The Source is: P.M. Pinckard, The Missouri handbook, St. Louis, 1865, 162 pgs.
Transcribed by Donna Walton


This county is situated in the North-Western portion of the State, and has an area of about 630 square miles. The county embraces a desirable division of the prairie and timberland. The prairies extend through the county in a north and south direction, upon a "divide" between Charition and Salt Rivers. These streams and their tributaries are well timbered. Bituminous coal, and limestone and sandstone for building purposes are abundant. The soils are fertile and well adapted to all purposes of the farmer or stock grower. When the North Missouri is completed, as it will be at no very distant day, it will give the farmers and manufacturers a ready market at their very doors, and we anticipate a rapid growth in wealth and importance, of every county along its line.

Is bounded on the west by the Missouri and Nodaway rivers, on the south by Buchanan, and separated from the Iowa line by Nodaway County. The land is fertile and rolling-more timber than prairie. The average product of farms, is of hemp, 600 to 1000 lbs. Per acre; corn 100 bushels; wheat 40; oats 30; buckwheat 50; potatoes, onions and beets, immense crops; grapes flourish finely, producing 600-800 gallons of wine to the acre; good yields of all kinds of grasses, and most varieties of fruit. Unimproved land is held at from $2 to $6 per acre, and improved farms at from $15 to $50-in rare instances property can be purchased at lower figures. Water power has been improved, and is in use on the One-hundred and Two, the Platte and Nodaway.
Savannah, the county seat, is five miles from the Missouri rivers, and twelve miles from St. Joseph.


Is situated in the extreme north-western part of the State. This is a new county-first settled in 1840, and in 1860 had 4663 inhabitants. About one-half of the county is level and undulating, and the other half somewhat broken-commonly calling "rolling" land. The soil is fertile and well adapted to farming and grazing purposes. Corn, wheat, oats, hemp, and tobacco, are the principal products. Farmers and mechanics are greatly needed, land is cheap, good water power, unimproved upon the Nishnabotana, Tarkeo, and Rock Creek. Facilities for reaching market are offered by the Missouri River, which washes the western border of the county, and the St.Joseph and Council Bluffs' railroad in course of construction, which will traverse the county. See statistical tables for population, amount of unentered land, &c.


Is situated north from the center of the State, and embraces an area of 680 square miles. The face of the country is generally rich, undulating prairie, interspersed with timer-about three-fourths being prairie. Being on the high lands, or "divide" between the Mississippi and the Missouri, the climate is healthy, and the numerous streams running north, south and eat, furnish a good supply of water. The soil is well adapted to the growth of grasses of all kinds, oats and corn-hence favorable for stock-growing. All kinds of grain, grasses fruit and vegetables raised here, and farmers will find excellent land, favorably located, at low prices, and a good demand for all kinds of produce. The county is traversed by the North Missouri railroad, affording good facilities for reaching market. Manufactories of woolen good, farming utensils, carriages, wagons, &c., could be established at Mexico, the county seat, profitably. The country trade from Mexico extends 25 miles in every direction.


This county is situated in the south-west corner of the State. The land is generally undulating and fertile, with a good division of prairie and timber. Great inducements are here offered to those wishing to engage in farming, mining, manufacturing or stock raising. There are few counties in the State where each of the above branches of industry can be prosecuted more successfully. All kinds of grain, fruit, and vegetables do well and return an abundant yield. The great drawback to this section is the want of an outlet to market, but the day is not very distant, when the south-western branch of the Pacific railroad will be completed. The northern part of the county is well supplied with good building material, and lead ore in considerable quantities have been found. Mines opened in town, 25, range 25, with success.


Is situated on the western boundary of the State. It is generally high table lands, level enough for agricultural purposes, but well drained. The land is principally prairie, interspersed with extensive groves of timber, consisting of linn, hickory, oak, locust, walnut, sycamore, cedar, cottonwood and elm, of which there will be sufficient for all practical purposes. The gravelly ridges are admirably adapted to fruit culture. Coal is abundant in many parts of the county, and several beds have been opened and worked with success. Limestone and sandstone, clays and sands for building are very abundant. The county is in a prosperous condition, and presents great inducements to stock growers.


