Gazetteer of Pioneers and Others in North Dakota Previous to 1862
[Source: "Collections of the State Historical Society", Vol. 1, 1906]
REPORT OF HISTORICAL SOCIETY
The gazetteer of Old Settlers and Others in North Dakota previous to 1862 is intended as a mere suggestion to those who can supply more names and further details that the Historical Society is anxious to publish all such material which may be contributed. It is not pretended that the names of those given in the following list comprise all who visited the soil of North Dakota before 1862. The list will be revised from time to time and when republished later it should be more than doubled by additions sent to us by those familiar with some phase of pioneer history hitherto overlooked. Some of these brief sketches, too, are worthy of being expanded into a complete biography and it is hoped such will be the result for many of them.
When a mere boy he came to the upper Missouri country, about 1844, and stayed at Ft. Pierre the larger part of the time. He clerked at Ft. Clark during the winter of 1846-7, under Joseph des Autel, for the American Fur Company. In 1868, he was employed as interpreter by the U. 8. Peace Commissioners at Ft. Rice. Later, he clerked for Chas. Galpin at Ft. Rice and Oak Creek, and had a wood yard below Standing Rock Agency. In 1870 he moved to Ft. Yates, where he died. [Basil Clement].
Worked at Ft. Clark for the American Fur Company. [Basil Clement. ]
Came to Ft. Pierre in 1850, and to Ft. Clark in 1851, with Peter Beauchamp. He worked mainly for the American Fur Company, and died in their employ at Ft. Union. Basil Clement.
A Frenchman from St. Cloud, Minn., who succeeded Norman W. Kittson as customs house officer at Pembina. He was a Mason and U. S. government contractor for wood and supplies at Ft. Pembina.
Beaver hunter, trader and Arikara interpreter at Ft. Berthold for the American Fur Company. He was at Ft. Berthold in 1848, and died there about 1870. [F. F. Gerard.]
He came to the upper Missouri country before 1840, and stayed for many years at the Arikara village near Ft. Clark, trapping beaver and hunting buffalo. [Basil Clement. ]
BELCOURT, FATHER G. A.
Roman Catholic Missionary at Pembina in 1849, and at St. Joseph in 1856-61. [Antoine Girard.]
"I will add that Mr. Belcourt is a Catholic Missionary who has resided in that country for eighteen years, has learned the Indian languages spoken on that frontier, has traveled over the most of it and is perhaps better acquainted with the people of that region and their peculiarities, than any other man in the country. I found him a polite, educated gentleman, with a self-sacrificing devotion to his high and holy calling, that cannot but excite admiration in a professor of Christianity, and respect from the unbeliever and heathen. His wish for assistance in the publication of his dictionary of the Chippewa language is worthy of the favorable consideration of a liberal government, which is striving in such profitless and numerous ways to ameliorate the condition of these unfortunate people."
[Major Woods' Report of His Expedition to Pembina Settlements, 31st Congress, 1st Session, En Doc. 51.]
Trapper and trader on the Red River in 1804.
[Early Western Travels, Cleveland, Ohio, 1904, XXIV., 12, note.]
American Fur Company interpreter at Ft. Union when Maximilian visited it in 1833, formerly an employee of the Hudson Bay Company. [Early Western Travels, XXIII., 23, note. ]
A Canadian Frenchman from St. Louis. [F. F Gerard.]
Trader in charge of a venture of the Northwest Fur Company to trade with the Mandans. Accompanied Gen. Atkinson's expedition in 1825. [Early Western Travels, XXIII., 227. ]
Came from Cahokia, Illinois, and died on the Rosebud Agency, South Dakota, Aug. 20th, 1900, at a very advanced age.
BOLLER, HENRY A.
Member of opposition fur company with Larpenteur, Jefferson Smith and Robert Lemon in 1860. He was at Ft. Berthold in 1800, and at Ft. Union in 1861.
[Coues, Larpenteur's Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri, New York, 1S9S, II., 311-322]
Son of Pierre Bottineau, in partnership with Charles Grant at St. Joseph. Hunter for Alexander Henry at Pembina in 1803.
[Coue's Journal of Alexander Henry and David Thompson, N. Y., 1897,I., 226.]
Negro employed by the American Fur Company at Ft. Union and Ft. Berthold. Died at Ft. Stevenson about 1868.
[Larpenteur, I., Ill, note by Washington Matthews.]
Beaver hunter, one of a party of hunters who wintered at Ft. Union 1844-5. [Larpenteur, II., 211ff]
BUCKMAN, JOSEPH Y.
In 1861, he was appointed postmaster at St. Joseph and he was also elected to the territorial legislature. He died in 1862.
[Record, May 1896, No. XL, 4]
Clerk of Hudson Bay Company with Hugh Henney at FL Mandan in 1894.
[Original Journals of Lewis and Clark Expedition, New York, 1904, I, 238.]
A Scotch farmer living ten miles south of Pembina in 1856; he returned later to Winnipeg. [Antoine Girard]
In charge of an expedition sent by Alexander Henry to Grandes Fourches (Grand Forks), Sept. 1, 1801, and later in charge of a post there. Sent by Henry to build a fort on the Turtle river, Sept. 20th, 1802. Died in 1804.
