Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Genealogy and History
Genealogy Trails - Finding Ancestors wherever their trails led

Alonso de Baca
(abt. 1590 - after 1662)
Alonso de Baca was the father of our ancestor, Cristóbal de Baca [abt. 1635-1697].  Cristóbal’s mother is unknown. We know this from the well-documented source, Origins of New Mexico Families, by Fray Angélico Chávez, pp. 9-11.
Alonso was born in Mexico City, Mexico [then New Spain], about 1590.  He was the son of another Cristóbal de Baca and Ana Ortiz. His father was a soldier.
In 1600, the entire family signed on as colonists to reinforce the new Kingdom of New Mexico of Governor Juan de Oñate, with his father to serve as a soldier enroute to and in New Mexico.  The young Alonso, three grown sisters, and his older brother Antonio de Baca, were the de Baca children.  Alonso was eight or nine at the time the family headed north across the desert terrain.  They arrived in San Gabriel del Yunque, then the capital of New Mexico, on 24 December 1600, when New Mexico is usually gripped by a frigid winter.  The Christmas of 1600 must have been exciting.  The 1598 colonists would have appreciated the added numbers of soldiers and colonists for safety reasons, and the newcomers would have been happy to mark the end of their journey. Among our other ancestors in the 1600 reinforcement group were Simón de Abendaño, Juan de Herrera, Juan Luján, Francisca Jiménez, Gerónimo Márquez, Bartolomé Montoya, María de Zamora, Juan López Holguín, and Catalina de Villanueva. 
The de Bacas would have lived in San Gabriel until 1610, when the town was mostly abandoned for the newly-created capital of Santa Fe. He would have been among the founding colonists of that city. Alonso moved south from Santa Fe to the Río Abajo District near Bernalillo at a later date, probably when that town was founded. He would have been one of the original citizens.  He probably married about this time, but we do not know the name of his wife.
Like their father, both Alonso and his brother Antonio became soldiers. Both rose in the ranks early and obtained captaincies.  In 1634 Alonso led a large group of soldiers on an expedition authorized by Governor Peñalosa.  He left Santa Fe and roughly traveled along what later became the Santa Fe Trail.  He and his troops traveled to Quivira [Kansas] and reportedly were near a large river [the Missouri or the Mississippi] when they met with hostile Indians, whose attacks forced the group to retreat. [p. 20, Quest for Quivira:  Spanish Explorers on the Great Plains 1540-1820, by Thomas E. Chavez]. 
Alonso’s brother Antonio was more into politics than Alonso.  He was elected to the Santa Fe Cabildo [City Council] about 1640 along with some others who were inflamed over the corruption of Governor Luis Rosas and the governor’s anti-cleric stance.  A replacement, Governor Pacheco, arrived from Mexico, but when Nicolás Ortiz’ wife was found in the ex-governor’s home and pregnant by him, the governor was murdered by Ortiz and some other conspirators. The Bacas were pleased over the murder of Rosas and did their best to shelter the murderer and prevent his conviction.  As the leader of the Cabildo, Antonio was the ringleader of organizing the release of Ortiz.  The government in Mexico City saw the entire event, including the friars’ rebellion against the civil government, as sedition.  They wanted swift justice to make the point.  Governor Pacheco of New Mexico was given orders to do so.
The Governor decided that the eight captains involved in the conspiracy would beexecuted.  On July 21, 1643, the eight were beheaded in the plaza at Santa Fe.  Antonio de Baca’s severed head was then nailed to the gallows.  The Governor afterward ordered fourteen more persons executed, including Alonso de Baca, but this did not come about.  Perhaps there was too much protest against all the violence.  Alonso spent time in prison but was later released.  For more on these events, see the biographies of Francisco de Salazar, Juan de Archuleta I, or Diego de Márquez. 
Alonso died after 1662, when, at age seventy-two, he was still living on his rancho near Bernalillo in the Río Abajo. Little is known of his children.  Two known children are listed below.
[1]        Cayetano de Baca, our ancestor, was named for his paternal grandfather.  He was born about 1635 in Bernalillo, Bernalillo County, New Mexico. About 1655 he married Ana Moreno de Lara.  They fled New Mexico during the Pueblo Revolt and returned in 1693.He died in 1697.  Their biographies are elsewhere in this work.
[2]        Isabel de Baca was born about 1612 in Santa Fe.  She married Juan Ruiz Cáceres.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Alonso Garcia (abt. 1618 - after 1683)
Teresa Varela (abt. 1634 - after 1681)

     Alonso García and his wife, Teresa Varela, were the parents of our ancestor, Juana García de Noriega [abt. 1658-after 1689], who married Antonio Domínguez de Mendoza [abt. 1648-abt. 1688]. We know this from Origins of New Mexico Families, by Fray Angélico Chavéz, pages 181-182.

     Alonso was the son of Andrés García and Ana Francisca. He was born in Zacatecas, Mexico. The fact that his mother did not have a surname probably indicates that she was an Indian from the Zacatecas region. Somehow Alonso received a good education. He could read and write and express himself well.

     His arrival in New Mexico in 1636 was as one of fifteen soldiers under the command of Captain Pedro Lucero, serving as an escort to a supply train from the interior of New Spain [Mexico]. Among this group were others of our ancestors: Lucas Montaño and Blas de Miranda. The soldiers were paid 300 pesos for this work, the captain, 400 pesos. Some genealogists question whether this was our Alonso because it would have made him in his early sixties at the time of the Pueblo Revolt, but the figures work for me. Some soldiers did not retire as young as others, especially in the higher ranks. Unless he was under eighteen in 1636, I place his date of birth at about 1618. This is by no means certain.

     The young man proved an able soldier and rose through the ranks. By 1680, he was a lieutenant general, the number two man in New Mexico under Governor Antonio Otermín. The governor operated the Río Arriba [northern] District, and García the Río Abajo [southern] District.

     About 1648 Alonso married Teresa Varela, the daughter of Pedro Varela de Losada and Ana Ortiz. She was a native of New Mexico. The couple had a large family, which was grown by 1680. Alonso owned the Estancia of San Antonio, twenty leagues [50 miles +/-] from Santa Fe in the Río Abajo. Their children assumed the surname García de Noriega, no doubt to honor a grandparent or another relative.

     Alonso, at about age sixty-two, was nearing the end of his career. On the Feast day of San Lorenzo, August 10, the Pueblos throughout New Mexico rose to kill their Spanish masters and destroy the Catholic Church. Of the 2,900 Spaniards in New Mexico in 1680, fully three-fifths lived in the Río Abajo south of present-day Albuquerque. Uncertain of the loyalties of the southern more acculturated pueblos, the leaders of the Revolt did not include in their plot any pueblos south of Isleta. Not knowing of the fate of the Río Arriba district, Lt. Gov. García started north with some of his troops to see if they were needed to help the Arribeños [northerners]. On August 11, Luis Granillo, who had escaped from attacking Indians at Jemez, brought word that just before he had escaped from Jemez, an Indian had returned from the north bragging that Gov. Otermín and all Spaniards from Taos to Santo Domingo had been killed. Heartsick, having a son stationed at Galisteo, Alonso returned to the refugees of the Río Abajo at Socorro, New Mexico, and led the 1,500 Spaniards southward toward El Paso. [The Pueblo Revolt, by David Roberts, pp. 17, 26-27, 130-131].

