Benton County, Missouri
Fertile prairies and valleys, an everlasting water supply from springs and three rivers--the Osage, Grand and Pomme de Terre--and a bountiful variety of wild game may have been the inducements to furnish Benton County with as constant habitation as anywhere on earth. Because Kaysinger Dam will spread water over the basins of these three rivers, archaeologists from the state university, Columbia, and the National Park Service have been conducting explorations of Indian village sites in the bottom lands since 1962. Work has centered on the Rodgers Shelter, a bluff overhang on the Pomme de Terre just south of the Benton-Hickory County line; in the Trolinger Spring bog, and Boney Spring Bog in nearby Benton County. This research has uncovered one of the longest cultural sequences in the Midwest, and also has provided significant climatic, faunal and floral information about the western Ozarks region. It has tested as far back in the past as 10,000 B.C. R. Bruce McMillan of the research department of anthropology at the university has been in charge and now is compiling a detailed report as the work continues. The report will concern findings indicating that once there lived in the county elephant, mastodon, mammoth, musk ox, wild hog, bear, deer, horse and elk. The pre-historic animals from the Benton County area were written about by the famous French naturalist, Baron George Cuvier and American Naturalist B. S. Barton of Philadelphia in 1806. They told of a mastodon skeleton from the Pomme de Terre, where also were dug up seventeen tusks, some a foot in diameter and six feet long. These bones were displayed in the British Museum in London. The Cincinnati, Ohio, Museum displayed a mastodon delivered to them by S. H. Whipple of Warsaw in 1843. This was Samuel H. Whipple who with his brother-in-law. DeWitt Ballow, established the Whipple Ballow addition to east Warsaw. In 1852 peccary and mastodon remains were found by Dr. R. W. Gibbs of Warsaw, and displayed in his drug store.
But "Prince" of the early day archaeologists was Albert Carl Koch, or "Dr. Koch" as he began to call himself in 1845, who also was among the first to collect mastodon bones in America. His name and early fossils are almost synonymous in the annals of Missouri. His greatest fault was lack of accuracy. Koch excavated on the "Brashear" farm in Benton County early in the nineteenth century
and found a variety of mastodon bones. However, his location as given by longitude and latitude describes a point in the Atlantic Ocean. Koch's physical description of the site places his findings on the Pomme de Terre or "Big Bone" River. Koch's description continues: "There is every reason to suppose that the Pomme de Terre at some former period was a large magnificent river from one half to three quarter of a mile in width, and that its water then washed the high rock bluffs on either side where
the marks are perfectly plain; they present a similar appearance to that of the Missouri
VIEW OF RODGERS SHELTER Excavation -1967
The M. U. CREW Uncovers mastodon
OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY At Rodgers Shelter.
Main Profile showing soil stratigraphy at
He further describes the various' strata saying there are lots of cypress burs, wood and bark, tropical moss, palm leaves in the diggings. From the center arose a seemingly bottomless spring. These findings by early-day scientists gave evidence of a more ancient people than could be accounted for through ordinary channels. However, very little work was done until 1962 to determine the extent of an early habitation by humans or animals. Nor did the old relics at Fort Carondelet at Halley's Bluff up-river from Warsaw on the Osage, with remains of furnaces and twenty-three jug-shaped holes excavated in the rocks, whet the appetite of post nineteenth century explorers. Some thought they were made by Desoto on an expedition with his Spanish troops--no fragment of memory reminded that the Spanish fort, Carondelet, with its commanders, Auguste Chouteau, and Manuel Lisa of the St. Louis fur company,--was once the proud stronghold on this spot. And all traffic to the fort from the east drifted through Benton County on the reaches of the mighty Osage River.
