Missouri State Genealogy Trails

Indian Affairs Newspaper Articles


Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
October 27 1824
Transcribed by: Nancy Piper- 2008

St. Louis, Sept. 20

We are indebted to a highly respectable correspondent for the following letter, the particulars of which are derived from the Indian Agent at Fort Armstrong.

“A war party of Saux Indians returned to their village, in this vicinity, on the 8th inst., from an expedition against the Sioux. They were all mounted, and had been absent about 30. They report that they discovered on the 27th of August, the trail of a large party of Sioux Indians which they followed two days; that on the evening of the second day, they passed several large pits which had been dug by these Indians, for defense; that on proceeding further, they found a great number of cattle which had been killed with arrows, and also one horse,; that they soon after heard the sound of drums, which apprized them of being in the neighborhood of their enemies; that the drums ceased beating about 12 o’clock at night, and that the party, which consisted of 45 young men, attacked the Sioux cap an hour or two before daybreak, and killed 15 of their number; and took 1 prisoner, a girl of ten or 12 years of age, and then retreated without the loss of a man; but they had not proceeded far before they found themselves surrounded by a numerous party of Sioux, and having no other alternative, they fought their way through them, and in doing this, lost their prisoner, and had eight of their number killed, and two wounded. The wounded have returned with the party, but the dead were left in possession of the enemy.

They were so closely pursued by the Sioux, that they lost several of their horses and most of their blankets and returned nearly naked and in a state of starvation. The Sauks suppose that the Sioux belong to the Sussitong or Susitoah band, and that the cattle which they found dead, are the same that crossed the Des Moines about sixty days since; several of the war party who saw them at the time they crossed the river, say, that the drove consisted of nearly one hundred red head, and that it was in charge of five Americans and two Frenchmen; that they had along with them ten horses and mules, and that they presumed they were bound to St. Peter’s. They further say, that they saw a horse and a mule that belonged to the drovers, in the possession of the Sioux, on the morning of the action, and that it is their opinion that the drovers have been massacred by them. – Fort Armstrong, Sept. 9

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
November 3, 1824
Transcribed by: Nancy Piper- 2008 

Extract from a letter, dated at Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, Sept. 3, 1824

“The Indians in this part of the country are not so peaceable as formerly. There have been two instances of murder within a few weeks, not a great distance from the Prairie; the first instance was a couple of deserters from St. Anthony, on their way to St. Louis; they were overtaken by a party of Chippewas, killed and scalped. The second instance occurred last month; four respectable persons, living at the Prairie, left this post to go to St. Anthony’s on the fifth night after their departure, they came too for the purpose of making a fire and cooking some provisions; they were unfortunately in the neighborhood of a Chippewa war party; it is supposed their number was about 100, who immediately killed and scalped them, leaving their bodies to be devoured by beasts and birds of prey; when they were discovered, the bodies were so lacerated as to make it impossible to discriminate between them. It has made some stir amongst us, and possibly the result may be an Indian war.” – Baltimore Pat.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
November 3, 1824
Transcribed by: Nancy Piper- 2008

Frontier Movements
St. Louis, Sept. 27

A detachment of the 1st Regt. Infantry, consisting of four companies and 60 recruits of the 6th Regiment, embarked at this place, under the immediate order of Maj. Kearny, for Council Bluffs, on the 17th inst., in four keel boats of the first and second class. This detachment, we understand is to form a part of the military escort that is to ascend the Missouri early next spring from the Council Bluff, with Gen. Atkinson and Maj. O’Fallon, Commissioners appointed under the act of Congress of the 26th of May last, to hold treaties of trade and friendship with the Western tribes of Indians.

The keel boats which compose the transportation of the troops, are provided with machinery on a new and improved plan, invented by Gen. Atkinson, and executed by Gregg M’Daniel, a skilful mechanic. The machinery consists of a shaft thrown across the centre of the boat, with a water wheel at each end; a five feet cog-wheel in the centre of the shaft, and put in motion by another cog-wheel three feet four inches, resting on an iron shaft, which supports a fly-wheel at one end, of eight feet in diameter. The fly and small cog-wheel are moved by a crank projecting from an arm of the fly-wheel, with two pitmans, which are impelled by soldiers seated on from eight to ten benches, four abreast, with a succession of cross bars before each bench, contained in a frame that moves on slides, with a three feet stroke of the crank. The men are comfortably seated under an awning, sheltered from the sun and rain; the labor much lighter than rowing with a common oar, and the boats are repelled with a velocity sufficient to stem the most rapid currents in the Missouri. The flotilla made St. Charles from this place in about two days, a distance that requires at least four days by boats propelled in the ordinary mode. It is ascertained that these transports will make twenty miles per day, and thirty in cases of emergency.

