St. Louis County, Minnesota

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Ronald John MacLeod
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

The sturdy blood of Scotland flows in the veins of some of the most substantial and reliable citizens of this great country. Among those of Scottish birth now residing in Duluth is Ronald John MacLeod, the successful building contractor and honored citizen, residing in the beautiful suburb of Glen Avon. He was born in Stornoway, Scotland, in September, 1859, son of Roderick and Jane (McRae) MacLeod. The MacLeod clan has lived on the isle of Skye for 900 years and more. A number of the members of the family have been ministers in the Presbyterian Church, including three successive generations named Norman MacLeod.

Roderick MacLeod was a son of Ronald and a grandson of Norman MacLeod, both farmers on the Isle of Skye. After living nine years in Canada he came to the United States in 1882, and has here followed his trade of builder, erecting a number of the buildings in Duluth, where he now resides, at the age of eighty-five years. He married Jane McRae, who was born in Kintail, Scotland, of a family that long had their home on the borderland between England and Scotland. To Roderick and Jane MacLeod eight children were born: Julia, who married W.L. MacLeman; Alexander, who died in British Columbia in 1888, aged thirty-seven years; Mary, who became the wife of N. Smith; Margaret; Jane; Ronald John; John, of Minneapolis; Christina, wife of T. Gibson. All of the surviving children except John live in Duluth.

Ronald J. MacLeod left home in 1873, and in company with his parents came to America, locating in Kincardine, Ontario, where he attended the public schools, and later under his father's capable instruction, became proficient in the building and contracting business. In 1880 he came to Duluth and engaged as a contractor, erecting many of the residences and places of business in the growing city and in West Superior. He has also been successful in bridge building, on the Duluth, Missabe & Northern, and the Duluth and Iron Range Railroads. For a number of years the firm engaged in business under the name of MacLeod & Wilson, later became MacLeod, Campbell & Smith, and since March, 1900, it has been MacLeod & Smith. The members of the firm are connected with the Builders' Exchange, of Duluth, and are recognized as reliable and trustworthy men who faithfully fulfill their promises.

In 1887 Mr. MacLeod was married to Miss Arcena Nelson, who was born in Thisted, Denmark, daughter of Andrew and Margaret Nelson. Four children have been born to this union, Jane, Alexander, Roderick and Flora. The family are all members of the Glen Avon Presbyterian Church, of which Mr. MacLeod has long been a trustee. He is a charter member of Duluth Casting Club, and is an enthusiastic angler. His pleasant manner and genial wit make him a happy companion and he is very popular socially. Fraternally he belongs to the Knights of Pythias.


Theodore Macy
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Theodore Macy, a native of Livingston county, New York, was born on the 24th of September, 1833. When quite young, he was employed in a flouring mill for seven years, then engaged in contracting until 1860; when he entered the employ of the Marquette and Ontonagon Railroad Company, remaining eleven years, ten of which he was a conductor. In 1871, Mr. Macy came to Duluth and is at present assistant Yard-master for the St. Paul and Duluth Railroad Company.


Charles Patrick Maginnis
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Charles Patrick Maginnis, a well-known citizen of Duluth, senior member of the firm of C. P. Maginnis & Son, belongs to a family whose members have been noted for patriotism in every generation. The family is of Irish origin, and Mr. Maginnis was born in December, 1849, in Wayne county, N.Y., a son of Patrick and Winifred (Devine) Maginnis.

Patrick Maginnis, father of Charles Patrick, was a native of County Clare, Ireland, and spent several years in England prior to coming to America, in 1830. After settling in the United States he took up railroad contracting, and in that connection built the portion of the Illinois Central road between LaSalle and Bloomington. In 1856 he came to Minnesota, becoming a pioneer settler in Goodhue county, on the Dubuque & St. Paul stage line, which was then the only highway in the region besides the rivers. There he passed the remainder of his days, engaged in farming until his death, in 1878, when he was sixty-eight years old. Mr. Maginnis married Winifred Devine, also a native of County Clare, Ireland, whom he brought with him to America in 1830, and she survived until 1890, attaining the age of seventy-eight. Her father, Andrew Devine, was a sailor in the British navy, and reached the age of 104 years. He had two sons in the British army, one of whom, Andrew, was afterward in the Civil War of 1861-65 in the United States, as a member of the 3rd United States Regiment, and later in a New York regiment of volunteers. Mr. and Mrs. Maginnis were faithful members of the Catholic Church. Their family consisted of three sons, Martin, John (a farmer, of Duluth) and Charles Patrick. Martin Maginnis enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War in Company F, 1st Minn. V.I., became orderly sergeant, and served four years with that regiment. In time he became lieutenant of Company F, and later captain of Companies H and K, and led Company H in the famous charge at Gettysburg; of over forty men of his company who entered this charge but six survived. Capt. Maginnis escaped without injury. He was further promoted, to quartermaster, and later became major of the 11th Minn. V.I. After the war he settled at Helena, Mont., where he has been largely interested in mining, and for some years he published the Rocky Mountain Gazette. As might be expected of one of his energetic and capable disposition, he has become very prominent in public affairs, has represented Montana in Congress seven times, and has also been United States senator.

Charles Patrick Maginnis, the youngest child of his parents, spent his boyhood in Goodhue county, Minn., and received such instruction as the public schools offered. After reaching his majority he kept a store there, and in 1878 he went to Stevens county, this State, where he commenced farming on a tract of 1,000 acres, which he cultivated for about ten years. During that time he became quite prominent in local affairs, was mayor of Morris, Stevens county, and served four years as sheriff of the county, to which office he was elected in 1880. In addition to his agricultural interests he had charge of the Farmers' Elevator at Morris. In 1887 Mr. Maginnis was appointed, by President Cleveland, receiver of the United States Land Office at Duluth, and served three years in that incumbency. He has since been engaged in the practice of law and in dealing in pine and pine lands, in northern Minnesota, and he is also interested to some extent in iron lands. He and his son, Charles H., are now doing business in partnership, and the firm has good standing in financial circles.

On Dec. 31, 1869, Mr. Maginnis was married to Miss Bridget Gaffney, who was born in Waupun, Wis., and is a daughter of Thomas and Mary Gaffney, now deceased. Of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Maginnis eight still survive, namely: (1) Charles H., married Miss Margaret Hughes, of Washington, D.C., and has two daughters. (2) Agnes G., is the wife of William A. Bennett, of Duluth. (3) Thomas Frank, graduated from West Point in 1898, served through the Porto Rican campaign as lieutenant in charge of light artillery, was recommended for promotion by Gen. Swain, and was made first lieutenant. He organized the First Porto Rican Battalion, and was captain of Company A, resigned that command, and was transferred to the Philippine service in February, 1902, being now a captain in the 27th United States Infantry. He was married in Porto Rico to Joquena Badrena, and they have three children. (4) John, served in the 14th Minnesota Volunteers during the Spanish-American War, and has also been in Indian campaigns. He was appointed sergeant. He married Grayce O'Heron, of Duluth. (5) Helen, is a graduate of the Duluth high school. (6) Martin Cyril, is a student at Notre Dame University, South Bend, Ind. (7) Joseph P., is attending the Duluth high school. (8) Winifred, is the youngest. In religion this family are Catholics, belonging to the Cathedral Parish of Duluth. Socially Mr. Maginnis holds membership in the Knights of Columbus and the Ancient Order of Hibernians.


Joseph Mannheim
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Joseph Mannheim was born in Faribault, Steele county, Minnesota, on the 1st of January, 1859. When he was ten years old, his parents came to Duluth, and at the age of sixteen he was engaged as clerk in a hotel. In 1880, Mr. Mannheim was elected to the office of Register of Deeds of St. Louis county, and still holds the position. On the 25th of December, 1878, he was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth McKinnon. Their union has been blessed with two children; Margaret F., and Joseph E.


Edwin P. Martin
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Edwin P. Martin was born in Culpepper county, Virginia, on the 8th of March, 1819. At the age of seventeen, he entered the University of that State, remained one year, and entered the Columbia College at Washington; after which he was in the Treasury Department, and later in the mercantile business in the same place. Returning to the University at Virginia, he graduated in 1841, and came west, locating at Newburg, Indiana; was general manager for the contractors of the Wabash and Erie canal, and two years later, removed to Park county, where he was engaged in general merchandise for a year and a half; and thence to Attica, in the drug business till 1860. In the latter year he removed to Crawford county, Illinois; was Clerk of the Courts two years, and n 1862, enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Cavalry. Soon after, he was appointed Quartermaster's clerk, and on the 26th of December, 1862, promoted to Adjutant of the Regiment. In April, of the following year, he resigned, returned to Crawford county, Illinois, and was elected Provost Marshal of that county. On the 20th of September, 1864, he went to Vicksburg, enlisted as a private in his old regiment, was at once promoted to Second Lieutenant, and served till the surrender of Lee. Returning then to Illinois, he was engaged in farming till 1870, when he removed to Rawlins, the county seat of Carbon county, Wyoming Territory, and remained three years. While there, was elected Judge of Probate, Justice of the Peace, and County Treasurer. In 1873, Mr. Martin came to Duluth and for two years was engaged in the grocery business, and was elected Village Justice, which position he still holds. On the 9th of February, 1850, Miss Amanda Elkins became his wife. Their children are, Thomas V., Laura, and Frank.


James S. Mattocks
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

James S. Mattocks was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on the 11tjh of December, 1861. He came to Duluth in 1878, and has since been engaged as fireman in Elevator A.


Samuel Carson McCormick
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) pages 35-36; transcribed by Nina Kramer

SAMUEL CARSON McCORMICK, M.D., enjoys the unique distinction of being in years of continuous practice, the oldest representative of the medical profession in the city of Duluth. He was born at Selins Grove, Union Co., Pa., Sept. 8, 1837. His parents, Samuel C. and Sarah (Taggert) McCormick, were natives of Northumberland county, that State. His father was born in 1800, of Irish parents, and died of an acute disease at the age of forty-four years. His mother was born in 1804, and died in 1869, at Lewisburg, Pa. Her father, David Taggert, was a well-to-do citizen of Northumberland county, of Scotch lineage.