Is on the western boundary of the State, near the middle on a north and south line. The territory now embraced within this county was first settled by Missionaries sent out by the American Board of Foreign Missions in 1818, and "Harmony Mission" where their school and church was located, is shown upon many of the older maps.
(For a full history of the operations of this mission, see "Missouri As It Is," in 1865, page 184).
Bates County is situated upon the dividing ground between the waters of Grand River on the north, and Marias des Cigne on the south. The prairies are high, rich and rolling; the only poor land in the county being that upon the high limestone ridges, which are covered with timber. In the North-west portion of the county, the prairies are large. The bottoms along the larger streams are well timbered. Springs are abundant, indications of load and iron. Lands can be purchased here on very reasonable terms.


Is situated in the west central part of the State. The general character of the country is broken; about one-fourth being undulating prairie, (the north portion,) the remainder rough timberland. There are some excellent bottom lands in the central part under a good state of cultivation. The streams, (shown upon the map) are cold, clear, rapid, and generally gravelly bottomed, and in many places the towering cliffs that overhang the streams, crowned by cedars hanging from fissures in the rocks, render the scenery truly grand. Excellent water power unimproved-a capital opening for saw or grist mills. The Osage river is navigable as high as Manoa, a new town twenty miles from the western boundary line of the State. Warsaw, the county seat, is the principal shipping point for this county. The S.W. Branch Pacific R.R. will pass through the adjoining county, north. The crops usually raised are corn, wheat, oats, rye, tobacco, &c. Mules and horses valued at $50,000 have been annually sold from this county-driven south. Lead ore is abundant, and mines are already opened. There were last spring, 110,000 acres of un-entered land in the county.


Is situated in the south-east part of the State. Was formed in 1850, principally from Cape Girardeau. The general surface of the county is broken, but the land is fertile and well timbered. Most kinds of grain and vegetables yield abundant crops. Beds of iron ore exist in the county, but have not to the present time been worked. Immense beds of Kaolin, so highly prized in Europe, for the manufacture of porcelain or iron-stone, china-ware, are found in this county. Also, pipe or ball clay, and extensive deposits of the best quality of fire clay, for the manufacture of fire bricks or "glass pots". Some of the later has been subjected to 140 degrees Fahrenheit without affecting it in the least. The proper material for glazing porcelain ware is also abundant. The county seat, Dallas, is but 25 miles from the Mississippi River at Cape Girardeau. The railroad from Ironton to Cape Girardeau is projected through the county. Here is a splendid opening for capitalists to establish porcelain or glass ware manufactories.


Is situated near the center of the State, and the territory now embraced in the county, was first settled in 1815. The northern portion of the county is generally undulating-the southern portion principally broken. About three-fourths of the county is timberland, affording an abundant supply for all practical purposes. The soil is, much of it, of the bluff formation, and from an analysis made by Dr. Litton for the State Geological Survey, this is shown to be "the very best soil for wheat and rye in the State", and "well adapted to corn, tobacco, oats and grasses". In many portions of the county the soil is peculiarly adapted to fruit culture. This county offers the immigrant a good variety of soil, an abundance of timber, inexhaustible beds of coal, excellent schools and good openings for any kind of business. About seven miles from Columbia is "Connor's cave", the entrance to which is twenty feet wide, and eight feet high, which is said to have been penetrated several miles.


Is situated in the west north-west part of the State, bounded on the west by the Missouri river which separates it from Kansas. This county is principally made up of undulating-commonly called "rolling prairie" land. There is a good growth of timber along the margins of the streams, and here and there fine groves upon the prairies. The soil is deep and very fertile, producing all kinds of grain, grasses, fruit, and vegetables found in the latitude. Some farmers have produced as high as 1500 lbs. Hemp to the acre, 125 bushels of corn, and proportionately large crops of wheat, rye, oats, &c, and fruit and vegetables yield largely. The "Platte Country" of which this is a portion, has a world-wide fame for its fertility and deep soil. The climate is healthy, salubrious, and free from miasmatic influences. Farming implements, mill machinery, household furniture, woolen and cotton fabrics, boots and shoes, and scores of other articles could be manufactured here to advantage. St. Joseph, the commercial city of the county, is one of the most flourishing business points in the State. Being the western terminus of the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad, and in direct communication with all points in the east, makes this the entreport for the shipment of produce, peltries and furs from a section of the country traversed by the navigable Missouri for 2000 miles to the north-west, while the trade from the plains and territories beyond in immense. Capitalists, manufacturers, mechanics, farmers, and all classes of immigrants will here find great attractions.