     Meanwhile Santa Fe lay under siege by the revolting Pueblos. At last, on August 21, the 1,000 exhausted Río Arriba refugees started their straggling retreat down the Rio Grande. On p. 19 of The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. II, is a statement of Governor Otermín about when he was passing through the Río Abajo country while retreating to Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso] during the Pueblo Revolt in August of 1680:

....From here we marched to the ranch of Doña Luisa de Trujillo, which is three leagues away, and wishing to swim across the river to gather a big herd of cattle on the opposite side of the river, on the ranch of the Lieutenant General Alonso García, we discovered that the enemy had arrived there first and gathered the cattle and drove away with them.

     On reaching the Pueblo of La Alameda, Governor Otermín learned from the Indians that García and the retreating Abajeños had passed through there on their way to El Paso. He was furious that his Lt. Governor had not come to the rescue of the Arribeños at Santa Fe. It was not until September 6 that Otermín caught up with his lieutenant governor. In a rage he confronted García and had him imprisoned.

     On page 21 of the same source, we find this statement of the situation by Otermín:

     Immediately, on the same day, month, and year [6 Sept. 1680], his Excellency and the Governor and Captain-General ordered that the Maese del Campo, Alonso García, Lieutenant-general of that district composed of the Río Abajo, appear before them and show cause why, without any orders or cause whatever, he had marched out of the limits of his jurisdiction with a large body of men, having gone six leagues to a place called Fray Cristóbal, where he was detained by four men sent to arrest their march and return to the pueblo of Senecú, which is the last of that jurisdiction [the most southerly], and turn over a few horses for the use of this army; that the two bodies of the army be incorporated and determine on the best method of procedure in the defense of the kingdom. On account of not having encountered the Lieutenant General before, and that he be investigated and made to state why and by whose orders he had abandoned his district and thinking he was spending his time at the pueblo of Isleta, I hereby ordain that he be arrested and that complaint be filed against him and that he be deprived of the right to leave this district until his case has been adjudicated. As a further requirement I had him write his reply at the foot of this order; before me, the Secretary of Government and War, Don Antonio de Otermín; before me, Francisco Xavier, Secretary of Government and War [our ancestor].

      Otermín had his Maese de Campo, Alonso, placed under arrest and a court-martial held. On the following pages, 22-23, Alonso’s actions are explained by Francisco Xavier, who had interviewed him. The explanation put Alonso back in Governor Otermin’s good graces. He is mentioned continuously in the book until page 73, when he is no longer mentioned in the Archives. He probably retired about that time, March 1683.

     On the said day, month, and year, I, [Francisco Xavier] the secretary of the Government and War, by the authority upon me conferred by the Governor and Captain-General, and in the presence of two witnesses, namely: The Sargento Mayor, Luis de Quintana [no close relative of ours as far as we know] and Captain Francisco Xavier, served the complaint aforesaid upon the defendant, the Maestre de Campo, Alonso García, in person, who answering the same, said: That when he heard of the general uprising, he had on the same day sent to inquire where his help was needed of the Lieutenant-General, Luis Granillo [a kinsman of ours], Alcalde of the district of Xemes [Jemez], who, with a soldier named Joaquin de Bonilla and two priests, were in the pueblo surrounded by the hostile Indians. The Indians had made known their intention to rebel, and, in fact, had already taken up arms. The rumor was current that the Governor and Captain-General [Otermín] had been killed and this news had incensed the hostiles to spilling more blood. They sought the Alcalde, the soldiers, and two priests in order to wreak vengeance upon them for the death of an Indian, who supposedly had been killed by one of their number. The defendant [Alonso García] and eight men went to lend their aid to the said Alcalde [Granillo] and his companions and met them as they were retreating from the pueblo, pursued by the hostile Indians. The prompt arrival of the defendant upon the scene had prevented the slaughter of the said Alcalde and the inhabitants of the pueblo by the Indians as well as the Religious [priests] of Zia and the people of that district.
     Before nightfall the news was brought that in the pueblo of Santo Domingo three Religious and four Spaniards had been killed, and he
[García] immediately started out to reconnoiter his district and ascertain if this was true, and found that Captain Agustín de Carbajal, wife and family, as also the Sargento Mayor, Cristobal de Anaya, his wife and three sons, two soldiers and two other persons had been murdered by the Indians. [Both were families of our Domínguez de Mendoza aunts.]
On the road from Santo Domingo to San Felipe, they found six men murdered and heard generally that the same fate had overtaken the Governor and Captain-General, the people in the Villa
[of Santa Fe] and all the Spaniards from the pueblo of Zandia [Sandía] to Taos, which is the most populated district in this kingdom.
[García] immediately gathered his horses and barricaded himself and six sons at the ranch, which was surrounded by Indians, and kept guard through the night. He remained there two days when he received notice that the Religious and people were leaving that district.
     As a loyal subject of His Majesty he never wished to forsake the cause, but, on the contrary, offered aid to His Excellency; his efforts to reach him, however, were futile, as every road was infested by the enemy. Three messages sent by His Excellency never reached him, and notwithstanding the fact that the fact that the Religious and people were leaving the kingdom, abandoning their homes and fields, he
[García] called meetings and tried to induce the people to refrain from leaving until the truth was known as to His Excellency’s fate, which he was unable to learn, as shown by the record on two written sheets and one blank, which he offers and asks that the same be placed in the proceedings of this investigation.
     That when he heard His Excellency was coming he immediately marched out to meet him and to offer horses and his services to him; that he has always served His Majesty loyally and has contributed one hundred horses, his six sons, and all his earthly possessions to the cause; that he has been present in many conflicts with the Indians and has sacrificed his own personal interests in behalf of the army, which is generally known.
     For which reasons and for his readiness to serve His Majesty when called upon, he asks His Excellency to grant him his liberty and that the complaint against him be annulled. He signed this, his answer, in my presence and in the presence of witnesses.
Alonso García
                                                                            Francisco Xavier, Secretary of Government and War

     On pages 24-26, was a personal answer to the charges against him from Alonso to the Governor:

     At the pueblo of Isleta on the 14th day of August, 1680 [four days after the massacre began], the Maestre de Campo, Alonso García, lieutenant-governor and captain-general of the district consisting of the the lower Río del Norte [Río Grande], by appointment of Don Antonio Otermín, governor and captain-genral of the Provinces of New Mexico, and I, the said lieutenant-general, state that on Sunday, the 11th day of August, there came a resident from the district of Zandia [Sandía], who was escaping with his family from the Indians, who had entered a pact to kill all the priests and inhabitants of that district. In fact, they had already murdered, at the pueblo of San Domingo, on the day of San Lorenzo, the Rev. Fr. Juan de Talabán; and Fr. Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana, Guardian of the Convent; and also the Rev. Preacher, Fr. José Monts de Oca; the Sargento Mayor, Andres de Peralta, alcalde and war captain of said pueblo; Alférez Estevan Barcea; Nicolás López; José de Guadarrama; and his wife.
     The Indians were led by their chief,
Alonso Catití
[our half-breed uncle, son of our ancestor Diego Márquez and a San Domingo Pueblo woman]. The following day the Indians killed Captain Agustín de Carvajal and Doña Damiana de Mendoza, his wife [our aunt] and all their family; the Sargento Mayor, Cristóbal de Anaya and Doña Leonor de Mendoza [also our aunt], his wife, and all their family.
     Then continued their outrages in the pueblo of Xemes
[Jemez], but fortunately, the Rev. Father Francisco Muñoz; the Sargento Mayor, Luis Granillo [nephew of our ancestor María de Morál Granillo], alcalde; and three soldiers escaped by fighting their way out of the pueblo. However, they were followed by the Indians until they came to the pueblo of Cia [Zía], and, if I had not interposed at this juncture, the Rev. Father Francisco Muñoz; the Sargento Mayor, Luis Granillo; and the three soldiers would undoubtedly have been killed.
[at Zía] we found the Rev. Fr. Nicolás de Hurtado, Guardian of said pueblo of Cia, and after concluding that our forces were too small to combat so large a number of Indians, I asked the Rev. Fr. Nicolás de Hurtado to leave the pueblo, which he reluctantly did.
     As we left the pueblo, the Indians mockingly rang the bells and scoffed at us; and we understood that the governor and captain-general, Don Antonio de Otermín, was dead. He was supposed to have made a last stand at his residence, in which were also the Rev. Fr. Francisco Gómez de la Cadena, Rev. Fr. Juan Pío, and the Very Rev. Fr. Juan Bernal.
Maese de Campo, Juan Domínguez Mendoza
[our uncle] expressed himself, saying that it was his opinion that we should march away in good military order until the wagons, which bring the supplies, are met, and after supplying the army with the necessary ammunition, we return to ascertain the truth of the reports emanating from the Villa [Santa Fe] and then notify His Majesty through the viceroy.
Sargento Mayor, Pedro Durán
[husband of our aunt, Elena Domínguez de Mendoza]; Sargento Mayor, Antonio de Salazar; Sargento Mayor Luis Granillo [our cousin] Sargento Mayor Cristóbal Henríquez; Captain Juan Luis; Captain Don Fernando de Cháves; Captain Felipe Romero; Captain Ignacio Baca [our uncle], and all of the captains and soldiers assented to the expressions of the Maese de Campo, Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, agreeing thus, before a combination could be made with all the hostile Apaches who are at war with us. Signed by all present.
     Having considered the unanimous opinion of the Maestre de Campo, sargentos mayores, captains, and soldiers signed herein, I,
Alonso García, Maese de Campo, Lieutenant of the governor and captain general, for the safety of the few families which are remaining and the small supply of ammunition on hand, which consists only of that carried in our pockets, and there are many that have not even that, and owing to the scarcity of arms, having been robbed by the Indians of more than 150 harquebuses, of 120 who were killed with all their arms and horses of a very considerable quantity, horses and cattle sufficient to sustain the Apaches for a period of more than four months and the possibility of being besieged in this pueblo of Isleta, where we have supplies sufficient for not even one day; and after due consideration of the facts in a matter of such gravity, do order that we ask the opinion in this regard of the Rev. PP. Definers, and the Rev. Procurador Fr. Francisco Muñoz, Fr. Nicolás Hurtado, the Rev. Preacher Fr. Tomás de Tobalina, Rev. Guardian Fr. Tomás de Zabaleta, the Rev. Preacher Diego Parraga, the Rev. Preacher Fr. Antonio de Guerra, and the Rev. Preacher Fr. José Bonilla, who, as wise and zealous priests, may state what should be done. I appointed the sargento mayor, Don Pedro Durán
[husb. of our aunt, Elena Domínguez Mendoza], to present this request to them, who signed as witnesses of my attendance; and they signed with me.

Alonso García
Pedro Durán
Pedro Márquez
[our cousin]

     At said camping place, on the said day, month, and year
[14 Aug. 1680], the Maestre de Campo, Juan Domínguez de Mendoza [our uncle] said: that he concurred in the opinion of Maestre de Campo, Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza [II, also our uncle], for the reason that it best suits the service of both Majesties, and signed it with his name with the said Lieutenant-general [Alonso García] and accompanying witnesses.
Alonso García
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza
Luis Granillo
[our cousin]
Ambrosio Jorge.

Among those killed in the revolt was Lázaro García de Noriega, a son of Alonso and Teresa. He was killed at Gallisteo Pueblo southeast of Santa Fe. Since Lázaro’s family was not killed, he was probably stationed at Gallisteo as a soldier while they were living elsewhere.

On page 49 of The Spanish Archives of New Mexico,Vol. II, is a muster list of the troops at La Salineta on 29 September 1681. The troops were in a sad state after surviving the Revolt. Alonso still held all of his old titles. He was ill in bed at the time of muster, but said he was ready for Otermín’s planned campaign to reconquer New Mexico. He was described then as fifty-four years old, a native of Zacatecas, having a good physique, partly-gray hair, protruding eyes, and an aquiline face. He stated that he was married, owned eighty horses and five lean mules suffering from lock-jaw and worn out by service. He had three sons and two sons-in-law, all with their personal arms, supplied by Alonso. Two sons and his sons-in-law were married and had twelve persons in their families and twenty-two [Indian] servants [slaves] and another young man capable of bearing arms. Alonso carried a royal harquebus and stated that he had been robbed by the enemy Pueblos. [If Alonso knew and stated his correct age, he was born about 1627, but almost no one knew his/her exact age. I believe he was sixty-three at the time. Perhaps he lied to be able to keep working.]

Our last record of Alonso is March 6-24, 1683, on page 73 of SANM, Vol.II. At El Paso del Norte at both Guadalupe del Paso and San Lorenzo, he was involved in conducting the trial of Francisco Gutiérrez, Juan de Diós Lucero, and Diego Varela for killing a Janos Indian. We have no record of Teresa Varela after 1681.


[1] Juana García de Noriega, our ancestor, was born about 1658 in New Mexico. She was about twenty-two when she and her husband, Antonio Domínguez de Mendoza, fled the Pueblo Revolt in 1680. They had small children at the time. Two of Antonio’s brothers, Tomé II and Juan held high ranks in the army of New Mexico. Antonio requested permission to leave New Mexico in 1684 to join some of his family in the interior of New Spain, but he was denied. He died about 1688. Most of their descendants returned to New Mexico.

[2] Alonso García de Noriega II was born about 1649 in New Mexico. Like his father, he was a soldier in the New Mexican army. He was married to Ana Jorge de Vera. In 1681 on the muster list taken at Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso], he was described as swarthy, pock-marked, with a large nose and long, straight hair. He said he was thirty years old. In the 1682 Otermín campaign to reconquer New Mexico, he served as alférez. [Not to be confused with an Alonso García de Gracia, who also served] After Ana’s death he married Luisa Godines about 1694. About 1696, while on the El Camino Real between El Paso and Santa Fe at the Paraje del Agua Escondida, he was wounded by an Apache arrow and died soon afterwards at home at Sevilleta, about twenty miles north of Socorro, New Mexico. A son of his, Tomás, was a soldier in the founding of Albuquerque.

[3] Josepha Ana García de Noriega was born in the Sandía district of New Mexico about 1654. She was married to Alonso Rael de Aguilar [14 Feb. 1661-10 April 1735] on 24 October 1683 at Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso]. She died in Santa Fe, New Mexico, 12 August 1735, the same year as her husband. She was probably buried at the Conquistadora Chapel in Santa Fe as her husband was. Alonso was very prominent and held many offices. [pp. 263-264, ONMF, Revised Ed.]

[4] Francisco García de Noriega was born about 1654 in New Mexico; no information.

[5] Lázaro García de Noriega was born about 1655 in New Mexico. He had a son, Francisco García de Noriega, with Nicolasa Varela Jaramillo. He was a soldier stationed at Galisteo on 10 August 1680, when the Pueblo Indians killed him and most others there. His son Francisco was a soldier in the founding of Albuquerque in 1706. Francisco was buried in Albuquerque, 15 April 1746, at the age of sixty-nine. Probably another son of Lázaro was a Juan García de Noriega, called “El Cojo,” who did not know who his parents were when, on 17 May 1705, at age twenty-six, he married María de la Vega Carpio, 16, in Santa Fe. He would have been an infant when his father was killed in the Revolt.