After acquiring an academic education Samuel Carson McCormick graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1862, with the degree of M.D. In July of the same year he was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the 134th Pa. V.I., and continued with the army until the close of the Civil war. On May 27, 1863, he became Assistant Surgeon of the 8th Pennsylvania Reserves, and one year later he was made Assistant Surgeon of the United States Volunteers and ordered to McClellan Hospital at Philadelphia. From September, 1864, to Aug. 7, 1865, he served as Surgeon of the 202d Pa. V.I. During his service in the war of the Rebellion he acquired much valuable professional experience, and soon after the war he was appointed Surgeon of the Union Pacific railroad, and spent about two years in that capacity, until its completion, in 1869. In April, 1870, he located at Duluth, where he has ever since been engaged in the general practice of medicine and surgery. For a short time he was the only resident physician in the city. Soon after his arrival he was appointed pension examiner, and discharged the duties of that position until the formation of the United States Board of Examining Surgeons, when he became a member of that body, becoming the president of the Board and continuing as such to the present time. He is a member of the State Medical Society of which he was at one time vice-president and of the St. Louis County Medical Society. He has served as health officer of the City and as county physician. He is a Republican, but has never been a candidate for elective office.

In November, 1874, Dr. McCormick was married to Miss Louise E. Smith, daughter of Dr. Vespasian Smith, one of the pioneer physicians of Wisconsin and afterward a prominent citizen and mayor of Duluth. Dr. and Mrs. McCormick have two sons: William S., city controller of Duluth; and Clinton P., proprietor of the Union Credit Company, in the same city. The family is connected with the Presbyterian Church. Dr. McCormick has long been identified with the Grand Army of the Republic, having helped to organize the first post in Duluth, and is also prominent in the Military Order of the Loyal Legion. For more than forty years he has been connected with the Masonic Fraternity, and became a Knight Templar at Mauch Chunk, Pa., whilst living in that State. He was watched the growth of his adopted city with pride and admiration, and he merits the good will of all its citizens.


William Smith McCormick
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) Transcribed by:  Glenda Stevens

WILLIAM SMITH McCORMICK, city controller of Duluth, and a young man who is rising to a substantial position in that city, was born there Feb. 16, 1874, son of Dr. Samuel C. and Louise E. (Smith) McCormick.

Mr. McCormick attended the public schools and Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla., and later was a student at McCallister College, a Presbyterian institution at St. Paul.  After spending two years at St. Paul he returned to Duluth and entered the First National Bank of Duluth, in June, 1892, and with the exception of one year, was in that employ until elected city controller, in February, 1899.  He was re-elected in 1901 and 1903, so that he has served three consecutive terms, in which he has demonstrated his efficiency both as a worker and as a manager.

On April 16, 1898, Mr. McCormick enlisted in Company G, 14th Minnesota Volunteers, and served until Nov. 13, 1898, spending most of the time at Chickamauga Park, and seven weeks in the hospital while ill with typhoid fever.  He had previously served five years in the Minnesota National Guard, being simultaneously discharged from that organization and the Minnesota Volunteers.  He helped to organize Camp McEwen, No. 36, Spanish-American War Veterans, at Duluth, and is now adjutant-general of the Department of Minnesota. He has numerous other social connections, being a Scottish Rite Mason, a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, of the B. P. O. E., the I. O. F., the M. W. A., and the Modern Samaritans.  He is secretary of the Association of Old Settlers at the Head of the Lakes.  Mr. McCormick has led an active and useful life and his past gives excellent promise of the future.

Edward McCue
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Edward McCue died at his home in Duluth, Feb. 21, 1903, after over thirty years' residence there. In those years his name was well known in business circles, and he was also widely known for his philanthropy.

Mr. McCue was born in Windsor, Vt., July 18, 1835, son of Felix McCue, a scion of one of the old New England families of Irish lineage. He received a fair education, attending school until he was fourteen, when, his father dying, he was thrown upon his own resources. He went South, and in time became an engineer on a plantation in Louisiana. His position was a good one, and with his inherited New England thrift, which the easy business methods of the South could not wholly eradicate, he saved his money and in time accumulated considerable property. The outbreak of hostilities between the North and the South in the dark days of the Rebellion cut short his career in the South, and he was obliged to sacrifice all his property, and be thankful to escape with his life, it becoming known that six or seven of his brothers (he was one of a family of twelve children) had entered the Federal army. Upon reaching the North he received the appointment of government inspector of arms, and in that capacity spent the days of the war traveling about. In 1869 he located in Duluth, where he began taking government contracts. He constructed many of the piers about the Duluth and Superior harbor, and for some years was very prosperous. He invested most of his profits in real estate, but his speculations in that line proved disastrous during a time of panic, and he lost much of what he had gained. Later he made judicious investments in iron lands. During the days of his prosperity he was liberal in his donations to all public enterprises, notably the Hardy school and the Bethel Masonic Temple.

Mr. McCue was a Mason, having belonged to the fraternity for over forty years, and at the time of his death he had been a member of the Duluth lodge over thirty years. He was a Republican in political principle, and for many years served as street commissioner. A man of excellent principles, he was universally respected.

On April 25, 1871, Mr. McCue was united in marriage with Anne Webber, who was born at Ontonagon, Mich., daughter of Charles and Minnie Webber, who came from Germany, and who died in Ontonagon, where Mr. Webber was a mine carpenter. Mrs. McCue still lives in Duluth. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. McCue, namely: Edward Charles, of Duluth; Felix H., a successful bridge builder, who enlisted in Troop F, 3rd United States Cavalry, and, after serving two years in the Philippines, died in the hospital at Manila, March 6, 1901, aged twenty-five years; and Minnie, John, Frank, Helen, William and Guy, all in Duluth.


H. E. McDaniels
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

H. E. McDaniels is a native of Indiana. He came to Duluth in 1869, and was employed two years at the carpenter trade, then two years in the furniture business. In 1873, he engaged in the latter business on his own account, both manufacturing and selling furniture.


William A. McGonagle
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Substantial success is seldom won at a bound. Only after a long, hard struggle with persistent and conscientious effort through trials comes the success that is worth the winning. William A. McGonagle, an influential citizen of Duluth, has earned by his own intrinsic worth the high position he holds to-day. He comes of good old Irish stock, his ancestors having emigrated about a century ago to the State of Pennsylvania.

Mr. McGonagle was born at Conshohocken, Montgomery Co., Pa., March 28, 1861, son of Joseph and Agnes McGonagle. In the public schools of his native town he laid the foundation for the education that was to help him in his life work. Graduating in June, 1876, from the high school, he then made preparations for a university career, and in September, 1877, matriculated at the University of Pennsylvania, and was graduated from that institution in June, 1881, as a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. He had chosen his career, and at once set out about to put his book learned knowledge to practical use. In July, following his graduation from the university, he entered the service of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, at Brainerd, Minn., as draftsman in the chief engineer's office. But one short month later he was promoted to the position of transitman on the location of the Little Falls and Dakota branch, with headquarters at Sauk Centre, and the following December he was made assistant engineer, with headquarters at Little Falls. Faithfully and well he discharged the duties of these responsible positions, so well, indeed, that he became known outside the company for which he was working, and in December, 1882, he resigned to accept service with the Duluth & Iron Range Railway Co., as assistant engineer, with headquarters at Two Harbors, Minn., a position which he retained until 1889, when he became superintendent of bridges and buildings for the same road. In 1901, in appreciation of his ability, he was promoted to be chief assistant engineer, but in July, 1902, he resigned to become assistant to the president of the Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railroad Co. In February, 1903, he was elected first vice-president of the same road, and reelected again in 1904 - truly a remarkable record for a man of his years. Mr. McGonagle has, besides his ability and attainments, a natural love for his work. He is energetic and possessed of wonderful power of application.

Fraternally Mr. McGonagle is a Mason of the thirty-third degree, and belongs to all the Masonic bodies in Duluth, being past master of Palestine Lodge, No. 79, A.F. & A.M.; past commander of Duluth Commandery, No. 18, Knights Templar; and at present is grand master of the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M., of the State of Minnesota. In April, 1903, he was elected president of the Commercial Club of Duluth, and continues in that office to the present time. No man in Duluth stands higher in the estimation of the good people of the city.


Thomas F. McGowan
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Thomas F. McGowan is a native of Buffalo, New York. Arriving at maturity, he was for fourteen years lumber inspector in his native place. From 1872 to 1878, Mr. McGowan was trading on the Lake between Duluth and Portage, after which he settled in Duluth and has since been engaged in the wine, liquor, and cigar business.


John A. McKenzie
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

John A. McKenzie has been for some years night foreman for Alger, Smith & Co., the well known lumber firm of Duluth. A Canadian by birth, he has spent most of his life in the States, being in various places between Boston and the Head of the Lakes. He was born in Canada, Aug. 27, 1869, son of Kenneth and Sarah (Mann) McKenzie, natives respectively of Prince Edward Island and of Scotland. Mrs. McKenzie died March 13, 1876, leaving a family of fourteen children, of whom eleven are still living. John A. was the fifth in order of birth. Mr. McKenzie now lives retired on a farm, his active life having been passed in the occupation of millwright and carpenter.

John A. McKenzie attended school in Canada during his boyhood, and then worked on a farm for his father for a year. Like many boys he longed to go to sea, and after a year of farming got a place as a sailor and was at sea for a year and a half. After this experience he went to Detroit, Mich., where he engaged in the livery business for seven months. He then went to Boston for a time and from there to St. Paul, where he secured a chance to work in the lumber woods and spent six years in that way. At the expiration of that time he went to Cloquet, Minn., and was employed there ten years as a millwright. He then came to Duluth and became foreman with Alger, Smith & Company, where he has ever since remained.

On June 1, 1886, Mr. McKenzie married Barbara E. Duncan, of Canada, daughter of James and Anna Duncan, the former a Scotchman and the latter a Canadian by birth. James Duncan, who was a lifelong farmer, died in 1862, his wife surviving him until 1887. Three of their six children are living, Mrs. McKenzie being next to the youngest in the family. To Mr. and Mrs. McKenzie have been born the following children: Myrtle I., Ina, Earl M., Lee E. and Grant. Mr. and Mrs. McKenzie are members of the Episcopal Church. Mr. McKenzie is a Republican in politics and is connected fraternally with the A.O.U.W., No. 10, of Duluth. He is a great sportsman, very fond of all sorts of hunting and fishing, and has killed some big game, among others, many deer and bear.


William McLaren
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

William McLaren was born in Toronto, Canada, in the year 1858. For several years, previous to coming to Duluth he was engaged in steam-boating. He came here in 1879, was one year engaged in the saw-mills, and is now employed at elevator B.