In the south-eastern portion of the State, is bounded on the south by the Arkansas State line. A good portion of the land has been returned as "swamp land", but can principally be reclaimed by drains and levees. A portion of the south half of the county is frequently overflowed, which until drained makes it unfit for permanent improvement, unless it be for cranberry culture, for which both the soil and climate is said to be well adapted, and from which some farmers can realize handsome profits. Some of the very best of farming lands are in this county, and, as an old resident says "there are few localities where farmers can make a comfortable living and lay up money easier than here." Of timber, the growth on the high ground is principally beech and white oak in the bottoms a mixed growth. Groves of cypress flourish in the bottoms of the St.Francis, a short distance from Chalk Bluffs. Felix R. Brunot, of Pittsburg, purchased 1500 acres of very rich hematite iron ore land at Indian Ford, where he contemplates establishing extensive iron works at an early day. There are other immense beds of iron through the county. The South-East Missouri Railroad Company, chartered by the last legislature, will pass through the North-East corner of Butler county. Immigrants and capitalists will find inducements for favorable investment in mineral lands, farming, grazing or manufacturing. Black River is navigable to within fifteen miles of Poplar Bluff.


Is situated in the Northwest quarter of the State, and was first settled by the Mormons in 1835. The face of the county is principally undulating prairie, with an abundance of timber in groves along the water courses. The soil is very fertile and well adapted to farming and grazing; embracing extensive natural meadows, an abundance of good stock water, a deep and lasting soil that produces all kinds of grain and fruit that grow in this climate, with but little waste land in the county. For manufacturing purposes there is good water power on the Shoal, Log and Brush creek. Capitalists, manufacturers, mechanics, farmers and laborers of all classes will find good inducements for investment and choice localities for business.


Is situated in the east central part of the State, and was first settled in 1818. The surface of the county along the river is level and fertile, the northern portion being broken and hilly, extending out upon the ridge which divides the waters of the Mississippi from those of the Missouri. About one-third of the county is prairie. Beds of bituminous coal underlie the county, estimated to be twenty-four feet thick in some places; iron ore, marble, fine grained limestone, potter's clay, and extensive banks of cannel coal are found in the county, all in quantities that pay for working. Beds of very fine marble exists in this county, pronounced superior to any found in the United States, and inferior to none but Italian. This is situated but six miles from Fulton. This county embraces a great variety of soil, and is adapted to the various purposes of agriculture, stock growing and fruit culture. A more minute description of this county will be found in "Missouri As It Is".


Is situated in the south central part of the State. The face of the country is rolling and some portions broken, and well timbered, except in the extreme south-eastern corner. There is but little prairie in the county. The surface may be said to be made up of a succession of hills, valleys, and beautiful woodlands. The soil is rich and productive. The hills of the Big and Little Niangua are truly picturesque, while the water power of those streams, together with their fine forests of oak, walnut, cherry, and a variety of other timber are objects of great interest to mechanics and manufacturers. A single spring on the Big Niangua furnishes water enough for any amount of machinery. Good flouring and saw mills, carding machine, woolen factories, grist mills, etc., would pay well upon the capital invested, as the water power is abundant, the raw material at hand, and the home market would fully equal the supply. There is both lead and iron in this county, and 310,000 acres of land subject to entry at $125.