Capt. Shaler, of the 6th regiment, has arrived with 65 recruits from Louisville, after being detained a month on the Ohio by low water. This detachment will set out for Council Bluffs, we understand, in a day or two. – Enquirer.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
November 10, 1824 - Page 1
Transcribed by: Nancy Piper- 2008

The Missouri Intelligencer of the 25th Sept., says that through the politeness of Maj. O’Fallen, who arrived from Council Bluffs on Tuesday last, we learn that a treaty has been concluded between the Spaniards of Santa Fe and that province, and the Pawnee tribe of Indians. This nation consists of about two thousand warriors, well provided with arms; and for bravery, enterprise and industry, greatly excel any nation known in the west. They have long been the terror of the Spaniards; robbing them of their horses, mules and property, traveling the greatest distances, and undergoing the most severe hardships to make war, in which they have been usually victorious. Maj. O’Fallen has established peace between the Belligerents, and this plundering warfare is no longer to be carried on. The Spaniards were highly delighted at the attention paid by our government to the request of their governor, and left Council Bluffs, (26 in number,) on the 11th Sept. for their native home. They can now make this long pilgrimage without fear of molestation. – Balt. Amer.

The Republican Compiler  Gettysburg, PA
27 Aug 1823 Page 3

St. Louis, July 19

We mentioned last week the departure of Col. Leavenworth from Fort Atkinson, on his expedition against the Aurikarees – a letter has since been received by a gentleman in this place, from Major Foster, commanding at Atkinson, conveying the unwelcome intelligence of the loss of one of the transport boats, and that Lieut. Wickliffe, a sergeant and six men, were drowned – a good part of the cargo was saved, but damaged.  This misfortune happened on the 4th of July, about 150 miles above Fort Atkinson.  Lieut. Wickliffe had been in the army upwards of four years, and was from Lexington in Kentucky, were an aged father and mother, a large circle of relations and friends will have to mourn his untimely death.

We are happy to state, that the detachment of recruits, which left Philadelphia some time since, destined for Fort Atkinson, under the command of Capt. Fowle, arrived at this place on Thursday last in good health.  Lieutenants M’Cabe, Mitchell, Rodgers, Vinton, and Lagnell, are associated with Capt. Fowle.  The detachment will reusme its march, (or rather its voyage) in a day or two.  – Enquirer.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

The Republican Compiler  (Gettysburg, PA)
27 Aug 1823 Page 3

Cincinnati, August 5

We understand that General Gaines, immediately on hearing of the attack on Gen. Ashley’s party, on the 2d of June, by the Rickaree Indians, at their towns on the Missouri river dispatched two steam boats from Louisville to Baton Rouge, for 500 regular troops, to be transported to St. Louis as soon as possible, and from thence to be sent up the Missouri, to protect the defenceless settlements.

A report is in town, from St. Louis, that Major Henry’s party, spoken of by General Ashley in his letter of 4th June, on their passage from the Yellow Stone river, had been attacked by a large party of Indians and totally defeated, with a loss of thirty killed.  We cannot vouch for the truth of this report, but from the hostile disposition lately manifested by the Indians in that quarter, and the small military force stationed at the posts up the Missouri we have serious apprehensions of its truth. – Nat. Rep.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

The Republican Compiler  (Gettysburg, PA)
3 Sept 1823 Page 2

Indian Outrages

We the more regret to see the following because the reputation of Major O’Fallon, for penetration and for an intimate acquaintance with the Indian character, gives great weight to his opinions:

From a St. Louis paper of July 22.

Fort Atkinson, 3d July, 1823

Dear Sir: How painful for me to tell, and you to hear, of the barbarity of the Indians. They continue to deceive and murder the most enterprising of our people; and, if we continue to forbear – if we do not soon discover a greater spirit of resentment, this river will be discolored with our blood.