John McLean
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

John McLean is a native of Canada, and came to the United States in 1866. He remained a short time in Chicago, thence to Marquette, where he worked at his trade (carpentering) until 1869. He then came to Duluth and has since been engaged in fishing; the comany doing a business of $50,000 a year.


Samuel Caldwell McQuade
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Samuel C. McQuade was born in 1829, in Pennsylvania. At the age of sixteen, he removed to Michigan, learned the carpenter trade and remained until twenty-three years old. In 1852, he came to Superior City, explored in the copper mines four years, in the meantime, making a claim on the French river, twelve miles north of Duluth, where he resided till 1858. The following year he went to Portage Lake, Michigan, and was engaged at his trade till 1861. He then enlisted in the Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry, was commissioned First Lieutenant, and in 1864, mustered out at Portage Lake, where he was employed at his trade till 1870. He then came to Duluth, and in the company with O. K. Patterson, was for five years engaged in the manufacture of sash, and doors, and since at the carpenter trade. Since 1876, Mr. McQuade has been Sheriff of this county; was for three years Chairman of the board of County Commissioners, and also village Alderman.

Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Samuel Caldwell McQuade, who resided in Duluth from 1870 until his death, July 20, 1896, was a prominent man in that city throughout his active years. He was successful in business, foremost in public life and a man of influence wherever he was known.

Mr. McQuade was a native of Pennsylvania, born July 4, 1829, at Kittanning, and was the descendant of Scottish ancestors who came to Pennsylvania from their native land at an early day. James McQuade, Sr., grandfather of Samuel C., was a sea captain for many years, in later life settling at Kittanning. James McQuade, father of Samuel C., was a miller by trade. In 1847 he removed to Belleville, Wayne Co., Mich., where he built a flouring mill and conducted it until his death in 1857, at the age of fifty-six years. He married Elizabeth Caldwell, who was born in Philadelphia, of English descent, and who during her young womanhood was prominent in Pittsburg society. She died at the age of sixty years.

Samuel Caldwell McQuade enjoyed fair educational advantages. After removing with his parents to Michigan, he learned the carpenter's trade, which he followed until 1870 except during the period of his service in the Civil war. Previous to that struggle he spent about three years in Ontonagon, Mich., engaged in contracting. In the fall of 1861 he and his brother Robert entered the Union service, Samuel C. as principal musician, being raised to rank of second lieutenant, which rank he was holding at the time of his discharge, in April, 1865. His regiment, the 27th M.V.I., which formed a part of the 9th Army Corps, under Gen. Burnside, took part in the siege of Vicksburg and other important engagements, and made a creditable record. Lieut. McQuade was once slightly wounded and had many narrow escapes.

Exposure brought on chronic dysentery, and he was obliged to spend some time in the hospital at Covington, Ky., but for the most part he bore the hardship of the service very well, and he did his duty faithfully.

Soon after his return from the war, Mr. McQuade went to Hancock, Mich., where he engaged in contracting and building for about five years, in 1870 moving to Duluth, where he ever afterward made his home. In company with O.K. Patterson (the firm name being Patterson & McQuade) he embarked in the manufacture of sash and doors on Minnesota Point, Lower Duluth, continuing the business until the panic of 1873, when he again took up contracting. He erected a number of residences and other buildings, taking a contract, among others, to put up all the buildings for the Nonesuch Mine, Isle Royale, where he spent the greater part of a season. He became one of the leading men of the State in his line of work, and amassed a comfortable fortune in the pursuit of his chosen industry, to which the greater part of his attention was given.

In 1877 Mr. McQuade was elected sheriff of St. Louis county, and was re-elected five times, serving ten years in all in that incumbency, where his services proved most satisfactory to all concerned. In 1891-92 he was chief of police in Duluth, and in that position also displayed executive ability and tact of a high order. He was well known in fraternal circles as a Scottish Rite Mason, and held a number of official positions in the order. During the last few years of his life Mr. McQuade was afflicted with poor health, caused by heart trouble, and he spent considerable time in the South and West in the hope of improving, but in vain. Always conspicuous for ambition and enterprise, the inaction which uncertain health entailed was contrary to his nature and distasteful to him. He was energetic and efficient in everything he undertook, and in his day held a high place among the business and public men of his adopted city.

Mr. McQuade was married Jan. 1, 1856, to Miss Abbie Eliza Hayward, a native of Buffalo, N.Y., and daughter of David and Betsy (Hoyt) Hayward, of Romulus, Wayne Co., Mich. Mr. Hayward was born in 1784 in New Jersey, of English descent, was a sawyer by trade, and died in 1878 at Bayfield, Wis. He served for a time in a New York regiment during the war of 1812. His wife, who was born in 1793 in Vermont, passed away in 1865 at Ypsilanti, Michigan.

To Mr. and Mrs. McQuade were born three sons and one daughter, viz.: William H., who resides in Tower, Minn.; Gertrude, Mrs. C.O. Flynn, of Duluth; Robert H., of Tower; and Fred F., of Duluth. Mrs. McQuade still makes her home in Duluth, and is held in high esteem by a wide circle of friends and acquaintances.


Frank McWhorter
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Frank McWhorter is a native of Buffalo, New York. He came to Duluth in 1869, by way of the Lakes, bringing with him a stock of general merchandise, and started in business near where the canal now is. A few months later he removed to Superior street, remained five years, and returned to his native place. In 1878, he again came to Duluth and has since made it his home.


John R. Meining
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

John R. Meining is a native of Hamilton, Canada, born in 1856. In 1869, he came to Duluth, and learned the tinner's trade, at which he worked eight years. He then removed to Fargo, remaining three years, and in the spring of 1880, returned to this place where he has since been in the hardware business, keeping stoves, tin and hardware.


Luther Mendenhall
[Source: Encyclopedia of Biography of Minnesota, History of Minnesota by Judge Charles E. Flandreau, 1900, transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman]

One of the best-known characters in Northwestern financial interests is Luther Mendenhall, now president of the Duluth City Railway Company, and late president of the First National Bank of Duluth. Coming to the city in 1868, when it had nothing of greatness but a promise, he has witnessed its wonderful development, and no man knows its history better or is better acquainted with Northwestern affairs and conditions. Mr. Mendenhall is descended from an old Quaker family, and was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, August 7, 1836, the son of a farmer named Isaac Mendenhall (who died in 1881), and one of a family of five children. His early education was acquired in the common schools and at an academy at Norristown, Pennsylvania. In 1857 he entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and after a three years' classical course, graduated from that institution in 1860. For a year thereafter he was a law student in the office of Hon. Wayne McVeagh, Attorney General, in 1881, under President Garfield. In 1801, the first year of the war of the Rebellion, he enlisted as a private soldier in Company A, First Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserves. On account of his peculiar fitness for the work, he was detailed on special service in the ordnance department of the army, and was kept in this service the greater part of his term, although he was with his regiment in the second battle of Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Antietam, Gettysburg, and other important engagements. He was mustered out in 1864, and again began the study of law, this time in the office of another distinguished attorney, who became a cabinet official-Hon. Benjamin H. Brewster, of Philadelphia, who, under President Arthur, succeeded Wayne McVeagh - Mr. Mendenhall's first legal preceptor - as Attorney General of the United States. In 1868 Mr. Mendenhall came to Duluth and engaged in the real estate business, which he has conducted and operated extensively until the present time. In 1882 he assisted in organizing the Duluth National Bank, was elected its president, and held that position in the bank until its consolidation with the Union National and the Merchants' National and afterwards, in 1889, in the consolidation of the First National, of which institution he was chosen president the same year, officiating until 1897. In 1892 he was elected president of the City Railway Company, which position he still holds. Mr. Mendenhall has never been an aspirant for public office, nor has he sought notoriety of any kind. In early days he was a village councilman of Duluth, and in 1891 became connected with the Park Commission of the city, and has ever since been president of the board. These are all the official positions he has ever held. He seems well satisfied to be considered a good business man with an honorable record, a soldier who rendered faithful service, a citizen loyal to his city, State and country, and a man of worth and integrity.


Alfed Merritt
Source: Progressive Men of Minnesota, (Shutter, Marion Daniel, 1853-ed.) Minneapolis. The Minneapolis Journal (1897) transcribed by Vicki Bryan

Alfred Merritt - The name of Merritt is identified in the public mind with that development of the iron ore deposits of the state on the Mesaba range, which have caused it to become one of the leading industries of the Northwest. It was Alfred Merritt who had the courage to make the first practical demonstration of the extent of the immense body of ore which lies along what is known as the Mesaba range, and to bring Minnesota into the front rank of the iron producing states of the Union. Alfred Merritt was the fifth son of Lewis H. and Hepsibath Merritt, born in Chautauqua County, New York, May 16, 1847. The family moved to Oneota, now a part of Duluth, in 1856, where Alfred has since lived and worked. His ancestry on his father's side is traceable to the Huguenots. Hepsibath Jewett, the mother of the subject of this sketch, was born in Massachusetts, of Puritan stock, and emigrated with her parents while she was a young girl, to Western New York. When the Merritt family landed on the north shore of St. Louis bay in 1856 they were the pioneers in that section, and erected their log cabin amidst the tall pines. There the mother of the family still lives, in her eighty-third year. There Alfred was educated in the first common schools established in Northern Minnesota. At the age of sixteen Alfred became a sailor. He was rapidly promoted, and before his majority he became master of his own vessel. For many years he followed navigation on the lakes, and was afterwards engaged in the business of a lumberman in company with his brothers and nephews, and in this occupation he was able to gratify his early bent for the adventurous life of an explorer, and one of the results of his untiring and well directed energies was the discovery and development of the Mesaba iron range. It is due to the late Cassius C. Merritt, however, to say that the first discovery of Bessemer ore on the range was made by him who had so long, so bravely and so hopefully dared the dangers and hardships of the trackless wilderness. Although at times embarrassed and in danger of losing their large interests in the iron mines, it must be conceded that it was the genius and pluck of the Merritts which developed the iron industries of the state and placed Minnesota in the front rank as an iron producer. It was their skill and courage that conceived and constructed the Duluth, Missabe & Northern railroad, and it was their capital and brains that constructed the greatest ore docks in the world at Duluth, and assured to that city the transshipment of its cargoes, against the most determined, bitter and powerful opposition. Their work prospered, and in an almost incredibly short space of time the road was so far completed that the products of the mines were distributed over their lines to the waiting furnaces in all parts of the country. In 1876 Mr. Merritt was married to Miss Elizabeth Sandelands, to whom were born three children, Lewis H. now a student at Hamline college; Thomas since deceased, and Elizabeth, the youngest, whose mother died shortly after her birth, in July 1882. In 1885 Mr. Merritt was married to Miss Jane A. Gillis, whose four children are Jessie, Alta H., Ernest A. and Glen J. The Merritts have a picturesque home on the hillside overlooking the broad bay and far reaching river surrounded by every comfort and convenience. In politics Mr. Merritt is a Republican, and in religion a Methodist. He is a helpful and sympathizing neighbor, and a loyal counselor and friend.