In the South-Eastern part of the State, was first settled by Frenchmen in 1794. (For a full history of the early settlement, see "Missouri As It Is In 1865", pages 208 and 209). The southern portion of the county is mostly level; the other portions present a moderately uneven surface, very little more than enough to insure good drainage, unless it be in the first range of hills adjacent to the Mississippi River, in the North-East part of the county, some of which are abrupt. It is a heavily timbered country-no prairie. The timber consists of poplar, ash, sugar, maple, cherry, elm, beech, and the varieties of walnut, hickory, oak, etc., in abundance. The oak and poplar near the river has been pronounced the best in the Mississippi Valley for boat building purposes. The soil is very fertile, and produces an abundant yield of corn, wheat, oats, the different grasses and tobacco. The different varieties of fruits and vegetables are cultivated with profit. The country is well watered and good water power on some of the streams. The city of Cape Girardeau is built upon a solid bed of marble, which rock is very hard, compact, does not crack from the action of frost, and is within one per cent of pure lime. This marble has been used in neighboring cities, to some extent, for building purposes. Besides, here are beds of variegated marbles-the white and black, the purple, red and white, and the yellow and white, all susceptible of a fine polish. These marbles are all convenient to the city. This country is increasing in population and wealth, and great inducements are offered to all classes of immigrants.


Is situated on the North bank of the Missouri River, in the north central part of the State. The general character of the country is undulating or rolling, not very fertile, with a good supply of timber land, for all practical purposes. Almost every variety of location, bluff or valley, timber or prairie, can be found in the county, and many beautiful locations for large stock farms, for which the climate and location render this county peculiarly adapted. The soil is generally favorable to the cultivation of all kinds of grain, grasses, fruit, and root crops that flourish in this latitude. Stone coal is abundant; lead ore has been found in various localities, also some pieces of iron ore; but no systematic mining has been done. Excellent quarries suitable for grindstones, also good building stone, are abundant. There are in the county several mounds rising from one to four hundred and fifty feet about the level of the surrounding country. Bogart's is the highest, the Stokes' Potato Hill Mound, etc. Out of Bogart's Mound, (situated a little way north of the center of the county), is an oil spring, from which the people of that vicinity have taken oil for lubrication purposes for years. We anticipate that the Petroleum fever will be prevalent there at an early day, and should not be surprised if a valuable oil spring would there be developed. Lead ore has been found in several portions of the county, but no mines have been opened.


Is situated in Southeast Missouri; the surface quite broken and heavily timbered, with fertile valleys which produce good farm products, while the slopes of the hill sides are well adapted to the culture of the vine, and all kinds of fruit. The same minerals so abundant in all the counties surrounding it also exist here-especially iron and copper. The scenery along the Current River is truly grand. The steep, rugged cliffs of pure white limestone, are overshadowed by pines of every size, from the beautiful little dwarf that clings to the sides and crevices of the projecting rocks to the giant old sentinels that tower up from the summit of the cliff. Here the cascades that rush through perpendicular walls, or murmur through the valleys and natural bowers, tarrying here and there on the way, in beautiful pebble-bottomed ponds, in whose crystal waters the speckled trout are found in abundance. This is a favorite section of the State for fishing and sporting parties. Most excellent water power exists along the Current River.


Is situated on the very western border of the State. About one-eighth is bottom land, and very nearly all tillable. There is scarce a solitary 160 acres in the county but will furnish a good living to a large family. The surface is undulating, principally prairie, but a great abundance of timber-black walnut, hickory, all varieties of oak, sycamore, elm, locust, box-elder, black, blue and white ash, wild plums and native grapes very plenty. Valuable limestone quarries furnish an abundance of building stone. All kinds of grain, grasses, fruit and vegetables yield abundantly. Both native and cultivated fruit of all kinds very plenty. Springs are numerous-stock water abundant-wells reached in 12 to 18 feet-pure limestone water. Fine coal mines open eight miles south from Harrisonville, also numerous coal banks in western part of the county. Blue grass grows spontaneously. Excellent water power on the tributaries of the Grand River, for grist mills and manufactories. This is a splendid grazing country. The county is traversed by the Pacific Railroad. Farmers, stock-growers or manufacturers will find rare inducements in Cass County.


In the south-western part of the State, is undulating with about and equal division of prairie and timber. Stone coal is abundant, but used only for neighborhood purposes. The soil is fertile, well adapted to all agricultural purposes, and especially to stock raising and fruit growing. Unimproved water power upon the Big and Little Sac, and Cedar Creek. There was in March 20,000 acres of vacant government land, subject to entry at $1,25.


