen, he made one of a government surveying party engaged iu the surveys of north Michigan under charge of John Hodson. Was engaged on this work from about the first of March to July, 1837. Soon after he commenced the study of the law, completing a three years course and being admitted to the bar in 1843, at Dewitt, Clinton County. Practiced first at Ionia, and wont thence in 1844 to Ottawa, where he remained a year. He spent two years in the copper regions of Lake Superior, where he located the Union Mine, now the Nonesuch, near Iron River, at the base of Porcupine- Mountain. Was then engaged in commercial pursuits until 1865. In January, 1856, he resumed the practice of law at Grand Haven, continuing in practice until 1868, and being for six. years prosecuting attorney of Ottawa County. During this time he engaged with others in the lumber business, and from 1868 to 1878 devoted his attention to that business solely. He then returned to law practice and removed to Marquette, Mich., where he remained until 1879, returning then to Holland, Ottawa County. Came to Cadillac in October, 1882. Mr. Parks was first married to Wealthy Thompson, of Rath, Maine, who died of cholera in 1850. In 1852 he married Elizabeth N. Coolidge, of Franklin County, Mass. He has one son, Albert S. who is general freight agent of the Houghton & Ontonagon R. R. Co.

Harrison M. Dunham, of the firm of Parks & Dunham, attorneys at law, is a native of Oakland County, Mich., born in 1856. Educated at Howe, Livingston County, where he studied law with Dennis Shields. Came to Cadillac in the spring of 1880, and practiced by himself until the. winter of l882, when he became one of the law firm of Parks, Dunham & Dunham, which became the present firm the following year. Mr. Dunham was married in 1888 to Kitty Parks.

 

William Macadam Gow, dry goods merchant, Cadillac, established business in September, 1875, with a capital of $500, and since that time has built up an extensive business, his sales being about $40,000 per year. Carries a large stock of dry goods, carpets, window draperies, fixtures, etc. Was born iu Scotland in March, 1843. Came to New York City in 1867. Remained in that city five years, engaged as a salesman by Lord & Taylor. Came to Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1872, and was there engaged in the same business till 1875, when he came to Cadillac. Married Sept. 15, 1875, to Annie R. Bogart, of New York City. They have three children. Mrs. Gow died May 15, 1881, after one week illness. She was a woman who enjoyed a very large circle of friends, and her death caused general sorrow in the community.

M. L. Dunham, attorney at law, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Oakland County, Mich., in March, 1850. Received an academic education. Was principal of public schools for eight years In 1870 went to the copper mining country of Michigan. Admitted to practice law in 1875. Held each of the offices of justice of the peace, township clerk and circuit court commissioner for four years. Was prosecuting attorney of Ontonagon County for six years, resigning that office when leaving for his present residence. In April, 1881, he founded the Ontonagon "Herald" and edited it for the first six months of its existence. Came to Cadillac in June, 1882. In May, 1883, he was elected city attorney. Frank C. Sampson, of the firm of Sampson k Drury, hardware dealers of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Monroe County, N. Y. Oct. 14, 1850. Was brought up at Lyons, N. Y. At the age of seventeen came with his parents to Parma, Jackson County, Mich. His life until the age of twenty-two was spent upon a farm; since then he has been engaged in the hardware business, learning the business at Jackson, Mich. Came from Jackson to Cadillac in October, 1870, and was in the employ of Cummer Rawls as clerk until the establishment of his present business, June 1, 1881. In the spring of 1883 lie was elected alderman of the Second Ward. He was married in June, 1872, to Mabelle Richardson, a native of Parma, Jackson County, Mich. The firm of Sampson & Drury carry a large and complete stock of hardware, tinware and mill and lumbermen's supplies, and manufacture cant hook and peavey handles. Their location is No. 107 North Mitchell Street.

A. D. Bradbeer, photographer, of Cadillac, Wexford County, was bora in Coburg, Northumberland County, Ontario, in 1851. Remained there until the age of ten, when he moved to Brighton. For the last fourteen years he has been mostly engaged in his present business at different points in Canada and (he States, and by assiduous labor and careful study has perfected himself in his art. He came to Cadillac May 27, 1880, and was for a time employed in a planing-mill. Resumed his former occupation the following year in the employ of H. L. Bragg, with whom he was iu partnership for a time. Purchased the business in November, 1888. Mr. Bradbeer makes a specialty of large work, portraits, viewing and framing. His studio is on East Harris Street.

