Missouri State Genealogy Trails

History of Hickory, Polk, Cedar, Dade, and Barton County Missouri

Transcribed by the Genealogy Trails Transcription Team

History of Hickory, Polk, Cedar, Dade and Barton Counties,

MISSOURI

FROM THE EARLIEST TIME TO THE PRESENT, INCLUDING A

DEPARTMENT DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF

SUNDRY PERSONAL, BUSINESS, PROFESSIONAL, AND

PRIVATE RECORDS; BESIDES A VALUABLE

FUND OF NOTES, ORIGINAL OBSERVATIONS, ETC., ETC.

ILLUSTRATED.

CHICAGO:

THE GOODSPEED PUBLISHING CO.

1889.

HORACE O’DONOGHUE,

PRINTER,

192 SOUTH JEFFERSON STREET,

CHICAGO.

W.B.CONKEY, BINDER.

(THE PRINTERY, CLINTON, MO.)

PREFACE.

This volume has been prepared in response to the prevailing and popular demand for the preservation of local history and biography. The method of preparation followed is the most successful and the most satisfactory yet devised – the most successful in the enormous number of volumes circulated, and the most satisfactory in the general preservation of personal biography and family record conjointly with local history. The number of volumes now being distributed seems fabulous. Careful estimates place the number circulated in Ohio at 50,000 volumes; Pennsylvania, 60,000; New York, 75,000; Indiana, 40,000; Illinois, 40,000; Iowa, 35,000; Missouri, 25,000; Kansas, 20,000; Tennessee, 20,000, and all the other States at the same proportionate rate. The entire State of Arkansas has as yet scarcely been touched by the historian, but is now being rapidly written.

The design of the present extensive historical and biographical research is more to gather and preserve in attractive form, while fresh with the evidence of truth, the enormous fund of perishing occurrence, than to abstract from insufficient contemporaneous data remote, doubtful or incorrect conclusions. The true perspective of the landscape of life can only be seen from the distance that lends enchantment to the view. It is asserted that no person is competent to write a philosophical history of his own time; that, owing to imperfect and conflicting circumstantial evidence, that yet conceals, instead of reveals, the truth, he cannot take that correct, unprejudiced, logical, luminous and comprehensive view of passing events that will enable him to draw accurate and enduring conclusions. The duty, then, of an historian of his own time is to collect, classify and preserve the material for the final historian of the future. The present historian deals in fact; the future historian, in conclusion. The work of the former is statistical; of the latter, philosophical.

To him who has not attempted the collection of historical data, the obstacles to be surmounted are unknown. Doubtful traditions, conflicting statements, imperfect records, inaccurate public and private correspondence, the bias or untruthfulness of informers, and the general obscurity which, more or less, envelops all passing events, combine to bewilder and mislead. The publishers of this volume, fully aware of their inability to furnish a perfect history, an accomplishment vouchsafed to the imagination only of the dreamer or the theorist, make no pretension of having prepared a work devoid of blemish. They feel assured that all thoughtful people, at present and in future, will recognize and appreciate the importance of their undertaking, and the great public benefit that has been accomplished.

In the preparation of this volume the publishers have met with nothing but courtesy and assistance from the public. The subscription list was much smaller than hoped for and that was expected; and, although the margin of profit was thus cut down to the lowest limit, no curtailment or omission of matter was made from the original extensive design of the work. No subject promised is omitted, and many not promised are given. The publishers call special attention to the great quantity of fact crowded into the volume, and to the excess of matter over their agreement as promised in the prospectus. Special care was employed and great expense incurred to make the volume accurate. In all cases the personal sketches have been submitted by mail, and in most instances have been corrected and approved by the subjects themselves. The publishers disclaim responsibiluity for the substance of the matter contained in the Biographical Appendix, as the material was wholly furnished by the subjects of the sketches. The publishers, as usual, stand ready to correct by errata sheet, which will be sent to all subscribers, the few errors or omissions which may appear in the volume, upon prompt notification of the same to the main office. With many thanks to our friends for the success of our difficult enterprise, we respectfully tender this fine volume to our patrons.

August, 1889. THE PUBLISHERS.

CONTENTS

HISTORY OF MISSOURI

 

Page

Page

Attitude of Missouri before the War

94

Introductory

11

Article XV

147

Israelite Church

160

Amendments to the State Constitution

149

Jackson Resolutions, The

80

Attorney Generals

165

Judges of Supreme Court

165

Auditors of Public Accounts

165

La Salle

46

Boundary

11

Louisiana, District and Territory of

56

Boone’s Lick Country

61

Louisiana Purchased by the United States

55

Black Hawk War

67

Lewis and Clark’s Expedition

57

Beginning of Civil War

92

Lutheran Church

161

Boonville

113

Lieutenant-Governors

164

Belmont

126

Minerals and Mineral Springs

23-38

Battle of Pea Ridge

127

Manufacturing

39

Battle of Kirksville

130

Marquette

45

Battle at Independence

131

Missouri a Territory

59

Battles of Lone Jack and Newtonia

132

Mormons and Mormon War, The

71

Battle of Cane Hill

133

Mexican War, The

75

Battles of Springfield, Hartsville and Cape Girardeau

133

Martial law Declared

123

Battles in Missouri, List of

142

Murders at Gun City

149

Baptist Church

159

Methodist Episcopal Church

161

Clay Compromise, The

65

Methodist Episcopal Church, South

162

Constitutional Convention of 1845

74

Missouri’s Delegation in the Confederate Congress

168

Campaign of 1861

127

Mound Builders

43

Carthage

115

Organization of Kansas and Nebraska

82

Capture of Lexington

123

Operations against Guerrillas

129

Campaign of 1862

113

Order No. 11

134

Compton’s Ferry

131

Officers Previous to State Organization

162

Campaign of 1863

133

Officers of State Government

163

Campaign of 1864

137

Pontiac, Death of

51

Centralia Massacre

140

Public and Private Schools

157

Churches

159

Presidential Elections

169

Christian Church

159

Presidential Election of 1888

200

Congregational Church

160

Proclamation by Gov. Jackson

105

Conclusion

197

Population of Missouri by Counties

195

Dred Scott Decision, The

87

Population of Towns over 4,000

197

Death of Bill Anderson

141

Present State Officials

199

Drake Constitution, The

143

Resources

11

Divisions in the Republican Party

147

Rock Formation

12 and 15

Dates of Organization of Counties, with Origin of Names, etc.

181

Railroads

40

Early Discovery and Explorers

44

Revision of the State Constitution

150

Early Settlements

47

Representatives to Congress

166

Early Wars

67

Rebel Governors

169

Earthquakes at New Madrid

58

Soils, Clays, etc.

13

Enterprise and Advancement

62

State Organization

63

Events Preceding the Civil War

89

State Convention

64

Efforts toward Conciliation

104

Seminole War, The

68

Emancipation Proclamation and XIIIth Amendment

11

Secession

90

Execution of Rebel Prisoners

132

Surrender of Camp Jackson

98

Election of 1884, The

156

State Convention, The

109

Election of 1888, The

200

Springfield

125

Early Courts, The

157

Shelby’s Raid

137

Episcopal Church

160

Steam Craft

41

French and Indian War

48

Spanish Rule

52

Founding of St. Louis, The

49

State Constitutional Convention

143

From 1785 to 1800

55

Secretaries of State

164

First General Assembly

66

State Treasurers

164

Fremont in the Field

125

Salaries of State Officers

181

Friends’ Society

160

United States Senators

166

Fire at St. Louis, The Great

79

Votes by Counties at Presidential Elections from 1836 to 1884

171-181

Geology

12

Wealth

41

Gov. Jackson and the Missouri Legislature

97

War of the Revolution, The

52

Gov. Crittenden’s Administration

151

War with Great Britain in 1812

60

Governors

163

Western Department, The

117

Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Controversy

152

Wilson’s Creek

118

Indian and Other Races

42

Year of the Great Waters

54

Yellow Creek

131

 

HISTORY OF HICKORY COUNTY.

Page

Page

Physical Features, Resources, etc.

203

Present Interest

246

Geology

203

Societies

246

Topography

203

Newspapers

247

Streams

204

Bank

247

Soils

207

Wheatland

247

Caves

207

Historical

247

Minerals

208

Incorporation

248

Resources

209

Present Business

248

Statistics

213

Newspapers

249

Pioneer History

214

Fraternities

249

Indian Occupancy

214

Cross Timbers

250

White Settlement

215

Preston

250

Turk-Jones Affray

218

Quincy

251

Land Entries by Townships

221

Weaubleau

251

Customs

227

Pittsburg

252

County Organization

228

Elkton

252

Boundary

228

Postoffices, List of

252

Township Formation

229

Education

253

County Seat

230

Condition

253

County Buildings

233

School Population by Districts

253

The Courts

234

Weaubleau Institute, The

254

Circuit Court Proceedings

234

Ecclesiastical

255

Notable Cases

234

Early Religious Movements

255

County Court

237

The Baptists

255

Early Meetings

237

Methodist Churches

256

Probate Court

239

Antioch Christian Church

256

Hickory County Bar

239

Union Church

256

County Officials

239

Present Condition

256

The Civil War

241

General County Topics

257

General View

241

The Wheel

257

Organizations

242

Hickory County Medical Society

257

Review

244

County Bridge

257

Towns and Villages

245

Finance

257

Hermitage

245

Railroads

257

Beginning

245

Elections of 1884 and 1888

258

HISTORY OF POLK COUNTY.

Geology, Topography, etc.

259

Criminal Cases

299

Boundary

259

General County Interests

300

Natural Features, Streams, etc.

260

Seat of Justice

300

Caves

262

Public Buildings

300

Geology

263

County Finances

301

Soils

264

Receipts, Expenditures, etc.

301

Minerals

266

Railroad Bonds

303

Springs

266

Other Railroad History

305

Timber

267

County Poor Farm, The

306

Climate

267

Polk County Medical Society, The

306

Productions

267

Agricultural Societies and Fairs

308

Adaptability to Grazing

268

Polk County Agricultural and Mechanical Society

308

Pottery Clay

268

County Officials

309

Resources and Statistics

268

Elections

309

Property Valuation and Taxation

269

County’s Civil List

310

Agriculture, Manufactures, etc.

270

Officials, etc.

310

Population

271

War History

313

Early Settlement

272

Mexican War, The

313

Original Occupancy

272

Kansas Difficulties, The

313

Reminiscences

272

War of 1861-65

314

Some “First Things”

274

Fifteenth Regiment U.S. Reserve Corps

315

Bolivar thirty years ago

276

Eighth Cavalry, The

316

Early Settlers

276

Twenty-sixth enrolled Missouri Militia

316

Public Lands and land Entries

279

Fifteenth Missouri Cavalry

317

Entries by Townships

279

Confederate Organizations

318

County and Township Organization

286

Guerrilla Warfare

319

Creation and Original Boundaries

286

Towns and Villages

320

Present Boundaries

286

Bolivar

320

Municipal Townships

287

Location, Incorporation, etc.