Leonidas Merritt
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Nina Kramer

LEONIDAS MERRITT, explorer, is well known in mining circles as one of the band of brothers who discovered and developed the Missabe Iron Range, having first evolved the now universally accepted Trough Theory of Mineral Deposits. Born in Chautauqua county, N.Y., Feb. 20, 1844, he is now, though over sixty years old, hale and hearty, and resides at his old home, No. 4601 Oneota street, Duluth, Minnesota.

Thomas Merritt, his paternal grandfather, while yet a young man migrated from Connecticut and settled in western New York, and was married there, where in the year 1809 Lewis H. Merritt, the father of the Merritt brothers, was born. His maternal grandfather, Enoch Jewett, lived at Deerfield, Mass., where Hepsibeth Jewitt, mother of the Merritt brothers, was born. The family migrated to western New York about the year 1825, and there she was married to Lewis H. Merritt. In all ten children were born to them of whom eight boys lived to maturity. In 1850 the family removed to Warren county, Pa., where they engaged in the lumber and mill business. In the spring of 1855 they removed to Ashtabula county, Ohio, where the older brothers attended school at Grand River Institute, the father coming west and stopping awhile on Connors Point, now West Superior, Wis. As soon as the treaty with the Indians ceding the lands on the north shore of Lake Superior was accomplished, he definitely located at Oneota, now Duluth, in the then Territory of Minnesota, where he was joined by the whole family in the fall of 1856. He settled on what is now the corner of 45th and Oneota street, and he and two others, H. W. Wheeler and Mr. Crozier, were the first settlers in that section. Here the Merritt boys grew up with the country and employed themselves by turns in the most promising occupations, becoming lumbermen, sailors and finally timber and mineral explorers.

Lewis H. Merritt, now dead many years, and Hepsibeth Merritt, still living in Duluth at the advanced age of ninety-three, were both well known among the first settlers at the Head of the Lakes for their good works in those old days. Lewis H., a carpenter, builder and lumberman, is still often spoken of by the old settlers as being an honest, upright, active citizen, always interested in the upbuilding of the community in which he lived, ever alert to advance educational and religious interests. He helped to organize the first church in northern Minnesota, and school district No. 1 owes to him its organization and its first schoolhouse more than to any other. Few, however, outside of his own family, knew of his wide knowledge of the natural resources tributary to the Head of the Lakes. He lived to see his boys grown to manhood, and to his example and teachings they owe all that has enabled them to take such an active part in the developments which he had shown them were possible. Of the eight brothers, five are still living. Jerome, the eldest, was an educator, and has been dead some years. Napoleon, a well known business man, resides in Duluth. Lucien, a Methodist preacher, after whom the oldest Methodist church in Duluth is named, died some four years ago. Leonidas, explorer, and Alfred, capitalist, reside in Duluth. Lewis, capitalist, is residing in Pasadena, Cal. Cassius, in his day a well known explorer and all around business man, died in 1894. Andrus, the youngest, lives in Duluth and is now promoting an important iron industry.

Leonidas Merritt, the subject proper of this sketch, was educated in the public schools at Grand River Institute, Austinburg, Ohio. He was twelve years old when the family joined the father at Oneota, where for four years he attended the common school of the district and during summer vacations took a man's place in the lighter duties of lumbering and mill work. In 1860 he went to Pennsylvania and learned the business of oil refiner, and the following year enlisted in the cavalry branch of the Union army, where he served until the close of the war. Returning home, "Alf" and "Lon" built the first registered sailing vessel constructed at the Head of the Lakes. In 1873 Leonidas Merritt married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. H.W. Wheeler, whom he had known from the time of the earliest settlement of Oneota. To them were born three children: Ruth, the eldest, whose husband, Alva Merritt, is engaged in the dredge business (they have one daughter, Elizabeth); Lucien, a mining engineer and explorer; and Harry, a ranchman in Nebraska (he married Edith Shaller).

During all these years the two brothers familiarly known as Alf and Lon Merritt have followed the profession of explorers. The discovery and development of the Missabe iron area and the subsequent building of the Duluth Missabe & Northern railway, its outlet to terminals at Duluth, was principally the work of their hands. Alf was president and Lon was vice-president of the latter, also first president of the Lake Superior Consolidated Mines. In later years the brothers, Alf and Lon, sometimes singly and sometimes jointly, have extended their operations to Canada, Old Mexico and the mineral areas of our western States and Territories, and they have many warm friends wherever they have operated.


Lon Merritt
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Lon Merritt dates his birth in 1844, at Chautaqua county, New York. In 1857 the family came to this county, located at Oneota, being the first to settle in the county. In 1871, our subject, in company with his brother Alfred, built a schooner of seventy-two tons burden, and the following year another; which are the only vessels ever built at the head of the lake. Mr. Merritt, for several years past, has been exploring the country, and dealing in real estate and pine lands. He resides in Oneota, but his office is at Duluth. The firm name is Eaton and Merritt.


Napoleon B. Merritt
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Napoleon B. Merritt is one of the earliest surviving pioneers at the Head of the Lakes, and represents a family which has probably contributed more than any other toward the phenomenal development of Duluth and St. Louis county. He was born in Chautauqua county, N.Y., April 16, 1834, and is the second son of nine sons born to Lewis H. and Hepzibah (Jewett) Merritt, both representatives of early New England families famous for longevity and physical vigor, as well as for integrity of purpose and devotion to moral and patriotic principles. On the paternal side he springs of a Huguenot family which fled from France to England, and thence to this country, settling at Deerfield, Mass. Thomas Merritt, the father of Lewis H., was a native of Connecticut, but died in Cherokee county, Iowa, at the advanced age of ninety years.

Lewis H. Merritt learned the trade of millwright in the East. In 1855 he came to Superior, Wis., and was employed in the construction of the first sawmill at that place, and also in building one at Oneota, which was the second sawmill at the Head of the Lakes, and the first in the present city of Duluth. In 1875 he moved to Atchison county, Mo., where his death occurred at the age of seventy years. His venerable widow, who has attained the age of over ninety years, is now living in Duluth, one of the honored pioneers of that thriving city. She was born in Deerfield, Mass., a daughter of Samuel and Hepzibah Jewett, who were of Scotch-Irish descent. The family moved to Warren county, Pa., where Mr. Jewett got lost in the woods at the age of eighty-eight years, and his body was never found. His wife attained the age of over ninety-four years.

Napoleon B. Merritt joined his parents at Superior in 1856. He assisted in the construction of the first two sawmills at the Head of the Lakes, and followed the trade of millwright for a number of years. He was connected with the lumber industry in one capacity and another for many years, operating mills a portion of the time. In 1889 he and his brothers began the exploration of the now famous Mesaba Iron Range. Owing to the density of the forest and the lack of any other means of transportation, they were obliged to pack all their tools and provisions upon their backs, and endured considerable hardship and privation in carrying out the enterprise, which consumed considerable time. Having discovered an abundance of ore, they set about the development of the range and opened a number of mines, including the locations known as the Biwabik, Mountain Iron, Mesaba Mountain, Rathburn, Pauley and Great Northern, now known as the richest iron mines in the world. In order to provide transportation for the product, the Merritt Brothers organized the company which built the Duluth, Mesaba & Northern Railroad, in which for some time they held a controlling interest. The opening of this road was one of the most auspicious events in the history of Duluth and a grand free excursion was given on the first train, which passed over the track Oct. 14, 1893. Since that date fully fifty thousand people have located on the Mesaba Range. Mr. Merritt has since become interested in other mines and in recent years gives his chief attention to dealing in pine and mineral lands. His home has been in Duluth continuously since 1887. He helped to organize the first Methodist Episcopal Church at Oneota in 1858, and is still a member of that organization.

He is a Scottish Rite Mason and a stanch advocate of temperance, a sentiment advocated by both paternal and maternal ancestors for many generations.

On Oct. 14, 1857, occurred the wedding of Mr. Merritt and Miss Jennie H. Holman, of Ashtabula county, Ohio. Her father, Aaron J. Holman, was a native of Massachusetts, and her mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Williams, was born in Connecticut. Mr. and Mrs. Merritt have four sons: Eugene, Fred H., Thomas A. and Frank W.


Jehu B. Middlecoff
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Nina Kramer

HON. JEHU B. MIDDLECOFF, judge of probate, has been for over twelve years a resident of Duluth. He is a westerner by birth and education, having been born in Missouri and educated in the schools of that State and the University of Michigan.

John W. Middlecoff, father of Jehu B., was a native of Illinois; he was a machinist by trade and engaged in milling in Lebanon, Ill., and in Clinton, Mo. He married Elizabeth Land, also a native of Illinois, by whom he had a family of ten children, of who eight are living, Jehu B. being the seventh in order of birth. Mrs. Middlecoff died in 1888; her husband is still living, now in his eighty-second year.

Jehu B. Middlecoff was born in Clinton, Mo., Sept. 18, 1866. He attended Clinton Academy, graduating with the degree of B.S., and then entered the University of Michigan, where he received the degree of LL.B in 1891, and that of LL.M. in 1892. While at the University he was secretary of the law faculty and assistant professor of the Fletcher Chair, during the time he was working for his LL.M. degree. On July 4, 1892, he came to Duluth, and the following January opened a law office in partnership with Henry Lardner. This arrangement was continued until Feb. 1, 1895, when a new partnership was entered into with C.C. Teare, which was dissolved in 1898, when Mr. Teare joined the army during the Spanish-American war. In 1898 Mr. Middlecoff was elected judge of probate, and served as such for two years, 1899 and 1900. He was a candidate for re-nomination in 1900, but was defeated in the convention, but he was nominated for 1902 and elected, taking office Jan.1, 1903.