[Henry's Journal, I., 186, 189, note, 197 and 204]
He was born in 1804, in Ireland, and came to St. Louis in 1824. He was in partnership with Wm. Sublette, in opposition to the American Fur Company, 18334. Maximilian met him at Ft. William, opposite the mouth of the Yellowstone river, Oct. 30th, 1833. He died at St. Louis in 1879.
[Early Western Travels, XXIII., 193, note.]
The St. Louis merchant who supplied the opposition fur traders with goods.
[F. F. Gerard].
A hunter on the upper Missouri, who wintered with the Arikara in 1809-10. He was met by Bradbury May 22, 1810, and joined his party on their trip up the river.
[Early Western Travels, V., 93 and 178, and note.]
He was born in Springfield, Ohio, March 6, 1818, and came to Pembina, August 16th, 1851. He was assistant post master 1851-3, at Pembina, and in 1853 was in partnership with Forbes & Kittson in the Indian trade. In 1854, he moved to St. Joseph and started a trading post there, and in 1857 moved to St. Boniface, Manitoba. He returned to Pembina in 1863, and died there July 27th, 1902.
[Record 1895, August and December; 1896, May. E. K. Cavileer.]
CHABOILLEZ, C. J. B.
He built a trading post for the North West Fur Co. on the south side of the Pembina river, near its mouth, in 1797. This post was called Ft. Paubna, and was abandoned by 1800. He was agent for the North West Fur Company on the Red and Assiniboine rivers in 1796-1805, and was in charge of a post on the latter river in 1804. He died at Terrebonne, 1809.
[Henry's Journal, I., 60 and note, and 80 and note. ]
In 1806, he visited the Mandan and Grosventre villages on the Missouri river, with Alexander Henry, who had persuaded him to join him on the expedition at Ft. Assinboine, British Columbia. He died at Terrebonne in 1812.
[Henry's Journal, I., 61, note.]
He was employed by the North West Fur Company along the Bed and Assiniboine rivers, and wintered at Pine Fort, British America, on the Assiniboine river in 1793-4.
[Henry's Journal, I., 50, note.]
He was a French trader and interpreter at the middle village of the Grosventres on the Knife river, where Maximilian found him in 1833, and where he had lived 37 years.
[Early Western Travels, XXII., 345.]
Interpreter of Lewis and Clark on their expedition, April 7, 1805 to August 31, 1806.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.]
CHARDON, FRANCOIS A.
He was a clerk for the American Fur Company at Fort Union at the time Maximilian visited it in 1833. He was located at Fort Clark in 1837, at the time of the small pox scourge. He built Fort Jackson for McKenzie in 1833, and was placed in charge of the post.
[Early Western Travels, XXIII., 188, note. Also XXIV., 29 and note. ]
In charge of Fort McKenzie in 1842 when he massacred some Blackfeet Indians there. On April 1st, 1848, he was found by Palliser in charge of Fort Berthold. He died there the same year.
[Larpenteur, I., 137, note.]
Son of Francois A. Chardon. He ran away from home when young and joined a circus, as one of the performers, the strong man. He was at Ft. Berthold in 1862-3, as clerk and trader for Chas. Primeaux, and was one of the 17 men who held Fort Berthold against the attacks of the Sioux, December 25th, 1863. He had moved into the fort for protection as three of his wood choppers had been killed by the Sioux.
[F. F. Gerard.]
He died in 1889 on the Oak Creek Agency, S. D.
CHOTEAU, CHARLES P.
Son of Pierre Choteau, Jr., principal member of the American Fur Company. In 1842, the name of this company was changed to the Pierre Choteau, Jr., Co., and in 1854, the name was changed to the Chas. P. Choteau Company.
CHOTEAU, PIERRE, JR.
The agent for American Fur Co. who accompanied Catlin from St. Louis to Fort Union in 1832.
[Catlin. North American Indians, Edinburgh, 1903, I., 15.
Born in France. His brothers were Menard, Edward and Paul. He was one of the wealthiest traders on the Missouri, worth about $18,000,000. [F. F. Gerard.]
Member of the Lewis and Clark expedition, who left the party to trap on the upper Missouri river with Joseph Dickson and Forrest Hancock.
[Original Journals, V., 344 and note.]
Met by Bradbury in 1810, on the Missouri river, to whom he related his adventures among the Indians.
[Early Western Travels, V., 44 and 45 and note.]
Born in Ohio 1818. Farmer in Pembina district, Minnesota territory, 1850. Family of three, wife, Lucy, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Harriet.
[See Census 1850, page 384]
Clerk of American Fur Co. at Fort Clark at time of Catlings visit, 1832.
[Catlin, I., 200.]
In charge of the American Fur Co. post at St. Peters, Minnesota territory, and some time previous to 1840 transferred to the Missouri river.
In charge at Fort Union 1812-4 for the American Fur Company. He had been in the service of the company since 1832 and became a partner in the company in 1843.
[Larpenteur, I., 162 ff.]
He left the Missouri country about 1868 for Peoria, Ill., with his wife and two sons, Joseph and John. In two years he was back again on the Missouri river and died at Fort Benton in the early '70's.
[F. F. Gerard].
Hunter for Alexander Henry at Pembina during the winter of 1803-04.
[Henry's Journal, L, 195 and note.]
One of the hunters employed in Bradbury's expedition.
