Cook County, Minnesota

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Fred Bramer
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
TOPICS OF A WEEK. Fred Bramer returned last evening from Winona, where he attended United States Court as a juror.

George Brisson
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 6, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
George Brisson and family have moved into their new home in Blackwell addition. Mr. Brisson has bought two blocks of land and will go into the poultry business.

John Fischer and Ben Bockenhauer
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
John Fischer and Ben Bockenhauer arrived here last Monday from Winona, having driven all the way with a team of horses and a heavy work wagon. They have bought the Eli Vizina homestead in Colvill and will settle down to farm.

Mike Flatt
Source: The Cook County News-Herald (Grand Marais, MN) May 6, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

Grand Portage. Mr. Mike Flatt has purchased a fine new organ for his daughters.

Frank LeGarde
Source: The Cook County News-Herald (Grand Marais, MN) May 13, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

GRAND PORTAGE. Mr. and Mrs. Frank LeGarde entertained some of their Indian friends to a bear-meat dinner on Thursday.

Malcolm Linnell
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
RESERVATION NEWS. Malcolm Linnell accompanied his father, Ed Linnell, to Chicago Bay on Wednesday, the latter taking the Tuesday boat for Duluth to bring back his family with him next month from Black River Falls, Wis. Mr. Linnell came up for a visit and liked it so well that he has decided to make this his future home.

P. M. Linnell
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
RESERVATION NEWS. P. M. Linnell took a load of bridge plank from our local mill to the Reservation river for the bridge at that point, on Monday, and while engaged in placing the same in position his team became frightened and attempted to follow H. Greely's advice to "go west." They were finally stopped at the Bernt Jacobson farm about three miles distant, with some slight bruises and some damage to the wagon, but fortunately nothing very serious.

Mr. and Mrs. Nejhodain Longbody
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 20, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
Mr. and Mrs. Nejhodain Longbody have moved to this place to settle on their allotted land which joins his brother Joseph Longbody's allotment.

W. A. Milner
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
W. A. Milner, his brother-in-law, A. D. McGrath, and A. B. Barlow arrived from Ladysmith, Wis., on Wednesday, the former to settle on his homestead filed on last winter, and the other in search of desirable tracts on which to locate.

L. E. Morris
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 20, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
L. E. Morris, who recently arrived here from Brooks, Iowa, has purchased Charles Peterson homestead in the town of Colvill and will move onto it and start farming at once.

James Morrison
Source: The Cook County News-Herald (Grand Marais, MN) May 6, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

Reservation News. Jas. Morrison and family broke camp in their sugar-bush on Wednesday, after a successful sugar season, having tapped about a thousand trees, and left for home via Grand portage. Rube Smith drove out to their camp which is located on the old "sugar-bush trail" about half way to Swamp lake, on Wednesday afternoon and brought in their camp outfit and sugar harvest, which he took to Chicago Bay next day for shipment to Grand Marais. Mr. Morrison had widened out the trail and this was the first time a team had made the trip to this camp.

Grand Portage. Mr. James Morrison reports that he made 800 pounds of maple sugar and feels well paid for the hard word. He and family returned to Grand Marais on Thursday.

P. L. Morterude
Source: The Cook County News-Herald (Grand Marais, MN) May 6, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

P. L. Morterude, of Duluth, came down on the Sunday boat for a few days visit with his daughter, Miss Hazel Morterude. He is also renewing acquaintance with many old timers of the village, he having proved up on a claim in the Gunflint region over twenty years ago. Mr. Morterude sees a great change here in that time.

Ed Nunstedt
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 6, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

See Ed. Nunstedt for building material, such as windows, doors, roofing, flooring, etc., he carries a complete line in stock.

Peter Olson
Source: Cook County News (Grand Marais, MN) May 27, 1915; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman
TOPICS OF A WEEK. Peter Olson of Tofte, came down on the boat last evening. He returned home overland this morning with a horse purchased from Tom McCormick.