On Nov. 5, 1888, Judge Middlecoff married Jessie Boyd, of Maryland, daughter of Robert and Agnes (Ferguson) Boyd. Mr. Boyd was foreman at the coal mines in Allegany county, Md., and died in 1891 at Lonaconing, Md. His wife died when her daughter, Mrs. Middlecoff, was very young, leaving a family of eight children, all of whom are living. Judge and Mrs. Middlecoff are the parents of the following children: Robert H., Louis E., Mary E., and Lucille. The family are members of the Methodist Church.

Judge Middlecoff is a member of many fraternal organizations, the K.P., North Star Lodge, No. 35, of Duluth; Royal Arcanum, Council No. 1483, of Duluth; Modern Samaritans, Alpha Lodge, No. 1, of Duluth; I.O.F., Court Commerce, of Duluth; and an honorary member of the Maccabees. He also belongs to the Chamber of Commerce, the Commercial Club, and the Garfield Republican Club, of Duluth.


A. M. Miller
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

A.M. Miller was born in Denmark in 1839. At the age of twenty years, he came to America, and for several years was in the employ of the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul Railroad Company. In 1870, Mr. Miller came to Duluth, where he is engaged in the lumber business. He also owns a lumber, lath, and shingle mill in Thompson, Carleton county, which has a daily capacity of fifty thousand feet in ten hours. He also keeps a stock of lumber at Rice's Point.


Allen J. Miller
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Allen J. Miller, a native of Germany, was born in 1841. When he was an infant, his parents came to America, lived for four years in St. Louis, Missouri; thence to Wisconsin, remaining four years; after which, until 1872, our subject was in the grocery business in Chicago. In the latter year, he came to Duluth, was employed one year as a clerk, and in 1873, in company with Calvin P. Bailey, engaged in the grocery business, firm name of A. J. Miller & Co. They carry a stock of $10,000, and their business in 1880, amounted to $47,000.


Charles H. Mitchell
Source: Compendium of History and Biography of North Dakota, Publ. 1900. Transcribed by Renae Capitanio

CHARLES H. MITCHELL, one of the brave defenders of the Union during the Civil war and the present popular city treasurer of Fargo, North Dakota, was born in Norwich, New York, June 8, 1842, and is the only son of Charles H. and Mary (Ryder) Mitchell, also natives of the Empire state, where the father was engaged in practice as a physician and surgeon throughout his active business life. He died in 1842. The grandfather, Henry Mitchell, was also a physician and surgeon of New York state and was a very prominent and influential citizen of his community. He was of English descent.
The subject of this sketch was reared and educated at Norwich and Oxford, New York, and after leaving school commenced the study of medicine, but in 1861, on the opening of the Rebellion, he laid aside all personal interests and enlisted in Company G, Sixty-first New York Volunteer Infantry, of which regiment General Miles was then lieutenant-colonel. Mr. Mitchell was in active service with that command for fourteen months, participating in the battles of Yorktown, Fair Oakes, the seven days' fight, the battles of Malvern Hill, White Oaks and a number of smaller engagements, and was then discharged on account of disability in 1863, but subsequently he re-enlisted in Company I, One Hundred and Fourteenth New York Infantry, which was assigned to the Army of the Southwest. He was captured at Cain River Crossing, Louisiana, and held prisoner for six months, being exchanged in 1864. He was then in active service until the winter of 1865, when he was placed on duty in the reconstruction of the south. Fortunately he escaped unwounded, and when finally mustered out returned to his home in New York.
In 1867 Mr. Mitchell went to Chicago, where he remained three years, being engaged in the grocery trade a part of the time and the remainder as an employee in the post office. The following two years were passed at Minneapolis, and for seven years he conducted a hotel at Duluth, Minnesota. In 1878 he came to Fargo, North Dakota, and here he has since made his home, conducting a livery, sale and feed stable and also engaging in farming to some extent.
In 1874 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Mitchell and Miss Eleanore A. Bennett, also a native of New York. He has always been identified with the Republican party, and is now a prominent member of the Grand Army post of Fargo. As one of its leading, progressive and public-spirited citizens, he has been called upon to serve as alderman of Fargo and in 1898 was elected city treasurer, which office he is now filling in a most commendable manner.


Robert C. Mitchell
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Robert C. Mitchell, editor and publisher of the Weekly Tribunal in Duluth, was born in Bloomingburg, Ohio, Sept. 16, 1832, son of William and Lydia Mitchell.

After completing a common school education, Mr. Mitchell entered Wabash College in Indiana, and was graduated from that institution with the class of 1861. Even before leaving college he had decided upon adopting the legal profession, and in 1862 he was admitted to the Bar. Before settling in Duluth, in 1869, he resided for some time in Anoka county, Minn., where he was actively connected with local political work, and where he for four years held the office of county attorney.

Afterwards circumstances led him into daily journalism, and for two years he was the editor and proprietor of the Daily Union at St. Joe, Mo. Upon coming to Duluth he established the Weekly Tribune, which in 1880 he changed to a daily and he published the Tribune for twenty-one years. The Tribune finally absorbed the Daily News and is now published as the News-Tribune. Mr. Mitchell held the office of Register of the United States land office from 1876 to 1880. In 1894 he again entered the field of journalism and established the Weekly Tribunal, of which paper he is still the editor and proprietor, and it is generally considered as one of the ablest and most influential weekly papers in the State. It is Republican in its political bias.

Mr. Mitchell was united in marriage in 1862 to Miss Frances L. Hulburd, daughter of E.S. and Lorinda Hulburd. To this marriage four sons have been born: Horace H., Harold E., Robert C., and Max R.

Mr. Mitchell has been deeply influenced by the advanced thought of the day and in religious matters holds the views of the Agnostics, and he has had many a battle with the clergy in defense of his religious beliefs.


John Moir
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

John Moir, an enterprising and prosperous business man in that part of Duluth known as the West End, senior member of the firm of Moir & Walker, grocers, was born Oct. 3, 1867, in Bellrock, Ontario.

George Moir, his father, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and grew to manhood in his native land, coming to America at the age of eighteen years, in about 1845. He spent some years traveling, principally in the Southern States, and about 1860 located at Bellrock, Ontario, where he settled on a farm and remained until his death, which occurred March 18, 1901. He reached the age of seventy-five years. Mr. Moir was a successful farmer, and as a public-spirited citizen took an active part in the affairs of his locality, serving in several offices. He married Margaret Taylor, who was born near Edinburgh, Scotland, daughter of John Taylor, and came to America with her parents in childhood. Mr. Taylor followed the trade of stonemason, and lived to be nearly eighty. His wife still survives, living at Warsaw, Ontario. Mrs. Margaret Moir is now (1904) fifty-three years old. George and Margaret (Taylor) Moir became the parents of nine children: Martha, now Mrs. Sidney Grant, of Bellrock, Ontario; John; Agnes, wife of Rev. Miles Benn; William, a resident of Bellrock; Andrew, of Eugene, Oregon; Lizzie, Mrs. Clark, of Bellrock; and Kenneth, Elsie and Roy, all of Bellrock.

John Moir remained with his parents until about eighteen years old, and received a common-school education. On leaving home he went to Saginaw, Mich., where he worked in the lumber woods until 1891, in which year he came to Duluth. He began work here soon after as a street car conductor, and continued as such for five or six years, after which he entered into partnership with Thomas W. Walker in the grocery business, the firm being Moir & Walker. They have enjoyed a lucrative patronage from the start, and they have had a fine location for business, an advantage they have improved to the utmost. Mr. Moir also has a timber claim in St. Louis county.

In 1891 Mr. Moir married Miss Florence Martha Walker, and they have two children, Hazel Muriel and Earl Roy. The family attend Grace Methodist Church. Socially he is a member of the I.O.F. and the A.F. & A.M., and he is a Republican in political connection, interested in the welfare of the party, but never a candidate for office.


Alexander M. Morrison
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Alexander M. Morrison is a native of Scotland, born in 1850. At the age of twenty-three, he came to America and directly to Duluth. For one year he was employed as clerk in a hardware store, then two years in a grocery store. In 1876, he engaged in business on his own account; has since had several partners, his present one, Mr. McGregor, having purchased his interest in June, 1881. They carry a stock of about $7,000, and their business, in 1880, amounted to $40,000.


Ingebregt Moum
Source: Compendium of History and Biography of North Dakota, Publ. 1900. Transcribed by Kim Mohler

INGEBREGT MOUM. Among the foreign-born citizens of Cass county who are thoroughly identified with American progress, may be noted Mr. Moum. He owns an excellent farm comprising of one section of land, in Ayr township, where the usual improvements have been made, and such arrangements completed as to make it a comfortable home.
Our subject was born in Norway, June 11, 1849, and was a son of Bertel and Ane (Kjelmoen) Moum, who were natives of Norway. His father was a farmer by occupation and died in his native land. Five sons and three daughters constituted the family of children of which our subject was a member, and he and one sister, Mrs. Thompson, reside in Cass county, and are the only ones of the family in the United States.
Mr. Moum was reared in Norway and received his education there, and in 1866 came to America, locating in St. Croix county, Wisconsin, where he remained until 1874 and then spent one year in Duluth, Minnesota, and then went to New Mexico. He was employed there three years herding sheep, and during his stay there visited the neighboring town but once. He went to Cass county, North Dakota, in 1879, and entered a homestead claim to land in section 34, of Ayr township, where he has since resided, and now owns a pleasant home. He broke forty acres of land and built a house the first fall and now has a well-improved estate and cultivates one section of land with remarkable success.
Our subject was married, in 1879, to Miss Josephine Peterson, a native of Norway, who came to America in 1875. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Moum, named as follows: Annie J. and Philip B. Mr. Moum is a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and Brotherhood of American Yeomen. Politically he is a Republican, but does not seek public preferment. He is well-to-do and highly respected in the community in which he has resided for many years.


Donald Niven
Source: Compendium of History and Biography of North Dakota, Publ. 1900. Transcribed by Laurel Durham

DONALD NIVEN, one of the leading business men and general farmers of Eddy County, North Dakota, is a resident of New Rockford. He is an old settler of North Dakota and has prospered and is widely and favorably known. He was born near Glasgow, Scotland, in 1857.