[Early Western Travels, V., 181 and note.]
He was born in Scotland. He was placed in charge at Fort Clark for the American Fur Company, from 1849, until the year after the cholera at that post. He was in charge at Fort Benton from about 1856 to 1870, when he returned to Scotland with his son, leaving his daughter, Maggie, at Fort Berthold.
[F. F. Gerard.]
Scotch halfbreed from Winnipeg. Trader at St. Joseph, and died there about 1866. [Antoine Girard.]
DES AUTEL, JOSEPH
In charge at Fort Clark for the American Fur Company, when Larpenteur visited it in the spring of 1847 and clerk at Fort McKenzie in 1842 under Chardon.
[Larpenteur, I., 217, and note; II., 246.]
A nephew of James Kipp, and clerk at Fort Clark under Andrew Dawson. He died at Fort Pierre in 1849. [F. F. Gerard.]
DE SMET, FATHER PETER JOHN
The noted Belgian Jesuit priest who visited at Fort Union in 1842 on his way back from the Columbia mission field where he spent the larger part of his life. He passed through Fort Berthold in 1863, and was persuaded by the Indians to say mass to break the drouth of that season. [F. F. Gerard.]
An Illinois trapper on the Missouri and Yellowstone where he had arrived in the summer of 1804. He was met by Clark August 11th, 1806, on his return trip. At the five villages on the Knife river he and his companion persuaded Colter to leave Lewis and Clark and join them. [Original Journals, V., 329 and 344]
A clerk of opposition fur company of Sublette & Campbell at the winter village of the Knife river Grosventres, and visited by Maximillan in 1833.
[Early Western Travels, XXIII., 218.]
He was met in the winter of 1842-3 by James Bridger and Basil Clement west of the Missouri river.
In the employ of the X. Y. Fur Co., at Pembina in 1803-4, and employed by the North West Fur Co., after the coalition of 1804; accidentally killed by an Indian at Pembina, Nov. 1,1805.
Henry's Journal, I., 187, note.
He came with Paul Narcelle in 1838 from Longueil, Canada, and was in the employ of the American Fur Co. as camp trader on the Missouri river. In 1878 he started a cattle ranch on the Cheyenne where he died in 1895.
Born in Vermont, 1820, and was a teacher in the Pembina district, Minnesota Territory, 1850, probably at Red Lake.
[See Census 1850, page 384.]
GALPIN, CHAS. E.
Indian trader at Fort Berthold, 1865, and at Fort Rice in 1868. He died at Grand River in 1870.
[Larpenteur II., 343, note by Washington Mathews. ]
He was born in Pennsylvania and was a member of the Arm that ran in opposition to Hawley & Hubbell at Fort Berthold in 1865.
[F. F. Gerard].
A French trader in the employ of Sublette & Campbell and who was met by Maximilian in the winter village of the Mandans in 1833.
[Early Western Travels, XXIV., 35.]
He was met by the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 as a resident among the Arikara and Mandans.
[Original Journals, Lewis and Clark, I., 272. ]
He came originally from Canada. His first wife was a half breed Arikara, named Josette; his children by this marriage were Josette, mother of Maggie Dawson and wife of Andrew Dawson; another daughter, who died at Ft. Clark, and a son who lived among the Arikara, as one of their number, and was killed by an Arikara, Bears' Ears, leader of the band of "Strong Hearts," whose duty was that of camp police. Bears' Ears fled to the Sioux after the murder and was afterward employed as U. S. government scout at old Ft. Lincoln. Garreau's second wife was a full blood Mandan, and her son was Pierre Garreau, a full blood Indian.
[F. F. Gerard.]
Son of Antoine Garreau and trader at Fort Clark and Fort Berthold among the Indians.
[Early Western Travels, XXIV., 35, note.]
Interpreter at Fort Berthold for the traders and for the United States army.
[Larpenteur, I., 125 and note.]
Worked for the Pierre Choteau, Jr. Co. as an interpreter. He was the step-son of Antoine Garreau, being a full blood Mandan Indian. He died in his hut at Fort Berthold in 1870, from the effects of smoke. His hut caught fire in the night and he was suffocated before he could unbar the door.
[F. F. Gerard.]
He was born near Montreal, Canada, about 1834. In 1856 he came from St. Paul to Pembina with Antoine Girard and Wm. Moorhead. He was a clerk for the Hudson Bay Company a number of years. He built a hotel later at Pembina, and died at St. Joseph (Walhalla). [Antoine Girard.]
Born in Canada, 1821. Indian fur trader at Pembina, 1850.
[See Census 1850, page 384]
Came from Lake Superior to St. Joseph and died at Manitoba.
He was born near Montreal, Canada, at Longueil in 1836. He came west to Chicago by steamboat, and by rail to Galena over the new road, and up the Mississippi river on the War Eagle, arriving at Pembina August 20th, 1856. For several years he worked for the Hudson Bay Company, under the chief factor, Kennedy, carrying goods to the Chippewas. In 1861, he was employed on the first Red River steamboat, the Anson Northrup, and during the winter carried goods for the Hudson Bay Co. to Roseau Lake, Minnesota. During the Sioux outbreak of 1862, he was employed as guide for parties traveling between Pembina and St. Paul, and was never attacked by the Sioux, owing to the Canadian flag, which he always carried, nailed to his Red River cart. In 1866, he moved to Grand Forks, and the following year while hunting he saw the last large herd of buffalo in the region about Pembina; after this year, the hunters had to seek the buffalo much further west. In 1871-2, he kept a stage station at Acton on the Winnipeg, Breckinridge and Moorhead stage line. In 1891, he established a ferry a few miles above Acton, where he now resides.