The bones of the mammoth or mastodon have also been found on the old Charles Wickliffe farm west of Warsaw on the Osage River, where Case and Redmond took out nearly a whole skeleton and sold it to a museum for $20,000 a century ago. One tusk was said to be nine feet long. The Jeffersonian Republican newspaper (Jefferson City) it its issue of November 12, 1842, reported, "The recent discovery of bones by Messrs. Case and Redmond of Warsaw transcends anything of the kind yet offered to the public in point of number and size. The place where these bones were found is about two miles from town, and is familiarly known by the western people as a lick. The number of different heads found amounts to seventy or eighty, and the large amount of detached eeth shows that a greater number of these monsters have found a common grave in this basin." Again, from the Jefferson Enquirer of January 22, 1843: "We had last week exhibited in the State House the bones of the great Mastodon and Behemoth found in the vicinity of Warsaw, Benton County, Missouri. They were brought to the city some ten days ago by Mr. Case. He also brought a large number of bones belonging to various other animals," Other nineteenth century finds were by Drs. Sill and Crawford who displaye d an interesting array of bones; also from the Wickliffe place- in their store on Main Street in Warsaw; and Scotchman named Cott was paid a huge sum of money for a large skeleton from the Pomme de Terre.
VARIOUS SIZES OF PROJECTILE
From the Rodgers Shelter on the Pomme de Terre River.
News of their finds spread and two Bradley brothers from Boonville moved a crew of twenty men to the "Bone Hole" in Breshears Valley but their large quantity of unearthed bones fell to pieces when they reached the air. The hole also filled rapidly with water despite their efforts and the men went broke for their efforts. The Bone Hole eventually went dry. But there are numerous legends attached to this area on the Pomme de Terre River close to the Rodgers Overhang now being excavated by the archaeologists. One story relates that once a couple of youngsters played around the Bone Hole With It's high, grassy swampland filled with cat-tails and swamp iris, an isolated area where a wandering mastodon still would feel at home. When the parents went to claim the youngsters, they found them in a state of shock and speechless. Later one told of a huge, snake-like reptile crawling towards them from the Bone Hole. The other never regained his speech.
Another tale based on fact concerns the great earthquake which devastated Alaska and the whole western coast in 1961. The Bone Hole, dry for many years, overnight filled with water, as did the dry Monegaw Springs, once a famous health resort and only a few miles west of the Breshears Valley Bone Hole. The water gradually ceased flowing however, and now it is sufficiently dry for continued scientific excavation,
Arrowheads, stone tools and other impedimenta used by man also have been found in the Bone Hole mixed with animal bones at depths of many feet. One large tree, covered with several feet of silt, still had its bark. Its wood was a very hard substance much like walnut. It was perfectly preserved and although some pieces have weathered since removed from the Hole two years ago, they are as firm as when first unearthed. The tree's age has been estimated at several thousand years. Diggings this summer on Bell Island west of Warsaw in the Osage disclosed early-day habitation by humans but nothing of unusual nature.
c. MYLDDDN "SMALL SLOTH"
Missouri's Ice Age Animals: by M. G. Mehl, Educational Series No.One. State of Missouri.
Indians and Archaeology Of Missouri by Carl H. Chapman and Eleanor F. Chapman. University of Missouri Press. 1964.
History of Benton County by Jas, H. Lay 1879.
University of Missouri Department of Archaeological Research. R. Bruce McMillan, research associate. 1969.
EARLY INHABITANTS--THE INDIANS
Digging into the past determines that more than one race of people have lived in what is now Benton County. And in telling of the red-skinned inhabitants, the reader must remember that a few thousand humans were dominating millions of acres of land. However, when the first white men came here in the late eighteenth century, inhabitants were Indians: 'Delaware's, "Shawnees, Sacs, Kickapoo's, but mostly the Osage. The terrain with its hills and deeply wooded hunting grounds full or wild game, its boundless water supply from springs and rivers, made it a natural habitat for the nomads. The Indians also came from a large area to this locality because of superior quantity of flint rock for arrows, knives and other weapons; Cave dwellers and mound builders had preceded the red man but. youngsters of the nineteenth century all had ample supplies of Indian arrow heads, axes and other evidence of aborigine culture generously spread about the countryside.