The father of our subject, Donald Niven, was a merchant in Scotland and died in his native land. The mother of our subject, whose maiden name was Margaret McPhee, came to America after the death of the father and settled in Canada with her family in 1864. Our subject was early thrown upon his own resources, and at the age of ten years began working out and had very limited opportunities for obtaining an education. He came to the United States from Ontario at the age of twenty-two years and located at Duluth, Minnesota. He worked in a butcher shop there two years and learned the business and in 1882 went to Jamestown, North Dakota. He took charge of the market of Archie McKechnie, and was then sheriff of Stutsman County, and he was thus employed one year, when he was made deputy sheriff and served two years in that capacity, and about 1885, in company with Greagor Schmidt, he moved to Minnewaukon, North Dakota, and they started the first meat market in the town. Our subject and partner erected one of the first buildings of the town, and the lumber they hauled over ice twenty-five miles from Devil s Lake. After getting the business established there our subject drove a stage from Devil s Lake to Bottineau, nearly ninety miles, and made daily trips. He carried the United States mail one year and was once caught in a blizzard. The business in Minnewaukon prospered and in 1887 they established a branch market at New Rockford, the first established market in the town. The partnership was dissolved in 1888 and our subject took the New Rockford market, since which time he has conducted the business in that town and has met with success while others have attempted and failed. He took land as a homestead near New Rockford in 1892 and has since followed farming extensively. He is now the owner of nine hundred and sixty acres of land and follows general farming and the buying and selling of cattle.

Mr. Niven is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Ancient Order of United Workmen and Brotherhood of American Yeomen. He takes an active part in social affairs and in political sentiment is a Republican.


Matt Nyqvist
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Matt Nyqvist, a native of Finland, was born near Gamla-Karleby, in the province of Vasa, Feb. 15, 1860. His parents, John and Seraphina Anderson, still live on a farm in that locality, but four of their sons have lived more or less in America. John Anderson was in business as a lumberman, but he found time for public duties also, and served as an official in his country. He had six sons and one daughter: Otto, who died when eight years old; William Johnson, manager of a government farm in Finland; Matt; Carl, who lived for several years at Superior, but finally returned to the parental farm in Finland; Alexander, who lived eleven years at Superior, but is now in Finland; Emma, who also lives in Finland; and Herman Albert, of Superior.

Matt Nyqvist enjoyed few educational advantages, for there was no public school near his home until he was grown, but in spite of this drawback he has done much by himself, and he is a well informed and progressive citizen. In 1881 he came to the United States and spent three years at Grand Rapids and White Cloud, Mich. Thence he went to Duluth, where he worked as millwright and carpenter, his regular trade. When the shipyards were built at Superior he settled there, secured employment at the yards and has worked there almost continuously ever since. For two years he was the janitor of the City Hall, and recently has done more or less contracting and building. In 1900 he built himself a commodious residence, having put up a number of other buildings at intervals for himself. He has always been a stanch Republican and is a man of some influence in the community around him.

On June 9, 1888, Mr. Nyqvist was married to Gertie Catherine Josephson, a native of Norway. Her health failing in this country, she went to Finland, but the change failed to benefit her and she died there in 1893, when only twenty-four years old. Her two children died in infancy. Mr. Nyqvist married, for his second wife, Amela Nelson, Nov. 3, 1893. She was the daughter of Nels and Britta Nelson, and was born in Tierigervi, Finland, coming to the United States three years before her marriage. They have two children, George Matthias and Walter Irvin, upon whose education they are devoting especial care. Mr. and Mrs. Nyqvist are connected with the Swedish-Finnish Lutheran church at Eighth street and Clough avenue, Superior, Mr. Nyqvist being one of the original members of the society. He is a member of the I.O.O.F.


Moses O'Brien
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Moses O'Brien is a native of Bradford county, Pennsylvania, born in 1837. When sixteen years of age, he, in company with his uncle, made a survey of the ship channel across the Isthmus of Panama, spending something over two years on the trip, visiting East and West Indies and Central America. On his return he was for a time in West Virginia, then in California, and in various business interests has traveled over quite a portion of the United States. He came to Duluth in 1870, and engaged in the livery business, which he has since followed. In 1876, he became a partner with Pratt and Knowlton, and on the death of the former, in 1880, the firm name was changed to O'Brien & Knowlton.


Olaf Gustaf Olson
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Olaf Gustaf Olson is a prominent and successful real estate dealer of Duluth, where he has resided since 1880. He was born in Vermland, in the central part of Sweden, May 9, 1860, and was the second eldest in a family of four children. He was brought up on a farm and received a common school education, and was reckoned one of the highest scholars in his class. His father, a practical farmer, and also a good carpenter and mechanic, died in 1870, at the early age of forty-four, when Olaf was only ten years old. His grandfather, Jonas Johnson, lived to the ripe age of seventy-six.

Olaf Gustaf Olson was the first member of the family to leave home, emigrating to America when he was about nineteen years old. In the spring of 1880 he went to Rush City, Minn., where he worked on a farm for a Mr. Ramburg for three months. In July of the same year he came to Duluth, and was employed on the railroad a short time, after which he was engaged in carpentering and house building for about five years, meantime attending evening school, and taking private lessons in his spare moments. In 1887 he opened a store, as a dealer in stationery and music, carrying on this business until 1890. In the summer of that year he made a trip to Sweden on a visit to his aged mother, and on his return the same year established himself as a real estate dealer. He has ever since continued in this business, dealing extensively in farming, pine and iron lands.

In 1883 Mr. Olson married Beda C. Anderson, whom he had known in Sweden, and ever since this marriage their home has been at No. 305 Mesaba avenue, Duluth. They have a family of four children: Olga Victoria, a young lady with much musical ability; Clarence W., a youth of fifteen; and Roy G. and Evelyn A., aged respectively nine and three. Mr. Olson is closely attached to his wife and children, and they are a happy and interesting family.

Until the year 1896 Mr. Olson was strongly Republican in politics, but since then he has leaned toward the Democratic party. He has always taken an active part in public affairs, and has several times been urged to become a candidate for office. This he has persistently refused to do, but he continues to take a great interest in the selection of the best possible candidates. In religious belief he is a Baptist, and before there was any Scandinavian Church of that denomination in Duluth he was a member of the American Baptist Church for two years. Since the organization of the Swedish Bethel Baptist Church he has been one of its leading members and has served the society for many years as trustee and as treasurer. He is also active in Sunday-school work, and (although very modest as to his musical attainments) is a fine singer. Mr. Olson is one of the early settlers of Duluth, having come here twenty-five years ago, when it was a place of only about 4,000 inhabitants, and in both business and social circles he has a host of friends.


Lorin W. Palmer
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Lorin W. Palmer, a citizen of Duluth who represents one of the pioneer families at the Head of the Lakes, was born May 1, 1832, in the town of Henderson, Jefferson Co., N.Y. His ancestors were among the pioneer settlers of New England, the Palmer family having been founded in America by two brothers who came hither in the "Mayflower," on her second voyage, and settled in Massachusetts. One of them subsequently moved to Stonington, Conn., where annual reunions of his descendants are held.

Vose Palmer, grandfather of Lorin W., served for a time in the Revolutionary war. He was a farmer by occupation and moved to Herkimer county, N.Y., where he became a prominent citizen, and where his descendants are still numerous. He died at the age of about sixty. Vose Palmer married Betsy Stuart, who came from the royal family of Scotland.

Samuel S. Palmer, father of Lorin W., was born in Connecticut, and settled in Jefferson county, N.Y., while a young man. In 1832 he migrated westward to Wood county, Ohio, where he lived for many years, and in 1857 he tried his fortune still farther west, settling in the then infant city of Duluth. For several years he was keeper of the Government lighthouse at the Superior entry. He died April 1, 1878, aged almost eighty-three years. While in Ohio he was always active in local affairs, and quite prominent in the locality of his home. Mr. Palmer married Silenda S. Chapin, who was born May 20, 1797, and whose parents lived on a farm in Herkimer county, N.Y. She died Sept. 1, 1841, in Ohio, leaving a family of eleven children, as follows: Evaline S., who is the wife of Mark Curtis, of Ypsilanti, Mich.; Samuel A., of Pontiac, Mich.; Vose, who died June 28, 1897, at Sucker River, Minn.; Jotham C., born Jan. 21, 1825, who died at Duluth; Maria H., Mrs. Samuel Gay, who died at Etna Green, Ind.; Francis E., of Ishpeming, Mich.; Lorin W.; Leander C., of Marquette, Mich.; Thaddeus and Theresa, twins, who died in childhood; and Alonzo S., who served four years in Company F, 15th Ill. V.I., and died on Minnesota Point, near Duluth, of injuries received in the service. By a second marriage Samuel S. Palmer had two sons: Roswell H., who is a resident of Duluth; and Lester C., deceased.

Lorin W. Palmer passed his boyhood on his father's farm in Ohio, and received his education in the public schools of the locality, such as they were at that early day, attending three or four months in the winter. He also spent two winters in high school at Perrysburg, Ohio. In 1859 he went to Etna Green, Ind., where he was employed in a sawmill, and later he bought and operated a sawmill at Inwood, that State. During the Civil war Mr. Palmer volunteered, and was at first rejected, but during 1865 he was accepted, and served three months in Company I, 59th Ind. V.I., doing picket duty at Hilton Head, S.C. In the fall of 1856 Mr. Palmer went to the Head of the Lakes, and spent a year or more at Sucker River, Minn., also helping to survey the line of the St. Croix railroad, between Superior and Deer River, Minn. In the fall of 1865 he returned to Superior, where he remained about ten years, during which time he was employed in sawmill work, and for a short time engaged in teaching, and he came thence to Duluth in 1875. He has since made his home in that city, and for a number of years gave his attention to dock building, filling contracts for the construction of a number of docks. In recent years he has lived retired, enjoying the fruits of his active years. Since coming west he has devoted his time principally to business, but while living in Indiana he was quite prominent in local affairs, and served one year as township trustee of Etna township, Kosciusko Co., Ind. He has been a Republican from the formation of the party, voted for Fremont in 1856, and during that campaign was an active participant in a fight over a political meeting.

Mr. Palmer has always been interested in church work, and he assisted in organizing the First M.E. Church of Superior, of which he was the first steward and a member of the first board of trustees. The family is now connected with the First M.E. Church in Duluth, of which Mr. Palmer has been steward since the year 1880. His social connections are with Duluth Lodge, No. 110, A.O.U.W., in which he has filled all the chairs, and with Willis A. Gorman Post, G.A.R., of which he is past commander.

