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- - 1847 - - A NEW TERRITORY
Source: The Ottawa Free Trader, Ottawa, January 15, 1847, contributed by Nancy Piper
A New Territory - Mr. Martin of Wisconsin has brought a bill in Congress for establishing a new territory beyond the limits of that State. It is to be called Minosota. This is the beginning of a new State.

Source: The Ottawa Free Trader, Ottawa, Illinois, April 9, 1847, contributed by Nancy Piper
Another New Territory
On the 17th inst., a bill was passed for the organization of a new territory to be called Minnesota. The territory derives its name from a river that runs through it. It lies west of Lake Superior and in a high northern latitude.

- - 1850 - - INTERESTING FROM MINESOTA (Women are scarce).
[Source: North American (Philadelphia, PA) Thursday, March 14, 1850; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman]

The Chronicle and Register tells us that a matrimonial fever has seized upon all the bachelors in that region, and that wives are scarce and in demand, being the dearest article in the Minesota markets.

[SOURCE: Daily Minnesotian, July 30, The Quincy Daily Whig, Wednesday, August 15, 1855 - transcribed by Debbie Gibson]

During the late political assemblages in St. Paul, we had many opportunities of learning the prospects of the crops in different localities of Minnesota.
The farmers from the southern counties are in the midst of their harvest. Their wheat, they say, will average almost a full crop, notwithstanding the drought in the early part of the season. A full crop of wheat in Minnesota, is from thirty to forty bushels per acre.
From the Minnesota valley we hear the same account of the wheat crop; and in this vicinity, in the counties of Ramsey, Dakota and Washington, nothing materially less detrimental to the prospect of a full harvest can be presumed, from accounts before us.
Oats, corn, potatoes, &c., look fine and promise well in all parts of the Territory. - From present prospects, Minnesota will be able to join in the general time of thanks and rejoicing which will go up this year from all parts of the great valley of the West, upon the gathering of the fruits of the earth.

- - 1856 - - THE RIVER
[SOURCE: Minnesota Democrat, The Quincy Whig, Saturday, May 17, 1856 - Contributed by Debbie Gibson]

The River ? The Minnesota bids fair at this time to come up to the mark of 1851 at least, and perhaps to that of 1850. Fullerton's bridge, from Boat Island to the opposite shore, has at last given away under the pressure of the flood. The west wing of the St. Anthony dam has also been swept off.

[SOURCE: Minnesota Democrat, The Quincy Whig, Saturday, May 17, 1856 - Contributed by Debbie Gibson]

- On the Editor, which arrived yesterday morning, were two colonies, one bound for Crow River, and the other Rum River. They brought with them their cattle and horses, and all the paraphernalia of farmers. These companies, consisting of about fifty persons, immediately repaired to the Drug Store of J. Wesley Bond, Esp., he being, in their opinion, the proper person from whom to obtain information in regard to Minnesota. One of the colonies was from Pennsylvania and the other from Ohio.

[SOURCE: The Quincy Whig, Saturday, January 24, 1857 - Transcribed by Debbie Gibson ]

The Committee of Public Lands of the House of Representatives has under consideration the subject of creating a new survey district especially for Minnesota, and detatching (detaching) it from the States of Iowa and Wisconsin; such a course being necessary for the extension of the public surveys and to meet the demands of settlers, and the advance of the present and prospective fields of observation.
Owing to the vast amount of public domain in that section of the counties, the Land Office deputies have frequently traveled from 300 to 700 miles to prosecute their business. There are in Minnesota 91,000,000 of acres of public lands, enough to make three States the size of Iowa.

- - 1862 - - Volunteers Protected Train of Women and Children
Source: The Saint Paul Daily Press (St. Paul, MN), September 2, 1862, page 4; submitted by Robin Line
A LARGE number of the volunteer mounted men who accompanied the expedition under Col. Sibley, for the relief of Fort Ridgley, have returned. Mr. W. D. Rogers of this city, was one of the party, who guarded the train of 300 woman and children from Fort Ridgley to St. Peter. He says that party represented relatives to the number of 98, that have been killed by the Indians. One man numbers twenty-two relatives, all he had in the country, among the slain.