Beaver hunter and trader from Pennsylvania, killed by Arikara in 1833. He served in the Arikara campaign of 1823.
[Early Western Travels, XXIII., 294, and note.]
He was born in Montreal, Canada, and came to St. Louis early in the 40,s. He was a blacksmith at Ft. Pierre for a number of years, and later, in the employ of the American Fur Company, he went as far north as Ft. Clark. He died in 1886 at Vanderbilt, S. D. [H. H. M. Smee.]
An Indian trader for the North West Fur Comany, who deserted the company while on a trip to the five villages on the Knife river. He was killed by the Sioux in 1801, during a buffalo hunt with a band of Mandans. [Henry's Journal, I., 370.]
Born on Red River, Canada, 1824. Indian trader, Pembina district, Minnesota territory, 1850. [See Census 1850, page 384]
Partner of Chas. Bottineau at St. Joseph and left for Manitoba about 1867.
He was born in 1764 and died at Lachine in 1848. He was clerk for the North West Fur Co. in 1784, and became a partner in the firm in 1791. He spent most of his later life in charge of the Red River department. His trading post was on the east side of the Red River, just opposite the mouth of the Pembina river, and was built soon after 1790, and was the first establishment for the North West Fur Co. on the Red River.
[Henry's Journal, I., 80 and note.]
A trader among the Arikara, and French interpreter of the Lewis and Clark expedition. He returned down river with a party from Fort Mandan in November, 1804.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 184, and note, and 218.]
Came to the Missouri country at the time when the American Fur Co. first established a trading post at Fort Berthold.
[F. F. Gerard]
Clerk for the American Fur Co. at Ft. Pierre, and visited the company's posts as far north as Ft. Clark. He died at Libertie, Missouri, in 1841. [Basil Clement.]
A trapper on the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers, where he had gone in the summer of 1804. He was met by Clark, Aug. 11th, 1806, on his return trip.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, V., 829, and note, and 344]
He was born in St. Louis, and was a member of the Maximilian party in 1832-4. He served as clerk for the American Fur Co. in 1845, and was an independent fur trader at Ft. Yates, in 1896. [Early Western Travels, XXII., 339, note.]
He was with the American Fur Co., at Fort McKenzie, Mont., from the founding of the post. He participated in the massacre of the Blackfeet Indians at Fort McKenzie in 1842. He formed an opposition fur company with Chas. Primeaux, Jos. Picotte and Booise, clerk. The firm was bought out later by the American Fur Co. Larpenteur, I., 117, note, and 218-27. He worked for F. F. Girard at Fort Berthold for two years as carpenter, clerk, etc., and for two years he was an independent trader. [F. F. Gerard. ]
Trader in the employ of the Hudson Bay Co., and visited Camp Mandan, Dec. 1, 1804.
Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, V., 232.
HENNEY, (also HENEY) HUGH
Hudson Bay Co. trader, and visited Fort Mandan, Dec. 16, 1804.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 237-8, and note. ]
Trader for the Hudson Bay Co. at Pembina in 1807.
[Henry's Journal, I., 424 and note.]
HENRY, ALEXANDER, JR
He was a fur trader for the North West Fur Co., and consolidated companies from 1792 to 1814. Sixteen years of this time was spent among the Salteurs (a branch of the Chippewas) which brought him into the Red River Valley and led to the founding of posts at Grandes Fourches, (Grand Forks) on the Park and on the Pembina rivers; and on the Red Lake river, a tributary of the Red River east of Grandes Fourches. It was during this time also that he made his famous trip to the Mandan country on the Missouri river.
From 1808-11 he was in charge of posts on the north Saskatchewan in British America, exploring the country thoroughly and reaching the Rocky Mountains on one of his western trips.
In 1813, he visited the Columbia valley, in what is now the states of Oregon and Washington. Here he was drowned in the Columbia river, May 22,1814.
[Coues' Journals of Alexander Henry and David Thompson.]
Kentucky hunter, met by Bradbury May 26, 1810, who persuaded him to join his expedition up the Missouri river.
[Early Western Travels, V. 98, and note. ]
HODGKISS, WILLIAM D.
In charge for the American Fur Co. at Fort Clark, 1856-9, and at Fort Union. 1863. He died in 1864.
[F. F. Gerard. ]
He was born in New York and came to the upper Missouri country before 1840.
A Spaniard employed at Fort Berthold by the Pierre Choteau Jr. Co., under agent Morgan. He was shot by an Indian while carrying dispatches to Fort Buford, about 1857.
F. F. Gerard.
A Spaniard at Ft. McKenzie in the employ of the American Fur Co., who was killed by Alexander Harvey at Fort Union in 1841.
[Larpenteur, I., 169.]
French interpreter on the Lewis and Clark Expedition who was hired in 1804.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 209, and note.]
Interpreter for Manuel Lisa at the trading post of the Missouri Fur Co., and met by Bradbury in 1811.