On Jan. 6, 1859, Mr. Palmer was united in marriage with Letitia Hughes, who was born in St. Catharine's, Quebec, and died March 28, 1871, at Superior, at the age of thirty-one years. She was a member of the Methodist Church. On May 5, 1872, Mr. Palmer married for his second wife Miss Margaret Hughes, a sister of the first, and she still survives. By the first union there were five children, namely: Clara S., Mrs. James Cooper, of St. Paul, Minn.; Della M., who is engaged at teaching in Brainerd, Minn.; Letitia, who died at the age of seven years; and Stewart and Charles, who were drowned when five and three years old, respectively. Three children blessed the second union: Evalyn S., Mrs. W. T. Giese, of McGregor, Iowa; Edward L., who is a bookkeeper, with Booth & Co., at Duluth; and Lester W., stenographer for a lumber firm in Duluth.

David and Sarah (Barrett) Hughes, parents of both the wives of Mr. Palmer, were born in Caermarthenshire, Wales, and emigrated to Canada, locating at St. Catharine's, Quebec. There Mrs. Hughes died in 1845. Mr. Hughes subsequently lived at Detroit, Mich., and his death occurred in Harbour Creek, Erie Co., Pa., in 1887, when he was aged seventy-nine years. He was a carpenter and cabinetmaker by occupation.


Michael Pastoret
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Michael Pastoret is a native of Germany, and came to America in 1856. He first lived in Germany, and came to America in 1856. He first lived in Wisconsin one year; then, in Chicago, Illinois, one year; then, at Eagle Harbor, Michigan, where he was engaged in the grocery and liquor business till 1869. In the latter year, he came to Duluth and has since been in the wholesale business of wines, liquors and cigars.


Alfred Peterson
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Alfred Peterson, at one time a hotel-keeper in Duluth, was born in Goteborg, Sweden, Aug. 23, 1857, son of Elias and Caroline Peterson.

Elias Peterson was also a native of Sweden, born in 1821. He was reared in Goteborg, and was married there several years before emigrating to seek his fortune in the New World. The family came to America in 1864, and after living in Green Bay, Wis., four or five years, they settled in Duluth. Mr. Peterson was a stonemason, and did the mason work on many of the early buildings in the city, such as the Hunter and Bowman blocks. He died in 1873, leaving a widow, who is still living in Duluth, and six children: Davida, the wife of Iver Wisted, a contractor in Duluth; Josephine, widow of Paul Slarvey, ex-sheriff of St. Louis county; Alfred; Emma C., the widow of Matt Gatz, formerly a prominent hotel-keeper; Charles H., who drowned in the ill fated "Manistee" in 1883, aged nineteen years, and who will be remembered by many as the first bootblack in Duluth; and William F., a prospector, now residing in Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. Peterson were both members of the Swedish Lutheran Church.

Alfred Peterson was a mere child when the family came to America, and received all his education in this country, attending the public schools of Duluth. He learned the glazier's trade, but did scarcely any work in that line. His real career began when he became the first bell boy at the old "Clark House," in Duluth. He remained there five years in different capacities, becoming sufficiently familiar with the requirements of the business so that later he undertook the management of the old "Central House," and carried it on successfully until 1887, when he went out of the business. Since that time he has been in the employ of the Mesaba Northern Iron Company.

Mr. Peterson was united in marriage in 1883 with Mary McLane, daughter of John and Kate (McDonald) McLane. To their union have come two children, John E. and Catherine Lillian.

Fraternally Mr. Peterson's connections are with Modern Woodmen of America. During the period when he was the head of the "Central House" he was necessarily brought into contact with many people, and won a position of very general respect and esteem.


Charles A. Peterson
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Charles A. Peterson enjoys the distinction of being the oldest man now living in Duluth who was born within the present city limits, his birth having taken place Dec. 21, 1857, at Fond du Lac, which is now a part of Duluth.

Peter J. Peterson, his father, was born in Sweden, and came to the United States in boyhood. He had received good educational advantages in his native land, and after coming to this country was a student at the old Chicago University. In about 1855, soon after his marriage (which took place in Chicago), he came to the Head of the Lakes, locating land on the site of Fond du Lac. Before long a portion of his land was platted as a part of the town site, of which he was one of the original proprietors, and some of this property still forms part of his estate. A plat of the village made by him in 1857 is still in existence. Mr. Peterson engaged in farming to some extent, and also got out considerable timber, for a sawmill at Milford's Bay (now Oneota), and he proved quite a successful business man. He also became quite influential in local affairs, for he was a public-spirited citizen, and ever ready to give his time and means to carry out projects for the advancement or improvement of his neighborhood. He efficiently filled a number of offices, among others that of justice of the peace at Fond du Lac for some years, and in that capacity performed a number of marriages. Politically he was an active Republican. His religious connection was with the Lutheran Church, and the only services of that church held in this locality during his lifetime were conducted in his house. He died in 1873, at the age of forty-nine years.

Mr. Peterson was married, in Chicago, to Christina M. Olson, who was born in Arvika, Vermland, Sweden, and came to the United States when a young woman, the ocean voyage taking three months. She lived in Chicago for a time previous to her marriage, and came to Fond du Lac on the "Lady Elgin," the ill-fated steamer which afterward sank in Lake Michigan. Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Peterson, namely: One died in infancy in Chicago. Charles A. is mentioned below. Oscar A., who was a dealer in timber and merchandise, died Sept. 4, 1902, at Fond du Lac, Minn., aged forty-three years. Alma M. is the wife of F.F. Porter, of Oakland, Cal. Emil is a druggist in Duluth. Hilma R. is engaged in teaching in that city. The mother died suddenly at Fond du Lac, May 31, 1905, of old age. Her sisters, Mrs. Peter Nelson, of Red Wing, and Miss Olson, of Duluth, are the only other representatives of her family in this country.

Charles A. Peterson attended the public schools at Fond du Lac and Superior high school, from which latter he was graduated at the age of fifteen years. Later he took a special business course at a night school in Duluth. After his father's death he continued the lumber business for some time, but in 1890 he sold out at Fond du Lac and settled in Duluth, opening a real-estate office which he has conducted ever since, doing a good business in that line and in insurance. He has also invested to some extent in mining lands on the Mesaba range. Since 1901 he has been dealing in lumber, principally cedar, and does considerable logging each winter, in this industry giving employment to a number of men the year round. As will be seen, his interests are varied, but he finds time to give faithful attention to them all, and, like his father, is thrifty and prosperous. He has held but one official position, when he served as deputy probate judge of St. Louis county, to fill a vacancy. However, he is deeply interested in politics, as a stanch member of the Republican party, attends many conventions, and has acted as delegate to State conventions, etc. He is a member of the Garfield Republican Club.

On June 19, 1893, Mr. Peterson married Miss Elizabeth Fraser, who was born in Saginaw, Mich., daughter of Alexander Fraser, now of Duluth, ex-surveyor general of logs, Fifth District of Minnesota. One child has blessed this union, Chauncey A. The family attend the M.E. Church. Mr. Peterson's fraternal connection is with the Modern Samaritans.


Peter J. Peterson
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Peter J. Peterson (deceased), one of the pioneers of the Upper Lake Region, was for many years a resident of Fond du Lac, Minn., and there laid the foundation of his fortune. He was born in Sweden in 1824, and passed his early life in his native land, where he was reared to mercantile pursuits. In 1852 Mr. Peterson came to America, locating first at Chicago, where he met the lady who soon afterward became his wife. In 1857 they decided to remove to Superior, Wis., and made the trip thither on the "Lady Elgin," the steamer which was afterward wrecked near Racine. The Petersons were disappointed at the prospects offered at Superior and so went on to Fond du Lac, then a promising frontier village. Mr. Peterson took up a homestead claim on two islands in the St. Louis river, named Nekuk and Amik, signifying, respectively, Otter and Beaver. He made his home on these islands, carried on farming and trading with the Indians for many years and became wealthy. Later he bought property in Fond du Lac, which he improved, and which became quite valuable.

In 1856 Mr. Peterson married Miss Christina M. Olson, who was born in Sweden in 1823, and came to America in 1854. They had six children, five of whom were born and reared in Fond du Lac: Charles A., of Duluth; Oscar A., who died Sept. 4, 1902, aged forty-two; Alma M., the wife of Frank F. Porter, now of Oakland, Cal.; Emile, a graduate of the business college, and now a druggist of Duluth, and Hilma, a popular teacher in the Fond du Lac schools. The children have all received good educational advantages. Miss Hilma Peterson was a student at the Winona State Normal School, where she prepared herself for her profession, and she has taught continuously since 1893 in Fond du Lac, where she is not only liked by her pupils, but is justly popular with a large circle of friends and acquaintances, who have been attracted by her pleasing personality and fine character.

Peter J. Peterson was a notable figure in Fond du Lac in many ways. A Republican in his views, he was justice of the peace for eight years, and generally prominent in local politics. His interest was especially aroused along educational lines, and he served as member of the school board for some time. In religious belief he was a Lutheran, and of a deeply religious nature. For years his house was the appointed place for the services held by the Swedish Lutherans of the region, and he was always foremost in their good works. Mr. Peterson passed away in August, 1873, and his remains were interred on the homestead. His wife still survives and makes her home with her daughter, Hilma.


Camille Poirier
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

Camille Poirier was born in March, 1838, in Canada. He learned the shoemaker trade in his native place and in 1864,came to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he was employed as superintendent in a boot and shoe establishment for five years. Then coming to Duluth he has since been in the same business, having increased his stock from year to year until now he has a fine stock, and the leading establishment in the city.


Charles S. Prosser
Source: Compendium of History, and Biography of Northern Minnesota, 1902, George A Ogle & Co., page 820; submitted by Robin Line
Charles S. Prosser, a prominent business man of Duluth, Minnesota, is engaged in the flour, feed, grain, and hay business, wholesale and retail, and enjoys well-merited prosperity.

Mr. Prosser was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, in 1864. The family has been in America for many generations, and the father was of German descent and the mother of English ancestry. Some of the members of this family took part in the early wars in this country.