THE PAYMENT PARTY.-Messrs. Wycoff, Hatch,Van Vorhes, Daily and Ramsey, who started for the Sioux Agency two weeks ago, to make the annual payment, and they were shut up during the entire siege-returned to this city on Sunday morning, and received the congratulations of their friends. They all speak in the highest terms of the bravery of the officers in charge of the post. Lieut. Sheehan has already been spoken of in the communications of Mr. Van Vorhes, and it remains to say that Lieut. Culver, of Company B. Fifth regiment, was everywhere present where his duty called him. During the severe and long-continued action of Friday week, he five times headed a party of men to the powder house to supply the artillery with the necessary amount of fixed ammunition, amid a perfect hailstorm of bullets from the Indians. And then, the way those howitzers were handled by Sergeant Jones, formerly of Sherman's battery, but now the Post Sergeant of Fort Ripley, and a Mr. Whipple, from Faribault, who was a volunteer for the defense of the post, excited the admiration of the whole garrison.Tho' Mr. Whipple had been out of the service for years, he soon showed that he had learned on the plains of Mexico.

It is unnecessary to add that Messrs. Wycoff and party brought back the pile of gold they took up, as they are not paying Indians so much as they have been.

[SOURCE: The Quincy Whig Republican, Saturday, December 13, 1862 - Transcribed by Debbie Gibson]

Mr. Rice introduced a bill calling public attention to the State of Minnesota to aid in improving the navigation of the Minnesota and the Red River of the North and connecting the same by a canal.
Mr. Wilkinson introduced a bill for the relief of persons for damages sustained by the recent depredations of certain bands of Sioux Indians. Referred.
He also introduced two bills for the removal of Winnebago and Sioux Indians from Minnesota, and the sale of their reservations.
Senator Rice's bill in aid of a canal to connect the Missouri and Red river of the North, grants for such purpose a million acres of Minnesota lands, besides the right of way of 2,000 feet in width.

- - 1863 - - FARM HAND WAGES
[Source: The Hastings Conserver (MN) Tuesday, August 4, 1863; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman]

HARVESTING-The farmers appear to be getting along well with their crops, and labor is in good demand. The wages demanded and paid vary from $2 to $2.25 per day and board. More than farmers ought or can well afford to pay.

[SOURCE: The Quincy Whig Republican, Saturday, August 29, 1868 - Transcribed by Debbie Gibson]