The defeat of Gen. Ashley by the A’Rickarees, and departure of the troops to his relief, had scarcely gone to you, when an express arrived announcing the defeat by the Blackfoot Indians, near the Yellow Stone river, of the Missouri Fur Company’s Yellow Stone or Mountain Expedition, commanded by Messrs. Jones and Immell, both of whom,  with five of the men, are amongst the slain.  All of their property, to the amount of about $15,000 fell into the hands of the enemy.

To add to Gen. Ashley’s catalogue of misfortunes, the Blackfoot Indians have recently defeated a party of 11, & killed Maj. Henry’s men, near his establishment at the mouth of the Yellow Stone river.  The express goes on to state, that “many circumstances (of which I will be apprized in a few days) have transpired to produce a strong belief that the British traders (Hudson Bay Company) are exciting the Indians against us, either to drive us from that quarter, or reap with the Indians the fruit of our labor”.

 I was in hopes that the British traders had some bounds to their rapacity. I was in hopes that during the late Indian war, in which they were so instrumental in the indiscriminate massacre of our people, that they had become completely satiated with our blood; but it appears not to have been the case.  Like the greedy wolf, not yet gorged with the flesh, they guard over the bone – they ravage our fields, and are unwilling that we should glean them. Although barred by the treaty of Ghent from participating in our Indian trade, they presumed, and are not satisfied to do so; but, becoming alarmed at the individual enterprise of our people, they are exciting the Indians against them. They furnish them with the instruments of Hell, and a passport to Heaven – the instruments of death, and a passport to our bosoms.

Immell had great experience of the Indian character; but, poor fellow, with a British passport they at last deceived him, and he fell a victim in his own credulity; and his scalp, with those of his murdered comrades, are now bleeding on their way to some of the Hudson establishements.

Another of Gen. Ashley’s wounded men is dead, making 15 men killed by the A’Ricarees, and 11 by the Blackfoot; in all, known to have been killed by the Indians within the last two or three months, 26 effective men; and I estimate the amount of property actually lost in the conflicts at $20,000, besides a great number of horses, &c.

The Ottoes, Missouris, Omahas and Panis, have been to see me already, and as usual, profess great friendship, & C. but, with the rest of the neighboring tribes, are anxiously looking and listening to know how we (the Americans) are going to get out of the scrape.

I am still in bad health, and almost despair of recovering, during my stay here.

I am this moment interrupted by the arrival of an express from the military expedition, with a letter from Mr. Pilsher, who you know, is at the head of the Missouri Fur Company, on this river, in which he says. “I have but a moment to write. I met an express from the Mandans, bringing me very unpleasant news; the flower of my business is gone. My Mountainers have been defeated, and the chiefs of the party both slain – the party were attacked by three or four hundred Blackfoot Indians, in a position on the Yellow Stone river, where nothing but defeat could be expected.  Jones and Immell, and 5 men were killed.  The forman it is said fought most desperately. Jones killed two Indians, and in drawing his pistol to kill a third, he received two spears in his breast.  Immell was in front; he killed one Indian, and was cut to pieces.  I think we lose at at least $15,000. I will write you more fully between this and the Sioux.”

Jones was a gentleman of cleverness.  He was for several years a resident of St. Louis, where he had numerous friends to deplore his loss.  Immell has been a long time on this river, first an officer of the United States’ army, since an Indian trader of some distinction – in some respects he was an extraordinary man – he was brave, uncommonly large, and of muscular strength – when timely apprised of his danger, a host within himself.  The express left the Military expedition on the first instant, when all was well. With great respect, your most ob’t serv’t,

Ben O’Fallon
Agent for Indian Affairs.
General Wm. Clark,
Sup’t Indian Affairs, St. Louis
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

The Republican Compiler  (Gettysburg, PA)
15 Oct 1823 Page 1 & 2

Washington, Oct. 4
Official Accounts
Head Quarters, Western Department
Louisville, Ken. Sept 21, 1823

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for the information of the General-in-Chief, a copy of a letter from Col. H. Leavenworth, reporting the handsome and honorable result of his late expedition against the Ricaras Indians, number 1, with a copy of a treaty of peace with that nation, No. 2.

 I have directed Gen. Atkinson to take measures to ascertain the temper and disposition of the Siouz, and their motives for abandoning our troops at a time when their presence and aid were most wanted.  I have also directed him to keep an eye upon the Ricaras, as well as the Mandans; and to make his arrangements with a view to the chastisement of the Blackfoot Indians, early in the next spring or summer. As this measure appears to be indispensably necessary, to secure our citizens, in that quarter, I trust that the 1st regiment will be permitted to take post at Council Bluffs, in November next.