320

Orders from Court Relative to Township Lines

287

Past and Present

321

Judiciary History

294

Financial

322

County Courts, Proceedings of

294

The Creamery

322

Probate Court

295

The Press

323

Circuit Court

296

Board of Trade

324

Roll of Attorneys

296

Societies

324

Sketches of Leading lawyers

299

Mayors of City

326

Southwest Baptist College, The

326

Aldrich

336

Humansville

329

Sharon

337

Historical

329

Polktown

337

Newspapers

329

Rondo

337

Municipal

329

Dunnegan Springs

337

Farmers’ and Merchants’ Bank

329

Graydon

337

Fraternities

330

Wishart

337

Morrisville

330

Brighton

337

Historical

330

Goodnight

337

Morrisville News

331

Slagle

338

Morrisville College

331

Sentinel Prairie

338

Secret Societies

332

Orleans

338

Fair Play

333

Shady Grove

338

Description

333

Schools

339

Ewart & Train Charcoal Company

333

The Earliest Schools

339

The Flag

333

Public School system

339

Fire

333

Organization of School townships

340

Lodges

334

School-houses

341

Old and New Town

334

Statistical

341

Pleasant Hope

334

Church History

343

Mercantile and Industrial History

335

First Meetings

343

Fraternities

335

Methodist Churches

343

High Schools

336

Baptist Churches

345

Normal Academy

336

Christian Churches

347

Sundry Villages

336

Presbyterian Churches

348

HISTORY OF CEDAR COUNTY.

Boundary and Geological Character

351

Town site – Additions - Incorporation

413

Natural Features, Streams, etc.

351

Business men

414

Building Stone, Minerals

352

Items of History

414

Soils and Products

353

Hartley Banking Company

414

Mineral Springs

353

Fraternities

415

Resources and Statistics

354

El Dorado Springs

416

Receipts and Expenditures

354

The Springs

416

Population

355

Town Platted

416

Attempted Bonding

356

Incorporation

416

Other Bonds and Finances

357

Historical

417

Settlement and Early Affairs

357

Population and Business

417

Early Experiences

357

Cruce Banking company

418

Roads and Improvements

359

General Interests

418

Wild animals, Fowl and Fish

360

Societies

419

Indians

360

West El Dorado

420

“First Happenings”

360

Clintonville

420

Pioneer Professional Citizens

360

Caplinger’s Mills (Sacville)

420

Land Entries by Townships

360

Lebeck

421

Organization of County and Townships

390

Virgil City

421

County Boundaries

391

Fincastle (Arnica)

421

Municipal Township Boundaries

391

Paynterville (Bear Creek)

421

Court Affairs

397

Balm (Cedar Springs)

421

The County Court

397

Sundry Villages

422

Circuit Court

398

White Hair

422

Cedar County Bar

399

Centerville

422

Attorneys of Official Prominence

401

Meadow

422

General County Interests

402

Cane Hill

422

County Officers and Term of Service

402

Filley

422

Public Buildings

403

Pleasant View

422

Court Houses

403

Military History

422

Jails

405

Cedar County’s Position in the War

422

County Agricultural Society

406

Livingston and Shelby Raids

423

Poor Farm

406

Removal of County Records

424

County Press, The

407

Federal Soldiers

424

Stockton and El Dorado Papers

407

Confederate Soldiers

424

Jerico Journals

408

Educational

425

Railroad Surveys and Prospects

408

First and Early Schools

425

Towns and Villages

408

Sale of School Lands

425

Stockton

408

Township Organization for School Purposes

426

Public Square and Sale of Lots

408

Schools of To-day

427

Incorporation

409

Church Matters

428

Merchants, Past and Present

410

Early Preachers

428

Banks

411

Churches at Stockton

428

Lodges

411

Churches at Jerico Springs

429

Jerico Springs

412

Churches at El Dorado Springs

429

Location

412

Churches Elsewhere in County

429

History of the Springs’ Notoriety

413

HISTORY OF DADE COUNTY.

Page

Page

General Description, Topography, etc.

431

Present Interest

468

Location, Boundary, etc.

431

Societies

469

Physical and Natural Features

431

The Press

470

Steams

431

South Greenfield

470

Prairies

432

Historical

470

Soil

433

Societies

470

Timber

433

Other Interests

471

Climate

434

Lockwood

471

Wild Animals and Fowl

434

Growth and Development

471

General Resources and Statistics

435

Newspaper

472

Mineral Resources

435

Fraternities

472

Manufacturing

436

Everton

473

Agriculture, Stock Raising and Horticulture

437

Origin and Advancement

473

Statistics

438

Societies

473

Population

439

Dadeville

474

Taxable Wealth and Taxation

439

Emmet

475

Settlement

440

Arcola

475

Indian Occupancy

440

Cedarville

475

Old Fortification

440

King’s Point

475

Early White Settlers

441

Pilgrim

475

Land Entries by Townships

443

Seybert

475

Organization of the County

445

Sylvania

475

Formative Act

445

Turnback

475

Official Appointments

446

Watkins

475

County Boundary

447

Corry

475

Municipal Townships

447

Pemberton

475

Present Townships

449

Military Affairs

476

Judicial and Official History

450

Public Sentiment

476

County Court

450

Troops

476

Formation and Proceedings

451

Effects of the Strife

479

Probate Court

452

Educational

480

Circuit Court

453

Early Education

480

Dade County Bar

454

Permanent School Fund

480

Criminal Record

454

Statistics

481

Public Buildings

456

Financial

482

Court House

456

Institute

482

Jail

457

Ozark College

482

County Poor

457

Religious Matters

483

County Official List

457

Cumberland Presbyterian Churches

483

Elections

460

Presbyterian Churches

485

Railroad Matters

461

Reformed Presbyterian Church

486

Railroad Subscriptions and Bonds

461

Baptist Churches

486

Refunding Bonds

464

Methodist Episcopal Church

490

Railroads

466

Methodist Episcopal Church, South

492

Municipalities

466

Christian Churches

492

Greenfield

466

German Lutheran Church

494

Origin

467

United Brethren Church

494

Development

467

HISTORY OF BARTON COUNTY.

Topographical and Geological

495

Statutory Affairs

511

Location and Boundaries

495

County Court

511

Ozark Divide and Drainage

495

Circuit Court

511

Geology

496

Attorneys of Note

512

Coal Interests and Building Stone

497

Roll of lawyers

512

Farming, Fruit culture and Stock Raising

498

Probate Court

515

Timber and Climate

499

County Interests

516

Resources and Statistics

500

Court House, Jail and County Offices

516

Assessments of 1880 and 1888

500

Poor Farm

517

Common School fund

501

County Civil List

517

Court House Fund

501

Seat of Justice

519

Expenditure of a Year

502

Agricultural and mechanical Society

519

Population and Valuation

503

Barton Medical Society

521

Settlement

503

Railroads

522

Early Settlers

503

Towns and Villages

522

Pioneer History

504

Lamar

522

Land Entries

504

Location

522

Swamp and School Lands, etc.

506

Town Plat and Additions

523

County and Township Organizations

508

Incorporation

523

County Organized and Bounded

508

Corporate Limits

524

Organization of Townships

508

Wards

524

County’s Promoter and Name

511

Ante-Bellum Days

524

The Present

525

Verdella

544

Banks

526

Sundry Villages

544

Fraternities

526

Berry Hill

544

The Press

530

Nashville

544

Improvements

531

Irwin

544

Golden City

531

Beloit

544

Surveys and Additions

531

Newport

544

Incorporations

531

Kenoma

545

Original Town Site and Change of Base

532

LeRoy

545

Growth and Development

533

Esrom

545

Newspapers

533

Dublin

545

Sundry Interests

533

Ellsworth

545

Lodges

534

Bushnell

545

Old Residents

536

War History

545

Liberal

536

Troubles Before the War

545

Location and History

536

First Military Organization

546

Its Founding

536

Notes and Incidents

546

Mental and Moral Culture

537

After the War

549

Incorporation

538

Record of Enlistments, Service and Discharges

549

Additions

539

Well-known County Confederates

572

Business

539

Schools

572

Lodge

540

First Schools

572

Local Press

540

General Progress

573

Iantha

540

Statistical

574

Incorporation

540

Churches

575

Business

540

Early Church History

575

G.A.R. Post

541

Christian Harmony and Extension

575

Milford

541

Different Organizations

575

Denison, History of

541

Minden Mines

542

BIOGRPAHICAL APPENDIX.

Hickory County

579

Polk County

617

Cedar County

718

Dade County

792

Barton County

849

ILLUSTRATIONS.

An Early Habitation

Between pages 216 and 217

Hunting Pheasants

Between pages 360 and 361

A Rural Scene

Between pages 504 and 505

A Pioneer Hunter

Between pages 680 and 681

By The Brookside

Between pages 856 and 857

 

HISTORY OF MISSOURI.

INTRODUCTORY.

Missouri, the eighth State of the Union in size, the seventh in wealth, and the fifth in population and political power, lies in the very heart of the Mississippi Valley. Extending from the thirty-sixth nearly to the forty-first degree of north latitude, it has considerable diversity both of soil and climate.

Its eastern limit is marked from north to south by the great “Father of Waters,” and the Missouri washes its western boundary, from the northwest corner southward about 250 miles to the mouth of the Kansas, and thence flows south of east through the heart of the State, and joins its muddy torrent with the waters of the Mississippi.

These two mighty rivers have many tributaries which are, to a greater or less extent, navigable for steamboats, keelboats and barges.

The extreme length of the State is 328 miles; the extreme breadth, in the southern part, is 280 miles; and the average breadth 250 miles. Missouri has an area of 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres. It has 18,350 more square miles than the State of New York, is nearly nine times the size of Massachusetts, and exceeds in extent all of the New England States combined.

There is no State in the Union which surpasses Missouri in respect to geographical situation and natural resources. Other regions may boast of delightful climate, rich and productive soil, abundant timber, or inexhaustible mineral deposits, but Missouri has all of these. She has more and better iron than England and quite as much coal, while her lead deposits are rivaled by that of no other country of equal area upon the globe.

The population of the State, according to the census of 1880, was 2,168,380, showing an increase of 25.9 per cent within the preceding decade.

NOTE. – In the compilation of the State History the authors consulted, among others, the following authorities: “State Geological Reports;” “Charlevoix’s Journal of a Voyage to North America in 1721;” Stoddard’s “Historical Sketches of Louisiana;” Schoolcraft’s “Narrative journal.” Breckenridge; Pike’s “Expedition;” Switzler’s “History of Missouri;” Bradbury’s “Travels;” “Lidiman’s Journal;” “American Cyclopedia;” Beck’s “Gazetteer of Indiana and Missouri,” 1823; Wetmore’s “Gazetteer of Missouri.” 1837; Shebard’s “Early History of St. Louis and Missouri;” Parker’s “Missouri As It Is in 1867;” Davis & Durrie’s “History of Missouri,” 1876.

GEOLOGY.

The stratified rocks of Missouri may be classified as follows, enumerating them from the surface downward:

I. Quaternary or Post Tertiary. – Alluvium, 30 feet thick. Soils – Pebbles and sand, clays, vegetable mold or humus, bog iron ore, calcareous tufa, stalactites and stalagmites, marls; bottom prairie, 35 feet thick; bluff, 200 feet thick; drift, 155 feet thick.

II. Tertiary. – Clays, shales, iron ores, sandstone, fine and coarse sands.

III. Cretaceous. – No. 1, 13 feet, argillaceous variegated sandstone; No. 2, 20 feet, soft bluish brown sandy slate, containing quantities of iron pyrites; No. 3, 25 feet, whitish brown impure sandstone, banded with purple and pink; No. 4, 45 feet, slate, like No. 2; No. 5, 45 feet, fine white siliceous clay, inter-stratified with white flint, more or less spotted and banded with pink and purple; No. 5, 10 feet, purple red and blue clays. Entire thickness, 158 feet.