Carl Thoreson
Source: Duluth News-Tribune (Duluth, MN) Thursday, November 10, 1921; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman

Fearing that her husband has been detained in Duluth or Superior by the lure of moonshine, Mrs. Carl Thoreson, Hovland, Minn., in a communication to the Duluth chief of police asks the department to locate him. He left home two weeks ago, according to the letter, and has been seen in the Twin Ports, but has not written to Mrs. Thoreson, she informs. She told the police she is alone on a homestead with three small children and stock to take care of.

Samuel Zimmerman
Source: Duluth News-Tribune (MN) Sunday, December 10, 1905.

by D. B. Kirkham

SURVIVOR of the Indian massacre at New Ulm in 1862, school boy of Duluth when it numbered seven houses, pioneer of the north shore and driver of a mail dog train from Beaver Bay to Grand Marais. Samuel Zimmerman of the last named place, has a history fraught with the hardships and dangers of life on the frontier. He was in Duluth the other day when these facts were gleaned.

The sun is fast setting on the little band of people who conquered the wild prairie and virgin forest of Minnesota nearly a half century ago. His father John Zimmerman, gave his life to the cause. He was a fearless man, and industrious pioneer. His courage and energy are the inherent qualities of Samuel, who at eight years of age was terrified to see his father ruthlessly shot down by Chief Little Crow, but Samuel has followed in his footsteps by making his home far from conventional haunts, only choosing the forest and lake front to the unbroken prairie.

Few old residents of Duluth remember the dreadful slaughter of settlers at New Ulm by infuriated Indians in the fall of 1862. It is a crimson page of Minnesota's history attributable to a rupture of the government's relations with the Sioux Indians. To most people it is sorrowful history, but to Samuel Zimmerman it is the bitterness of life, a childish memory of barbarism, undimmed by succeeding years.

The September air mellowed under the harvest sun. The dull gold of ripened grain lay in waiting for the sythe. Corn shriveled on the stock in the dun colored fields skirted by patches of timber glowing with the crimson, and brown of autumn. The quail whistled merrily in the lanes and prairie chickens circled fearlessly over its grassy meadows in the fatal morning of transformation. Hardy farmers were mowing the rich grasses in the fertile valley of the Minnesota river when the tranquility was rudely broken.

The harvest field became the scene of murder, stained with the blood and strewn with the bodies of peaceful settlers. The avenging hand of the maddened Sioux struck terror to the heart and havoc to the toll of the vanguard of extending civilization. For a few hours the frenzied war cry echoed through the valley.

Goaded by a real or fancied wrong at the hands of the government, Chief Little Crow and several hundred braves trod the war path and before the soldiers of Fort Ridgely could interfere their thirst for blood drained the life current of dozens of defenseless settlers, among them Samuel Zimmerman's father and two older brothers.

John Zimmerman leaned on his scythe to wipe the sweat from his brow. He looked at the placid Minnesota with contentment in his heart. Something marred the surface of the water. His gaze fastened upon a moving form and in a moment he recognized the strokes of a strong swimmer. A man neared the shore and arising from the shallow water, shook the clinging drops form his back and ran rapidly toward the hay field. His torn clothing fluttered in the breeze. He waved his hand frantically and John started to meet him. He was a neighbor. His labored breathing made speech impossible when the two men met. One moment he paused exhausted and then hoarsely voiced the warning of approaching danger:

"For god's sake reach the fort with your family. The Indians are coming!"

John grasped the danger with the quickness of thought. Rushing to the barn he harnessed the horses to the big lumber wagon and with his wife and children, started at galloping speed for Fort Ridgely, 10 miles away.

The distressing news of the uprising spread like a prairie fire and as the family dashed along the road others prepared for flight, or resistance, it attacked before they could start.

Only a mile from home and 20 miles from New Ulm the fugitives were checked in their flight by little Crow's marauding band of braves. Just as the part was passing a feed mill on the bank of the river near the ford of the whooping Indians surrounded the wagon. The frightened women cowered in the wagon box as the attacking party with blood-curdling yells, rushed to the onslaught.