Geohuk Bradbeer, of the firm of Bradbeer & Clary, of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Coburg, Canada, in 1857. When he was five years of age his parents moved to Brighton, Ontario, Canada, where ho remained until the age of fourteen, he then came to Michigan. Came to Cadillac in December, 1881, and in the summer of 1883 the present partnership was formed. Messrs. Bradbeer & Clary are doing an extensive real estate and insurance business and dealing largely, their business averaging §3,000 per per month. In insurance they represent the following companies: Etna of Hartford, Insurance Company of North America, Commercial Union of London, Oriental of Hartford, Union of Philadelphia, Grand Rapids Fire, Western of Toronto, Cooper of Dayton, Phoenix of Hartford, Mutual Benefit Life and Travelers’ Accident.

R. A. Rick, attorney at law, Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in 1837 in Trumbull County, Ohio. Ivlucatcd at Hillsdale College. Enlisted in the spring of 1882 in the Sixty-fifth Illinois Infantry Regiment, which was iu scurvier iu the eastern army, and was captured at Harper’s Ferry. Was immediately paroled and after a year exchanged and was afterward on duty in the Western department. Mustered out in the spring of 1865. Mr. Rice then, in 1866, commenced the study of medicine but abandoned it for the law, which he studied at the law school of Ann Arbor. Was admitted to the bar at Hart, Oceana County, in 1870. Came to Cadillac in the full of 1872, living the first attorney to locate at this point. In 1874 lie was elected prosecuting attorney of the comity and held the office six years. Was for five or six years town and village clerk. Elected .supervisor iu the second ward of the city in the spring of 1884. His family consists of a wife and three children.

Samuel F. Long, justice of the peace and real estate and collecting agent, of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born at Concord, Franklin County, Penn., July 25), 1829. Learned the trade of tailor. At the age of about twenty-two removed to Ohio. Came to Michigan in 1850 and engaged in farming in Kent County. Aug 15, 1862, he enlisted in the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, serving with the Army of the Potomac. Was detached and on scouting service a year and a half in the Shenandoah Valley. Was discharged for disability at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., in July, 1805. Returning home he was employed in farming until his health failed, when he engaged iu the grocery business in the town of Buchanan, Berrien County. In the spring of 1878 came to Cadillac and was in the employ of the O. R. & I. R. R. Co., as engineer of stationary engine five years. Then in charge of the water works one year, and carried on a grocery business for M. H. Bond one and a half years. In 1880 he was elected justice of the peace and re-elected iu 1884 for the full term. Is also real estate and collecting agent. His a wife and five children. One daughter is a graduate of Ann Arbor Medical College and is practicing medicine at Boyne City, Mich. Mrs. Long was Julia A. Byers, a native of Washington County, Penn.

C. R. Reach, M. D., Cadillac, was born in St. Johnsbury, Vt., Aug. 15, 1827. He was educated in Vermont and commenced the practice of medicine in 1850. Remained in that skate in the practice of his profession till 1878, when he came to Grand Traverse County, Mich., where be still practiced medicine till 1882, when he came to Cadillac. In connection with his practice he keeps bath rooms where he gives Turkish, medicated vapor and shower baths. Ladies’ bath rooms attached with female attendants. Married in 1849 to Cynthia Damon, of Springfield, Vt. They have four children.

J. Cummer & Son, manufacturers of lumber, Cadillac. Bought a mill, also a stock of timber, and established a business in 1876, which has since grown to large proportions. They run two mills the year round and cut an average of 100,000 feet of lumber per day, nearly all pine. They use the slabs and edging's for the manufacture of lath and pickets. They also run a large planing-mill in connection with their business. They are building a railroad, ten miles in length, which will reach 160,000,000 feet of pine timber. Mr. J. Cummer was born in Canada iu 1825, moved to Lock- port, Niagara County, N. Y., in 1840, and learned the trade of miller, and worked at that business iu New York and Canada till 1860, when be came to Newaygo County, Mich., and engaged in lumbering till 1868; he then went to Canada, and soon after to Morley, Mich. Was there in the lumber business till 1876, when he came to Cadillac Married in 1845 to Mary A. Snider, of Canada. They have two sons, Wellington W. is a member of the firm, also president of the Cummer Lumber Company; one sou is living in Florida, and one daughter who resides with her parent:.