IV. Carboniferous. – Upper carboniferous or coal measures, sandstone, limestone, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, coals. Lower carboniferous or mountain limestone, upper Archimedes limestone, 200 feet; ferruginous sandstone, 195 feet; middle Archimedes limestone, 50 feet; St. Louis limestone, 250 feet; oölitic limestone, 25 feet; lower Archimedes limestone, 350 feet; encrinital limestone, 500 feet.

V. Devonian. – Chemung group: Chouteau limestone, 85 feet; vermicular sandstone, 75 feet; lithographic limestone, 12.5 feet. Hamilton group: Blue shales, 40 feet; semi-crystalline limestone, 107 feet; Onondaga limestone, Oriskany sandstone.

VI. Silurian. – Upper silurian: Lower Helderberg, 350 feet; Niagara group, 200 feet; Cape Girardeau limestone, 60 feet. Lower silurian: Hudson river group, 220 feet; Trenton limestone, 350 feet; Black River and Birdseye limestone, 75 feet; second magnesian limestone, 230 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third magnesian limestone, 350 feet; third sandstone, 60 feet; fourth magnesian limestone, 300 feet.

VII. Azoic Rocks.

The Quaternary rocks, the most recent of all the formations, contain the entire geological record of all the cycles from the end of the Tertiary period to the present time; and their economical value is also greater than that of all the other formations combined. This system comprises the drift and all the deposits above it. There are, within the system, four distinct and strongly defined formations in the State, namely: Alluvium, bottom prairie, bluff and drift.

SOILS.

Soils are a compound of pulverized and decomposed mineral substances, mingled with decayed vegetable and animal remains, and containing all the ingredients necessary to the sustenance of the vegetable kingdom. The soils of Missouri have been produced by the mixing of organic matter with the pulverized marls, clays and sands of the Quaternary deposits which are found in great abundance in nearly all parts of the State, and are of material best designed for their rapid formation For this cause the soils of the State are marvelously deep and productive, except in a few localities where the materials of the Quaternary strata are very coarse, or entirely wanting.

CLAYS.

Clays are dark, bluish-gray strata, more or less mixed with particles of flint, limestone and decomposed organic matter. When the floods of the Mississippi and the Missouri subside, lagoons, sloughs and lakes are left full of turbid water. The coarser substances soon subside into a stratum of sand, but the finer particles settle more slowly and form the silico-calcareous clays of the alluvial bottom. Thus, after each flood, strata of sand and clay are deposited, until the lakes and lagoons are filled up.

Then a stratum of humus, or decayed vegetable matter, is formed by the decomposition of the annual growth and of the foreign matter which falls into the water, and every succeeding crop of vegetation adds another such stratum. Thus are rapidly formed thick beds of vegetable mold, yielding support to the magnificent forest trees which grow upon the sites of those ancient lakes and morasses. In this manner have been formed the vast, alluvial plains bordering upon the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, which comprise about 4,000,000 acres of land, based upon these strata of sand, clays, marls and humus. The soil formed upon these alluvial beds is deep, rich and light almost beyond comparison, and is constantly increasing by the filling up of lakes and sloughs as above described.

THE BLUFF OR LOESS.

This occurs in the Missouri bluffs forming a belt of several miles in width, extending from the mouth of the Missouri to the northwest corner of the State, where it is found just beneath the soil, and also in the bluffs of the Mississippi from Dubuque to the mouth of the Ohio. Thus while the bottom prairie occupies a higher geological horizon, the bluff is usually several hundred feet above it topographically. The latter is generally a finely comminuted, siliceous marl, of a light, brown color, and often weathers into perpendicular escarpments. Concretions of limestone are often found, and to the marly character of these clays may be ascribed the richness of the overlying soil It is to this formation that the Central Mississippi and Southern Missouri valleys owe their superiority in agriculture. Where it is best developed in Western Missouri the soil is equal to any in the country.

DRIFT.

This formation exists throughout Northern Missouri. The upper members consist of stiff, tenacious, brown, drab and blue clays, often mottled and sometimes containing rounded pebbles, chiefly of granite rocks. The lower division includes beds of dark blue clay, often hardening on exposure, frequently overlaid and sometimes interstratified with beds and pockets of sand, sometimes inclosing leaves and remains of trees. Good springs originate in these sand beds, and when they are ferruginous the springs are chalybeate.

TERTIARY SYSTEM.

There is a formation made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sandstone, and a variety of fine and coarse sand, extending along the bluffs, and skirting the bottoms, from commerce, in Scott County, westward to Stoddard, and thence south of the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas.

The iron ore of these beds is very abundant, and exceedingly valuable. The spathic ore has been found in no other locality in Southeastern Missouri, so that the large quantity and excellent quality of these beds will render them very valuable for the various purposes to which this ore is peculiarly adapted.

The white sand of these beds is available for glass making, and for the composition of mortars and cements. The clays are well adapted to the manufacture of pottery and stoneware.

CRETACEOUS ROCKS.

These strata are very much disturbed, fractured, upheaved and tilted, so as to form various faults and axes, anticlinal and synclinal; while the strata, above described as tertiary, are in their natural position, and rest nonconformably upon these beds. In these so called cretaceous rocks no fossils have been observed.

CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS.

This system presents two important divisions: The upper carboniferous, or coal measures; and the lower carboniferous or mountain limestone.

The coal measures, as seen by the table, are composed of numerous strata of sandstone, limestone, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores and coals. About 2,000 feet of these coal measures have been found to contain numerous beds of iron ore, and at least eight or ten beds of good, workable coal. Investigation shows a greater downward thickness of the coal formation in Southwest Missouri, including beds whose position is probably below those of the northern part of the State. These rocks, with the accompanying beds of coal and iron, cover an area of more than 27,000 square miles in Missouri alone.

The geological map of the State shows that if a line were roughly drawn from Clark County on the northeast to Jasper County in the southwest, most of the counties northwest of this line, together with Audrain, Howard and Boone, would be included in the coal measure. There are also extensive coal beds in Cole, Moniteau, St. Charles, St. Louis and Callaway Counties.

The Missouri coal basin is one of the largest in the world, including be3sides the 27,000 square miles in Missouri, 10,000 in Nebraska; 12,000 in Kansas; 20,000 in Iowa, and 30,000 in Illinois; making a total of about 100,000 square miles.

The fossils of the coal measure are numerous, and distinct from those of any other formation. This latter fact has led to the discovery of the existence of coal measures and the coal beds contained in them, over an area of many thousand miles, where it had been supposed that no coal measures and no coal existed.

Of the lower carboniferous rocks, the upper Archimedes limestone is developed in Ste. Genevieve County.

The ferruginous sandstone is generally found along the eastern and southern limit of the coal fields, passing beneath the coal formation on the west. It varies from a few feet to 100 feet in thickness. In Callaway it occurs both as a pure white sandstone, a ferruginous sandstone, and a conglomerate. In Pettis and Howard counties we find it a coarse, whitish sandstone. In Cedar, Dade and Lawrence a very ferruginous sandstone, often containing valuable deposits of iron ore. In Newton County it occurs in useful flaglike layers.

The St. Louis limestone, next in descending order, forms the entire group of limestone at St. Louis, where it is well marked and of greater thickness than seen elsewhere in this State. It is more often fine grained, compact or sub-crystalline, sometimes inclosing numerous chert concretions, and the beds are often separated by thin, green shale beds.

Its stratigraphical position is between the ferruginous sandstone and the Archimedes limestone, as seen near the Des Moines, and near the first tunnel on the Pacific Railroad. It is found in Clark and Lewis Counties, but, as has been said, attains its greatest development at St. Louis – hence its name.

The most characteristic fossils yet described are palӕchinus multipora, lithostrotion canadense, Echinocrinus nerei, Poteriocrinus longidactylus and Atrypa lingulata.

The lower Archimedes limestone includes the “arenaceous bed,” the “Warsaw or second Archimedes limestone,” the magnesian limestone, the “Geode bed,” the “Keokuk or lower Archimedes limestone” of Prof. Hall’s section, and the lead-bearing rocks of Southwestern Missouri, which last, though different from any of the above beds, are more nearly allied to them than to the encrinital limestone below. All of the above beds are easily recognized in Missouri, except, perhaps, the Warsaw limestone, which is but imperfectly represented in our northeastern counties, where the “Keokuk limestone,” the “Geode beds,” and the magnesian limestone are well developed.

This formation extends from the northeastern part of the State to the southwest, in an irregular belt, skirting the eastern border of the ferruginous sandstone. The extensive and rich lead deposits of Southwestern Missouri are partly in this formation, these mines occupying an area of more than one hundred square miles, in Jasper, newton, and the adjoining counties.

The upper beds of encrinital limestone are gray and cherty. The top beds in St. Charles County include seventeen feet of thin chert beds with alternate layers of red clay. The middle beds are generally gray and coarse, the lower ones gray and brown with some buff beds.

Crinoid stems are common in nearly all the beds, hence it has been appropriately termed encrinital limestone.

The lower beds often abound in well preserved crinoidae. This rock occurs at Burlington, Iowa, Quincy, Ill., Hannibal and Louisiana, Mo., and is well exposed in most of the counties on the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, and from the western part of St. Charles to Howard County. South of the Missouri River and along its southwest outcrop it is not generally well developed.

In Green County it is quite cavernous. It has not been recognized east of Illinois, and is not separated from other carboniferous stones of Tennessee.

DEVONIAN ROCKS.

The Devonian rocks occupy a small area in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline and Ste. Genevieve Counties; also narrow belts along the carboniferous strata to the south and west.

In the Chemung group, the Chouteau limestone, when fully developed, is in two divisions.

Immediately under the encrinital limestone, at the top of the formation, there are forty or fifty feet of brownish gray, earthy, silico-magnesian limestone in thick beds, which contain scattered masses of white or transparent calcareous spar.

The upper division of the Chouteau limestone passes down into a fine, compact, blue or drab, thin-bedded limestone, whose strata are considerably irregular and broken. In the northeastern part of the State, the Chouteau limestone is represented only by a few feet of coarse, earthy, crystalline, calcareous rock, like the lower division of the encrinital limestone.

THE VERMICULAR SANDSTONE AND SHALES.

The sandstones of this division are generally soft and calcareous. They are easily recognized, being ramified by irregular windings throughout, resembling the borings of worms. This formation attains a thickness of seventy five feet near Louisiana in Pike County. It is seen in Ralls, Pike, Lincoln, Cedar and Greene.

The lithographic limestone is a fine grained, compact limestone, breaking with a free conchoidal fracture into sharp, angular fragments. Its color varies from alight drab to the lighter shades of buff and blue. It gives out, when struck with the hammer, a sharp, ringing sound, and is therefore called “pot metal” in some parts of the state. It is regularly stratified in beds varying from two to sixteen inches in thickness, and often presents, as in the mural bluffs at Louisiana on the Mississippi, all the regularity of masonry.

Where elsewhere seen, it somewhat resembles the upper beds of the group. At Taborville, St. Clair County, it is of a salmon drab color, occurring in thick beds having an open texture, and contains a characteristic fossil – Pentremites Rӕmeri. This limestone is found in Pike, Ralls, St. Clair, Cedar and Greene Counties.