Although white trappers drifted through the Osage River area the first recorded trip was in 1719 by the resourceful explorer trader, Claude Du T'isne and Philip Renault. These men quickly termed "Osage" the tall, sturdy red-skinned inhabitants of this river country. The name was taken from the Indians' religious name for waters of the earth, "Wha-zha-zhe". At that time the Osage tribe's domination was universal here. Du Tisne reported that hunting camps were strewn all along the river with two main villages, one where Fairfield now is located and one upriver at Halley's Bluff in Vernon County. Du Tisne is the subject of one of the great colonial frontier stories and the incident to be recalled may well have happened in Benton Co. He was a highly competent Indian linguist; and though still young. he was bald and wore a wig, even in the wilderness; and most of all he was a quick-thinking salesman. One day his customers gathered round as he displayed his wares, and some of the articles, probably the guns, caught their greedy eyes. Du Tisne picked up their conversation which turned on how they might kill him and make off with his goods it would be a fine economy move, since they would have to part with none of their store of peltries. Resorting to a trick, to save both his merchandise and his life, he whipped off his wig and threw it on the ground before the awe-struck natives. In the presence of a man who could scalp himself, their attitude changed to one of fearful friendliness. Du Tisne brought back much information on southern and southwestern Missouri, and this intelligence made French officials even more determined to found a Missouri post.
That this country was considered valuable in lead mining is borne out by the presence of Renault on this first tour up the Osage Renault had come from France in 1718 to work the already existing lead mines west of the Mississippi. His trip up the Osage River the following year was to inspect reports of heavy lead deposits. He already had built a furnace and was gouging out 1500 lbs, of lead a day in eastern Missouri. But the country ran afoul financial problems and by 1731 the grants reverted to the Spanish Crown and Renault headed for Illinois country, returning to France in 1744. He left a memorial in Benton County; holes where lead was mined and smelted.
The Osage were feared by redskins and whites alike because of their war-like disposition. They looked down on intoxication; farmed beans, corn and squash; and their athletic prowess was supported by their fine physiques, most of the men reaching 6 feet and more. They favored good health and the Black and White sulphur springs near Warsaw were sought out as resting places by many of the tribe which numbered 8,000, most of whom lived in an ,area reaching from Kansas City to the Niangua River. They ranged far over a land abounding ill wild game; elk, deer, turkey, panthers, wildcats, etc. From the coming of the first white men, the Osages increasingly apprehensive over encroachment of settlers into their hunting grounds. As the white settlers followed the trappers, the Indians retaliated with stealing, marauding, burning and murdering. At the time this territory was under the Spanish flag , and called Upper Louisiana. The Spanish officials became greatly concerned over the warlike conduct of the Osages. They then not only conspired with their ancient Osage enemies, the Sacs, Kickapoo's and Delaware's to war on the Osage, but they also planned the stout fortress, Fort Carondelet, on the river at Halley's Bluff about 90 miles upriver from Warsaw. In charge the Spanish placed a Frenchman, Auguste Chouteau, brother of the famous St. Louis fur buyers and the one white man the Osages, trusted. The fort was located immediately across the river from the largest Osage village and was completed in 1784.
The plans for this fort are today in the possession of James Attebery, Osceola, historian and Smithsonian consultant. Title to Louisiana stayed briefly with France during the Napoleonic wars before being transferred by purchase to the U.S. while Thomas Jefferson was President. At the end of the eighteenth century the Osages held undisputed sway over the whole southwestern area of what is now Missouri. Two main trails went thru he Benton county area; stemming from the villages west of Warsaw. One trail or "trace" ran along the river as far as Boonville, the other cutting north thru the northwest area going northeastward to the Arrowrock area on the Missouri river. To the west one ran to the Harmony Mission School for Indians operating in Bates County from 1821-1836, and south then to Springfield. The Osages left a tribal oral history of those first Frenchmen who came into their hunting grounds after their furs. The Frenchmen were little men. recall the Osages who themselves stood so tall through selective breeding. The French had heavy eyebrows, had fur on their faces; the Frenchmen stank, the Osages said, because they bound their bodies in garments. The smell and the furry faces were what the Osages. remembered most clearly. Their first meeting place probably was on the Osage River. When the Frenchmen left, the Osages tell, they were trailed for a way by young Osage boys who mimicked their walk and held their noses.