This county is situated on the Missouri River, in the north central part of the State. The soil and climate of "old Chariton" may be understood, when we state that this has for some years past been one of the largest tobacco growing counties in the State. Corn has been produced so exclusively in years past, as to be dull at ten and twelve and a half cents per bushel. The spontaneous products of the forests and prairies furnished an abundance of food for stock, so that there was poor demand for corn at home or abroad. Coal is abundant in every region of the county, but only surface veins have yet been opened, except in one or two regions. (For a detailed history of Chariton county from its first settlement, description of the coal formation, and the statistics of various crops grown - too lengthy for this work-see "Missouri As It Is In 1865,"
pages 217 to 226 inclusive.)


This new county is situated in the south-easter portion of the State-was organized in 1859. The face of the country is undulating-some portions rather broken, generally heavily timbered, with excellent soil in the valleys and upon some of the uplands. (See description of Greene county, from which it was formed.) The soil and climate both adapt this county to fruit culture and stock growing. Extensive deposits of iron ore have been found in this county, also, small quantities of lead and copper ore, but no attention as yet given to mining. The location of these mineral deposits are shown upon the "Geological Map of Missouri" just issued in pocket form. There were in March, 1865, 197,000 acres of Government land in this county subject to entry at the Booneville Land Office.


Forms the extreme north-east corner of the State, and is separated from Iowa by the Des Moines river and from Illinois by the Mississippi. It is also watered by the Fox and Waconda rivers, which with their tributaries are skirted with groves of timber, while the rolling "divides" between them are prairie. This county is advantageously situated at the mouth of one of the richest valleys in the great and fertile west. If the north line of the county was continued due east until it reached the Mississippi river, making Clarke a square county, it would give her about a dozen towns now in Iowa, including the cities of Keokuk and Fort Madison, all of which she now has a local market if desirable. The soil of the county is rolling and fertile, well calculated from farming purposes. The timber (of which there is a good supply,) consists of oak, hickory, elm, etc. There are several banks of good stone coal in the county, and some excellent cannel coal. Farmers and mechanics of all kinds will find in this county good business locations.


Is situated in the west north-west part of the State, on the Missouri River. The face of the country is somewhat broken, and generally well timbered, with small prairies in various portions of the county. The soil is remarkably fertile, and the county well watered. This county is noted for its fine farms and wealthy, intelligent farmers and stock growers. According to a recent census, Clay was one of the most productive agricultural counties in the State; notwithstanding which, there were at that time 142,661 acres of unimproved land in the county. Clay was foremost to organize teacher's institutes, and the citizens have always manifested more liberality and enterprise in the support of schools, than any other county in the State in proportion to her population. There are several first class ably conducted seminaries in the county. Farmers, manufacturers, mechanics and business men of all classes, will here find fertile soil, a healthy climate, abundance of timber and building materials, good prices and a ready market for all products either agricultural or mechanical, and an honest, industrious, and hospitable people.


Is situated in the north-western part of the State, bounded on the west and south by Buchanan, Platte and Clay, which separate this county from the Missouri river. About two-thirds of the area of this county is undulating prairie land, fertile and easily tilled; the remaining one-third is timber land, confined principally to the water courses and valleys. Blue and gray limestone and sandstone are abundant in some portions of the county, and there are indications of coal in several localities, though no thorough investigations have been made, as fuel is plenty. Several of the streams are rapid and have unimproved mill seats upon them. The soil is fertile and will produce good crops of all kinds of grass, grain, fruit and vegetables grown in this latitude. Honest, industrious, loyal farmers and mechanics will here find al healthy climate, good soil, and a market for all kinds of articles they can produce.