THE HAMILTON GROUP.

This is made up of some forty feet of blue shales, and 107 feet of semi-crystalline limestone, containing Dalmania, Calliteles, Phacops bufo, Spirifer mucronatus, S. sculptilis, S. Congesta, Chonetes carinata and Favosites basaltica. The Hamilton group is found in Ralls, Pike, Lincoln, Warren, Montgomery, Callaway, Boone, Cole and probably Moniteau; also in Perry and Ste. Genevieve.

ONONDAGA LIMESTONE.

This formation is usually a coarse gray or buff, crystalline, thick bedded and cherty limestone, abounding in Terebratula, reticularis, Orthis resupinata, Chonetes nana, Productus subaculeatus, Spirifer euruteines, Phacops bufo, Cyathophyllum rugosum, Emmonsia hemispherica, and a Pentamerus like galeatus. Generally it is coarse, gray and crystalline; often somewhat compact, bluish and concretionary, having cavities filled with green matter or calspar; occasionally it is a white saccharoidal sandstone; in a few localities a soft, brown sandstone, and at Louisiana a pure white oölite.

ORISKANY SANDSTONE.

In spite of its name, this is a light gray limestone, containing the Spirifer Arenosa, Leptoma depressa, and several new species of Spirifer, Chonetes, Illoenus and Lichas.

SILURIAN ROCKS.

This system is divided into the upper and lower silurian. Of the former are the following: The lower Helderberg group, which is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty, and argillaceous limestones, blue shales, and dark graptolite slates. The Cape Girardeau limestone, found on the Mississippi River, about a mile above Cape Girardeau, a compact, bluish gray, frangible limestone, with a smooth fracture, in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with thin argillaceous partings.

There are at least ten formations belonging to the lower silurian series. There are three distinct formations of the Hudson River group, as follows: First – Immediately below the oölite of the Onondaga limestone, in the bluffs both above and below St. Louis, there are forty feet of blue, gray and brown argillaceous, magnesian limestone. Above, these shales are in thick beds, showing a dull, conchoidal fracture. Below, the division becomes more argillaceous, and has thin beds of bluish-gray crystalline limestone. Second – Three and one-half miles northwest of Louisiana, on the Grassy River, some sixty feet of blue and purple shales are exposed below the beds above described. Third – Under the last named division are, perhaps, twenty feet of argillo-magnesian limestone resembling that in the first division, and interstratified with blue shales. These rocks crop out in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve Counties. On the Grassy, a thickness of 120 feet is exposed, and they extend to an unknown depth.

Trenton Limestone. – The upper portion of this formation comprises thick beds of compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, abounding in irregular cavities, filled with a greenish substance. The lower beds abound in irregular cylindrical pieces, which quickly decompose upon exposure to the air, and leave the rocks perforated with irregular holes, resembling those made in timber by the Toredo navalis. These beds are exposed between Hannibal and new London, north of Salt River, and near Glencoe, St. Louis county. They are about seventy-five feet thick. Below them are thick strata of impure, coarse, gray and buff crystalline magnesian limestone, containing brown, earthy portions, which quickly crumble on exposure to the elements. The bluffs on Salt River are an example of these strata. The lowest part of the Trenton limestone is composed of hard, blue and bluish-gray, semi-compact, silico-magnesian limestone, interstratified with soft, earthy, magnesian beds of a light buff and drab color. Fifty feet of these strata crop out at the quarries south of the plank road bridge over Salt River, and on Spencer’s Creek in Ralls County. The middle beds sometimes develop a beautiful white crystalline marble, as at Cape Girardeau and near Glencoe.

The Black River and Birdseye limestones are often in even layers; the lower beds have sometimes mottled drab and reddish shades, often affording a pretty marble. Near the base this rock is often traversed by vermicular cavities and cells. These may be seen from Cape Girardeau to Lincoln, and in St. Charles, Warren and Montgomery counties, thinning out in the latter.

The First Magnesian Limestone is generally a buff, open-textured, thick and even bedded limestone, breaking readily under the hammer, and affording a useful building rock. Shumard estimated its thickness in Ste. Genevieve County to be3 about 150 feet. In Warren County, in North Missouri, it is seventy feet thick. It is found in Ralls, Pike, Lincoln, St. Charles, Warren, Callaway and Boone. Southwesterly, it is not well marked – indeed it seems to be absent in some counties where, in regular sequence, it should be found. It occurs in Franklin, St. Louis, and southwardly to Cape Girardeau County.

Saccharoidal Sandstone is usually a bed of white friable sandstone, sometimes slightly tinged with red and brown, which is made up of globular concretions and angular fragments of limpid quartz. The formation is well developed in Lincoln, St. Charles, Warren, Montgomery, Gasconade, Franklin, St. Louis, Jefferson, Ste. Genevieve, Perry and Cape Girardeau Counties. Besides the above, it is also developed in a more attenuated form, in Callaway, Osage, Cole, Moniteau and Boone. This sandstone is probably destined to be one of the most useful rocks found in Missouri. It is generally of a very white color, and the purest sandstone found in the State, and is suitable for making the finest glassware. Its great thickness makes it inexhaustible. In St. Charles and Warren Counties it is 133 feet thick, and in southeast Missouri over 100 feet thick.

The Second Magnesian Limestone occurs in all the river counties south of Pike as far as the swamps of Southeast Missouri, and is more often the surface rock in all the counties south of the Missouri and Osage Rivers, to within fifty miles of the western line of the State. It is generally composed of beds of earthy magnesian limestone, interstratified with shale beds and layers of white chert, with occasionally thin strata of white sandstone, and, near the lower part, thick cellular silico-magnesian limestone beds. The layers are more often of irregular thickness and not

very useful for building purposes. It is often a lead-bearing rock, and most of the lead of Cole County occurs in it. It is from 175 to 200 feet thick.

The second sandstone is usually a brown or yellowish brown, fine-grained sandstone, distinctly stratified in regular beds, varying from two to eighteen inches in thickness. The surfaces are often ripple-marked and micaceous. It is sometimes quite friable, though generally sufficiently indurated for building purposes. The upper part is often composed of thin strata of light, soft and porous, semi-pulverulent, sandy chert or hornstone, whose cavities are usually lined with limpid crystals of quartz.

The Third Magnesian Limestone.-This also is an important member, occurring in nearly all the counties of Southern Missouri. It is generally a thick-bedded, coarsely crystalline bluish gray, or flesh-colored magnesian limestone, with occasional thick chert beds. It is the chief lead-bearing rock of Southeast and Southern Missouri. In some counties it is as much as 300 feet thick.

The Third Sandstone is a white, saccharoidal sandstone, made up of slightly-cohering, transparent globular and angular particles of silex. It shows but little appearance of stratification.

The Fourth Magnesian Limestone.-This formation presents more permanent and uniform lithological characters than any other of the magnesian limestones. It is ordinarily a coarse-grained, crystalline magnesian limestone, grayish-buff in color, containing a few crevices filled with less indurated, siliceous matter. Its thick, uniform beds contain but little chert. The best exposures of this formation are on the Niagara and Osage Rivers.

This magnesian limestone series is very interesting, both from a scientific and an economical standpoint. It covers a large part of Southern and Southeastern Missouri, is remarkable for its numerous and important caves and springs, and comprises nearly all the vast deposits of lead, zinc, copper, cobalt, the liminite ores of iron, and nearly all the marble beds of the State. The lower part of the first magnesian limestone, the saccharoidal sandstone, the second magnesian limestone, the second sandstone, and the upper part of the third magnesian limestone belong, without doubt, to the age of the calciferous sand rock; but the remainder of the series to the Potsdam sandstone.

AZOIC ROCKS.

Below the rocks of the Silurian system there is a series of siliceous and other slates, which present no remains of organic life; we therefore refer them to the Azoic age of the geologist. They contain some of the beds of specular iron. In Pilot Knob we have a good exposition of these Azoic strata. The lower fossiliferous rocks rest non-conformably on these strata.

IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS.

Aside from the stratified rocks of Missouri, there is a series of rounded knobs and hills in St. Francois, Iron, Dent and the neighboring counties, which are composed of granite, porphyry, diorite and greenstone. These igneous and metamorphic rocks contain come of those remarkable beds of specular iron, of which Iron and Shepherd Mountains are samples. This iron ore often occurs in regular veins in the porphyry.

HISTORICAL GEOLOGY.

When the continent of North America began to emerge from the primeval ocean, Pilot Knob, Shepherd Mountain and the neighboring heights were among the first bodies of land that reared themselves above the surrounding waters. When Pilot Knob thus grew into an island, it stood alone in the ocean waste, except that to the northwest the Black Hills, to the northeast a part of the Alleghany system, and to the southwest a small cluster of rocks lifted their heads out of the flood. These islands were formed in the Azoic seas by mighty internal convulsions that forced up the porphyry and granite, the slates and iron beds of the great ore mountains of Missouri.

COAL.

The Missouri coal fields underlie an area of nearly 25,000 square miles, including about 160 square miles in St. Louis County, eight square miles in St. Charles, and some important outliers and pockets, which are mainly cannel coal, in Lincoln, Warren and Callaway Counties. This area includes about 8,400 square miles of upper coal measures, 2,000 square miles of exposed middle, and about 14,600 square miles of exposed lower measures.

The upper coal measures contain about four feet of coal, including two seams of one foot each in thickness, the others being thin seams or streaks.

The middle coal measures contain about seven feet of coal, including two workable seams of twenty-one and twenty-four inches, one other of one foot, that is worked under favorable circumstances, and six thin seams.

The lower measures contain about five workable seams of coal, varying in thickness from eighteen inches to four and one half feet, thin seams varying from six to eleven inches, and several minor seams and streaks, in all, thirteen feet, six inches of coal. We therefore have in Missouri, a total aggregate of twenty-four feet, six inches of coal. The thinner seams are not often mined, except in localities distant from railroad transportation.

All beds over eighteen inches thick are workable coals. The area where such may be reached within 200 feet from the surface is about 7,000 square miles. Most of the State underlaid by the coal measure is rich farming land. That underlaid by the upper measure includes the richest, which is equal to any upon the globe. The southeastern boundary of the coal measure has been traced from the mouth of the Des Moines through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton, and Jasper Counties into the Indian Territory, and every county on the northwest of this line is known to contain more or less coal. Great quantities exist in Johnson, Pettis, Lafayette, Cass, Chariton, Howard, Putnam and Audrain. Outside the coal fields, as given above, the regular coal rocks also exist in Ralls, Montgomery, Warren, St. Charles, Callaway and St. Louis, and local deposits of cannel and bituminous coal in Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, Lincoln and Callaway. In 1865 Prof. Swallow estimated the amount of good available coal in the State, at 134,000,000,000 tons. Since then numerous other developments have been made, and that estimate is found to be far too small.

LEAD.

This mineral occurs in lodes, veins and disseminations, which are, as yet, only partially determined. Enough, however, is known of the number, extent, dip and thickness of these deposits to show that their range and richness exceed those of any other lead-bearing region in the world.