I have the honor to be,
E. P. Gaines, Maj. Gen.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

To the Adjutant General.
Head Quarters, 6th Regt.
Fort Atkinson
, Aug. 30, 1823

 Sir: I have the honor to inform you that the troops who lately visited the Ricara Towns returned to this post on the 27th inst.

 We arrived before the Ricara Towns on th 9th of the present month.  The Siouz Indians, who were with us, were met by the Ricaras a short distance from their towns, an a skirmish took place between them. The Ricaras maintained their ground, or rather, drove the Sioux back, until the regular troops and Gen. Ashley’s men arrived, and formed their line. The Ricaras were then immediately driven into their towns. The Sioux were so much scattered in front of the troops that the latter were unable to deliver their fire, without killing some of the Sioux, and therefore did not fire.
Our boats arrived subsequently during the evening of the 9th, and our artillery was disembarked.

On the morning of the 10th, Captain Riley, with a company of Riflemen and Lieut. Bradley, with a company of Infantry, were ordered to take possession of a hill above the upper village. They immediately took a position there within one hundred steps from the town, and in a situation, which screened them from the fire of the enemy from the towns.

 At the same moment, Lt. Morris, with one six pounder, and a five and half inch howitzer, commenced an attack on the lower town. Sarjeant Perkins, with one six pounder, was ordered to report to Mr. Vanderburg, of the Missouri Fur Company.  This six pounder was placed above the upper village. A brisk fire was continued upon the towns until 3 o’clock in the afternoon. The Sioux were, in the mean time, busily engaged in gathering and carrying off the corn of the Ricaras.  

 At 8 o’clock Major Ketchum was also ordered to the upper village with his company. Between 3 and 4 o’clock the six pounder and the troops opposed to the upper village, were withdrawn, and our whole force concentrated below the lower village, and the troops ordered to form, for the purpose of collecting corn for their own use, as Gen. Ashley’s men had then been  destitute of provisions for two days.

 At this time, a party of Sioux, and a party of Ricaras, both on horseback, were discovered holding a parley on the hill beyond the upper town.  It was also discovered that the Sioux were going off, though they had given no intimation of their intention to do so.  The Ricaras sent out and begged for peace.  They said that first shot from our cannon had killed the celebrated Chief, called “Grey Eyes”, who caused all the mischief, and that we had killed a great many of their people, and of their hourses. They were evidently very much terrified, and completely humbled. Being convinced of this, and supposing that the government would be better pleased to have those Indians corrected than exterminated, and as the Sioux, amounting to about 7 or 800 warriors, had left us in a very strange and unaccountable manner, it was thought best, under all the circumstances of the case, to listen to the solicitations of the Ricaras for peace, especially as it was understood that our round shot were nearly all expended – consequently, a treaty was made with them, a copy of which is enclosed.

 In restoring to Gen. Ashley the property taken, it was thought that the Indians did not perform their engagements on that subject, as well as they were able to do; and they were threatened with an attack.  Their principal chief, the Little Soldier, came to us, and begged permission to withdraw his family from the village before we attacked it; and he gave us the most conclusive evidence of his friendly disposition towards us.

 It was now late in the afternoon of the 12th, the 10th and 11th having been spent in action and negotiation, and interchanging visits, our men frequenting the towns for the purpose of trading for mocassins, &c. and the Indians manifesting every symptom of having been thoroughly brought to a sense of their interest and duty.  It was concluded to postpone the attack until morning, and the troops were dismissed from parade.

It had been ascertained by me that the Indians were so much alarmed by our threatening again to attack them, that they would probably run away and leave their villages.  This, it was thought, would have an unfavorable effect upon the Indians, and make them more inclined to commit depredations upon the traders; and, as the Little Soldier sent out, for general Ashley, a few more buffalo robes, with a message that he could not possibly do more, and begging that we would have pity on them, I sent him word that I would not attack them; that it was not their property that we wanted; to make his people feel safe, and conduct themselves well, and they should not be hurt.

 Early on the morning of the 13th, we found the Ricaras had left their towns during the night.

Major Ketchum, with his company and company E., commanded by Lieut. Bradley, and Lieut. Morris, with one six pounder, were ordered to take possession of the towns and to suffer not the least article to be taken away, or the towns to be injured.