[6] Tomás García de Noriega was born about 1756. He is easily confused with another older Tomás who was probably an uncle and a younger Tomás who was a son or nephew. So I leave out the information. One Tomás was a soldier at the founding of Albuquerque in 1706.

[7] Juan García de Noriega was born about 1658 in New Mexico. This Juan García married only once, to Francisca Sánchez de Yñigo. In the original edition of Origin of New Mexico Families, by Fray Angélico Chávez, on pp. 34 & 181, information on this Juan was merged with information on another Juan García from Zacatecas, who was married to Margarita Márquez and lived in Santa Fe. In the Revised Edition on pages 357-358, the error is corrected. Juan and Francisca were married on 4 May 1681 at Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso] The other Juan, since he came from Zacatecas and was probably born about 1760, may have been a first cousin. Our subject Juan remained in El Paso and did not return to New Mexico after the Reconquest in 1693.

Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Alonso Hernandez de Medina (abt. 1648 - )
Josefa de Cabrera (abt. 1650 - )

Alonso Hernández de Medina and Josefa de Cabrera were the parents of María Hernández de Medina.  We know this from the marriage information given at the time of the marriage of their daughter to José Ruiz de Valdés on 30 April 1690, as found in the Surname Index of the New Mexico Genealogical Society. 
Alonso and Josefa were married 6 November 1667, in the Church of Santa Catalina Martír, Mexico City, New Spain [Mexico]. He was the son of Lucas Hernández and Francisca de Medina.  Her parents are unknown.
There were numerous Hernandezes among the conquistadores.  We are descended from one of them.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Alonso Sevillano (1615 - )
Ana del Castillo Mancilla

Alonso Sevillano and Ana del Castillo Mancilla were the parents of Gertrudis Sevillano de Mancilla.  We know this from LDS Disk #38, Pins # 508177, 502279, and 508178.
Alonso was the son of  Fernando de Sevillano and María Bárbara Rodrigues. We know this from his baptismal record.  He was baptized  2 February 1615, at Sagrario Metropolitano, Puebla de Zaragosa, State of Puebla, New Spain [Mexico].  The surname Sevillano does not appear in any of the early lists of conquistadores, so it is likely that Fernando de Sevillano came to New Spain [Mexico] directly from Spain.  There are many Rodrigueses in the lists of conquistadores, however. 
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Alonso Trujillo
Estefania Manrique de Ayala

Because Nicolás Moreno Trujillo was our ancestor through three different lines, all his ancestors will have double generational titles.  We know that Alonso Trujillo and Estefania de Ayala were the parents of Nicolás from Vargas’ 1693 list and description of colonists; LDS Disk #38 Pins #502272, #502612, and #505104; also they were listed in the 1655 banns of matrimony for their son Nicolás and María Ruíz de Águilar.
Alonso and Estefania were married 4 October 1638 at Tacuba, now a part of Mexico City, Mexico. 
The parents of Alonso are listed as Francisco de Villavicencio Trujillo and Mariana de Salas Orozco.  This information is only from the LDS Family Search IGS.  There is no other supporting data, so it will remain conjecture until proven.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Alvaro Garcia Holgado (abt. 1577 - abt. 1635)
Juana de los Reyes Sanchez de Monroy (abt. 1591 - abt. 1650)

Álvaro García Holgado and his wife, Juana de los Reyes Sánchez de Monroy, were the parents of our ancestor Sebastiana López de Gracia.  We know this from pages 32-33 of Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, by Fray Angélico Chávez and from the New Mexico Surname Index.
Álvaro was born about 1577 in New Spain [Mexico]. Álvaro arrived in San Gabriel del Yunque, the first capital of New Mexico, on 24 December 1600, with a group of soldiers and colonists sent to re-enforce the newly established colony [1598].  It was there he met his bride-to-be, Juana de los Reyes Sánchez de Monroy.  They married about 1605 at San Gabriel.
Juana had come to New Mexico about the age of seven in 1598 with her siblings and her parents, Pedro Sánchez de Monroy and an unknown mother. From information listed below, the mother was likely an Indian from New Spain. The Sánchez de Monroy family was among the original New Mexico colonists.  Pedro had been born in 1548 in Mexico City.  He was the son of Hernán Martín de Monroy, born about 1508 in Spain.  Monroy is a French name meaning my king.  Some of Hernán’s ancestors were French.
In 1631, Juana de los Reyes and her sister, Juana Sánchez, were accused by the priests of using bizarre remedies to hold their husbands’ affections.  Such accusations were reviewed by the Office of the Inquisition.  Whoever held the office of High Sheriff of the Inquisition would have investigated the matter.  I am not sure if New Mexico had its own office that early.  If not, the matter would have been referred to Mexico City.
After Álvaro’s death, about 1636, Juana married Juan Alonso de Mondragón [abt. 1603-1682].  He died after the Pueblo Revolt in Guadalupe del Paso.  He was High Sheriff of Santa Fe and also an encomendero, a role which allowed him to tax the Indians of a certain region, in his case the Pueblos of Senecú.  The encomienda system was abolished after the Pueblo Revolt and was one of the causes leading to the Revolt.  In 1680 twenty-four members of the Mondragon-Sánchez family were reported as alive in Guadalupe del Paso.
Alvaro’s coat of arms at the Angélico Chávez History Library, Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
[1]        Sebastiana López de Gracia, our ancestor, was born about 1625.  She married first Lucas Montaño [[abt.1620-abt. 1655] and second Diego Gonzáles de Apodaca.  We are descended from her daughter María Montaño. Their biographies are elsewhere in this work.
[2]        Andrés López de Gracia, born about 1606, was a captain in the military.  In 1662 he was a wagon freighter from Santa Fe to Mexico City.  In 1638 he lived in the Isleta district. By 1661 he was the first alcalde mayor of the new settlement of Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso]. In this capacity he was present at the dedication of the mission there in 1668.   In 1680-1681 he served in the same capacity in Casas Grandes, a town in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua [then Nueva Galicia] not far from El Paso.  He had orders to prevent New Mexican refugees living in Guadalupe del Paso from escaping to the interior of New Spain. The New Mexican Governor López de Mendizábal, among other wild statements against the friars and their allies, stated that Andrés was the son of a friar of Isleta. [This was not true. The Governor slurred all the allies of the friars.] Andrés had at least three daughters:  Ana, Isabel, and María López de Gracia.
[3]        Diego García Holgado, born about 1607, was married to a Gonzáles woman. He died before 1644 in New Mexico.
[4]        Francisco García Holgado was born about 1610 in San Gabriel.
[5]        Lucía López de Gracia, born about 1620, was married to José Nieto [abt. 1616-1680].  Fray Juan Bernal spoke highly of the character of José and Lucía.  On 10 August 1680 the Pueblos of Galisteo [south of Santa Fe] murdered the couple and their two daughters, María Nieto and Juana Nieto during the massive Pueblo Revolt. Other grown children survived.  One son was Francisco García Nieto, born about 1658.  Another son, Cristóbal Nieto [1651-], a soldier, believed his wife and four children had been murdered in the Revolt when they did not turn up among the survivors at Guadalupe del Paso. In 1692 the wife, Petrona Pacheco, and her children were rescued by Roque Madrid.  By that time she had five daughters and a son.  In 1680 Cristóbal Nieto was described as a widower, twenty-nine years old, of medium height, slender, having an aquiline face, slight beard, and a scar on his right eyelid. Francisco Nieto was described as single, twenty-six years old, robust, of medium height, beardless, pock-marked, with black hair.
[6]        Juan García Holgado was born about 1621.  He married Ana Pacheco.
[7]        Catalina García Holgado was born about 1622.  She married Pedro de Leyva.  He was a captain and Lieutenant Governor of the Salinas Pueblo district.  Catalina and her children Juan de Leyva, Nicolás de Leyva, and Dorotea de Leyva were massacred at Galisteo on 10 of August 1680 by the Indians of Galisteo Pueblo on the same day as Catalina’s sister Lucía’s family was killed. Pedro and two sons, Pedro de Leyva II and José de Leyva, survived the massacre.  At Guadalupe del Paso later that year, Pedro II gave his age as “thirty-four or thirty-six.” He was described as married, having a good stature, red-bearded, curly chesnut-colored hair, and missing his left thumb. José was described as thirty-two years old.  His wife, Juana Frésqui, was killed in the revolt.  He married Estefania Márquez Domínguez in 1682. His two daughters were taken captive by the Tano Pueblos of Galisteo at the time of the massacre.  They were rescued in 1692.
[8]        Isabel López de Gracia was the wife of Pedro Cedillo [Sedillo] Rico de Rojas. He was a captain in the military, and they lived in the Río Abajo in 1680. They survived the Pueblo Revolt and were listed in Guadalupe del Paso in 1681.  Their children returned to New Mexico in 1693. Isabel had died before 1692, but Pedro was alive at least as late as 1689. Their daughter Felipa married the widowed Francisco Anaya Almazán [our uncle-by-marriage], who had lost his wife, Francisca Dominguez de Mendoza, our aunt, and all his children in the Revolt.
[9]        María López Millán was born about 1613.  She married Francisco de Valencia [abt.1607-aft. 1661] with whom she lived on an estancia one league south of the pueblo of Isleta in the Río Abajo. She also died after 1661. According to a 1661 document, María was a “mestiza o lo mas castiza.” Under the caste system of colonial Latin America, the term castizo or castiza originally applied to the children resulting from the union of a European and a mestizo; that is, someone of three quarters Spanish and one quarter Amerindian ancestry.  This would indicate that all of the children of Alvaro and Juana were castizos.  Juana was likely the partner who was half Indian. [research of José Antonio Esquibel Sources: New Mexico Roots, Ltd.; #1571 {DM Aug. 5, 1729, Santa Fe}; Archivo General de la Nación, Inquisición, tomo 593, ff.63, 80-82]
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Andres Gomez Robledo (abt. 1643 - 1680)
Juana Ortiz Baca (abt. 1648 - after 1680)