Galena occurs in this State in ferruginous clay, that becomes jointed, or separates into distinct masses, quite regular in form, when taken out and partially dried; also in regular cubes, in gravel beds, or with cherty masses in the clays associated with the same. These cubes in some localities show the action of attrition, while in others they are entirely unworn. Lead is found in the carboniferous rocks, but perhaps the greater portion is obtained from the magnesian rocks of the lower Silurian, and in one or two localities galena has been discovered in the rocks of the Azoic period. At Dugals, Reynolds County, lead is found in a disseminated condition in the porphyry.

THE SOUTHEAST LEAD DISTRICT.

The Mine La Motte region was discovered about 1720 by La Motte and Renault. It was not, however, until this territory was ceded to Spain that any considerable mining for lead was done in this part of Missouri. Moses Austin, of Virginia, secured from the Spanish Government a large grant of land near Potosi, and sunk the first regular shaft; and, after taking out large quantities of lead, erected, in 1789, the first reverberatory furnace for the reduction of lead ever built in America.

In all this region are found crystallized cubes of galena in the tallow clay, occurring as float. In Franklin, Washington and Jefferson Counties galena is found in ferruginous clay and coarse gravel, often associated with small masses of brown hematite iron and the sulphuret of iron; sometimes lying in small cavities or pockets.

The Virginia mine in Franklin County has produced by far the greater portion of lead from this section.

At the Webster mines, the silicate and carbonate of zinc are found always accompanying the lead. At the Valle mines silicate of zinc and baryta occur, as well as hematite iron ore. The Mammoth mine was a succession of caves, in which millions of pounds of lead were found adhering to the sides and roof, and on the bottom was mixed with clay and baryta.

The Frumet or Einstein mines are the most productive ever opened in Jefferson County, and yield also large quantities of zinc ore. There are other valuable mines, in some of which silver has been found.

In Washington County lead mining has been carried on uninterruptedly for a greater length of time, and more acres of land have been dug over that have produced lead than in any other county in the State.

In St. Francois County, lead deposits are found in the ferruginous clay and gravel. These mines formerly produced many millions of pounds, but have not been extensively worked for many years.

Over portions of Madison County considerable lead is found in the clay. There is lead in several locations in Iron County. In Wayne, Carter, Reynolds and Crawford Counties lead has been found.

Ste. Genevieve has a deposit of lead known as the Avon mines on Mineral Fork, where mining and smelting have been prosecuted for many years. In this vicinity lead has also been found as “float” in several places.

Lead exists in the small streams in several places in the western part of the Cape Girardeau County.

In the region above described at least 2,000 square miles are underlaid with lead, upon which territory galena can be found almost anywhere, either in the clay, gravel openings, or in a disseminated condition.

The Central Lead district comprises the counties of Cole, Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan, Miller, Benton, Maries, Camden and Osage. During later years the lead development of Cole County has been more to the northwestern corner, passing into Moniteau and Cooper Counties. In the former several valuable mines have been opened.

The West diggings have been extensively developed and proved rich. The mineral is found in connected cubes in limestone rock, and lies in lodes and pockets. Lead has been found in several places in Cooper and Osage Counties. The later discoveries in that vicinity, although not yet fully developed, give promise of great richness.

Camden County possesses considerable deposits of lead; a number of mines have been successfully worked, and, as the entire northern portion of the county is underlaid with the magnesian limestone formation, it may be discovered in many places where its existence has never been suspected. Miller County is particularly rich in galeniferous ore.

Paying lead has been found north of the Osage River. On the Gravois, Big Saline, Little Saline and Bush Creeks, and the Fox, Walker, Mount Pleasant and Saline Diggings have yielded millions of pounds of lead.

Benton County contains a number of lead deposits, the most important being the Cole Cany mines. Lead has been found as a “float” in many localities.

Morgan County, like Washington, can boast of having lead in every township, either as clay, mineral, “float,” or in veins, lodes, pockets and caves. The magnesian limestone series of Morgan, in which the lead ores now are, or have all existed, are the most complete and well defined of any in Missouri.

The most extensive deposits of lead in Morgan County have been found south of the center of the county, yet in the northwestern part are several well known lodes. We cannot even name the hundreds of places in the county where lead is found in paying quantities. There seems to be a region, covering 200 square miles, entirely underlaid by lead. These wonderful deposits are as yet but partially worked.

The Southern Lead Region of the State comprises the counties of Pulaski, Laclede, Texas, Wright, Webster, Douglas, Ozark and Christian. The mineral deposits of this region are only partially developed. In Pulaski County lead has been discovered in several localities. Laclede County has a number of lead deposits; one about eleven miles from Lebanon, where the ore is found in a disseminated condition in the soft magnesian limestone. In the southwestern part of Texas County, along the headwaters of the Gasconade River, there are considerable deposits of lead ore. Wright County has a number of lead mines almost unworked, which are situated in the southeastern part of the county, and are a continuation of the deposits in Texas County. In Douglas County, near the eastern line, and near Swan Creek, are considerable deposits of galena. Ozark and Christian Counties have a number of lead deposits, zinc being invariably found in connection.

The Western Lead District comprises Hickory, Dallas, Polk, St. Clair, Cedar and Dade Counties. In Hickory County quite extensive mining has been carried on, the larger deposits having been found near Hermitage. In the northern part of the county and along the Pomme de Terre River, lead occurs as “float,” and in the rock formation. The more prominent lodes are fund in the second magnesian limestone, with a deposit occurring in the third. The lead deposits of Hickory County are richer and more fully developed than any other in this district. Dallas County has a few deposits of lead, and float lead has been found in various localities in Polk. In St. Clair County the galeniferous deposits are in the second sandstone, and in the ferruginous clay, with chert, conglomerate and gravel. Cedar County presents a deposit of lead, copper and antimony. Galena is found in the clay and gravel. In Dade County a considerable quantity of galena has been found in the southeastern corner of the county.

The Southwest Lead District of Missouri comprises the counties of Jasper, Newton, Lawrence, Stone, Barry and McDonald. The two counties first named produce more than one-half of the pig lead of Missouri, and may well boast their immense deposits of galeniferous wealth. The lead mining resources of Jasper and New Counties are simply inexhaustible, and new and rich deposits are continually being found. Lead ore seems to have been obtained here from the earliest recollection, and furnished supplies to the Indians during their occupation. Formerly, smelted lead, merchandise and liquor were the principal return to the miner for his labor, as the distance from market and the general condition of the country precluded enlarged capital and enterprise. Since the war capital has developed the hidden wealth, and systematized labor, and rendered it remunerative. This, with the additional railroad facilities, has brought the county prominently and rapidly before the public as one of the most wonderful mining districts of the world. The total production of lead in Jasper County for the centennial year was, according to the estimates of the best authorities, over half the entire lead production of the State, and more than the entire lead production of any other State in the Union. Later statistics show a steady and rapid increase in the yield of these mines.

One fact, worthy of notice, is, that Jasper County, the greatest lead producing county of the greatest lead producing State, raises every year, upon her farms, products of more value than the lead dug in any one year from her mines.

IRON.

In the mining, shipping, smelting and manufacturing of the ores of iron, there is, perhaps, more capital invested and more labor employed than in all the other metal industries of our State combined.

There are three principal and important iron region sin Missouri, namely:

The Eastern Region, composed of the southeastern limonite district, and the Iron Mountain specular ore district.

The Central Region, containing principally specular ores.

The Western or Osage Region, with its limonites and red hematites.

These three principal regions combined form a broad ore belt running across the State from the Mississippi to the Osage, in a direction about parallel to the course of the Mississippi River from southeast to northwest, between the thirtieth and fortieth township lines. The specular ores occupy the middle portion of this belt, the limonites both ends of it. The latter are besides spread over the whole southern half of the State, while these sub-carboniferous hematites occur only along the southern border of the North Missouri coal field, having thus an independent distribution, and being principally represented in Callaway, St. Clair and Henry Counties.

Iron Mountain is the greatest exposure of specular iron yet discovered. It is the result of igneous action, and is the purest mass or body of ore known. The work of years has only just uncovered the massive columns of specular ore that seems to pass down through the porphyry and granite to the source of the existence. The region about is covered with the ore debris. The broken masses have the same general color and quality as the vein ore of Iron Mountain. The fresh fracture presents a light gray, tinged distinctly with blue. The crystallization is often coarse, presenting an irregular fracture. All the ore is more of less magnetic. The streak is a bright cherry red, and possesses the hardness of 6. Analysis shows it to contain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron.

The ore of Shepherd Mountain is called a magnetite. In some portions of the veins it shows itself to be granular, brown in color, and to have a clear black streak. Other portions present all the qualities of a specular ore. In portions of the specular, as well as magnetite, beautiful crystals of micaceous ore are found. The streak of this specular and micaceous is a dark red; the hardness is about 5, with from 64 to 67 per cent of metallic iron. The magnetic qualities of this ore are quite variable, usually the strongest at or near the surface, but this is not the case in all the veins. The ore of Shepherd Mountain is superior to any yet developed in Missouri, not quite as rich as that of Iron Mountain, but so uniform in character, and devoid of sulphur and phosphoric acid that it may be classed as superior to that, or any other ore that we have.

The ore of Pilot Knob is fine grained, very light bluish gray in color, and with a hardness representing 6, with a luster submetallic. There is a most undoubted stratification to the deposition, occurring as before indicated. The ore of Pilot Knob gives from 53 to 60 per cent metallic iron, and is almost free from deleterious substances. The ore below the slate seam is much the best, containing only about from 5 to 12 per cent of silica, while the poorer ores show sometimes as high as 40 per cent. There have been more than 200,000 surface feet of ore determined to exist here.

The Scotia Iron Banks, located on the Meramec River, in Crawford County, are most remarkable formations. Here the specular ore is a deep, steel gray color, with a metallic luster. The crystals are fine, and quite regular in uniformity. This ore is found in the shape of boulders, sometimes small and sometimes of immense size, resting in soft red hematites, that have been produced by the disintegration of the specular ores. These boulders contain a great number of small cavities in which the ore has assumed botryoidal forms; and upon these, peroxide iron crystallizations are so formed that a most gorgeous show of prismatic colors is presented. The hardness of this ore is about 6; the soft red ore, in which it occurs, not more than 2½.

In these banks there are some carbonates and ochraceous ores, but not in any quantity to deteriorate or materially change the character of the other ores. Many of the boulders present a soft red mass with a blue specular kernel in the center. This ore is found to be slightly magnetic, and gives from 58 to 69 per cent metallic iron.

Simmons Mountain, one-half mile south of Salem, Dent County, is about 100 feet high, and covers nearly forty acres. The second sandstone is the country rock and at the summit is uncovered, and mixed with specular and brown ores. Down the elevation larger masses of ore are met with that have the appearance of being drifts from the main deposit higher up. Shafts have been sunk in this elevation determining more than thirty feet of solid ore. The ore is a splendid, close, compact, brilliant specular, very hard and free from deleterious substances. The ores of this mountain do not show nearly as much metamorphism as many of the other banks in the second sandstone of this region. The ore is quite strongly magnetic, and gives a bright red streak. This is the largest specular iron deposit, with the exception of Iron Mountain, that is known in the State.

Some of the most extensive red hematite banks in Missouri are located in Franklin County. Along the Bourbense there are thirteen exposures of fine red hematite iron ore. Near Dry Branch Station is an elevation, capped at the summit with saccharoidal sandstone, beneath which there is a large body of red and specular ore. The red hematite, however, predominates, and is remarkably pure and free from sulphur or other deleterious substances. The sinking of a number of shafts upon this hill reaches the deposits in several places, in all of which the red hematite shows itself to be the prevailing ore. This ore will be found to work well with the hard specular and ores of the siliceous character, like Pilot Knob.

