Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Genealogy and History
Genealogy Trails - Finding Ancestors wherever their trails led
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The Old Santa Fe Trail
The Story of a Great Highway

By COLONEL HENRY INMAN
pub. 1898
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Preface

Contents

INTRODUCTION.
The First Europeans who traversed the Great Highway--Alvar Nunez Cabeca de Vaca--Hernando de Soto, and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado--Spanish Expedition from Santa Fe eastwardly--Escape of the Sole Survivors.

CHAPTER I.
UNDER THE SPANIARDS.
Quaint Descriptions of Old Santa Fe--The Famous Adobe Palace--Santa Fe the Oldest Town in the United States--First Settlement--Onate's Conquest--Revolt of the Pueblo Indians--Under Pueblo Rule--Cruelties of the Victors--The Santa Fe of To-day--Arrival of a Caravan--The Railroad reaches the Town--Amusements--A Fandango.

CHAPTER II.
LA LANDE AND PURSLEY.
The Beginning of the Santa Fe Trade--La Lande and Pursley, the First Americans to cross the Plains--Pursley's Patriotism--Captain Ezekiel Williams--A Hungry Bear--A Midnight Alarm.

CHAPTER III.
EARLY TRADERS.
Captain Becknell's Expedition--Sufferings from Thirst--Auguste Chouteau--Imprisonment of McKnight and Chambers--The Caches--Stampeding Mules--First Military Escort across the Plains--Captain Zebulon Pike--Sublette and Smith--Murder of McNess--Indians not the Aggressors.

CHAPTER IV.
TRAINS AND PACKERS.
The Atajo or Pack-train of Mules--Mexican Nomenclature of Paraphernalia--Manner of Packing--The "Bell-mare"--Toughness of Mules among Precipices--The Caravan of Wagons--Largest Wagon-train ever on the Plains--Stampedes--Duties of Packers en route--Order of Traveling with Pack-train--Chris. Gilson, the Famous Packer.

CHAPTER V.
FIGHT WITH COMANCHES.
Narrative of Bryant's Party of Santa Fe Traders--The First Wagon Expedition across the Plains--A Thrilling Story of Hardship and Physical Suffering--Terrible Fight with the Comanches--Abandonment of the Wagons--On Foot over the Trail--Burial of their Specie on an Island in the Arkansas--Narrative of William Y. Hitt, one of the Party--His Encounter with a Comanche--The First Escort of United States Troops to the Annual Caravan of Santa Fe Traders, in 1829--Major Bennett Riley's Official Report to the War Department --Journal of Captain Cooke.

CHAPTER VI.
A ROMANTIC TRAGEDY.
The Expedition of Texans to the Old Santa Fe Trail for the Purpose of robbing Mexican Traders--Innocent Citizens of the United States suspected, arrested, and carried to the Capital of New Mexico--Colonel Snively's Force--Warfield's Sacking of the Village of Mora --Attack upon a Mexican Caravan--Kit Carson in the Fight--A Crime of over Sixty Years Ago--A Romance of the Tragedy.

CHAPTER VII.
MEXICO DECLARES WAR.
Mexico declares War against the United States--Congress authorizes the President to call for Fifty Thousand Volunteers--Organization of the Army of the West--Phenomenon seen by Santa Fe Traders in the Sky --First Death on the March of the Army across the Plains--Men in a Starving Condition--Another Death--Burial near Pawnee Rock--Trouble at Pawnee Fork--Major Howard's Report.

CHAPTER VIII.
THE VALLEY OF TAOS.
The Valley of Taos--First White Settler--Rebellion of the Mexicans --A Woman discovers and informs Colonel Price of the Conspiracy--Assassination of Governor Bent--Horrible Butcheries by the Pueblos and Mexicans--Turley's Ranch--Murder of Harwood and Markhead--Anecdote of Sir William Drummond Stewart--Fight at the Mills--Battle of the Pueblo of Taos--Trial of the Insurrectionists--Baptiste, the Juror--Execution of the Rebels.

CHAPTER IX.
FIRST OVERLAND MAIL.
Independence--Opening of Navigation on the Mississippi--Effect of Water Transportation upon the Trade--Establishment of Trading-forts--Market for Cattle and Mules--Wages paid Teamsters on the Trail--An Enterprising Coloured Man--Increase of the Trade at the Close of the Mexican War--Heavy Emigration to California--First Overland Mail --How the Guards were armed--Passenger Coaches to Santa Fe--Stage-coaching Days.

CHAPTER X.
CHARLES BENT.
The Tragedy in the Canyon of the Canadian--Dragoons follow the Trail of the Savages--Kit Carson, Dick Wooton, and Tom Tobin the Scouts of the Expedition--More than a Hundred of the Savages killed--Murder of Mrs. White--White Wolf--Lieutenant Bell's Singular Duel with the Noted Savage--Old Wolf--Satank--Murder of Peacock--Satanta made Chief--Kicking Bird--His Tragic Death--Charles Bent, the Half-breed Renegade--His Terrible Acts--His Death.

CHAPTER XI.
LA GLORIETA.
Neglect of New Mexico by the United States Government--Intended Conquest of the Province--Conspiracy of Southern Leaders--Surrender by General Twiggs to the Confederate Government of the Military Posts and Munitions of War under his Command--Only One Soldier out of Two Thousand deserts to the Enemy--Organization of Volunteers for the Defence of Colorado and New Mexico--Battle of La Glorieta--Rout of the Rebels.