[Early Western Travels, V., 156 and note.]
He was one of a party of traders who visited the Mandans and Grosventres for the North West Fur Co. in 1795; and in 1797 he accompanied David Thompson on a similar trip He was found by Alexander Henry in 1806 at the principal Mandan village and he claimed at that time to have been in this region for fifteen years. At the time of Henry's visit Jessaume had just returned from a trip to Washington, D. C, where he had accompanied Lewis and Clark, as interpreter for the Mandan chief, Sheheke.
[Henry's Journal, I., 301, note, and 333.]
A hunter on the upper Missouri river, who wintered with the Arikara. He was met by Bradbury May 22, 1811, and joined his party on a trip up the river.
[Early Western Travels, V., 93 and note, and 178.]
He was born in Canada 1788, and was a hunter and trapper on the Red River as early as 1808. In 1818, he went to the upper Missouri country. He built a fort at the mouth of the White Earth river in 1825, for the Columbia Fur Co., which was afterwards transferred to the American Fur Co. in 1827. Maximilian found him at Fort Clark as clerk in 1833. He was transferred to Fort McKenzie in 1835, and was in charge at Fort Alexander on the Yellowstone in 1843, and at Fort Union in 1845. He retired from active service in 1865.
[Early Western Travels, XXII., 345 and note; XXIII., 214 and note. ]
Catlin found him at the five villages on the Knife river where he had been eight years. [Gatlin, I., 121.]
KITTSON, NORMAN W.
He was born in Canada in 1814, and died in 1888. He was sent to Pembina from St. Paul in 1843, to take charge of the American Fur Co. interests. The company's headquarters were at St. Peters, under charge of Gen. Sibley. Kittson, during the same year, founded the Red River Transportation Co. in connection with Joseph Rolette. He was an Indian trader at Pembina in 1850, and at Turtle Mountain in 1853. He was chosen a member of the Minnesota territorial legislature for the years 1851-55. [Minnesota Historical Society.]
LA BARGE, JOHN
A member of the opposition fur company of La Barge, Harkness & Co., operating on the upper Missouri river in 1862. He was captain of the steamboat Shreveport on the Missouri river at same time. He died in 1885. [Larpenteur, II., 338.]
He was a trapper and hunter at Ft. Clark who came to the upper Missouri country before 1840. [Basil Clement.]
LACOMBE, FATHER ANDRE
Born in Canada in 1826; a Roman Catholic clergyman in the Pembina district, Minnesota territory, in 1850.
[See Census 1850, page 384.]
Still engaged in active service at Pincher Creek, Alberta, Canada.
LA FRAMBOIS, FRANK
In 1859-61 he was in charge at Ft. La Barge, an independent trading post built in 1859 by Joseph La Barge a few miles above new Ft. Pierre. He acted as one of the guides with Gen. Sully on his expedition in 1864 from Ft. Rice to the mouth of the Yellowstone. During the Ft. Rice peace negotiations of 1868 he was the principal interpreter. [Basil Clement.]
LAFRANCE, J. BAPTISTE
French interpreter of the North West Fur Co. trading expedition that remained in the vicinity of Fort Mandan during the winter of 1804-5.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 221 and note.]
A free trader who visited the Mandans in 1793. He accompanied Larocque on his trips to the Mandans in 1804 and in 1805. When Alexander Henry visited the Five Villages in 1806 he found him at the chief Mandan village where he had been since May 8th of that year.
[Henry's Journal, I., 302, note.]
In charge of Fort Pierre for the American Fur company when Maximilian visited the post in 1833. He was the American Fur company agent at Fort Union in 1845.
[Early Western Travels, XXII., 316 and note.]
He was in charge of Fort Union, 1844-5, while Larpenteur worked there.
[Larpenteur, I., 211 ff.]
He died near Libertie, Missouri. [Basil Clement.]
He was employed at Fort Clark as clerk under Andrew Dawson and was shot by an Arikara, Red Bird, while on his way down the river with dispatches to the nearest post, 100 miles distant. [F. F. Gerard.]
He was born in Canada in 1794, and died in 1894. He was a French trader and interpreter at Fort Peck in 1845, and carpenter at Fort Buford in 1855-6. His sons were Edward and Louis.
Partner in American Fur company, in charge at Fort Clark during the winter of 1832-3, when the post was visited by Maximilian.
[Early Western Travels, XX., 824, note; XXIII., 229.]
Clerk and Indian trader for Alexander Henry at Pembina, 1801-3.
[Henry's Journal, I., 221, 227.]
LA PLANTE, LOUIS, SR.
In the employ of the American Fur company at Fort Pierre, and at Fort Clark in 1856. He died on the Yankton agency.
LAROCQUE, F. A.
He was clerk in the employ of the North West Fur Com-pany at Fort Assiniboine on the Assiniboine river in 1804 and during the summer of 1806 he had charge of the post. He led the expedition to the Mandan and Grosventre villages for the North West Company, meeting Lewis and Clark, Nov. 27, 1804. The following February he returned to his post, and led another expedition in June, 1805, in search of the Rocky Mountain divide. Failing in this search he returned in November, passing through the Mandan villages on his way back to Fort Assiniboine. He died at Montreal.
[Henry's Journal, I., 298, note, and 301, and note.]