One of the most distinguished explorers through the Benton County portion of the Osage River country was Zebulon Montgomery Pike for whom Pike's Peak in the Rocky Mountains later was named. President Thomas Jefferson was anxious to determine the extent and value of the western lands acquired through the Louisiana Purchase so sent Pike and 23 army men up the Osage River in 1806.Now Jefferson's declared purpose
was to return 51 Indians to their friends in Osage towns, but some historians believe
Jefferson's real aim was to find out what effort the French and Spanish had made to remove their military from the Fort Carondelet region. Pike's forces consisted of two Lieutenants, a surgeon, sergeant, two corporals, sixteen privates and an Interpreter. The Indians were men, women and children of the Osage and Pawnee (pant) tribes who had been redeemed from captivity. The group left St. Louis Tuesday, July 15, 1806, passed the Grand River junction with the Osage near Warsaw Friday, August 9th where they delivered
their Indian companions to their families amidst rejoicing.
Commander of Fort Carondeletat Halley's Bluff and
member of family founding Hogle Trading Post west of Warsaw.
Picture Courtesy Missouri Historical Society, Columbia
Pike mentions in his dispatches that cliffs were covered with the largest and most beautiful cedars he had ever beheld. "From the last village on the Missouri to the prairies on the Osage, we found plenty of deer bears and some turkies; from thence to the towns are some elk and deer, but near the villages they become scarce" He st ates that over 500 warriors attended an assemblage held in the lodge of Ca-ha-ga-tonga or White Hair at the Osage Village near the destroyed Fort Carondelet.
Two great Indian battles took place near Warsaw: One between Osages and
Shawnees, one between Osages and Kickapoo's, During the War of 1812, there were
many movements of Indian tribes that took part in the conflict either for or against the
British. "Among them were the Kickapoo who were given a reservation on the Pomrne de Terre and Osage Rivers in Benton. Hickory, and Green Counties in 1819". The eastern limits of the reservation were on the Pomme de Terre.
These depictions of Osage Indians appeared in George Catlin's North American Indians, II.
Just south of the Kickapoo were the Delaware & Shawnees. These remained on reservati ons in Missouri until 1829. There was a pitched battle between the Shawnees (sic) and Osage near Warsaw. These Shawnees were part of the Tennessee Valley migration who had come with the Delaware's in 1789 to Missouri. The Shawnees, together with the Cherokees and Delaware's, confronted the Osage in 1818 and beat them. Kishkalwa, chief of the Shawnees, was familiar with the Osage trick of wild screaming and had his groups wait until they finished. He remarked 'Do not heed the shouts-they are but the yells of cowardly wolves, who, once they come near enough to look you in the eye will flee, while if you do turn your backs on them, they will devour you." The Shawnees moved to Miss ouri at their own request to be removed from British influence. They warred against the Sauk and Fox and Governor Harrison called out the militia to assist the Shawnees and Delawares. * * *
President Thomas Jefferson was concerned with the development of the; lands within the Louisiana Purchase and after the famous expedition up the Missouri River, made William Lewis and William Clark superintendents of Indian Affairs in St. Louis. The British in the War of 1812 had taken advantage of Kickapoo resentment of encroachment into their tribal lands, telling the Indians that the colonial" Long Kni ves" were responsible for the westward flow of pioneers. When Clark sent messenger s to the Kickapoos proposing methods to stop raiding settlers, they promptly were murdered. By 1830 Clark was withholding Kickapoo payments from the government in proportion to settlers losses. This policy proved so costly to the Indians, raiding ceased. Some of the more war-like tribes moved westward into