The Tourist season - Immigration - Plentiful Harvest - Politics - Quincy Personals
[Special Correspondence of the Quincy Whig]
St. Paul, Minn., Aug. 22, '68.
From our sunny Northern homes we now again greet the friends of the older days with tidings of good cheer. The summer "season" is about over. The tourists who have made the country lively and merry. With their presence during the last two months, who have hunted and fished, and rode, and rowed and sailed, are now packing up their tackle with their wardrobes, and leaving us. They are leaving just at the commencement of the most enjoyable season, for while July is usually about as hot here as five degrees southward, August, September and October are more pleasant. The invalids who came here during the summer have, some of them, gone home greatly benefited; others by reasons of the advanced stages of their disease, or the shortness of their stay, little improved. Many, and by far the wiser class have remained, and will remain until a cure is perfected, if it requires the whole of their natural lives. The immigrants who swarmed into every quarter of our State, from all parts of our country, and by tens of thousands from Northern Europe, have, in most cases, gone out to the cast prairies, and are opening up homesteads, under the new beneficent act of Congress, and will be heard from in a year or two in the export returns, and in the increased demand of necessaries of life and implements of agriculture.
There are the salient features of the summer's events. The harvest is past, and seldom, if ever, within the recollectionof the citizens of Minnesota has so large or so good a crop of wheat been garnered. I hear of some yields as large as thirty-seven bushels per acre, and no less than twenty. Having traveled extensively in almost every settled section of the State, and seen the immense breadth of ground devoted to the raising of this cereal, I am in some measure prepared to estimate the aggregate products, and can certify that it will be enormous, beyond all precedent in our history. Other grains are generally productive. Oats are very fine, and corn, which for two years past has been "cooked" bu an early September frost, being this year planted a month earlier than usual, and the number of acres more than double, is now nearly or quite out of the way of frost, and in size and prospective yield, equal to anything I ever saw in Illinois.
This magnificent crop prospect, is of course, very encouraging to all kinds of business. Prices promise to be good, and the frontier farmer is in need of too many of the comforts of life to long hoard his gains after they have been secured. So our merchants are bringing in heavy stocks of goods, money is beginning to circulate more freely, and the whole atmosphere is full of the electric thrill of hope.
We are now in the midst of the seething ante-nomination political excitement of this year. We elect no State officers this year, but our two members of Congress are to be elected. In the First District, Hon. M. S. Wilkinson, from 1860 to 1866 U. S. senator from this State, and a good, true and able man, has been nominated, and will be elected by an overwhelming majority. In this District, the Convention was postponed to suit the convenience of the sitting member, Donnelly, who last spring achieved a national notoriety by his "spirited" reply to Elihu Washburne's unwarrented charges. Donnelly wanted time to stump the District in his own interest so the Committee who were his friends, set the Convention for September 3d, and withheld the call until Congress adjourned and their chief could return. He is now upon the war path, the primary meetings are being held and the result is yet doubtful. His principal (principle) competitor is Wm. S Washburn, of Minneapolis, a brother of the Congressional family, and an able and accomplished gentleman - a classmate in college, by the way, of C. Greeley, Esq., of your city. On national questions and issues, Minnesota is all right, and may be counted on for a thundering majority for Grant, Colfax and Peace.
Many Quincy people have visited Minnesota this season, the principal being, since my last letter, so far as I can remember, Mr. And Mrs. D. T. Jamison, Mr. J. T. Morgan, Miss Anna VamDoorn, Mr.. And Mrs. Wm. Morris, Mrs. And Miss Baughman, Mrs. C. E. Doyen, A. Comstock, S. J. Castle, Mrs. T. H. Castle, Mr. J. B. Roberts, Jno. A. White, Capt. J. M. Pitman, H. W. Mead, Jno. Taylor, H. S. Osborn and family, Mr. And Mrs. T. M. Rogers, Mr. And Mrs. W. T. Rogers, Mr. And Mrs. C. H. Bull, Miss Bull, Mr. And Mrs. Baker, and Col. Wm. Hanna. Some still remain here, and all seemed to enjoy their visit. But for the temporary impediment to navigation at the Upper Rapids, we presume many more would yet come, as the trip is the cheapest and most delightful that could be found, and the coming months, where the shores will be decked in all gorgeous variety of autumn foliage, are the very best in which to make it.
H. A. C.

[Source: Little Falls Transcript (MN) April 10, 1885, page 3; submitted by Robin Line]
A syndicate of Amsterdam, Holland, and Chicago immigration agents have purchased 34,000 acres of St. Paul & Duluth railroad land in Renville, Chippewa and Kandiyohi counties, and will settle the land with immigrants from Holland, Norway, and Germany.

[Source: New York Herald (New York, NY) Thursday, December 20, 1888; transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman]

Minnesota Inspectors Go Home to REFORM SOME OF THEIR INSTITUTIONS.

The Minnesota State Board of Prison Inspectors, consisting of Mr. A. K. Doe, of Stillwater, Minn., president of the Minnesota Board of Prison Inspectors; General John F. Norrish, of Hastings, Minn., and Captain Edwin Dun, of Eyota, Minn., left this city yesterday for Philadelphia, for the purpose of visiting the Eastern Penitentiary of Pennsylvania. Afterward the party will proceed to Allegheny City and inspect the Western Pennsylvania Penitentiary.

Mr. H. H. Hart, secretary of the Minnesota State Board of Corrections and Charities, accompanies the Board by special invitation of the State Board of Inspectors.