The French trader and explorer who visted the Mandans on the Missouri river in 1738, being the first white man to leave a record of his visit to this region. His son in 1742 pushed his explorations to the foot of the Rockies, and again visited the Mandan villages on the Missouri. In 1736 his eldest son was killed by the Sioux and the entire party accompanying him, including Father Auneau, also perished. Laverendrye died in 1749.
[Brymner, Report on Canadian Archives, 1889, Ottawa, 1890.]
He was a fur trader in the employ of the American Fur Company, and in opposition. He was a resident at Fort Union and Fort Buford 1833 to 1871. He was driven from Fort Buford by a United States government order of January 7, 1871. He died November 15, 1872, at his home on the Little Sioux, Iowa.
[Larpenteur, II., 298, note; and 898, note.]
He was the Customs House officer at Pembina in 1860, succeeding McFetridge, and trader at St. Joseph in partnership with Wm. Moorhead. He died there in 1868. [[Antoine Girard.]]
Partner of Larpenteur in 1860, selling out to LaBarge, Harkness & Co., 1862.
[Larpenteur, II., 388-40.]
LE PAGE, BAPTISTE
A Canadian Frenchman hired at Fort Mandan by Lewis and Clark. He had been among the Cheyennes the previous summer and had left them by way of the Little Missouri river.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 216; VII., 358.]
A Creole at Fort Berthold, who died during the winter of 1855-6.
He was the only brother of Meriwether Lewis, and was born in Virginia in 1777. He became a partner in the Missouri Fur company in 1809. He was in charge of the post built by Manuel Lisa just above the winter village of the Grosventres on the east side of the Missouri river, and which was visited by Bradbury in 1811. He returned to St. Louis in 1812, and died there in 1844.
[Early Western Travels, V., 153, note; XXIII., 217, and note.]
LEWIS, DR. WILLIAM
Born in New York city, 1803, physician in Pembina district, Minnesota territory, 1850. Family of four, wife, Lucy, and three children, Daniel, Fredric and Louise.
[See Census 1850, page 884.]
He was a Spanish trader on the Missouri river, who was born in New Orleans in 1772, and died in 1820. He organized the Missouri Fur Company in 1806; the fort above the mouth of the Knife river, which he built for the company, was visited by Bradbury in 1811.
[Early Western Travels, V., 96 and note, and 158; VI., 132.]
Independent fur trader at Fort Berthold in partnership with Jefferson Smith in 1855.
[Basil Clement and Louis Sears.]
North West Fur Company trader met by Lewis and Clark at the five villages on the Missouri river in 1804.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 206]
An Irishman in the employ of the North West Fur Company at Fort Assiniboine, and formerly a soldier in the artillery. Guide of Alexander Henry from Fort Assiniboine to the Mandan villages in 1806. In 1797 he accompanied David Thompson to the Knife river villages of the Mandans and Grosventres. [Henry's Journal, I., 301, note and 304 and 382.]
He came originally from St. Louis, and worked for the American Fur Company, and its successors at Fort Pierre and Fort Berthold. In 1864-6 he was an independent fur trader at Fort Berthold. He bought some of the gold dust, amounting to about $1,200, from the Indians, which they brought up the river from where the Montana miners' boat was sunk.
[F. F. Gerard.]
Customs house officer at Pembina in 1856. [[Antoine Girard.]]
He came to Fort Pierre, December 25, 1844, and was employed there for a number of years for the American Fur Company. He was also in charge for the same company at Fort Berthold for two years and was succeeded by James Kipp. He died at Fort Yates. [Basil Clement.]
A member of the party of fur traders from North West Fur Company who staid in vicinity of Fort Mandan during the winter of 1804-5.
[Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, I., 227, and note. ]
In the service of the North West Fur Company as early as 1803, and as a clerk of this company he accompanied F. A. Larocque to the Mandan villages on the Missouri in 1804, and was also a member of his expedition westward in search of the Rocky Mountains the following year. In 1806, Alexander Henry found him at the chief village of the Grosventres on the Missouri river. In 1821, he joined the Hudson Bay company, and remained in their service until 1846. He died in 1854.
[Henry's Journal, I, 301, note, and 345 and note.]
He was in the employ of the North West Fur Company up to 1821, and organized the Columbia Fur Company with Joseph Renville in 1821. He was a partner in the American Fur Company in 1827, and built Fort Union at the mouth of the Yellowstone for them. He accompanied Maximilian up the Missouri river in 1833.
[Early Western Travels, XXI., 45, note; XXII., 330; XXIV., 12 ff.]
Visited the Mandans December 25, 1773.
[Matthews, The Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, Washington, 1877, page 28.]
He was born in French Village, Ill., and was a trader on the upper Missouri, and a resident at Fort Berthold as
early as 1860. He was one of seventeen white men who held Fort Berthold against the Sioux, December 25, 1863. He died at Elbowoods, June 7,1904. [F. F. Gerard.]
MAXIMILIAN, ALEXANDER PHILIP
He was born in 1782 in Germany. He served in the Napoleonic wars, and later visited Brazil on a scientific expedition in 1815-17. He visited the United States in 1832-34, and made a study of the Indians along the Missouri river, availing himself of the courtesy of the American Fur Co. to meet the various Indian tribes with which this company traded, and to study them at first hand. The account of his trip and the results of his investigation appear in the Early Western Travels, Vols. XXII., XXIII. and XXIV., edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites of Madison, Wisconsin, and published by Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
A beaver hunter at Fort Union, March, 1833. Met by Maxmilian on May 21, 1833, on the Missouri river near Chamberlain, S. D.