Andrés Gómez Robledo and Juana Ortiz Baca were the parents of our ancestor, Francisca Gómez Robledo [abt.1674-1763], who married our ancestor, Ignacio Roybal y Torrado [1672-1757].  We know this from the well-documented book, Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, by Angélico Chávez, p. 273-276.
Andrés, born about 1643 in Santa Fe, was the son of the Portugese-born Francisco Gómez, who arrived in San Gabriel, New Mexico, about 1604.  There Francisco met and married Andres’ mother, Ana Robledo Romero, a native of New Mexico. Ana’s grandparents and parents had been original colonists of New Mexico in 1598. Ana and Francisco had eight children, including Andrés.
Juana Ortiz Baca, was the daughter of Diego Montoya [1589-1661] and María Ortiz de Vera [abt. 1616-after 1680]. She was born in New Mexico about 1648.  Juana and Andrés married about 1666. By 1680, they had been married about fourteen years and had six children.  Andrés was a soldier in the presidio at Santa Fe.
The family lived at Las Barrancas, named for the high bluffs in the Río Abajo area. The Gómez Robledo hacienda had developed into an important stop along this section of El Camino Real. In 1665 Andrés and his brother Juan helped Governor Peñalosa cheat on sacks of piñon pine nuts kept at the Gómez estancia.
With two of his brothers Andrés served in the General Council of the Kingdom.  He had risen in rank to be the Maese de Campo, the military leader at Santa Fe.
On 10 August 1680, the family was forced to leave their home due to the Pueblo Revolt.  They retreated into Santa Fe, where the Pueblos then laid siege to the town.  Meanwhile the Indians destroyed the family’s Las Barrancas hacienda.
In Santa Fe, the terrorized Spanish citizens who had taken refuge there saw their food supply dwindle.  There wasn’t a lot of actual fighting during the siege, but in one skirmish Andres Gómez Robledo was killed.  He was one of only four Spanish soldiers to die and was the only officer to perish. He was buried in the besieged city. Finally Governor Otermin decided to abandon the city to the Pueblos, and the newly-widowed Juana Ortiz Baca and her children left the town and Andrés’ fresh grave in the exodus south along the Río Grande to Guadalupe del Paso [El Paso].
Thirteen years later Juana and her children re-entered New Mexico, but they could not return to their destroyed home at Las Barrancas. Apache raids prevented Spanish resettlement of this area until Sabinal was established in 1741. The family remained in Santa Fe.
Six daughters survived Andrés, and they grew up glorifying the statue of La Conquistadora, making and caring for her wardrobe, etc.  The statue of the Virgin Mary was taken to Guadalupe del Paso during the 1680 Revolt and returned to Santa Fe with the 1693 re-entry of the Spanish into New Mexico. The historic wooden statue, brought to New Mexico in 1625 by the Spanish, is today housed in the Cathedral of St. Francis in Santa Fe. A Catholic confraternity was named in her honor, and there is a festival every year in Santa Fe to honor her.

[1]        Francisca Gómez Robledo, our ancestor, was born about 1678 in Santa Fe.  She married our ancestor Ignacio Roybal y Torrado.  They lived in Santa Fe and had a rancho in the Jacona area.  See their biographies elsewhere in this work. Francisca’s sister, Juana Gómez Robledo, married Ignacio’s brother, Domingo Santiago Roybal.
[2]        Margarita Gómez Robledo was born about 1677 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  She married Jacinto Peláez [1670-] on 13 June 1691 in Guadalupe del Paso.  He was a native of Villanueva, Asturias.  A land grant was given to Jacinto at Jacona near San Ildefonso. They had two daughters.  María married Juan Fernández de la Pedrera and Jacinta married {1} Antonio de Luna {2} Antonio Montoya. Margarita died young, and Jacinto then married Isabel de Cháves.
[3]        María Gómez Robledo was born about 1674 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  She married first Alonso Romero.  After his death she married Diego Arias de Quiróz on 28 July 1714 in San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico. She was again a widow in 1738 when she sold a house and land contiguous to the east tower of the Governor’s Palace. [p. 235, Vol. I of the Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Archive #235]
[4]        Lucía Gómez Robledo was born about 1675 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  She married Miguel de Diós Sandoval.
[5]        Rosa Gómez Robledo was born in Santa Fe.  No information.
[6]        Juana Gómez Robledo was born in Santa Fe.  She married Domingo Santiago Roybal y Torrado, who died 3 May 1729 in San Ildefonso.  He was the brother of our ancestor, Ignacio Roybal y Torrado.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Antonio Dominguez de Mendoza (1648 - before 1689)
Juana de Garcia y Noriega (1658 - )