In Miller, Maries, Cole and Camden Counties, also in Bolinger, Stoddard and Butler Counties, along the line of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, there are a number of red hematite banks of considerable promise. There are similar banks in the northern part of Texas and Wright Counties, and in Morgan, Benton, Cedar ad Laclede.

In Wayne County there are over seventy different limonite ore banks. In Miller, Maries, Camden, Cole, Moniteau and Callaway Counties there are very extensive banks of the same kind. In Morgan, Benton, St. Clair, Cedar, Hickory and Vernon Counties, considerable brown hematite has been found.

In Franklin, Gasconade, Phelps, Crawford, Laclede, Christian, Webster and Green Counties, large limonite beds have been found. In the Moselle region very large deposits have been opened and worked for many years. In Osage County there are a number of promising brown ore banks, as well as fine specular and red hematite.

It is impossible, in the brief space at our command, to describe the number of banks, rich in iron ore, which are situated in the above and other counties of our State; but a glance at the tables found in the works of prominent geologists of the State, will give some idea of the resources of Missouri as an iron producing region.

ZINC.

The ores of zinc in Missouri are almost as numerous as those of lead. They are distributed throughout almost all the geological strata, and scattered through nearly every mineral district; but the principal supply of the metal for commercial purposes is obtained from a very few ores, the more important of which are zinc blende (sulphuret of zinc), the silicate of zinc and the carbonate of zinc, and these are furnished by a comparatively few localities.

In reference to their geological position, the ores are in two classes: The first class includes all zinc ores which occur in the regular veins of the older rocks, and hence are associated with other metalliferous ores. The second mode of occurrence, and the ore by far of paramount importance in Missouri, is that of the third magnesian limestone of the lower Silurian series, where it usually occurs in association with galena in the cave formation.

Zinc blende abounds at Granby and Joplin, and is found at many other mines of the southwest. It also occurs at the lead mines of Franklin and Washington Counties, and at some other points in Southeast Missouri.

The pockets of coal in Central Missouri nearly all contain zinc blende. The lead mines of the same section also sometimes carry it.

There are quantities of silicate of zinc at Granby and Joplin, and the ore is found at most of the lead mines of the southwest, and occasionally in Central and Southeast Missouri. Carbonate of zinc occurs at Granby, Joplin, Minersville and Valle’s mines. It is in the Granby, Joplin and Valle mining districts that zinc ore is principally worked.

COPPER.

Several varieties of copper ore exist in the Missouri mines. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin Counties have been known for a long time. Some of those in Shannon and Franklin were once worked with bright prospects of success, and some in Madison have yielded good results for many years.

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and Wright Counties, but the mines in Franklin, Shannon, Madison, Crawford, Dent and Washington give greater promise of yielding profitable results than any other yet discovered. 

NICKEL AND COBALT.

These ores abound at Mine La Motte and the old copper mines in Madison County, and are also found at the St. Joseph mines.

Sulphuret of nickel, in beautiful hair-like crystals, is found in the limestone at St. Louis, occupying drusy cavities, resting on calcite or fluor spar.

MANGANESE.

The peroxide of manganese has been found in several localities in Ste. Genevieve and other counties.

SILVER AND GOLD.

Silver occurs to a limited extent in nearly all the lead mines in the State. Gold, though found in small quantities, has never been profitably worked in any part of Missouri.

MARBLE.

Missouri has numerous and extensive beds of marble of various shades and qualities. Some of them are very valuable, and are an important item in the resources of the State.

Fort Scott marble is a hard, black, fine-grained marble, with veins of yellow, buff and brown. It receives a fine polish, and is very beautiful. It belongs to the coal measures, and is common in the western part of Vernon County.

There are several beds of fine marbles in the St. Louis limestone, of St. Louis County.

The fourth division of encrinital limestone is a white, coarse-grained crystalline marble of great durability. It crops out in several places in Marion County.

The lithographic limestone furnishes a fine, hard-grained, bluish-drab marble, that contrasts finely with white varieties in tessellated pavements.

The Cooper marble of the Devonian limestone has numerous pellucid crystals of calcareous spar disseminated through a drab or bluish-drab fine compact base. It exists in great quantities in some localities of Cooper and Marion Counties, and is admirably adapted to many ornamental uses. There are extensive beds of fine, variegated marbles in the upper silurian limestones of Cape Girardeau County. Cape Girardeau marble is also a part of the Trenton limestone, located near Cape Girardeau. It is nearly white, strong and durable. This bed is also found near Glencoe, St. Louis County.

In the magnesian limestone series there are several beds of very excellent marble. Near Ironton there are beds of semi-crystalline, light-colored marbles, beautifully clouded with buff and flesh colors. In the third magnesian limestone, on the Niangua, is a fine-grained, crystalline, silico-magnesian limestone, light drab, slightly tinged with peach blossom, and beautifully clouded with deep flesh-colored shades. It is twenty feet thick, and crops out in the bluffs of the Niangua for a long distance.

There are numerous other beds in the magnesian limestones, some of which are white and others so clouded as to present the appearance of breccias.

The Ozark marbles are well known, some of them having been used to ornament the Capitol at Washington. Wherever the magnesian limestones come near the igneous rocks, we may expect to find them so changed as to present beds of the beautiful variegated marbles.

SULPHATE OF BARYTA.

In its pure white form, this mineral is very abundant in Missouri. It occurs in large beds in the mining regions, as the gangue of our lead veins, and as large masses, especially in the magnesian limestone of the lower silurian rocks. It is utilized as a pigment in connect with lead, and may be made valuable for the same purpose in connection with some of our ferruginous and argillaceous paints.

CLAYS.

Fire clays, possessing refractory qualities, suitable for making fire brick, occur beneath most of the thicker coal seams.

Potter’s clay is abundant, especially among the coal measure clays. It is also sometimes found associated with the lower carboniferous rocks.

Kaolin is only found in Southeast Missouri, where porphyries or granites prevail.

Brick clays have been found and worked in nearly all the counties where there has been a demand for them. The argillaceous portions of the bluff formation make good brick, as shown in the brick yards all along our large rivers. Some of the tertiary clays will make the very best brick.

CAVES, ETC.

There are several very interesting and quite remarkable caves in the State. Hannibal Cave, situated one mile below the city of Hannibal, and about a quarter of a mile from the Mississippi River, is approached through a broad ravine, hemmed in by lofty ridges, which are at right angles with the river. The antechamber is about eight feet high and fifteen feet long. This descends into the Narrows, thence through Grand Avenue to Washington Avenue, and through the latter to Altar Chamber. This is a ferruginous limestone formation, and crystal quarts, carbonate of lime and sulphate of magnesia abound. Stalactites and stalagmites are continually forming by limestone percolations. In Bat Avenue Chamber the bats may be seen hanging from the ceiling in clusters, like swarms of bees, some of them fifteen inches from tip to tip. Washington Avenue, over sixteen feet high, with long corridors of stalactites and stalagmites, is the largest division of the cave. It contains a spring, and a deep pool, in which are found the wonderful eyeless fish. The Devil’s Hall, Alligator Rock, Elephant’s Head, two natural wells filled with limpid water, Table Rock, and numbers of other curiosities, will amply repay the tourist for his exploration.

Cliff Cave, thirteen miles below St. Louis, has been utilized by the Cliff Cave Wine Company as a wine cellar.

There are several caves in Miller County, the largest of which is on Big Tavern Creek, in the bluff near its confluence with the Osage River. The entrance is about twenty-five feet square, and is situated thirty or forty feet above the river, in a solid limestone bluff. During the civil war it was used as a retreat by the bandit, Crabtree. The stalactite formations are of strange and fantastic appearance, some of them looking like colossal images of marble, and the whole effect by torchlight is weird and solemn.

Phelps County contains several interesting caves, the most accessible of which is Freide’s Cave, about nine miles northwest of Rolla. Its mouth is 60 feet in width and 35 feet in height. It has been penetrated to a distance of three miles without finding any outlet. The Stalactite Chamber is a beautiful apartment 200 yards in length, varying from 15 to 30 feet in width, and from 5 to 30 feet in height. The Bat Chamber contains thousands of wagon loads of guano, which is extensively used by the farmers of the neighborhood. The cave also contains quantities of saltpeter, and during the war large amounts of powder were manufactured there.

There are also caves in Christian County. The principal one is two and a half miles northeast of Ozark. Its entrance is through a rock arch 50 feet across and 80 feet high. About 400 feet from the entrance, the passage is so contracted that the explorer must crawl through on his hands and knees. A fine stream of water, clear and cold, gurgles down through the cave.

About twelve miles south of Ozark, near the Forsyth road, on the top of a very high hill, is a small opening, which, about 100 feet from the surface, expands into a hall 30 feet wide and about 400 feet long, the sides and top of which are of rock lined with beautiful stalactites.

In Stone County at least twenty-five caves have been explored and many more discovered. One mile from Galena is an extensive cave from which the early settlers procured saltpeter in large quantities. About two and a half miles above this is a smaller one of great beauty. From the ceiling depend glittering stalactites, while the floor sparkles with fragments of gem-like luster. A pearly wall, of about half an inch in thickness and 15 inches high encloses a miniature lake, through whose pellucid waters the wavy stalagmite bottom of this natural basin can be plainly seen. The sacred stillness of the vaulted chamber renders its name, “The Baptismal Font,” a peculiarly fitting one.

A cave about twelve miles from Galena is well known among curiosity seekers in the adjacent country. The entrance chamber is a large dome-shaped room, whose ceiling is very high; a glittering mound of stalagmites rises in the center of the room, nearly one-third the height of the ceiling; stretching out at right angles from this are long shining halls leading to other grand arched chambers, gorgeous enough for the revels of the gnome king, and all the genii of the subterranean world. One can not but think of the Inferno, as, wandering down a labyrinthian passage, he reaches the verge of an abyss, striking perpendicularly to unknown and echoless depths. The name “Bottomless Pit,” is well bestowed on this yawning gulf.

Knox Cave, in Green County, about seven miles northwest of Springfield, is of large dimensions, and hung in some parts with the most beautiful stalactites.

Fisher’s Cave, six miles southeast of Springfield, is of similar dimensions, and has a beautiful stream of water flowing out of it.

There are a number of saltpeter caves along the banks of the Gasconade, which were once profitably worked. Some of these caves are large and interesting, consisting frequently of a succession of rooms joined to each other by arched halls of a considerable height, with walls of white limestone, upon which, as well as upon the floors, the saltpeter is deposited, and is generally so pure as to need but one washing to prepare it for use or export. When these caves were first discovered, it was not unusual to find in them stone-axes and hammers which led to the belief that they had formerly been worked for some unknown purpose by the savages. It is doubtful whether these tools were left there by the Indians or by another and more civilized race which preceded them.

There are numerous caves in Perry County, two of which penetrate beneath Perryville.

Connor’s Cave, seven miles southeast of Columbia, has an entrance twenty feet wide and eight feet high, and has been explored for several miles.

There are extensive and beautiful caves in Texas, Webster, Lawrence, Laclede, Oregon and several other counties.

MINERAL SPRINGS.