Is situated on the Missouri river, near the center of the State. The face of the country is generally rolling or broken, with thin soil, generally well adapted to the growth of small grain and fruits of all kinds. On the bottoms of the Missouri, Osage and Moreau, is good alluvial soil; very fertile, embracing perhaps one-fourth of the area of the county. The soil and climate are favorable to fruit culture; the peaches seldom fail, and all kinds of fruits, including the grape, yield abundantly. The interior of the county is drained by Moreau creek, which rises so rapidly and to such a height, that it is upon some maps called a river. Fish are numerous in this stream; and it is related by a former representative from this county who had a mill upon the Moreau, that the fish were so numerous as to frequently clog the wheels and stop the mill. Then the only alternative was to shut the gate and beat the water with poles, to drive them away! The Capitol of the State, Jefferson City, is located in this county, and the beautiful limestone from which the Capitol building is constructed, is very abundant, forming a stratum of upwards of forty feet in thickness, in the bluffs upon with Jefferson City is situated. Limestone suitable for making hydraulic cement is found in the bluffs above the city, and sandstone, for building, and sand and clay for brick are also abundant. Timber in great variety and good size is found on the bluffs and in the valleys. (For history of Cole county, see "Missouri As It Is", pages 234 and 235.) Both lead ore and coal are found in the county, but no systematic mining has been done.


Is situated on the south side of the Missouri river, in the central part of the State. The face of the country gently undulating, and advantageously diversified with timber and prairie-there are very few counties possessing a more equal division of what is so desirable to farmers-prairie and timber land. The alluvial ? occupies a large area in the bottoms of the Missouri, the Lamine and the Little Saline, and is generally covered with a heavy growth of cottonwood, sycamore, elm, black elder, sugar-tree, white maple, red birch, white, black, and blue ash, coffee tree, honey locust, the various kinds of oaks and hickories, red-bud, hackberry, willows, and grape. The soil of the county at large, is very fertile and well adapted to all the purposes of agriculture. Springs, both fresh and mineral, are abundant-several of which are classed as "brine" and "sulphur". Ch**teau Spring, about ten miles from Boonville, has a wide reputation as a pleasant and healthy watering place. Water bursts from the earth in four places, within a short distance from each other. The amount of water discharged is ten gallons per minute, or 14,000 gallons per day, and the gas that escapes at least two gallons per minute. The most extensive manufactory in the county is that of the "Booneville Wine Company", about one mile about Boonville. Their vineyard and orchard embraces upwards of 100 acres. The lands are admirably suited to grape culture. Haas' Catawba has a wide reputation. An extensive woolen factory, and an agricultural implement manufactory are much needed, and would prove profitable investments.


Is situated southeast of the center of the State. This has been called the "Mother of Counties", from the fact that for many years her borders extended to the western part of the State. County after county has, from time to time, been cut from her western and southern borders, and the finale was accomplished in the formation of Phelps county, in 1857. The county embraces a great variety of soil-bottom, valley, table land, prairie and sandy soils. It is well adapted to corn, wheat, oats, grasses, fruit and vegetables. Stock growing would pay well here. The valleys of the large streams are frequently heavily timbered. Iron, lead and copper are abundant in the county, and coal has been found in two or three places. The localities of these minerals are shown upon the new geological map of Missouri, just issued by the author of the Hand-book.
The Southwest Branch of the Pacific Railroad traverses the northwest portion of the county.


Is situated in the south-western part of the State. The face of the country is undulating, and in some portions broken-more prairie than timber. The soil is generally fertile, and well adapted to the various purposes of agriculture, horticulture, and stock raising. Water power is abundant-upon some of the streams unimproved. Iron, copper, and coal have been found in various parts of the county, but no mine have been worked to any considerable extent. Timber enough along the valleys for practical purposes.
The mildness of the climate, abundance of native and cultivated grasses, and of stock water render this county well adapted to stock growing. Thousands of cattle have been driven from here to Utah and California. There were on the 1st of March, about 30,000 acres of government land in this county, subject to entry at the Booneville Lane Office. For population, and location of minerals, see "Parker's Geological Map of Missouri" just published.