Antonio Domínguez de Mendoza and his wife, Juana de García y Noriega, were the parents of our ancestor Leonor Domínguez de Mendoza, who married Miguel Martín Serrano.  We know this from Fray Angélico Chávez’ book, Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, pages 26-27.
Antonio, born in 1648, was the son of Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza [abt. 1617-1681] and his wife, Juana de Rueda.  He was a grandson of Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza II and great grandson of Tomé Domínguez and Elena Ramírez de Mendoza.  The family appears to have arrived in New Mexico in the 1630’s. The city of Tomé, New Mexico, is named for Antonio’s father.
Juana, born about 1658, was the daughter of Alonso García, who was the lieutenant governor of New Mexico at the time of Pueblo Revolt. Her mother was Teresa Varela, a daughter of Pedro Varela de Losada and Ana Ortiz. She married Antonio about 1673.  They were among New Mexico’s elite.
The Domínguez de Mendoza and García y Noriega families lost many members during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.  Juana’s brother, Lázaro, was killed at Galisteo.    Three aunts of Antonio and their families were slaughtered in the revolt. Antonio and Juana and their children took refuge with the other survivors at Guadalupe del Paso, which lay on the Mexican side of the Rio Grade at El Paso. But in those times it was part of New Mexico. A brother of Juana’s, Alonso, was later killed by Apaches in 1696. Two other brothers, Tomás and Francisco, lived to be founding members of Albuquerque in 1706.
It was as exiles that Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza and his son Antonio died at Guadalupe del Paso.  Antonio’s widow, Juana de García y Noriega, did not join Governor Diego Vargas in his 1693 re-entry of New Mexico, but three of her daughters married New Mexicans and returned there later on.  Juana may have lived out her life in Guadalupe del Paso, or she may have moved close to her daughters in New Mexico.  We don’t know where she died. Some of the García y Noriegas remained in El Paso and became prominent there.
[1]        Leonor Domínguez de Mendoza, our ancestor, was born about 1689.  Her father died about that time.  She married Miguel Martín Serrano about 1712.  He is not to be confused with another Miguel Martín Serrano, also our ancestor, who settled in the Chama Valley. The biographies of all are elsewhere in this work.
[2]        Antonia Domínguez de Mendoza was born about 1674 and married Andres Hurtado 19 April 1689 in Guadalupe del Paso.  They participated in the 1693 rentry of New Mexico, but Andres died soon afterward.  On 25 October 1694, Antonia married Tomás Jirón de Tejeda, a soldier.  In 1710 Tomás worked on the reconstruction project of San Miguel Chapel.  He died 12 May 1736 at the age of seventy.  Antonia died 23 August 1748.
[3]        María Dominguez de Mendoza was married in 1694 in Santa Fe to Antonio Godines, a widower from Mexico City who joined the 1693 colonists with his daughter, María Luisa, who was twenty years old. Their home, up until 1714, was on the Calle Real of Santa Fe between the Plaza and the church then being built.  Antonio worked on the restoration of San Miguel Chapel.  María had no children with Antonio.  María Luisa married María’s brother, Alonso de García y Noriega II, who was killed by Apaches in 1796.  Later María Luisa married Antonio Tafoya.
[4]        Teresa Domínguez de Mendoza was married about 1707 to Diego Gonzáles de la Rosa, a son of Francisco Gonzáles de la Rosa, who came to New Mexico in 1693-94 from Mexico City.
            [5]        Unknown Domínguez de Mendoza was married to Juan Severino Rodrígues de Zevallos.  
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Aparicio Mestas (1755 - after 1806)
Maria Antonia Varela (1765 - 1804)

Aparicio Mestas and María Antonia Varela were the parents of  María Manuela Mestas, who married Cayetano Hipolito de Jesús Serrano.  We know this from María Antonia’s baptismal record in 1765 in Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. 
Aparicio Mestas was born November 17, 1755, in Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  He was the son of Cristóval Mestas and Cristoval’s first wife, whose name is yet unknown.  Aparicio was married to María Antonia Varela about 1777. She died about 1804, possibly during the birth of José Feliciano Mestas, who was born June 9, 1804.  Aparicio then married Pasquala Gonzales in 1805.
     María Antonia Varela was born June 7, 1765, in Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, and was baptized there two days later.  Her godparents were Bernardo Sanches and Barbara Antonia Gallegos.  Her parents were Juan Antonio Varela and María Bárbara Quintana.  Barbara was a granddaughter of Miguel Quintana and Gertrudis Moreno Trujillo, but we aren’t sure yet which of their sons was Barbara’s father.
 [1]   Juana Rafaela Mestas, born July 10, 1779, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  Her godparents were Joaquin Sandoval and María Francisca Mestas [a sister to Aparicio].
[New Mexico Baptisms, Santa Cruz de la Canada Church, Volume I 1710-1794, New Mexico Genealogical Society]
 [2]    Juan Cristóval Mestas, born March 6, 1782, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Miguel Bustos and Maria Sandoval.
 [3]     Pedro Ygnacio Mestas, born February 1, 1788, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Pedro Mestas and his sister Josefa Mestas [siblings to Aparicio]
[4]    Juan Antonio Mestas, born April 2, 1785, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Juan Antonio Varela and María Bárbara Quintana [his grandparents].
 [5]    María Manuela Mestas,  born December 24, 1789; married Cayetano Hipolito de Jesus Serrano about 1806.  She is our ancestor and is covered separately in this work.  She died after 1860, presumably in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.
[6]    Manuel Antonio Mestas, born December 31, 1792, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Bernardo Madrid and Margarita Sanchez.
[7]   Juana Josefa Mestas, born April 20, 1796, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  Her godparents were Bartolome Montoya and Rita Mestas.
[8]    Ylario [Hilario] Mestas, born November 3, 1799, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Manuel Herrera and Paula Roybal.
[9]    Gregoria Mestas, born November 29, 1801, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  Her godparents were Antonio Montoya and his wife Maria de la Luz Lopez.
 [10]    José Feliciano Mestas, born June 9, 1804, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His mother may have died giving birth to him.  His godparents were Diego Martín and María Gonzales.
Child of Aparicio Mestas and his second wife, Pasquala Gonzales
[11]   José Vicente Mestas, born  June 4, 1806, in Santa Cruz, New Mexico.  His godparents were Jose Cruz Rivera and María Paula Atencio.
Varela Notes:
We are descended from Juan Antonio Varela [c.1742-], who was the father of Maria Antonia Varela, who was the wife of Aparicio Mestas. Juan Antonio may be descended from the Varelas below.
     In 1598 Juan de Onate conquered New Mexico and established a Spanish colony there. Among the soldiers serving under him were the following brothers:
Alonso Varela He was of a native of Santiago, Galicia, Spain. He was of good stature, chesnut colored beard, 30 years of age, son of Pedro Varela. He supplied a complete armor for himself and his horse. Alonso had a brown beard and was of a good stature. [Most of Onate’s soldiers were not described as having “a good stature.” He was a brother to the Pedro Varela below.
Pedro Varela He was also a native of Santiago, Galicia, Spain.  He was of good stature, red-bearded, 24 years of age, son of Pedro Varela, and supplied the complete armor for himself and his horse.  He was “of a good stature” and “red-bearded.” He was a brother to Alonso Varela.
   From Don Juan de Onate, Colonizer of New Mexico 1595-1628, Vols. I & II:
     Statement of what I, Pedro Varela, am taking to serve his majesty in the Indies in New Mexico:
One set of armor consisting of a coat of mai, cuisse, and beaver of mail
One strong buckskin jacket
One harquebus with its equipment
One hooked blade
One sword
One pound of powder
One set of horse armor
One leather shield
Ten horses and one donkey
Half a dozen pairs of horseshoes with nails
Two jineta saddles with all their trappings and bridles
I am taking all of this to serve his majesty, and I swear by God and this cross that everything contained herein is mine. Done on this day, December 7, 1597, Pedro Varela
[There was a similar list for his brother Alonso, but Alonso had 12 horses and 2 mules. Alonso was sworn in on the same day as Pedro.]

     With Juan de Onate in 1598 when he conquered New Mexico and established a Spanish colony there was a Gonzalo Varela, born in Portugal, who came to America in 1530.  Gonzalo would have been a very old man at the time of Onate’s conquest because by these dates he would have been in Mexico 68 years already.  Other notes say that Gonzalo’s parents were Juan de Porto de Zodecada and Teresa de Ramil.  He eventually settled in the city of Michoacan.  There are clearly two Gonzalos.  One served with Hernan Cortez.