As the panting team was brought to a stop John instantly thought of the warning given by an angry Indian caller the night before. "give um calf," he said, "me tellum good news." John withheld the gift and instantly associated the visit with the evil hour. He sat in his seat with the forced courage born of dealings with his red neighbors.

Masking his fear he argued with the chief of the band until a shot from Little Crow's rifle crashed through his brain. He pitched forward into the dusty road, dead. His eldest son, John 21 years of age, fell by his side with a bullet in his heart. Shots rang out in rapid succession and before the echo of the fire which killed John died away, his brother Godfrey, three years his junior, died in the stream, his blood tinging the water with the dye of murder.

Screams of the women and children comingled with the cries of the Indians. The frightened horses reared and plunged; Samuel and his little sisters leaped to the ground as the team sprang forward only to be caught by the Indian guard nearest the ford. Dazed by horror Samuel lay hidden under a brush pile and was dragged to view by an ugly visage Indian a moment later. In guttural tones he was commanded to join his mother and sisters in the mill.

With wild shouts of triumph the Indians surrounded the little building and tortuous death by fire lay in waiting for the imprisoned. The torch was applied. Hungry flames licked the tinder pine. Tongues of flames shot skyward hastening the impending doom. Mp>But the soldiers at the fort had not been idle. With the arrival of fleeing settlers came the marching orders to the conflicts on the farms. So when the survivors of the Zimmerman family were all but resigned to death 300 blue coats swinging to double time swept down upon the burning building and brought deliverance with the capture of the persecutors of their wrongs. The family was escorted to the fort under guard, sickened at the sight of dead and dying settlers strewn along the road.

A few hours sufficed to quell the insurrection but terrible destruction had been wrought.

The lives and property of the innocent paid the debt of delayed or withheld government payments to the simple minded children whose wrath knew no bounds.

Wreck ruin and desolation reigned at the Zimmerman home. Grief for the dead filled the hearts of the living. Mrs. Zimmerman could not manage the farm. Her spared children were small. She was bowed with the weight of sorrow and sought comfort by living near her relatives.

She moved to St. Paul soon after the massacre. Misfortune relentlessly pursued the family fortunes and on the steamer passage up the Mississippi river death was narrowly averted when the steamer sunk in the stream. For two days the passengers were camped on the shore until a boat came to the rescue.

Then came the final chapter of the massacre with the hanging of Chief Little Crow and six Indians in punishment for their crimes. The hanging took place seven miles from the city in the early morning and was witnessed by the Zimmerman children who had seen their father and brothers die by the hand of the condemned.

After living in St. Paul two years Mrs. Zimmerman moved to Duluth. Her brother, O. Tischer, occupied one of the seven houses which comprised the settlement. Samuel grew to manhood in Duluth, Beaver Bay and other towns on the north shore. He craved the freedom of life in the woods and became a surveyor. He carried mail from Duluth to Beaver Bay, a distance of 61 miles, driving a dog train from Beaver Bay to Grand Marais, 54 miles and camping by the wayside in the deep snow of cold winters.

His school has been the pine forest and lakeshore with a birch decree in woodcraft. The Indians of Grand Marais are his friends and a few years ago he conducted a trading post in the forest 30 miles from the village.

Thrilling experiences have marked the epochs in Samuel's life in the open. He has weathered the storms of years and experienced the growth of the north shore country from infancy.

He is a familiar figure in Cook county and is serving his fourth year as road overseer. Twenty-two years ago his right leg was amputated. A burn suffered in childhood became poisoned by colored undergarments and the limb was sacrificed to save his life. Only his sister, Mrs. Jacob Hangartner, of Beaver Bay is living of his family. They and their families frequently visit in Duluth, being related to George and John Tischer, Thomas Bowers and John Schuler. It is when they are together that memory harks back to the days of childhood which will endure until the grave.

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