CHAPTER XII.
THE BUFFALO.
The Ancient Range of the Buffalo--Number slaughtered in Thirteen Years for their Robes alone--Buffalo Bones--Trains stopped by Vast Herds--Custom of Old Hunters when caught in a Blizzard--Anecdotes of Buffalo Hunting--Kit Carson's Dilemma--Experience of Two of Fremont's Hunters--Wounded Buffalo Bull--O'Neil's Laughable Experience--Organization of a Herd of Buffalo--Stampedes--Thrilling Escapes.

CHAPTER XIII.
INDIAN CUSTOMS AND LEGENDS.
Big Timbers--Winter Camp of the Cheyennes, Kiowas, and Arapahoes--Savage Amusements--A Cheyenne Lodge--Indian Etiquette--Treatment
of Children--The Pipe of the North American Savage--Dog Feast--Marriage Ceremony.

CHAPTER XIV.
TRAPPERS.
The Old Pueblo Fort--A Celebrated Rendezvous--Its Inhabitants--"Fontaine qui Bouille"--The Legend of its Origin--The Trappers of the Old Santa Fe Trail and the Rocky Mountains--Beaver Trapping--Habits of the Beaver--Improvidence of the Old Trappers--Trading with "Poor Lo"--The Strange Experience of a Veteran Trapper on the Santa Fe Trail--Romantic Marriage of Baptiste Brown.

CHAPTER XV.
UNCLE JOHN SMITH.
Uncle John Smith--A Famous Trapper, Guide, and Interpreter--His Marriage with a Cheyenne Squaw--An Autocrat among the People of the Plains and Mountains--The Mexicans held him in Great Dread--His Wonderful Resemblance to President Andrew Johnson--Interpreter and Guide on General Sheridan's Winter Expedition against the Allied Plains Tribes--His Stories around the Camp-fire.

CHAPTER XVI.
KIT CARSON.
Famous Men of the Old Santa Fe Trail--Kit Carson--Jim Bridger--James P. Beckwourth--Uncle Dick Wooton--Jim Baker--Lucien B. Maxwell--Old Bill Williams--Tom Tobin--James Hobbs.

CHAPTER XVII.
UNCLE DICK WOOTON.
Uncle Dick Wooton--Lucien B. Maxwell--Old Bill Williams--Tom Tobin--James Hobbs--William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill).

CHAPTER XVIII.
MAXWELL'S RANCH.
Maxwell's Ranch on the Old Santa Fe Trail--A Picturesque Region--Maxwell a Trapper and Hunter with the American Fur Company--Lifelong Comrade of Kit Carson--Sources of Maxwell's Wealth--Fond of Horse-racing--A Disastrous Fourth-of-July Celebration --Anecdote of Kit Carson--Discovery of Gold on the Ranch--The Big Ditch--Issuing Beef to the Ute Indians--Camping out with Maxwell and Carson--A Story of the Old Santa Fe Trail.

CHAPTER XIX.
BENT'S FORTS.
The Bents' Several Forts--Famous Trading-posts--Rendezvous of the Rocky Mountain Trappers--Castle William and Incidents connected with the Noted Place--Bartering with the Indians--Annual Feast of Arapahoes and Cheyennes--Old Wolf's First Visit to Bent's Fort--The Surprise of the Savages--Stories told by Celebrated Frontiersmen around the Camp-fire.

CHAPTER XX.
PAWNEE ROCK.
Pawnee Rock--A Debatable Region of the Indian Tribes--The most Dangerous Point on the Central Plains in the Days of the Early Santa Fe Trade--Received its Name in a Baptism of Blood--Battle-ground of the Pawnees and Cheyennes--Old Graves on the Summit of the Rock--Kit Carson's First Fight at the Rock with the Pawnees--Kills his Mule by Mistake--Colonel St. Vrain's Brilliant Charge--Defeat of the Savages--The Trappers' Terrible Battle with the Pawnees--The Massacre at Cow Creek.

CHAPTER XXI.
FOOLING STAGE ROBBERS.
Wagon Mound--John L. Hatcher's Thrilling Adventure with Old Wolf, the War-chief of the Comanches--Incidents on the Trail--A Boy Bugler's Happy Escape from the Savages at Fort Union--A Drunken Stage-driver--How an Officer of the Quartermaster's Department at Washington succeeded in starting the Military Freight Caravans a Month Earlier than the Usual Time--How John Chisholm fooled the Stage-robbers--The Story of Half a Plug of Tobacco.

CHAPTER XXII.
A DESPERATE RIDE.
Solitary Graves along the Line of the Old Santa Fe Trail--The Walnut Crossing--Fort Zarah--The Graves on Hon. D. Heizer's Ranch on the Walnut--Troops stationed at the Crossing of the Walnut--A Terrible Five Miles--The Cavalry Recruit's Last Ride.

CHAPTER XXIII.
HANCOCK'S EXPEDITION.
General Hancock's Expedition against the Plains Indians--Terrible Snow-storm at Fort Larned--Meeting with the Chiefs of the Dog-Soldiers--Bull Bear's Diplomacy--Meeting of the United States Troops and the Savages in Line of Battle--Custer's Night Experience--The Surgeon and Dog Stew--Destruction of the Village by Fire--General Sully's Fight with the Kiowas, Comanches, and Arapahoes--Finding the Skeletons of the Unfortunate Men--The Savages' Report of the Affair.

CHAPTER XXIV.
INVASION OF THE RAILROAD.
Scenery on the Line of the Old Santa Fe Trail--The Great Plains--The Arkansas Valley--Over the Rocky Mountains into New Mexico--The Raton Range--The Spanish Peaks--Simpson's Rest--Fisher's Peak --Raton Peak--Snowy Range--Pike's Peak--Raton Creek--The Invasion of the Railroad -- The Old Santa Fe Trail a Thing of the Past.

Footnotes



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