 A messenger was sent to call back the Indians, if possible, and to induce them to take possession of their villages, but they could not be found.  It was now evident that our artillery had been served with very great effect.  The towns had been completely riddled. We found 31 new graves, and found that several old ones had been opened, and the surface set thick with prickly pears to conceal the new dirt.  We know that 10 men, who were killed by the Sioux in the skirmish on the 9th were buried in five graves: and we know, alos, that more than one was buried in several of the other graves. From the best evidence which he could collect, it is supposed that more than 50 of their people were killed, and a great number wounded.  Our messengers returned on the evening of the 14th, without having been able to find the Ricaras.

 On the morning of the 15th we placed the mother of the late chief, Grey Eyes, (an aged and inform woman, whom they left in their flight,) in one of the principal lodges of the lower village, gave her plenty of provisions and water, and left her in quiet possession of the towns, and the property left by the Indians, except some corn which had been taken for subsistence of the men.

 At about 10 o’clock, on the evening of the 15th, the troops were embarked to descend the river, and our guard withdrawn, and every soul removed from the villages, except the woman beforementioned.  All the hosts were got under way nearly at the same time. Before we were out of sight of the towns, we had the mortification to discover them to be on fire. There is no doubt but they have been consumed to ashes, nor is there any doubt but that they were set on fire by one M’Donald, a partner, and one Gordon, a clerk of the Missouri Fur Company. Had not this been done, there is no doubt, there is no room to doubt, but that the Ricara Indians, would, in future, have behaved as well towards our countrymen as any other Indians on the river. It is now my deliberate opinion, that those Indians will be excited to further hostilities.

 It is understood that this Company (the Missouri) have withdrawn their trade from above the Sioux country.  Not so with Messrs. Ashley and Henry.  They have a small number of men and a large amount of property at the mouth of the Yellow Stone river, and they were deeply interested in the correction and pacification of the Ricaras. Their zeal and efficiency in aiding to chastise those Indians were conspicuous and highly honorable.

 We found the Ricara Indians in two villages, the lower one containing 71 dirt lodges, and the upper village 70 dirt lodges. Each village was enclosed with palisadoes or pickets, and a ditch, and a greater part of the lodges had a ditch around the bottom on the inside.  These works, however, had been represented to be much stronger thatn what we found them to be.

 During our operations, we sustained no loss in men, and had but two wounded, Hugh Johnston of Gen. Ashley’s command and Smith, a private of Major Ketchum’s company.

 Our officers and men have returned in fine health and spirits, and it is well, for those left here are nearly all sick.  Capt. Fowle arrived here with 85 men (recruits,) on the 28th inst.

 Our Spring wheat has doen well, and all our crops are very good. No material losses will be sustained by our absence. In ascending the river, we lost one boat, and seven men drowned, and had another boat sunk by a storm.  We lost one swivel and some ammunition, and some provisions – a particular account of all of which shall be soon forwarded, together with a statement of every item of expense.

 I have been highly gratified with the officers and men of the regiment, and also with Gen. Ashley and his command of 80 men, and intend to do myself the honor to make a more detailed a circumstantial account of all our proceedings, and of what was done by each, and hope that what has been done will meet the approbation of our superior officers, and of the government.

 I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant,

 H. Leavenworth, Col. Commanding 6th regt.
Brig. Gen. H. Atkinson, Commanding West Dept.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)

March 24  1824 Page 3
The Louisville Post of the 2d instant says: “We have conversed with an intelligent gentleman, just arrived from Missouri, who states that much alarm was entertained by the inhabitants upon the frontier, as to the hostile intentions of the Indians.  Their conduct lately, had excited considerable suspicion, and fears were entertained that they had joined in a very extensive conspiracy to make war upon the white settlers. 

The forces stationed in that part of the country  were healthy, and watching the movements of the Indians, but it was thought the present force was not sufficient to keep these daring and restless people in check, particularly if the conspiracy should prove as extensive as it was feared.  There are not more than three thousand men to guard a territory of nearly five thousand miles, and keep in check upwards of twenty thousand warriors, which can be brought into the field by the suspected tribes.”
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]


Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
March 31  1824 Page 1

We understand that Gen. Atkinson is making preparatory arrangements at St. Louis, for a military expedition, which is to ascend the Missouri next summer, for the purpose of chastising the Indians for their aggressions in that quarter. – Missouri Intelligencer.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]


Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
April 14 1824

The St. Louis Enquirer denies the truth of the statement which appeared in one of the Missouri papers relative to a projected expedition of General Atkinson, for the Upper Missouri, to chastise the Indians, and asserts no such expedition is in contemplation.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]


Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
May 5 1824
St. Louis, MO., March 29

Lieut. Morris, who arrived on Saturday evening last, from the Council Bluffs, brings news of the murder of five men, belonging to the trading establishment of Messrs. B. Pratte & Co., by the Yanctons, and one of the Columbian Fur Company, by the Auricaree Indians.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
May 19 1824
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]
Aricara Indians

Accounts were received at Franklin, Missouri, on the 24th of March, from officers of the Army at Fort Atkinson, stating that “five or six men belonging to Mr. Frazeau’s trading establishment, were lately killed near the Aricara village, while ascending the Missouri river.  They were conveyed in a bateau, and were going up for the purpose of trading with the Mandans and Aricaras.  Within one day’s voyage of the Aricara village, the patroon, apprehensive of danger, left his company, and proceeded by land.  He promised to rejoin them at the Mandans, whose town, one mile above the Aricara’s, he entered under cover of the night.  The day after his arrival he received news that his men were all murdered, his cargo captured, and his boat sunk.  The amount of goods taken, was at a cost, $1500.  Mr. Tilton, a trader of the Mandans, sent one of his men to the river for water, who was also met and killed by an Aricara Indian.”

The Missouri Intelligences, which furnishes the above account, has some excellent remarks on the inhuman effects of hunting and trapping on the Indian lands, and driving the Indians farther towards the shores of the Pacific, from the means of subsistence, and beyond the hope of civilization. – Na. Intel.

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 14,  1824

Letters received at St. Louis from Gen. Wm. H. Ashley on the 2d ult., state that three Americans (of Major Henry’s party) have been killed by the Ricarees on the River Plate, and that the six men reported to have been killed some time past, were killed by a band of a well known Chief of the Ricarees.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
July 21,  1824

St. Louis
, June 7
More Indian News

Mr. Vasques, just from the Upper Missouri, states that five men of Major Henry’s party, in descending the Plate, were attacked by a party of Aurickaree Indians and that three, Moore, Chapman and Glass were killed; that the others Dutten and marsh, made their escape and arrived at the Council Bluffs.

They state that Major Henry has built a fort at the mouth of the Big Horn – that a Mr. Wheeler was killed by a white bear.  Capt. Smith, with some of the party, had crossed the mountains. – Enquirer
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)
August 4, 1824
The Aurickarees and Osages

Late accounts from the Upper Missouri confirms the reports heretofore received of the Indian murders in that quarter. – St. Louis Enquirer.

It now appears that after they fled from their Villages, the Aurickarees sought the protection of the Mandans and obtained on condition of future friendly deportment towards the whites – that this was promised by all, except a small band who breathe nothing but vengeance, and separated themselves from the main body; that the latter built a village in the timber just below Tilton’s Fort, and induced him to trade with them.  They have robbed 3 men of Henry’s and killed 1 of Tilton’s and 4 of the French Company.

They at length manifested such hostility as to make it prudent for Tilton to abandon his fort, and remove within the Mandan Villages, the Chiefs of which withdrew their protection from the Aurickarees, who then formed a treaty with the Gross Ventures, who stipulated that in case our troops should ascend the river to punish their outrages, their allies should be left to meet their own fate.  It is said that the Aurickarees are now much alarmed expecting such a result, and have sent a deputation to Colonel Leavenworth with a tale of repentance and sorrow, and promises of future good conduct, upon condition of forgiveness of the past.  And to make it more palatable to the colonel, their outrages are enlarged upon our traders who burnt their Villages.
[Contributed by: Nancy piper - 2008]

Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) July 20, 1825
The two Osages, Mad Buffalo and Little Eagle, who were lately condemned to death for murder and pardoned by the President had reached their Nation.  They had separated at the commencement of their journey and taken different routes.  Mad Buffalo reached home in a state of starvation, while the other had fared sumptuously on deer and turkeys which he found.  They are said to be dissatisfied with their imprisonment and to have given a ludicrous account of the manner of their trial and treatment.
(Submitted by Nancy Piper)

 Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) July 27, 1825
Important Indian Treaties
Extract of a letter to the (?) of the Missouri Intelligence dated St. Louis, June 4
Dear Sir:  I have the pleasure to inform you that treaties have been concluded by Gen. Clark with the Kansas and Osage Indians for the cession of all the land which they held within this State, and also for a considerable district of country west of Missouri and Arkansas.  Several new and advantageous stipulations have been introduced into these treaties.  The Kansas are to pay for all horses or other property stolen or taken by them from the white people since the year 1815 and the Osages are in like manner to pay for all similar depredations committed by them since the year 1808.  These stipulations of course cannot take effect until after the treaties are ratified by the President and Senate, when upon proof being made to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, payment will be made.  The sum of eight thousand dollars is appropriated by the treaties to these indemnities.  These Indians area also to pay for all future injuries of the same kind, the amount of which is to be annually stopped out of their annuities on making proof to the agents of the value of the property taken.  The country west of Missouri and Arkansas is appropriated to the use of the Kansas and Osage, and of the other Indians now within the limits of this State, none of whom are to settle within twenty leagues of our boundary. Thus those important treaties have been concluded by virtue of which the beautiful tract of country on the western boarder of this State will be laid open to the settlement of the white people and the whole state is to be freed from the nuisance of an Indian population.  (Can't read the rest.)
(Submitted by Nancy Piper)

Franklin, Missouri, June 9.
Six or seven new and substantial built wagons arrived in this place on Tuesday last, heavily laden with merchandize on their way to New Mexico, owned exclusively, we believe by Mr. Escudero, a native of that country and who accompanies his valuable adventure.  This gentleman has expended a very large sum in the purchase of goods, wagons and equipments. This may be considered as a new era in the commerce between Mexico and this country.  It is probable the example of Mr. Escudero will be followed by others of his rich countrymen who will bring hither large portions of their surplus wealth for the same purpose.
Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania August 2, 1826. Contributed by Nancy Piper

The St. Louis Republican of the 21st ult. gives a report which prevailed there that the Pawnee Indians had attacked and murdered a party of men on their return from Santa Fe, supposed to be part of the United States expedition for surveying the road to that place.  The report was brought from two different nations of Indians, the Osages and the Kansas.  The Pawnees are a very extensive nation of Indians consisting of three tribes, the Pawnee Loups, Pawnee Republics and the Pawnees of the Plains.  They inhabit an immense tract of country extending from the mouth of the Platts to the Rocky Mountains.
Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania October 18 1826. Contributed by Nancy Piper

Jackson, Tenn., Sept. 2
Distressing Intelligence!
From Mr. Money, one of the members of a trading company from this town to Santé Fe, who returned home a few days since, we learn that the remainder of the company, on their return home were robbed on the Semitone river of four hundred and fifty head of Stock by the Comanche Indians.
It seems that the company had proceeded on unmolested until the morning of the 5th June, when they were encamped for the purpose of recruiting their Stock – and that they were engaged in cooking breakfast, when a body of Indians made their appearance and approached under the pretext of friendship, breakfasted with them and requested them to remain until next morning, which they refused to do – upon which they retired a short distance over a hill and immediately returned in hostile attitude and forcibly took and drove off the whole of the loose Stock, amounting as above stated to 450 head of Spanish Jacks, Jennies, Mules and Horses.
Thus were these adventurous sons of the West deprived of the hard earned fruits of 14 months labor amidst difficulties and privations known only to those who have enquired the fatigues of the enterprise.  After the loss of their Stock, they proceeded homewards as far as the upper settlements in Missouri where some of them still remain.  Major Massie of this town, has returned to Santa Fe, with a company from Missouri.  We wish him great success in his town and we feel confident that no man more deserves it. – Gazette.
Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania November 2, 1826. Contributed by Nancy Piper

Indian Department
John F. A. Sanford, Esq. is appointed Indian Agent in the place of Peter Wilson, deceased. Mr. S. will leave this place in a few days for his post on the Upper Missouri, at the Mandan Villages, a distance of 1700 miles from St. Louis and 1050 miles above the Council Bluffs, in the very heart of a wilderness, (upwards of twenty five hundred miles from the seat of Government.) At the post assigned Mr. S. it requires more than ordinary resolution and firmness of character to encounter the privations and dangers incident to the situation; and we are persuaded no young man could have been selected better qualified for the office and who would more promptly and faithfully advance the views and sustain the character of the Government. – St. Louis Enquirer.
Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania November 2, 1826. Contributed by Nancy Piper


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