     A Juan Varela Valladolid served with Hernado Cortez in the conquest of Mexico.
      Cristobal de Varela de Losada was mentioned in Revolt of the Pueblo Indians, Volumes  I & II, Hackett & Shelby, Coronado Historical Series, Vol. VIII and Vol. IX, University of New Mexico Press, 1942:  In Vol. II, pp.138-139 & 115:
      In 1680, he was a native of New Mexico, a bachelor, good physique, fair complexion, good features, no beard, long chesnut-colored hair, nineteen years old.  He enlisted to fight in the war against the Pueblos as a soldier of the presidio.  He was paid in one payment on September 28, 1681.
     In the early period of the Recolonization of New Mexico [It was recolonized in 1693], there were criminal proceedings brought against Agustin Saes and Luisa Varela in Sant Fe in October of 1701.  The charges were threats.  There are writs and testimony, etc. in the Santa Fe archives.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Asencio de Archuleta (abt. 1572 - before 1626)
Ana Perez de Bustillo (abt. 1581 - after 1625)

Asencio de Archuleta and Ana Pérez de Bustillo were the parents of Juan de Archuleta I.  We know this from the well-documented genealogical work of New Mexico, Origins of New Mexico Families, by Fray Angélico Chavez, Revised Edition, pages 6 & 7.
Asencio was born in Eibar, Guipúzcoa, in the Basque region of Spain.  He was the son of another Juan de Archuleta, who probably did not come to New Spain [Mexico].  Asencio was a soldier under the conquistador Juan de Oñate, who was directed to establish a colony in New Mexico in 1598.
 Juan de Onate was a very rich man, a member of a prominent New Spain family. His wife was the granddaughter of Hernán Cortes and a great granddaughter of Montezuma. He applied for the right to colonize New Mexico in 1595. He proposed to  pay for all the expenses except for the priests. He would reap the profits of mining, trading and of other activities. His request was granted, and in February 1598 his group of 130 soldiers and their families left Mexico City and went north with farm animals and eighty-three wagons. The procession was four miles long. By the end of April they were at modern El Paso. They followed the Rio Grande River north from there. On June 24 they arrived at the southern-most Indian pueblo. On July 11 he arrived at San Juan Pueblo. Near it they constructed their capital, San Gabriel.
Oñate soon left the colony to search for treasure and trade routes to the Pacific. A rebellion by the Indians at Ácoma was brutally put down.  Settlers were also grumbling with discontent. In 1601 they sent a letter to the viceroy in New Spain. Late that year many colonist-soldiers deserted and returned south to Mexico proper. In 1605 the viceroy recommended that New Mexico be abandoned. In 1609 Oñate left New Mexico to defend himself and his colony, but his fortune was soon exhausted.
The next governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís, his new capital, which we know as Santa Fé, in 1610.
Thus, as one of about 130 soldiers in the Oñate party, Asencio was a genuine conquistador and one of the first group of colonists to settle New Mexico. He was described in Oñate’s muster roll as twenty-six years old.  He had a medium build, a black beard, and a slight wound on the forehead.  He was apparently a literate man because he later served as a notary.
Also in the 1598 group of soldier-colonists was Juan Pérez de Bustillo [abt.1558-abt.1626] and his wife María de la Cruz and their children.  Among them was a daughter, Ana Pérez de Bustillo, whom Asencio married about 1600 in San Gabriel.  Ana had been born in Mexico City about 1581.
On January 23, 1599 he was a participant in a famous battle with the Ácoma Pueblo Indians, whose formidable stronghold atop a mesa gave them the courage to resist the Spaniards, In the heat of battle, Asencio fired his harquebus and unintentionally killed his close friend, Lorenzo Salado de Ribadeneira.
Like many Spaniards, Asencio was accused of abusing the Indians.  The friars were very protective of their flock and used the Spanish Inquisition to bring miscreants to justice. When accused of such misdeeds, New Mexicans were summoned to Mexico City to appear before the Inquisition.  Asencio was fined for his actions.  It was probably while returning from his appearance before the Inquisition that he accompanied four friars from Mexico City to New Mexico’s capital of San Gabriel in 1603.
In 1610 Governor Peralta, New Mexico’s third governor, moved the capital to the newly-constructed [1609] town of Santa Fe. Apparently Asencio moved with his family there in his capacity as an ecclesiastical notary.  In this role he was deeply involved in the historic struggle between church and state between Governor Pedro de Peralta and Friar Isidro Ordoñez.  The struggle between these two men led the friar to proclaim that anyone in New Mexico who chose could leave the province and return to Mexico.  Such an action could have depleted the colony’s numbers sufficiently to unable them to withstand Indian attacks.  Then the friar ordered some troops enroute to Taos to return to Santa Fe to celebrate the Pentecost.  Peralta countermanded the order and Ordoñez excommunicated him.  He ordered the governor to appear penitently at the church barefooted carrying a candle.  The governor refused.  Ordoñez decided to travel to Mexico City to report the governor to the Audencia.  The governor offered to escort the friar.  The friar refused.
In his rage, the friar removed the governor’s special chair near the altar of the church.  The governor seated himself among the Indians. Ordoñez proclaimed to the assembled congregation, “I can punish anyone who is not obedient to the commandments of the church and mine.” 
Peralta decided to go to Mexico City to plead his case.  Ordoñez followed and overtook the governor.  He then arrested him and placed him in chains for nine moths until the hearing.  For his role in this affair, Ordoñez was summoned to Rome and disciplined.  Likewise Peralta was not returned to the governship, but the struggle between these two men set the stage for another fifty years of struggle between the church and civil authorities in New Mexico.  Asencio and his numerous relatives sided with Ordoñez in this struggle.
Asencio died between 1622 and 1626, in his early fifties.  His widow Ana died afterward.
Asencio’s descendants include a large percentage of New Mexico present-day residents.  Archuleta County, Colorado, whose county seat is Pagosa Springs, was named for a descendant on April 14, 1885, named in honor of farmer, rancher and later State Senator Antonio D. Archuleta.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Blas Martin Serrano (abt. 1670 - )
Rosa de Vargas Machuca (1690 - )

Blas Martín Serrano and Rosa de Vargas Machuca were the parents of  Juan Martín.  We know this because of Juan’s baptismal record at the church in Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  Blas and Rosa were married in 1705.
Blas was the son of Domingo Martín Serrano and his wife Josefa de Herrera.  Blas appears to have grown up in Santa Cruz.
Rosa was the daughter of Juan de Vargas Machucha.  Her mother was Ana Olguín.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Cayetano Atienza Sevillano (1703 - c. 1772)
Barbara Polonia Maria Gomez del Castillo (before 1739 - after 1782)