Salt springs are exceedingly abundant in the central part of the State. They discharge vast quantities of brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard and the adjoining counties. These brines are near the navigable waters of the Missouri, in the midst of an abundance of wood and coal, and might furnish salt enough to supply all the markets of the continent.

Sulphur Springs are also numerous throughout the State. The Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County, have acquired considerable reputation as medicinal waters, and have become popular places of resort. There are similar sulphur springs in other parts of the State.

Chalybeate Springs.-There are a great many springs in the State which are impregnated with some of the salts of iron. Those containing carbonates and sulphates are most common, and several of these are quite celebrated for their medicinal properties. Sweet Spring son the Blackwater, and the Chalybeate Spring in the University campus, are perhaps the most noted of the kind in the State. The Sweet Springs flow from cavities in the upper beds of the Burlington limestone. The hill is here forty-seven feet high above water in the Blackwater, spreading out at the back in a flat table-land. The spring itself is about twenty-feet above the river, and has a sweetish alkaline taste. It is useful as a promoter of general good health, and is much resorted to at the proper season. The water is used for ordinary cooking and drinking purposes, except for making tea.

Petroleum Springs.-These are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, Bates, Vernon and other counties. Many of these springs discharge considerable quantities of oil. The variety called lubricating oil is the most common. It is impossible to tell whether petroleum will be found in paying quantities in these localities, but there is scarcely a doubt that there are reservoirs of considerable quantities.

MANUFACTURING.

The State of Missouri presents every facility for extensive and successful manufacturing; abundant timber of the best quality, exhaustless deposits of coal, iron, lead, zinc, marble and granite, unmeasured water power, distributed over the State, a home market among an industrious and wealth-accumulating people, and a system of navigable rivers and railway trunk line and branches, that permeate, not only the State, but reach out in direct lines from gulf to lake, and from ocean to ocean.

Of the manufacturing in Missouri over three-quarters of the whole is done in St. Louis, which produced in 1880, $114,333,375 worth of manufactured articles, thus placing her as the sixth manufacturing city in the Union, being surpassed only by New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Brooklyn and Boston.

The leading manufacturing counties of the State are St. Louis, Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Cape Girardeau, Platte, Boone, Lafayette, followed by Macon, Clay, Phelps, St. Francois, Washington and Lewis.

The subjoined table, arranged from the tenth United States census, will give the reader a comprehensive view of the present state of manufacturing in Missouri, and its variation during recent years.

 

Year.

No. Es-tablish-ments.

 

Capital.

Average Number of

Hands Employed.

Total Amount Paid in Wages During

the Year.

Value of Materials.

Value of Products.

Males

Above

16 Years.

Females

Above

15 Years.

Children

And

Youths.

1850

1860

1870

1880

2,923

3,157

11,871

8,592

$ 8,576,607

20,034,220

80,257,244

72,507,844

14,880

18,628

55,904

54,200

928

1,053

3,884

5,474

 

5,566

4,321

$ 4,692,648

6,669,916

31,055,445

24,309,716

$ 12,798,351

23,849,941

115,533,269

110,798,392

$ 24,324,418

41,782,731

206,213,429

165,386,205

 

The products of the principal lines of manufacturing interests, for the year 1880, are as follows: flouring and grist mills, $32,438,831; slaughtering and meat packing, $14,628,630; tobacco, $6,810,719; iron, steel, etc., $5,154,090; liquors, distilled and malt, $5,575,607; clothing, $4,409,376; lumber, $6,533,253; bagging and bags, $2,597,395; saddler and harness, $3,976,175; oil, $851,000; foundry and machine shop products, $6,798,832; printing and publishing, $4,452,962; sugar and molasses, $4,475,740; boots and shoes, $1,982,993; furniture, $2,380,562; paints, $2,825,860; carriages and wagons, $2,483,738; marble and stone works, $1,003,544; bakery products, $3,250,192; brick and tile, $1,602,522; tinware, copper ware and sheet-iron ware, $1,687,320; sash, doors and blinds, $1,232,670; cooperage, $1,904,822; agricultural implements, $1,141,822; patent medicines, $1,197,090; soap and candles, $1,704,194; confectionery, $1,247,235; drugs and chemicals, $1,220,211; gold and silver reduced and refined $4,158,606.

These together with all other mechanical industries, aggregate $165,386,205.

RAILROADS.

Since 1852, when railroad building began in Missouri, between 4,000 and 5,000 miles of track have been laid. Additional roads are now in process of construction, and many others in contemplation. The State is well supplied with railroads which tread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts into close connections with St. Louis, that great center of western commerce. These roads have a capital stock aggregating more than $100,000,000, and a funded debt of about the same amount.

The lines of roads which are in operation in the State are as follows:

The Missouri Pacific, chartered May 10, 1850; the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkansas branch; the Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad; the Cairo & Fulton Railroad; the Wabash Western Railway; the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway; the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad; the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad; the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad; the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad; the Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company; the St. Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Company; the Missouri & Western; the St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad; the St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad; the Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska Railway; the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway; the Burlington & Southwestern Railroad.

STEAM CRAFT.

In 1880 there were 167 steam crafts owned in Missouri, including sixty passenger steamers, thirty-seven ferry-boats, thirteen freight steamers, forty-six tow boats and eleven yachts. Their combined tonnage was 60,873.50; their total value, $2,098,800; their crews numbered 2,733 persons, whose wages amounted to $1,423,375, or an average of $281.13 to each person during the season; the number of passengers carried was 642,303; the freight in tons 2,556,815; coal used for fuel, 399,659 tons; wood used for fuel, 25,085 cords; gross earnings of all the steam crafts, $5,560,949.

WEALTH.

The total valuation of Missouri real estate and personal property, according to the census of 1880, was $532,795,801; of which her real estate was valued at $381,985,112, and her personal property at $150,810,689. At that time the bonded debt of the State was $55,446,001; the floating debt, $2,722,941; the gross debt, $58,168,942; the sinking fund, $681,558, and the net debt, $57,487.384.

THE INDIANS.

When Christopher Columbus set sail from the port of Palos, it was with no expectation of finding a new continent, but with the hope of discovering a direct western route to those far-famed Indies whose fabulous riches were the unfailing theme of travelers and geographers. Even to the day of his death the illustrious explorer had no suspicion of having discovered other than the remote islands and shores of the old world, and, accordingly, he called all the inhabitants of the mysterious country “Indians” - a name which has not only outlasted the error of early navigators, but is destined to cling to this unhappy race as long as a vestige of it remains. Whence they came, and to what other family of the earth they are allied, or whether they were originally created a distinct people in the forest wilds of America, have been questions much mooted among the learned and unlearned of modern times, but thus far have elicted [sic] only hypotheses in reply. The most common supposition is, however, that the Indians are a derivative race, sprung from one of the more ancient people of Asia, and they came to this continent by way of Behring’s strait, and this, doubtless, is the true theory.

The tribes with whom the first settlers of Missouri came principally in contact were the Pottawattomies [sic], the Iowas, the Kickapoos, the Sacs and the Foxes.

OTHER RACES.

The ancient cities of Central America, judging from their magnificent ruins, consisting of broken columns, fallen arches and the crumbling walls of temples, palaces and pyramids, which, in some places, bestrew the ground for miles, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very populous. When the vast period of time necessary to erect such colossal structures, and the time required to reduce them to their present ruined state are considered, something can be conceived of their antiquity. These edifices must have been old before many of the ancient cities of the Orient were built, and they point, without doubt, to a civilization at once considerably advanced and very far removed from the present.

THE MOUND-BUILDERS.

Of a much less degree of culture, but reaching back into an antiquity so remote as to have left behind no vestige of tradition, the Mound-Builders present themselves to the archaeologist as a half-civilized people who once occupied Missouri and various other parts of the country now included in the United States. This pre-historic race has acquired its name from the numerous large mounds of earth left by them. Remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, idols, burial places, monuments, camps, fortifications and pleasure grounds have been found, but nothing showing that any material save earth was used in the construction of their habitations. At first these works were supposed to be of Indian origin, but careful examination has revealed the fact that-despite several adverse theories-they must have been reared by a people as distinct from the North American Indian as were those later people of Central America. Upon making excavations in these mounds, human skeletons were found with skulls differing from those of the Indians, together with pottery and various ornaments and utensils, showing considerable mechanical skill. From the comparatively nude state of the arts among them, however, it has been inferred that the time of their migration to this country, if indeed they did migrate, was very remote. Their axes were of stone, their raiment, judging from fragments which have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees interwoven with feathers, and their military works were such as a people would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. They were, no doubt, idolaters, and it has been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The mounds were generally built in a situation affording a view of the rising sun; when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always opened in the same direction; when bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were laid in a direction east and west, and, finally, medals have been found representing the sun and his [sic] rays of light.

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this people are far more abundant than in generally supposed, from the fact that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small and inconspicuous. Along nearly all the water courses, that are large enough to be navigated by a canoe, the mounds are almost invariably found, so that when one places himself in such positions as to command the grandest river scenery he is almost sure to discover that he is standing upon one of these ancient tumuli, or in close proximity thereto.

St. Louis was originally known as the “Mound City,” from the extent and variety of the curious monuments found there, and although these, as well as numbers of others scattered over various parts of the State, have been defaced or entirely obliterated, Missouri still presents an unusually fruitful field of investigation to the archaeologist. This is particularly true of the southeastern counties, especially in the region of New Madrid.

Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the West in 1817, speaking of the mounds in the Mississippi Valley, says; “I have sometimes been induced to think, that, at the period when they were constructed, there was a population here as numerous as that which once animated the borders of the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. I am perfectly satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country.”

EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORERS.

Ferdinand De Soto, a Spanish cavalier, who had been associated with Pizarro in the conquet [sic] of Peru, but whose ambition and cupidity were only increased by his success in that country, determined to possess himself also of the boundless wealth reputed to lie hidden in the mines of Florida. Undismayed by the fate of other adventurers, he equipped at his own expense a band of 700 men, or more, and landed in Tampa Bay, in the spring of 1539. Thence, in spite of hostile Indians, he forced his way to the northwest, and although not finding gold or precious stones, he made himself immortal as the discoverer, in 1541, of the Mississippi River. The point at which De Soto first saw the Mississippi was at the lower Chickasaw Bluffs, a few miles below Memphis, There he constructed boats, and, after crossing the stream, proceeded up its west bank, and made his way into the region now known as New Madrid, in Missouri. At this point therefore, and at this time, the first European set foot on the soil of Missouri. In 1542, overcome by disease, privation and discouragement, De Soto died, and those of his followers who remained, having secretly sunk his body in the Mississippi, lest the Indians should discover his death, floated down the river to the Gulf of Mexico, and returned to their homes. The design of the expedition had been conquest as a means of acquiring gold, and it left behind no traces of civilization.

MARQUETTE.