While in New York, whence they came for the purpose of studying the convict labor problem, the inspectors visited the following institutions:-The Elmira Reformatory, the State Prison at Sing Sing and the New York Penitentiary, at Blackwell's Island. They also made excursions to Charlestown, Mass., where they inspected the State Prison, and to Concord, Mass., where they went through the State Reformatory. General Norrish visited Wethersfield, Conn., and took notes of the working of the State Prison there. In addition to these visits, consultations were had with Secretary W. F. F. Rounds, of the New York Prison Association, and Judge Wehlan, of New Haven, president of the Board of Prison Directors, State of Connecticut.

I saw the visitors just before their departure for Philadelphia and they said they had been greatly instructed by their interviews with Superintendent Brockway and Wardens Pilsbury and Brush and Secretary Rounds, of the Prison Association.

The inspectors were particularly well pleased with the Elmira Reformatory. Mr. Hart, speaking for the party, said:-
"The influence of the Elmira Reformatory is being felt in other States of the Union. Massachusetts opened a reformatory about four years ago and Pennsylvania is about to open her new reformatory at Huntington, having secured the services of Warden McClaughry, of Joliet, Ill., probably the best available man in the United States. Ohio, Minnesota and Kansas are building reformatories like the Elmire institution, and Michigan is taking steps to remodel the Ionia Reformatory upon the Elmira plan. The establishment of like institutions is being agitated in Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky and other States.

"The drift at the present time is in the direction of greater efforts for the reformation of inexperienced and accidental criminals, and greater severity in the treatment of confirmed criminals. The States of Ohio, Massachusetts and Illinois have in the past three years adopted laws under which "habitual" criminals when convicted a third time may be sentenced to prison for long terms-for twenty-one years in Illinois and for life in Ohio.

"The confinement of habitual criminals for the remainder of their lives seems at first thought too harsh, but a second thought is likely to modify this view. Insanity is a misfortune, not a fault, but we don't sentence insane persons to a hospital for one or two years. They are detained in the hospital until the superintendent believes them to be cured. They are then dismissed-on probation. The hardship of this treatment in many cases is admitted, but the practice is successfully defended on the ground that the safety of society demands it.

"It is proposed to apply analogous treatment to confirmed criminals. When we are satisfied that a man is a criminal we will confine him until the officers of the prison have reason to believe that he has reformed. We will then release him on probation until this opinion is confirmed. Why should a criminal be treated more leniently than an insane person?

"Closely related to the Habitual Criminals act is the adoption of the Bertillion system of identifying criminals, which has long been in successful operation in France. This system consists of a series of measurements which afford an absolute means of identification, independent of photographs or marks. This system has been adopted by an association of prison wardens of some twenty-five prisons, and they have established a clearing house at Joliet whereby it can be ascertained in every case whether the prisoner has been an inmate of any prison belonging to the association."

On returning to Minnesota the Board will report the result of its investigations to the Legislature of 1889.

Saturday, February 9, 1889 - The Eugene City Guard (Eugene, OR) contributed by Jim Dezotell

Charles Lumsteller was arrested at Port Townsend last week, charged with the murder of his wife in Minnesota.

[Source: Warren Sheaf (Warren, MN) Feb. 25, 1892] mkk
Secretary Hart has prepared a table of statistics showing the number of inmates in the state institutions of the quarter just ended. The number is 3,857, being an increase over the figures of the same quarter in 1891 of 261, and divided among the different institutions as follows:
St. Peter asylum, 976; Rochester asylum, 1,091; Fergus Falls hospital, 131; total insane 2,198; total in 1890, 2,030. Soldiers' home, 167; school for the deaf, 210; school for the blind, 57; school for the feeble minded, 321; dependent children, 133; state reform school, 391; state reformatory, 130; state prison, 340. Total 3,857, as against 3,596 January 31, 1891, showing a total increase for the year of 261. [doesn't add up, off by 90]

[SOURCE: Grand Forks Herald - December 8, 1894 - Contributed by Frances Cooley]

A Large Attendance and an Interesting Program
The annual meeting of the Old Settlers' association of the Red River Valley convened at Fargo Friday morning, James Nolan, of Abercrombie, presiding.