Indian country. Prodded by the Spanish, the Kickapoos had become well acquainted with the Osage River territory previous to the 1819 treaty in raids against the Osages. Excellent horsemen, the Kickapoo's raided primarily to steal horses, one chieftain, Black Buffalo, led raids against redskins and whites alike. On one such raid they claimed stealing $30,000, buying many horses and firearms. After the war of l812, the number or Indians increased hereabouts and Indian agents often were tricked in determining what tribe was responsible for raids against whites. Kickapoo's craftily left signs of their Osage enemies. A great battle was fought between the two tribes near Warsaw and was of such intensity that federal troops were ordered out of Fort Osage on the Missouri 100 miles to the north. The troops emerged at Warsaw and pursued the Indians upriver in a running battle which ended near Monegaw Springs in St. Clair County. The Osages were so badly beaten they no longer were a major threat to settlers. In 1836 they were moved to a reservation in southwest Kansas and subsequently to one in Oklahoma where they remain today. Their school at Harmony Mission was closed in 1836. When the Kickapoo's, Sacs, Foxes and Delaware's moved in to war against the Osages, the Spanish forbade trade with them and offered rewards of brandy by the barrel, two rolls of tobacco, powder and shot for each scalp of an Osage warrior brought to them at the Spanish fort. Gradually the Osages were pushed west by their enemies. In the treaty of 1825 the Pomme De Terre became the Kickapoo's eastern boundary. Serena, chief of the Kickapoo's, moved his band from Illinois to the Osage River where he established a large village on the island at Warsaw and the adjacent banks. This followed a treaty at Edwardsville, Illinois July 30 1819 where tribal lands of the Kickapoo were traded by the U.S. government for those on the Osage belonging to the Osage. The Kickapoo's were promised that no white men would move into this river territory.
John C. Calhoun, the Secretary of State, recorded, "A more exte nded scope is afforded along the Osage River for the indulgence of their barbaric propensities and habits". Paschal Cerre was officer in charge of the Kickapoo removal and lead the tribe, 2,000 in number, to their new home on the Osage in September, 1819. On the march only families remained with Chief Blue Eyes, many believing they were being taken to St. Louis to slaughter. Most rejoined their chief before the year ended. Led by Chief Kishko, the tribe was moved to a reservation near Fort Leavenworth in 1835 after the chieftain petitioned Clark with concern over the increase of cheap whiskey being sold his warriors by frontier whites. The negotiation was peaceful except for one complaint by Kishko that a rival chieftain, Pecan, would get more money than he deserved. When the Kickapoo village was deserted at Warsaw for the move to Fort Leavenworth, only 400 were left to take the trail westward to Kansas. In a survey that year it was estimated that the Indians had traded 2,048,000 acres in Missouri for 768,000 acres in Kansas. Kishko's band could not adapt to farm life insisted on by the U.S. so they gradually migrated further west into Indian territory. It is estimated that the Indians yielded title to over 39,000,00 acres in Missouri. The few that remained at Fort Leavenworth never forgot nor forgave the loss in land values that had been exchanged. The William Clark papers , now in the University of Wisconsin library, record their complaint: "If my redheaded Father (Clark) had told me about the bad wind that is always blowing about the land at my village, he could not have persuaded me to move....He said that my Father at the Garrison had very big eyes and that he would watch my enemies and defend me against them. But instead of this, you my Father are watching me to see if I do anything wrong for when the bad wind from my village blows to the ears of my Father at the Garrison he writes it down and sends it off to his General."