While Spain had turned her attention to the conquest of Mexico, South America, the West Indies and Florida, and English colonists had made feeble beginnings in Virginia and New England, the French, advancing still farther north, had possessed themselves of the St. Lawrence River, and were fast pushing their way into the interior by way of the great lakes. Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, belonging to an ancient family of France, arrived in Canada at a time when the public mind was much exercised upon the subject of exploring the Mississippi River. A plan of operations was accordingly arranged, and Louis Joliet, a native of Canada, joined Father Marquette at the Jesuit mission on the Straits of Mackinaw, and with five other Frenchmen and a simple outfit, the daring explorers, on the 17th of May, 1673, set out on their perilous voyage to re-discover the great river. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan they entered Green Bay, and passed thence up Fox River and Lake Winnebago to a village of the Muscatines (“Mascoutens”) and Miamis, where great interest was taken in the expedition by the natives. Procuring guides they proceeded up the river. Arriving at a portage between the Fox and Wisconsin, they soon carried their light canoes and scanty baggage to the latter stream, about three miles distant. Their guides now refused to accompany them further, and endeavored, by reciting the dangers incident to the voyage, to induce them to return. They stated that huge demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices could be heard a long distance, and who engulfed in the raging waters all who came within their reach. They also represented that if any of them should escape the dangers of the river, fierce tribes of Indians dwelt upon its banks ready to complete the work of destruction. The explorers proceeded on their journey, however, and on the 17th of June, with joy inexpressible pushed their frail barks out on the bosom of the stately Mississippi, 132 years later its first discovery by De Soto. Journeying down the mysterious stream, which Marquette named the “Conception,” they passed the mouth of the Illinois, Missouri and Ohio, landing at various places, and, after proceeding up the Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the natives, they turned their faces northward. After several weeks of hard toil they reached the Illinois, up which stream they proceeded to Lake Michigan, and entered Green Bay in September of the same year, having traveled a distance of 2,500 miles in a little more than four months.

LA SALLE.

About the time of Marquette’s return, Robert de La Salle, a native of Normandy, set about discovering a northwest passage to China and Japan, the scientific men of that time generally coinciding in the belief that such a passage existed in the direction of the Great Lakes. He was accompanied from France by an Italian named Tonti, and was joined in his enterprise by Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan friar of a bold and ambitious disposition. After various hindrances and perils, they arrived at the present site of Peoria on the Illinois River, where they built a fort, which, on account of their many vicissitudes, they named Creve Coeur, or Broken Heart. There they separated, Hennepin turning northward to discover, if possible, the source of the Mississippi; La Salle, after visiting Canada, to perfect his arrangements, descending that river in search of its mouth, and Tonti remaining at Creve Coeur in command of men and supplies left at that point. La Salle reached the junction of the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, in February, 1682, and, on the 5th of April following, passed safely through one of the three channels by which the latter stream discharges its waters into the Gulf of Mexico. Three days afterward, with the most imposing ceremonies, La Salle took formal possession of the country in the name of Louis XIV, the reigning king of France, in whose honor he named it Louisiana. The region thus acquired by the French embraced territory on both sides of the Mississippi, and, comprising rather indefinite limits, included the present States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri.

La Salle subsequently returned to Canada, thence to France, and led an expedition to the Gulf of Mexico for the purpose of entering the Mississippi at its mouth, and establishing settlements in Louisiana. Being unable to find the mouth of the river, he landed upon the boast of Texas, and, after some fruitless wanderings, was shot by one of his own disaffected followers. However, he had effectually opened the way for the French occupancy of the Mississippi Valley.

EARLY SETTLEMENTS.

Within a few years after the death of La Salle forts and colonies were located at Biloxi Bay, Mobile, Natchez, New Orleans and other points farther north. It is a fact worthy of notice that the first French settlements, all of which were projected in the interest of gold and silver mining, were confined entirely to the eastern bank of the river. It was not until 1705 that the Missouri River was explored as far as the mouth of the Kansas.

In 1720 Renault, the son of a French iron founder, came to Louisiana for the purpose of engaging in gold and silver mining. He brought with him from France 200 miners and artificers, and purchased 500 slaves at the island of St. Domingo. Proceeding up the Mississippi River, he established himself at Fort Chartres, about ten or fifteen miles above the present site of Ste. Genevieve, on the opposite bank of the stream. From this point he dispatched miners to “prospect” for the precious metals, and they crossed the river to the west bank, and explored what is now Ste. Genevieve County. Although Renault failed to discover either gold or silver, he found lead ore in great abundance, and having built rude furnaces for smelting it, conveyed it on pack-horses to Fort Chartres, and thence by boat to New Orleans and France.

The date of the actual settlement of Ste. Genevieve is disputed by historians, though all agree that it was the first in the State of Missouri. There is some evidence to support the theory that there might have been inhabitants at this place as early as 1735. The cultivation of tobacco, indigo, rice and silk had already been introduced into the southern part of the province of Louisiana, the lead mines of Missouri were opened, and the culture of wheat was commenced in Illinois. In the meantime the French were firmly establishing their power in the Northwest. By the middle of the eighteenth century (1750) they had control of all the water routes leading from the great lakes to the valley of the Mississippi. They had more than sixty military stations from Lake Ontario by way of Green Bay and the Illinois River, the Wabash and Maumee Rivers, down the Mississippi to New Orleans.

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

The French had formed the grand design of establishing a magnificent empire in the interior of the continent, which should have abundant and uninterrupted intercourse with the outside world by means of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. The English, whose colonies were scattered up and down on the Atlantic coast, claimed the right to extend their possessions as far westward as they chose. As long as the latter nation confined itself to the eastern part of the country there was little reason for controversy. As soon, however, as the English became acquainted with the beautiful and fertile Mississippi Valley, they not only learned the value of the vast territory, but also resolved to set up a counter-claim to the soil. The French, besides establishing numerous military and trading posts from the frontiers of Canada to New Orleans, in order to confirm their claims to jurisdiction over the country, had carved the lilies of France on the forest trees, or sunk plates of metal in the ground. These measures did not, however, deter the English from going on with their explorations; and though neither party resorted to arms yet the conflict was gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm should burst upon the frontier settlement. The French based their claims upon discoveries, the English on grants of territory extending from ocean to ocean, but neither party paid the least attention to the prior claims of the Indians. From this position of affairs, it was evident that actual collision between the contending parties would not much longer be deferred. The English Government, in anticipation of a war, urged the governor of Virginia to lose no time in building two forts, which were equipped with arms from England. The French anticipated the English, and gathered a considerable force to defend their possessions. The governor determined to send a messenger to the nearest French post, to demand an explanation. This resolution brought into the history of our country, for the first time, the man of all others whom America most loves to honor, namely, George Washington. He was chosen, although not yet twenty-one years of age, as the one to perform this delicate and difficult mission. With five companions he set out on November 10, 1753, and after a perilous journey returned January 6, 1754. The struggle could not, however, be averted by diplomacy. It commenced, continued long, and was bloody and fierce; but on October 10, 1765, the ensign of France was displaced on the ramparts of Fort Chartres, by the flag of Great Britain. This fort was the depot of supplies, and the place of rendezvous for the united forces of the French, and was then the best built and most convenient fort in North America. In subsequent years the Mississippi reached and undermined its west wall; the inhabitants of Kaskaskia carried away much of the remaining portions for building material, and at the present day nothing remains of it but a ruin in the midst of a dense forest.

Although, as has been already seen, Fort Chartres was not occupied by the English until 1765, the treaty which terminated what is known as the French and Indian War had been arranged late in 1762. According to its stipulations France ceded to England all of her possessions in Canada and east of the Mississippi, and to Spain all that part of the province of Louisiana lying west of the same, which, although really belonging to Spain, remained under French laws and jurisdiction until 1768.

THE FOUNDING OF ST. LOUIS.

In the year 1762 M. D’Abadie, who was at that time director general and civil and military commandant of Louisiana, granted to a certain company the exclusive right to trade with the Indians of Missouri, and indeed of the whole northwest, for a term of eight years. At the head of this company was M. Pierre Laclede Liguest, Laclede as he is generally known, a man of ability, foresight and experience. He left New Orleans in August, 1763, and arrived in Missouri the following November. It will be remembered that all the French settlements except that at Ste. Genevieve were on the east side of the river, and consequently included in the territory ceded to England. At the one small village west of the Mississippi there was no building large enough to contain one quarter of M. Laclede’s merchandise. M. De Neyon, the commandant at Fort Chartres, hearing of Laclede’s dilemma, offered him room for his goods until the occupation of the fort by the English. Laclede readily availed himself o this generous offer and repaired to Fort Chartres, where he deposited his effects, and then turned his attention to finding a site, near the Missouri River, suitable for his enterprise. Ste. Genevieve he rejected both on account of its distance from that stream and its unhealtful [sic] situation. Accompanied by his stepson, a lad of fourteen named August Chouteau, he explored the region thoroughly and fixed upon the place of his settlement. Upon returning to the fort, he assured De Neyon and his officers that he had found a situation where he would form a settlement, which might become, hereafter, “one of the finest cities of America.” Thus readily did his sagacious mind appreciate the advantages of this location. Navigation being open, early in the February of 1764 Laclede sent thirty men in charge of Chouteau to the place designated, with orders to clear the land, build a large shed to shelter the tools and provisions, and also erect some small cabins for the men. On the 14th of February the work was commenced. Early in April, Laclede himself arrived, chose the place for his own house, laid out a plan for his village and named it Saint Louis, in honor of Louis XV, not knowing that the territory had already been transferred to Spain, and then hastened back to Fort Chartres to remove his goods, as the English garrison was daily expected.

When, in 1765, Capt. Sterling in command of the English troops, a company of highlanders, actually took possession of the fort, St. Ange, French commandant at the time, removed with his officers and men to St. Louis, which was recognized as the capital of Upper Louisiana. M. D’ Abadie had died, and M. Aubry was acting governor at New Orleans. Receiving, probably, the sanction of this latter gentleman, St. Ange at once assumed the reins of government of St. Louis, and so liberal was the spirit in which he conducted affairs that a stream of immigration soon set in from Canada and Lower Louisiana.

DEATH OF PONTIAC.

At the time of the founding of St. Louis, the Ottawa chieftain, Pontiac, was in the enjoyment of his greatest fame. At the breaking out of the war between France and England, he had allied himself with the former country, which had at all times followed a conciliatory policy with the Indians, and he had achieved some brilliant exploits at the ambuscade near Pittsburgh (1755) which resulted in Braddock’s defeat, and on other occasions. He had subsequently formed a confederacy of all the western tribes, and had endeavored, by one general and combined movement to sweep the English settlers from the country west of the Alleghanies [sic]. In this effort he was so far successful that, at one time, every English fort in the west, except Niagara, Fort Pitt and Detroit had fallen into the hands of the savages. St. Ange, hating the English and dreading their encroachments, was proportionately friendly to Pontiac, whom he invited to St. Louis in 1769. Here the chief was received in the most flattering manner, and was warmly welcomed by the principal citizens. Soon, however, it became apparent that Pontiac’s plans were doomed to failure.

Tribe after tribe had forsaken him; his powerful allies, the French, were conquered, and his most trusted friends among the latter counseled him to give up the unequal contest. He endeavored to drown his disappointment in drink, and in spite of the remonstrances of St. Ange, sank lower and lower in debauchery. Finally, while in a state of intoxication, he was assassinated at Cahokia by a Kaskaskia Indian. His body was interred with great pomp near the tower at the intersection of Walnut and Fourth Streets. St. Ange, himself, lies buried near, but nothing is left to mark either grave. Houses have been built above them, and but few persons even know that these remains repose in the midst of the great city.

 

 

Source :History of Hickory, Polk, Cedar, Dade, and Barton County Missouri, Goodspeed Publishing, 1889.

 

 

 

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