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year:
N. K. Hubbard, Fargo
Vice Presidents:
E. M. Probstfield, Clay County, Minnesota
Charles Cavalier, Pembina; W. C. Nash. Polk County, Minnesota
George B. Winship, Grand Forks
Charles W. Morgan, Traill County
James Holes, Cass County
Frank Herrick, Richland County
Ed. Connelly, Wilkin County, Minnesota
Jacob Rheinhardt, Walsh County
B. F. Mackall, Moorhead
W. H. White, Fargo

A committee to be known as the historical committee of the Old Settlers' association of the Bed River Valley was appointed to gather reminiscences, incidents of early history, biographical sketches and photographs of the old settlers, etc.
The committee consists of the following members:
Col. C. A. Lounsberry, Fargo Argus
George B. Winship, Grand Forks Herald
R. M. Probstfleld
S. G. Roberts
E. S Tyler, Fargo
David McCaulay, McCauleyville, Minnesota
Charles Cavalier, of Pembina

The meeting, which was a very enjoyable gathering throughout, concluded with a banquet at the Hotel Metropole in the evening, which included a fine program.
Among the toasts and responses were the following:
"Attorney's Life and Railroading in "71 and 72"-Hon. S. G. Comstock
"Running a Stage Station"-George B. Winship
"Fargo in the Timber, by Its First Postmaster"-G. J. Keeney
"Early Recollections"-R. M. Probstfield
What I Know About Hotel Keeping"-James Nolan.
"The Red River Valley"-W. J. Anderson
'Early Merchandising"-J. H. Sharp
'Fargo, My Early Love and Present Home"-W. H. White

Among those in attendance were the following:
James Nolan, 1865, Abercrombie
Jacob Reinhardt, 1866, McCauleyville
Frank Veits, 1870. Georgetown
James A. Jenks, 1871, Grand Forks
R. M. Probstfield, 1859, Moorhead
E. R. Hutchinson, 1858, Georgetown
Jacob Lowell, Jr., 1870, Fargo
P. P. Nokken, 1871, Fargo
P. Kelly, 1871, Goose River
William H. Brown, 1875, Grand Forks
James Elton, 1872, Georgetown
W. J. Anderson, 1875, Grand Forks
Frank Herrick, 1870, Abercrombie
Job Herrick, 1870, Abercrombie
James Holes, 1871, Fargo
Harry O'Nell, 1873, Fargo
J. C. Probert, 1872, Fargo
Andrew McHedch, 1870, Fargo
John H. Sharp, 1871, Moorhead
F.J. Smith, honorary, 1882, Fargo
W. H. White, 1871, Fargo
George I. Foster, 1871, Pembina
Geo. B. Winship, 1867, Turtle River
D. M. Holmes, 1871, Grand Forks
N. B. Pinkham, 1871, Fargo
A. H Morgan, 1871, Frog Point
John E. Haggart, 1871, Fargo
S. G. Roberts, 1872. Fargo
G. S. Barnes, 1872, Glyndon
H.G. Stordock, 1873, Breckenridge
Charles B. Thimens, 1872, Fargo
Clement A. Lounsberry, 1873, Bismarck, Fargo
Arthur Bassett, 1872, Glyndon
Frank Whitman, 1871, Fargo
S. E. Herrick. born Abercrombie, 1873
Evan S. Tyler, 1873, Fargo
Alex Gamble, 1872, Fargo
Joseph Prevost, Wolverton
S. F. Crockett, 1879, Fargo
Edwin Griffin, 1853, seven miles south of Fargo

In addition to those named above were many old settlers. Among them:
J. B. Blanchard
B. F. Mackall
A. F. Pinkham
G. J. Keeney
N. L. Shattuck
A. A. White
Ed Porrit
F. J. Burnham.

There are 269 old settlers on the roll, but when their names were called a second time the following were stricken off, death having claimed them:
Capt. Reeves
J. S. Eshelman
William Blair
David Blair
Al Wright
O. S. Freeman
Hugh O'Donnell
Charles A. Brown
Ed O'Brien
J. W. Taylor
John Kabernagle
J. R. Harris

The society having organized in 1880, these deaths were scattered through these several years.