[Early Western Travels, XXII., 800. ]
He is charged with bringing the smallpox to the Indians of the five Knife River village in 1837.
He was born in Quebec in 1767. In 1808 he was associated with Manuel Lisa in the Missouri River trade. He died at Kaskaskia, Illinois, in 1814.
[Henry's Journal, I., 811, note.]
MITCHELL, COL. DAVID D.
Built Ft. Clark in 1832 for the American Fur Co.
[Early Western Travels, XXII., 314, note;XXIIL, 228. ]
In charge of Ft. Union in 1838. [Larpenteur, I., 150.]
He was an employe at Fort Benton and died there early in the 70's. He frequently visited Fort Berthold, where he was well known, and also at Fort Union. He claimed that he had formerly been a pirate under Lafitte in the Gulf of Mexico. He was long remembered on the upper Missouri for his remarkable profanity, and for his habit of drinking tobacco water, when whiskey was not available. He was so much crippled as to be hardly able to walk, and his arms and body were covered with scars and tattooed designs.
[F. F. Gerard.]
Halfbreed mail carrier employed by Kittson, 1856.
MOORHEAD, WILLIAM H.
He was born at Freeport, Pa., Sept. 20th, 1833, and died at Pembina, July 3rd, 1897. He came to St. Paul in 1852, and arrived at Pembina, Aug. 20, 1856, with the Red River carts, bringing supplies from St. Paul. With him came Antoine Girard and Lucien Geroux. He was in partnership at St. Joseph with Joseph Lemae, and after the latter's death he returned to Pembina.
MORRISON, DONALD G.
Born in Canada in 1827. Clerk in the Pembina district, Minnesota territory, 1850.
[See Census 1850, page 884. ]
He came from Longueil, Canada, in 1838, and was for many years at Fort Pierre in the employ of the American Fur Company. He accompanied Basil Clement on many of his expeditions up and down the Missouri river. In 1887, he moved to a ranch at the mouth of the Cheyenne river, S. D., where he died in 1889. He was totally blind for eight years.
NORTHRUP, GEORGE W.
He was born in 1856; was a well known trapper and scout in the Northwest. He located on a claim near the Sheyenne river, N. D., in 1858. He was a guide for the hunting party of Sir Francis Sykes in 1861, in the region between the Missouri and the Red rivers. He was killed by Indians in 1863 while serving under Gen. Sibley.
[Record, 1897-1898, page 143. ]
English tourist in the Missouri valley. F. F. Gerard met him at Fort Berthold, while he was stationed at Fort Clark.
Clerk of the North West Fur Co., in charge of the Pmebina post in 1806. [Henry's Journal, L, 269, note.]
PATINEAUDE (PACKENEAU), CHAS.
He was a Canadian Frenchman, who came up the Missouri river in the early 40's and was the Grosventre interpreter for the American Fur Co., at Fort Berthold. He was one of the seventeen men who held Fort Berthold against the Sioux December 25th, 1863. He died about 1872.
[F. F. Gerard. ]
During the winter of 1855 he was located near the mouth of the Little Missouri at the winter camp of the Grosventres, in charge of a trading post for the American Fur Co.
He was born in Pennsylvania and was an Indian trader and partner in the firm of Hawley & Hubbell at Fort Berthold about 1864. He was afterwards Indian agent on the Crow agency. [F. F. Gerard. ]
When Gen. Sully marched past Fort Berthold he arrested Pease and took him to Fort Pierre for trial on a charge of selling liquor to the Indians.
He was born near Montreal in 1775 and died at St. Louis in 1860. He came to the United States in the early 20's and married the daughter of the famous chief, Two Lance. He was agent for the American Fur Co., at Fort Pierre, S. D., and was in charge of most of the Missouri river trade. His children are Charles Picotte, Mrs. L. Van Solen, and Mrs. William Harmon, deceased. [Mrs. L. Van Solen.]
He was in charge of a trading post for the American Fur Co. at the mouth of White river, 150 miles below the Yellowstone, in 1827-28.
[Larpenteur, L, 108.]
He was a nephew of Honore Picotte and a member of the opposition fur company of Primeaux, Picotte & Booise. The goods were supplied to them by Robert Campbell and Honore Picotte. In 1837 a steamboat bringing their goods up the river had a case of smallpox on board. A squaw is said to have stolen a blanket which had been used by the smallpox patient and thus communicated the disease to the Indians of the Five Villages. Between 1848 and 1856 this company had a trading post, Fort Primeaux, between Fort Clark and the Mandan village on the hill, in charge of their agent, Hamilton.
[F. F. Gerard.]
He came from Wolf River, Canada, and died on the Yankton Agency in 1868.
PILCHER, MAJOR JOSHUA
He was born in Virgina and came to St. Louis during the war of 1812. He was an original stockholder of the Missouri Fur Co., and succeeded Manuel Lisa as president. He built Fort Vanderburgh, 11 miles above the mouth of the Knife river, for the Missouri Fur Co., about 1822. He died in 1847.