Our subject was the third of a family of four children, and he was reared in his native state and received his education in the high school and business college. He served as a clerk in a dry goods store for five years, and in 1886 started in the dry goods business for himself in Cuba, New York. He was engaged thus from that date until 1890. In the spring of the latter year he came to Duluth, Minnesota, and opened his present business. For the first year he was in partnership with N. A. Burnham, but since then has conducted the business as C. S. Prosser & Company. He has two establishments, the retail being located at 120 E. Superior street, and the wholesale at 114-116 E. Michigan street. He has recently completed a three story business building on Michigan street, 50 by 100 feet. He is a member of the Duluth Board of Trade, and is a well known business man.

Mr. Prosser was married in 1890, and Mrs. Prosser died in 1898, leaving three daughters as a result of the marriage. They bear the names of Helen, Ruth, and Stella. The first two named are at home and the other daughter is residing in the state of New York. Mr. Prosser is a member of the United Order of Foresters, Ancient Order United Workmen, Knights of the Maccabees, and the Modern Samaritans. He is also a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Politically he is a Republican, and has attended numerous conventions of his party.


John G. Rakowsky
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

John G. Rakowsky is a native of Germany. Coming to America in 1865, he came directly to Duluth, and has since been engaged in the grocery and provision business.

Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

John G. Rakowsky was one of the pioneers of Duluth, where he now lives retired. His parents, John and Dorothy E. (Tuman) Rakowsky, were both natives of Germany, where he was born March 24, 1824. The father, who was a Lutheran minister, died in 1828, the mother surviving until 1842. Of four children John G. is the only one now living.

John G. Rakowsky was educated in Germany, and there learned the trade of carpenter. He came to the United States in 1855 and settled in Superior, working at his trade, and being employed in other ways. In 1857 he homesteaded an eighty-acre claim near Rice Point, which is now Duluth. To obtain a clear title to his land, which was in dispute, he went to Washington, and while there enlisted in the 8th N.Y.V.I., for three months' service. After the first battle of Bull Run he received his discharge, but re-enlisted at Cleveland, in the 58th Ohio V.I., and remained in the service until the close of the war. He took part in the battles of Shiloh and Ball's Bluff, and was taken prisoner, being sent to Vicksburg, to Jackson, Miss., and finally to New Orleans to be exchanged. He rejoined his regiment at Vicksburg, where he remained until the close of the war. He was sergeant of his company, and passed through the entire war without a wound.

After the war Mr. Rakowsky went into the brewery business in Vicksburg, but only remained there a few months. During the gold excitement at Vermillion Lake he came back to Superior, and organized a stock company of 100 old soldiers. They started for the supposed gold fields, cutting a road from Duluth, a distance of eighty-five miles, and, as Mr. Rakowsky says, finding everything but the gold. After this he carried on a general store in Superior, and later at Vermillion Lake, and was then for a time an Indian trader. After three years he sold out his store at Superior and moved to Duluth, where he went into the retail liquor business. After five years in this line he spent two years in the feed and provision business, and then for ten years was in the grocery business, when he retired. He is the owner of considerable real estate.

In 1863 Mr. Rakowsky married Maria Krause, who was born in Germany, daughter of Charles and Christine (Vaut) Krause, also natives of Germany. Charles Krause was a farmer all his life. He came to Port Washington, Wis., in 1853, and died in 1890, at Duluth. His wife passed away in 1880. All of their seven children are living, Mrs. Rakowsky being one of the elders. Mr. and Mrs. Rakowsky are the parents of the following children: Charles L., who was deputy county auditor for some years, now in the real estate business; Gustav A., a marine engineer; Mamie P., wife of H. Little, of Duluth; Victor H., a student in the Mining Academy at Houghton, Mich.; and Gertrude L., a high school graduate. Mr. Rakowsky is a Republican, but cast his first vote for James Buchanan. The family attend Pilgrim Congregational Church. Mr. Rakowsky is a member of the Old Settlers' Club, of which he has been president, and of the G.A.R., Gorman Post, of Duluth.


Capt. John R. Randall
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Capt. John R. Randall, member of the State Legislature of Minnesota, and a man extensively interested in real estate at Duluth, was born in Steuben county, N.Y., in the vicinity of Tyrone, a son of Darius C. and Eliza Jane Randall.

Darius C. Randall was an artist. He migrated to Cold Water, Mich., and later lived at Niles, Mich., finally removing to West Duluth, where he lived at the home of his son John R., until his death, which occurred when he was ninety years of age. Darius C. Randall was twice married and Capt. John R., was his only child.

Capt. Randall was reared at Jonesville, Mich., and attended the common schools. He learned the trade of a miller, and continued his studies at the mill by night, sometimes poring over his books until nearly morning. While he was struggling to educate himself, and at the same time earn his living, he became interested in current events, and when the Civil war broke out he felt the call of his country and organized a company at Jonesville for the Fourth Michigan Infantry; he was made its captain, but owing to his youth the townspeople decided it best for him not to accept the position. His patriotism was not dampened, however, for he enlisted in Company C, 7th Mich. V.I., and he was fourth sergeant of it, serving as such for a year. He was with Gen. McClellan in the Shenandoah Valley when he was transferred to Company G, 18th Mich. V.I., and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. Five months later he was transferred to Company F, same regiment, over eight others who outranked him, and in April, 1864, was made captain of the company. He was offered the colonelcy of the 17th United States Colored regiment, but refused. For two years Capt. Randall remained with the Army of the Cumberland. Being stricken down with typhoid fever he resigned at Nashville, Tenn., in April, 1865, returning home.

Capt. Randall married Harriet A. Ransom, of Jonesville, Mich., daughter of Alonzo and Mary A. (Goss) Ransom. Capt. and Mrs. Randall have two daughters: Bertha May, a teacher in the Adams school of Duluth; and Vesta Claudia, also teaching in that city.

After the war Capt. Randall followed milling, in which business he was engaged in all for nearly thirty years. He went out to San Francisco, and was second miller in the Genessee Mills about a year. He then came back to Michigan, and conducted a dry goods store at Buchanan for about a year, after which he built a mill at Berrien Springs, which he ran for eleven years. Before he went to California he and his father-in-law had purchased a mill at Niles, Mich. From Berrien Springs Capt. Randall went to Terre Haute, Ind., spending four years there in the Wabash Mills, thence went to St. Louis, and was in the Waterloo Mills, of Monroe county, Ill., for two years, so that he is a very experienced man in his line of business. He went to Harlan county, Neb., intending to erect a mill there, but as he did not like the locality he decided against the venture. From there he went to Pullman, Ill., where he operated a hotel for two years. He was next attracted to Blue Earth county, Minn., and settling at Vernon Center built the Randolph Mills, operating them for four years. These mills he sold and then went to Mankato, Minn., where he remained a year, and in 1887 removed to Duluth and for two years operated a hotel on 22nd avenue, west, known as the "Sherman House." His next change was made when he removed to West Duluth, and built the "Randall Hotel," which he conducted several years. He also bought his present handsome home at No. 1717 Piedmont avenue, known as the Cox property. For the past few years Mr. Randall has dealt extensively in real estate, and is judged an expert on realty values.

For a time Capt. Randall was deputy clerk of the court, and is now and has been since 1903 a member of the State Legislature, where he has made his influence felt in promoting some very desirable measures. As a politician he has always supported the principles of the Republican party, and is very prominent in its ranks.

Fraternally Capt. Randall is a Blue Lodge Mason, being connected with a lodge in Duluth; he is a member of Diamond Lodge, K. of P., and of the K. of H. He is also very prominent in the G.A.R., having held all the offices in Gorman Post, No. 13, Duluth, of which he is now vice-commander. Among his fellow members in this post he is particularly popular.

As a capitalist, extensive property owner, legislator and good citizen, Mr. Randall has won universal respect. During the war he served his country bravely and gallantly, and the regard he receives is only commensurate with his services. In every capacity he has shown himself worthy of the honors already conferred upon him, as well as of those which time may bring.


John M. Rich
Source: History of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Charles S. Bryant; Minnesota Historical Company (1881) Transcribed by Jeanne Kalkwarf

John M. Rich was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1838. He is a machinist, and since coming to Duluth in 1872, has had the superintendency of putting on the foundations of elevator No. 1, and elevator B., and is at present engaged in that of elevator C.


Eustace Roussain
Source: Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Lake Region (1905) transcribed by Kim Mohler.

Eustace Roussain, once a progressive merchant of Duluth, was born in Fond du Lac, Minn., Feb. 17, 1840, son of Francis Roussain.

Francis Roussain was born in France, and was a member of the same family from which came Gen. Roussain, the famous French general who fought in the Revolution. He came to America in early manhood, and must have reached Fond du Lac some time previous to 1840. He was in the employ of the Arctic American Fur Company as long as they had a station at Fond du Lac, and afterward opened a store of his own there, where he traded with the Indians for their furs. There being so few white men there at that time, no other trade was profitable. He employed quite a number of men, and at one time ran two posts, the second at Vermillion Lake. He was very successful and accumulated considerable property. He was also employed by the government as a blacksmith, as he had learned that trade early in life. Francis Roussain's wife, Zoe, was of mixed blood, French and Chippewa, and they became the parents of five children: Cecelia R., who married W.R. Durfee; Francis, deceased; Eustace; John B., who died at the age of seven years; and Elizabeth, who only lived two years. Mr. Roussain died about 1884, and his wife in 1901, aged eighty-two years. They were both members of the Catholic Church.

Eustace Roussain grew up in Fond du Lac and at a time when there were no schools there, and he received no education whatever until he was sixteen, speaking up to that time only in the Chippewa tongue. At that age his father took him to Montreal, where he remained at school for three years, acquiring a fairly good practical education, and learning to speak both French and English. When he returned to Fond du Lac he assisted his father in his stores as long as the latter continued in business. Afterward he carried on a similar business for himself. Mr. Roussain was for many years the postmaster at Fond du Lac. He has also served on the school board as clerk, and is deeply interested in developing the school system of the town to the utmost. In politics he is a Democrat, and always supports his party on every question at issue.

Mr. Roussain's home in Fond du Lac is a very comfortable one, and is presided over by his sister, Mrs. Durfee, and her daughter, Celia J. Durfee. The latter is a talented young lady, finely educated, and one of Duluth's most popular and successful teachers, while the easy grace with which she plays the part of hostess in her uncle's home makes her a social success as well. Mr. Roussain and his sister are both members of the Catholic Church.

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