- - 1906 - - ICE CUTTING LAWS.
[Source: Red Lake Courier (Red Lake Falls, MN) Jan. 25, 1906 ] mkk
Persons cutting ice would do well to observe Sec. 6640 of the General Statutes, 1894, providing that "A person or corporation cutting ice in or upon any water wholly or partly within the boundaries of this state for the purpose of removing the ice for sale, must surround the cuttings and openings made with fences of brushes or other guarbs [sic.] sufficient to warn all persons of such cuttings and openings; which fences or guards must be erected at or before the time of commencing the cuttings or openings, and must be maintained until ice has again formed therein to the thickness of at least six inches. Whoever omits to comply with this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Source: Source: History of Renville County, Minnesota, Vol. 1, by Franklyn Curtiss-Wedge Published by H. C. Cooper Jr, & Co., Chicago (1916) Page 745-746; submitted by Robin Line

The Minnesota Educational System. In the story of American civilization the establishment of the school and the church has been coincident with the building of the home. However, at the formation of the Union, and later, when the federal government was established, there was no definite line of action as to public education, although at the same time that the constitution was adopted the last session of the continental congress was being held in the city of New York, and the ordinance of 1787 was passed, regulating the affairs pertaining to the Northwest territory, including that portion of Minnesota lying east of the Mississippi river. In this ordinance much attention was given to the question of providing a means of public education by giving one section in each congressional township for educational purposes. Later, when the purchase of Louisiana had been effected, and after the due course of years, Minnesota sought admission to the Union, still further provision was made for education by giving two sections in each congressional township for school purposes. This gave impetus to the natural tendency toward educational matters, and in all the settlements one of the first efforts was to prepare to instruct the children. The church and the school building, when not one and the same, were practically always found side by side. The hardy pioneers, of the great Northwest, of which Minnesota was a part, did not even wait for a territorial government, but set work at once to establish schools. The first school in Minnesota for the education of white children was organized by Dr. T. S. Williamson on the present site of St. Paul. At that time investigation demonstrated that there were about thirty-six children in the settlement of St. Paul who might attend a school. A log house, ten by twelve feet, covered with bark and chinked by mud, previously used as a blacksmith shop, was secured and converted into a schoolhouse, the school being taught by Harriet E. Bishop. Here, then, while the United States troops were ganging such signal success in the war with Mexico, there was begun the system of education which has become one of the best in this great nation. In this same little schoolhouse, in November, 1849, was held a meeting for the purpose of establishing a system of public education, based upon the congressional act of March, 1849, establishing Minnesota territory. Alexander Ramsey, of Pennsylvania, after being appointed territorial governor, proceeded at once to assume the duties of his office. In his first message to the first territorial legislature in the fall of 1849 he emphasized the need of wise measures looking to the establishment of a system of public education. He said: "The subject of education, which has ever been esteemed of first importance in all new American communities, deserves care. From the pressure of other and more immediate wants it is not to be expected that your school system should be very ample, yet it is desirable that whatever is done will be of a character that will readily adapt itself to the growth and increase of the country, and not in future years require a violent change of system."

Source: Winthrop News (Winthrop, MN), November 16, 1922, page 2, rll
Who was the pioneer farmer of Minnesota? Joseph R. Brown has been given the credit by some; refugees from the Selkirk county in the Red River valley by others; but a member of the staff of the Minnesota Historical society, searching through old manuscripts in the library of McGill University, Montreal, has found that the credit belongs to none of these.

As early at 1807, five years before the founding of Selkirk's colony, and twelve before Joseph R. Brown set foot on Minnesota ground, farming on a fairly large scale was being carried on at fur-trading posts on Sandy Lake and Leech Lake. A letter written by George Henry Monk on April 18, 1807, describes his trip up the St. Louis river to Sandy Lake and beyond to Leech Lake. With reference to the Northwest Company post on Sandy Lake, Monk writes: "There are two horses, a cow, a bull, and a few pigs; with the manure of these animals a garden of 3 acres of pure sand is cultivated, which produces about 220 bushels of potatoes."

He also writes that there was a large establishment at Leech Lake. Five acres were under cultivation, which produced 1000 bushels of potatoes, and 30 bushels of oats, cabbage, carrots, beets, beans, pumpkins, and Indian corn.

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