Is situated in the south-west central part of the State. Both the surface and soil of the county are diversified. A portion on the county is quite level, or undulating, and some parts broken and rough. The prairies have generally a sub-soil of red clay, which upon experiment has been pronounced well adapted to farming purposes, but we question whether it can be relied upon for grain. The timber land is rocky, but the soil is black and fertile, especially in the valleys. The ridges, which by many have been considered as barren and worthless, we find generally covered with wide spreading arbors of native grape vines, yielding largely of several varieties of wild grapes, which is conclusive evidence of their adaptation to grape and fruit culture. Bryces' Spring, in T. 34, R. 18 "rises in a secluded valley and flows away-a river." It discharges more than 126 cubic feet of water per second, or 10,927,872 cubic feet per day. Lead ore has been found in several localities. The Southwest Branch Pacific railroad will pass near the southern boundary of the county.


Is situated in the north-western part of the Stat. Surface generally undulating-some portions nearly level-one-half prairie, the remainder hard-wood timber. The county is well watered, and forms a part of the "Grand River Country", so famous for its fertility. The soil is well adapted to farming, grazing, and fruit growing. At the last sale, of what had been returned as "swamp lands" in this county, the competition was so great that considerable of the land sold for $20 per acre, and non for less than $2 50-the average price about $12 per acre. Farmers will make a note of this.


Is in the north-western part of the State. The soils of the county are fertile and well adapted to the culture of hemp, corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, etc. Hemp has been regarded as the most profitable crop-yielding from 1000 to 1500 pounds to the acre, which costs, say $25 per acre to raise and prepare for market, and was quoted in February, '65, at from %135 to $165 per ton for undressed-good to choice at St. Louis. Small grains yield abundantly. Horses, mules, cattle and sheep, do well and stock raising is profitable. Building stone, clay for bricks, and hard-wood timber, abundant. The general surface is undulating, and diversified by prairies and woodlands. The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad passes through the southern border of the county.


Is in the south-eastern portion of the State-centrally situated on the dividing ridge, miscalled the "Ozark mountains". This ridge has very few of the characteristics of a mountain. It is here a wide table land having an altitude of about 1000 feet about St. Louis. The top of the divide is formed of the second sandstone of the Missouri Geological Survey, and under this the third magnesian limestone. The stratum of sandstone is from 60 to 100 feet thick, and covered with a yellow pine forest. Extensive white oak groves along the south side of the main divide and its branches between the water courses. Both timber and prairie lands are fertile-the former predominating. In the northern part of the county is an extensive specular iron field, and in the southern, extensive hematite iron banks. Several veins of copper have also been discovered. (For location of minerals, see "Parker's Geological Map of Missouri"). Good openings are presented for capitalists, miners, mechanics of all kinds, farmers and stock growers.


In the southern part of the State, is generally sterile and broken, and a great portion of the land unfit for cultivation-valuable only for the excellent pine, oak, and walnut timber that abound throughout the county. There were in 1860, twelve saw mills and eight flouring mills, all propelled by water power, furnishing lumber to adjoining counties. The soil and climate are well adapted to fruit and grape culture, corn, wheat, potatoes, turnips, rye, tobacco; and the usual varieties of grasses are profitably produced in the valleys. Most mechanics are wanted, and person with energy and capital to engage in grape culture, and above all-a corps of good school teachers. There were in March 1865, 400,900 acres of government land subject to entry.


Is situated in the extreme southeastern portion of the State, and extends 36 miles south of the general southern line-reaching 36 degrees north latitude. The shape of the county is oblong, its length north and south being 45 miles, with an average width of about 11 miles. The county is well watered-too well-by the Whitewater, St. Francois, and numerous lakes and ponds. This county, together with several adjoining, was severely injured by the earthquakes of 1811-12, since which time a great portion of it has been what is termed "swamp land". Many of these swamps can be reclaimed by drainage, with but little expense, and will then be among the most fertile lands in the State. The legislature in 1849-50 passed a bill making an appropriation for the reclamation of the swamp lands of southeast Missouri, but nothing of importance has been done toward it. There are some good farms in the county, and the land everywhere very fertile. According to the Surveyor General's Report, several portions laid down in the survey, and generally shown on maps as lakes or swamps, are now among the best farms in the county. Whether this has been an error on the part of the surveyors, or that by some natural causes these lakes have become dry land, is a question for investigation.


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