The Osage tribe left the misty valleys and beauty of the Osage bluffs with much sadness. After the defeat by U.S. soldiers, Chief Monegaw and a few of his braves took refuge in one of the caves of the river bluffs. The old chief realized now that they were being pushed step by step away from their haunts; that it was useless to struggle longer. He realized too that his men blamed him with their downfall because he had always maintained a friendly attitude toward the white men, instead of expelling him from the land when first he came. One story tells us the remaining members of his band disowned him as their chief; another tells of his voluntary resignation of his honors. It is the favorite one and runs thus: one eventide the rugged bluffs with their scrubby oaks loomed dark against the Crimson sky of the sunset. The silvery waters of the Osage below caught the reflection of the brilliant sky and ran like a river of flame. The noble chief stood, tall and straight, silhouetted against the sky. His bearing was proud, but he was sad of mien. With a broad sweep of his arm toward their beloved hills and valleys he told his braves the land of their fathers was being taken from them; that the time had come for them to push on toward the land of the setting sun. "Go," he said, "the white man inhabits our home along the Osage and the Sac. Your old chief will remain here. That which has been my home shall be my burial place. Farewell. "One by one they bade him a silent farewell and departed. When the last one had gone, slowly his proud head sank to his bosom and he entered the cave, a broken spirited man, there to abide until the "Great Father" should call him to the "happy hunting ground." According to tradition he died there from starvation and a broken heart; was found by some of his white friends and buried, with his trappings, on the banks of the creek which bears his name.
With the Indians gone, the white settlers became more and more numerous. In 1850 medical experts were sent by congress to analyze the waters of the various springs, and the report showed them to be very high in mineral properties-chiefly sulphur and iron. The early French trappers who came through this region called them "stinking waters." One of the caves, nearly a mile in length, yielded specimens of silver and iron ore. One of the ancient traditions is of a band of Spaniards who mined a great quantity of silver ore and stored it in a cave, expecting to return and take it away. On their return they were attacked by the Indians and all slain but one, whom Monegaw befriended. He was fatally wounded, however, and just before he died rewarded the chief's kindness by confiding to him the hiding place of the treasure. The story goes that Monegaw located the silver and purchased many horses and other valuables, which he later bartered for his bride. It is interesting to note that this is the origin of the name Monegaw meaning "owner of much money" that was bestowed upon him at this * * *
The last incident in Benton County concerning Indians was about 1840. While ceasing to inhabit the county, they had returned here on hunting expeditions annually. They and the whites were friendly, and no outbreaks or serious trouble ever arose between them. On one occasion a band of twenty bucks with their squaws came into the county to hunt, and some whites raised the report that they were killing the hogs of the settlers. Col. D. C. Ballou, of the militia, called out a company and marched down and surrounded their camp. The bucks were all away, and one of the soldiers clubbed his gun and knocked off of her horse a squaw who attempted to pass out. Thomas J. Bishop was captain of the company, and Cabel Crews the guard who stopped the squaw who was the wife of Chief Capt. Bob. When the hunters returned the chief was very angry at the treatment of his squaw, but he was pacified, and the company escorted the Indians quietly but firmly out of the county. This was the beginning and the end of Benton County's Indian wars. Remnants of the Osage tribal habitation are found in the mounds on Pomme de Terre River's western bluffs at Fairfield and scattered along the Osage. At one time they had 300 wigwams on the Prairie bottom later settled by N. Campbell and others. The Shawnees had a village in "Bender's Field" at the confluence of the Grand and Osage Rivers and also on Hogles Creek to history. There is little evidence of Sac or Delaware intrusion. But the Kickapoo are immortalized by Kickapoo Island in the middle of the Lake of the Ozarks at Warsaw's south boundary, and the Osages always will be with us as long as there is an Osage River.
KNOWN PURCHASES FROM INDIANS
JUDGE GEORGE ALEXANDER bought a small Osage village and 7 acres of land for $60 between Big and Little Pomme de Terre Rivers. Near Fairfield.