Owen & Herrick, lumber manufacturers, Cadillac. The business was organized in July, 1882. Their work has been to a great extent custom work, but they arc gradually working up a genuine trade. Mr. Olsen was born in Denmark. Came to the United States when about seventeen years of age and for ten years worked in mills, thoroughly learning the business. In 1880 he, in company with Ira Beerman, bought a mill and commenced business. After running the mill for two years Beerman sold his interest to Geo. E. Herrick, who was born in Alpine, Kent County, Mich., Nov. 15, 1859. Was brought up on a farm. At the age of thirteen went u> the high school fit Grand Rapids, and at the age of eighteen entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. Two years at Ann Arbor anti one year at university of Wooster, O., gave him the degree of B. A. In the fall of 1881, in company with three old friends, he organized the United States Monthly, at Chicago, and for two years traveled in its interests, visiting nearly every state in the Union. In July, 1882, he purchased a one-half interest-in the mill, and since January, 1884, has taken charge of the business. The firm employ twenty-five men in the manufacture of lumber, shingles, bed slats, handles, etc.

David E. Cooke, of Cadillac, Wexford County, was born in Tioga County, Penn., May 12, 1845. At the age of eleven he came to Michigan, his parents settling in Barry County, where he was brought up on a farm. Learned the trade of carpenter and builder in St. Joseph County and followed it there until 1872. He enlisted February 26, in the First Michigan Cavalry, serving iu the Army of the Potomac. At the close of the war the regiment was sent to the western department for service against the Indians, and marched across the plains to Salt Lake City. Mustered out Dec. 7, 1865, at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. He came to Cadillac, Jan. 8, 1872, and followed his former occupation until about 1880, and to some extent since. Has been deputy sheriff and constable about twelve years, and deputy U. S. marshal for the western district of Michigan about ten years. Was city marshal two years, and has held various other offices. Was elected sheriff in 1882. Married in November, 1876, to Ella Long, daughter of Samuel F. Long, Esq., of Cadillac, and has one son. Mr. Cooke is engaged in the jewelry business with J. L. Bennett, the firm of Bennett & Cooke, formed in March, 1884, being located at 110 N. Mitchell Street.

Bryan Ballou was born near Cleveland. O., Dec. 3, 1827. His father, Philander Ballou, and family emigrated to Ypsilanti, Mich., in 1830, and were three weeks milking the journey with an ox team, themselves and three other families pounding corn in a stump with the Indians the first year. At this place his father died in 1836. Left home and went to Kalamazoo iu 1839 to live with his aunt, a Mrs. Nathaniel Foster, and learned the carpenter and joiner trade with his uncle Foster, who moved to Otsego, in Allegan County, in 1818. where Byron lived with his uncle and finished his trade. Soon after, at the age of twenty-three, he married Hannah Eldred, his present wife. After jobbing at his trade about twelve years, and accumulating something, himself and brother, L. D. Ballou, went into merchandising in the year 1856 and finally was largely in business and owned a large amount of property, a four run flouring-mill, a tannery, store, shoe shop, etc., but in the fluctuations of times came out about $10,000 worse than nothing. Lived at Otsego about thirty-five years and sold out and paid all on his debts but $400. and refused the repeated advice of neighbors and friends to go into bankruptcy, but promised to pay the balance as soon as he could earn it, and has paid those debts and interest since, although some of them had been outlawed two and three times. Moved to Cadillac in 1871 and engaged for the first seven years in the hardware business with John M. Cloud, and was in business under the name of Cloud A. Ballou. The city was then quite new and no roads. Mr. B. has done a shave of building up the city and country, and as a merchant and business man. has contributed his full share to help build up and improve the country and to assist others. Mr. Ballou is a radical Republican in politics, and for several years was chairman of the Republican county committee. He is a man of strong convictions upon all subjects that engage public attention. He has once been elected mayor cf Cadillac, but resigned at the end of three months. Mr. Ballou and wife have three daughters and two sons.

The Traverse Region - H.R. Page & Co 1884