[Early Western Travels, XIV., 269, note; XXIII., 219; XXII., 364, and note.]
He was born at St. Louis in 1811. He began as clerk for the American Fur Co., but in 1845-6 he formed an independent fur company with Alexander Harvey, Joseph Picotte and Booise as partners. The firm was known as Harvey, Primeaux & Co. Their post, Fort Primeaux, between Fort Clark and the chief Mandan village, was named in his honor. [Larpenteur, I., 227, and note.]
Primeaux came up from St. Louis in 1831 and held the position of clerk in the employ of the American Fur Co. at Fort Union after it was established. His brother was killed at the mouth of Apple Creek in 1832. He was for a number of years interpreter at Standing Rock Agency and died at Fort Yates in 1897.
[Record, 1897, page 87. ]
A halfbreed at Pembina employed by Kittson as mail carrier in 1856.
He was born in 1779, and died in 1846. He was a half-breed interpreter and fur trader in the Red River valley and adjoining region. He took part in the war of 1812 on the British side. Later he was interpreter for the United States expedition under Major S. H. Long.
Kentucky hunter met by Bradbury on the Missouri river May 26, 1811, and was persuaded to join his expedition.
[Early Western Travels, V., 98, and note ]
Born 1824, Indian trader from St. Louis, in Pembina district, Minnesota territory, in 1850.
[See Census 1830, page 384.]
Trader at Pembina before 1856.
Kentucky hunter and Indian fighter and born in 1744. Met by Bradbury May 26, 1810, and persuaded to join his expedition up the Missouri river.
[Early Western Travels, V., 98, and note.]
A hunter encountered by Basil Clement and James Bridger while on their annual hunt in the Wind River mountains. His sister was the mother of Frank and Jesse James, the Missouri outlaws. [Basil Clement.]
ROLETTE, I. C.
Came to Fort Pierre from Canada in 1840, and later returned to that country. [Basil Clement.]
Clerk for the American Fur Co. at Fort Pierre in 1848, and in charge for the same company at Fort Berthold in 1864.
He was born at Prairie du Chien, Wis., in 1800, and died at Pembina, N. D., in 1871. As early as 1840, he was employed by the American Fur Co., at Pembina. In 1843, he assisted Kittson in establishing a line of Red River carts connecting Pembina with St. Paul, to compete with the Hudson Bay Co. He was a member of the Minnesota territorial assembly 1853-5, and of the council 1855-7. [Minnesota Historical Society. ]
In 1847, he attacked the Hudson Bay Co. post at Pembina, drove the traders away, and burned their buildings.
[Record, July 1897.]
Spanish hunter and trapper. Interpreter for the American Fur Co. on the upper Missouri. [Early Western Travels, XXIII., 182, and note.]
SANFORD, MAJOR JOHN F. A.
He was born in St. Louis, Mo. He married a daughter of Pierre Choteau, Jr., and later became a member of the American Fur Co. and its successors. [Basil Clement.]
U. S. sub-agent of the Indians at Fort Clark. He was met by Maximilian in 1833. He lived a number of years among the Mandans. [Early Western Travels, XXII., 235, note, and 351.]
SARPEE, JEAN PIERRE
Agent of Pierre Choteau, Jr., in the upper Missouri country, and later a partner in the American Fur Co. His brother, Pierre, was an independent fur trader farther down on the Missouri river. [Basil Clement.]
Born on the Red River in Canada, 1810. Indian trader in Pembina district, Minnesota territory, 1850. [See Census 1850, page 384.]
Hunter and trader on the Missouri river. In partnership with Larpenteur and Bobert Campbell in opposition to the American Fur Co. The Grosventres called him Big Bull. [Larpenteur, II., 309, note.]
Seen at Fort Berthold in 1869, where he left a Grosventre family consisting of one boy and two girls.
[F. F. Gerard.]
Born in Ohio, and came to St. Joseph in 1855.
Partner of Robert Campbell in the independent fur trade on the upper Missouri river. Was visited by Maximilian in 1833 at Fort William, on the present site of Fort Buford. [Early Western Travels, XXIII., 198 and note, and 217.]
He was born in 1770, and died in 1857. He was the surveyor and geographer for the North-West Fur. Co. He visited the Mandans on the Missouri river in 1787, and explored a portion of the Red River in the present state of North Dakota in 1798.
Employed by the American Fur Co. at Fort Clark when it was visited by Maximilian in 1833.
[Early Western Travels, XXIII., 227.]
WILKE, JEAN BAPTISTE
He was born in 1801 and died in 1886. He came to St. Joseph about 1847, and always claimed to have been the first town officer in what is now Walhalla. His house was the usual stopping place for Indians passing through the town. A fatal affray took place at his home in 1861 between the Sioux and the Chippewas, at which several Indians were killed, among them the brother of the Chippewa chief, Red Bear.
United States agent to the Mandans. He came up the Missouri river with Gen. Atkinson's expedition in 1825. [Early Western Travels, XXIII., 228.]
WRIGHT, REV. S. G.
He was born in New York city in 1817, and was missionary in the Pembina district, Red Lake, Minnesota territory, in 1850. His family consisted of his wife, Emily F., and three children, Charles, Charlotte and Ann. [See Census 1850, page 384]