JUDGE LINDSEY Bought a clearing between Little Tebo and Sterrett's Creek from the Shawnees. Near Warsaw.
MILTON KINCAID Bought a "clearing" in the same locality as the Lindseys for $9 .00. This is the place where Albert Kincaid later built his house which still is inhabited by his descendants today.
March, David D. THE HISTORY OF MISSOURI. New York: Lewis
Historical Publishing Co. 4 Vols, Chapman, Carl H. & Eleanor. INDIANS AND ARCHAELOGY OF MISSOURI. Columbia, University of Missouri, 1964.
McKenny, Thomas L. INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMEIRCA. Cincinnati: Thomas Hall, 1855.
Graham, Jean. TALES OF THE OSAGE IDVER COUNTRY. Clinton: Martin Printing Company. 1929.
Mehl, M. G. MISSOURI'S ICE AGE ANIMALS
Gibeon, A. M. THE KICKAPOOS LORDS OF THE MIDDLE BORDER.
Pike, Zebulon M. EXPLORATORY TRAVELS THROUGH THE WESTERN TERRITORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN 1805, 1806, 1807, Denver: W. H. Lawrence & Co. 1889.
The speech of Benton County is a hodgepodge ofexpressions and traces of the dialects of the different ancestoral homes. It ranges from ultraconservatism or understatement to gross exaggeration. The Cole Camp and Lincoln area show a marked preference for the German. The southern part of the county was settled in the 1830 and 1840's for the most part with pioneers from the Kentucky and Tennessee areas. Their more distant ancestors came from the Scotch-Irish border in the 17th century and settled for a short time in the Carolinas moving westward as the country opened for settlement. Traces of the speech pattern still color the conversation of modern day Benton Countians....
fur piece---great distance
you ins---you or you-all
light a shuck---leave in a hurry
holler calf rope---beg for mercy
lick your calf over---do your work over
strike out sommers---Ieave on urgent business
cut and run
people beginning to stir around---arise in the morning
spring of the year-spring
a hop, a skip, and a jump---close by
pant like a short-legged dog
knee-high to a grasshopper
knee-deep to a tall buck Indian
songs that aint in the hymn books
rough as a cob with a tag in each end and two grains in the middle
shinny up a tree
burn up daylight---use lights in the daytime
half wit studying for idiot
tough as whang leather
got somethin up your sleeve
put notions in your head
swan to goodness
draw an idea
horse trader for who laid a chunk
5 weeks to a day
between a rock and a hard place
sow belly or sow busom---bacon
hen fruit or cackle berries---eggs
fight to hell and gone
Smile on his face like a jackass eating corn thru a picket fence.
dog eat dog
has not git-up
don't know from siccum
bet your boots
hafta chance it --- take a chance
honed or pared down-v-tnin
there has been talk---rumor or gossip
yon side--other side
down on yore all fours
not much of a hand
talkin to a girt-o--courtlng
quit on him
when there's passing to town
been thinking on it
pack in wood-v-carry in wood
kid of a boy
whole passel of kids
grab a hold
aint seen you in a coon's age
aint seen you since the woods burnt
so stingy his joints squeak
trust him no farther than you can throw a bull by the tail
woods colt---illegitimate child
pitch in and hep---give assistance
might near as many---almost
little ole bitty---tiny
in all my born days
lead pipe cinch
Katy bar the door
smile on her face like a cow in the cornfield
smile on her face like a wave on the slop bucket
feel like going bear hunting wi1h a buggy whip
climb your humps and tear the weather boarding off your meat house
ugly as home made sin
so ugly he has to slip up on the dipper to get a drink
off like a dirty shirt
off like a big-butted bird
high as a woodpecker's hole
no bigger than a pound of soap after a hard day's washin
so stingy his joints squeak
trust him no farther than you can throw a bull by the tail
little brother kicked the fool out of me
aint got sense enough to pour sand in a rat hole
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