We know that Cayetano Atienza Sevillano and Bárbara Polonia María Gomez del Castillo are the parents of Francisca Atencio y Alcalá from the records of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.  That Francisca’s name changes from Atienza to Atencio was not at all uncommon in Seventeenth Century New Mexico.
The Atienzas were living in the Chama Valley of New Mexico at the time of the birth of Francisca in January of 1761, but apparently were living at Santa Clara, Santa Fe County, New Mexico at the time of her baptism on 1 February 1761, no doubt due to Indian troubles in the Chama Valley.  The couple lived out their lives as Spanish subjects.
Cayetano was  born about 1703 in Santa Cruz, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.  He was the son of José de Atienza y Sevillano II [abt. 1676-1731] and Estefania Moreno Trujillo [1673-]. [LDS Disk #38 Pin #502270 and Pin #502271].  He married Bárbara 8 December 1757, at Santa Clara Pueblo, Río Arriba County, New Mexico.  [LDS Disk #38 Pin #502277]. In 1769 Cayetano deeded a piece of land with a house on the Chama River to Joseph Salazar.  The deed was recorded at Santa Cruz. [p.240, Vol. I of The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Archive # 874] Cayetano died sometime prior to 1775. 
On 19 May 1743 Cayetano Atienza was godfather to María Antonia , and Indian servant of his, at her baptism. 
Cayetano was the first cousin of our ancestor, Nicolás de Quintana.  Their fathers had married sisters just before leaving Mexico City for New Mexico in 1693.
Bárbara was born in 1739 at San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.  Her parents were Francisco Gómez del Castillo and Úrsula Guillén.  [LDS Disk #38  Pin #506820 and Pin #506819].  Francisco died when Bárbara was young, and Úrsula, her mother, remarried to Felix Victor Archuleta on 13 May 1774 at the Catholic church in San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico. [LDS Disk #38 Pin #502144] Felix was the son of Hilario Archuleta and the grandson of Andrés Archuleta, related to us in other lines; so Felix was our distant cousin.
We can estimate the year of Cayetano’s marriage to Bárbara as about 1755.  Cayetano, if the 1703 birth date is correct for him, was more than thirty-five years older than his wife.  Some sources place his birth as about 1730, but that would have made his mother far too old for bearing children.  It was not unusual in New Mexico to find much older men marrying young girls.  Economics probably was the motivating factor with the younger women.  Cayetano likely had a prior marriage or marriages. Most of his children went by the surname Atencio, not an unusual event in those times.
[1]  Cayetano Julian Atencio was born about 1758 at Santa Cruz de la Cañada, New Mexico.  He married María Antonia Varela on 27 June 1782 at Santa Cruz.
[2] Rosa María Atencio was baptized 9 March 1759 in the Chama Valley, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  On 2 April 1774, she married 27 June 1782 in Santa Cruz to Francisco Xavier Tenorio. Rosa died after 1791.
[3] Francisca Atencio y Alcalá, our ancestor, was baptized 9 March 1761 at Santa Clara Mission, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.  She died after 1850, since she appeared in the U.S. Census that year. She married Gaspar Martín, our ancestor.  Their biographies are elsewhere in this work.
[4] Juan Ygnacio Atencio was baptized 22 November 1761, at Santa Clara, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.  No information on a marriage.
[5] Catarina de la Luz Atencio was baptized 3 May 1763 at Chama, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  She married Antonio Domingo Santistevan on 25 April 1779 at San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico.  She may have been living in San Juan de los Caballeros in 1817.
[6] María Antonia Atienza was baptized 24 July 1765, at Chama, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  No inforamation about a marriage.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.

Cayetano Hipolito de Jesus Serrano (abt. 1787 - after 1860)
Maria Manuela Mestas (1789 - after 1860)

Cayetano Hipolito de Jesús Serrano, commonly known as “Hipolito” or  “Polito,” and his wife, María Manuela Mestas, commonly known as “Manuela,” were the parents of  Miguel Cresencio Serrano.  We know this from circumstantial evidence shown in his biography.  We hope that baptismal records can be found someday to provide documentary evidence.
Cayetano Hipolito de Jesús Serrano was born about 1787, probably in the Chama River Valley on a ranch near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  He was one of the prominent Martin-Serrano family there.  We aren’t sure which of the Martin-Serranos was his father, but they were a large family who had come to New Mexico with the 1693 resettlement and had been there long before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.  Some of the family followed the lead of a prominent priest in the 1800’s and changed their surnames to Martinez; others simply dropped the Martín and became Serranos; others simply became Martins.
 Our first record of Cayetano Hipolito Serrano in New Mexico is in 1799 in Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, then a province of New Spain. On March 20, José Benito Trujillo was baptized. He was the son of Josefa Trujillo and an unknown father.  The godparents were Cayetano Hipolito Serrano and María Concepción Lucero.
On May 23 of that year, Cayetano Hipolito Serrano was a godparent at the baptism of José Miguel Serrano, an Indian servant/slave belonging to Cayetano Hipolito Serrano.  The “unknown father” may have been someone in the Serrano family or, possibly, Hipolito himself.  The godmother was María Antonia Espinosa.
Later that same year in Abiquiú, on October 13, 1799, Cayetano Hipolito Serrano and María Concepción Durán were godparents for María Dolores, an Indian belonging to Gabriel Quintana.  Concepción was the madrina at a few baptisms when Hipolito was the padrino.  She was an Abiquiú girl of his own age.
 On 15 January 1800, Cayetano Hipolito Serrano was again a godfather.  Cayetano Hipolito de Jesus Espinosa, son of Juan Antonio Espinosa and María Rita Teodora Quintana, was his godson.  The godmother was again María Concepción Durán. Yet again, on January 26, 1800, Cayetano Hipolito Serrano and Maria Concepción Durán were godparents together for José Bernardino Martín at Abiquiú, the son of Pedro Antonio Martín and María Manuela Sisneros. 
 On September 16, 1800, Cayetano Hipolito de Jesús Serrano and Ysabel Lucero were godparents in Abiquiú for a six-year-old Indian boy of unknown parentage, a servant [slave] of Magdalena Valdés.
On July 5, 1801, María Concepción Martín was baptized at Abiquiú.  Her parents were Cristóval Martín and  María Josefa Naranjo. Godparents were Cayetano Hipolito de Jesús Serrano and María Concepción Durán.  It was the fourth and last time that Hipolito and Concepción were paired as padrino and madrina.  Perhaps they had had been sweethearts.  There is no record of Concepción having married.  Perhaps she died young, ending her partnership with Hipolito.
“Polito” married María Manuela Mestas about 1807.  She was the daughter of Aparacio Mestas and María Antonia Varela. Born at Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico [now merged with the town of Espanola], on 24 December 1789, Manuela was baptized in the church at Santa Cruz.  Her family had been living in Santa Cruz as late as 4 June 1806, when her youngest brother was born.  How she came to marry Polito, who lived in Abiquiú, is unknown.  Perhaps the Mestas family moved to the Chama Valley [and possibly had more children there].
The first record of the birth of a child for this couple was of José Guadalupe Serrano, who was baptized at Abiquiú on 9 December 1807.  At this time Polito would have been about twenty years old and Manuela, eighteen. 
On 1 January 1809, Hipolito and Manuela were godparents to María Manuela Trujillo, daughter of Mariano Trujillo and Bernarda Martín.  The baptism took place at Santo Tomás Apostól Catholic Church in Abiquiú.  At that time Manuela was pregnant with the couple’s second child, José Manuel Serrano, who was born 1 April 1809 and baptized at Santo Tomás Church on 10 April. Godparents [padrinos] were Don Marcos Delgado and Dona Guadalupe Valdés.  After 1809 the Serranos appear to have attended a church other than Santo Tomás Apostól because their children’s baptismal records do not appear there.
In 1810 the stirrings in Mexico for independence were begun by Father Hidalgo, and the decade proved turbulent in other parts of New Spain.  In New Mexico, things were relatively quiet.  The Serranos appear to have left the Abiquiú area after Manuel’s birth.  In 1811 or 1812, another son, Mauricio Serrano was born.  There is no baptismal record for him in Abiquiú nor for any other children of theirs during the decade, but there is circumstantial evidence to show that he was.  The same is true for Miguel Cresencio Serrano, our ancestor, who was born about 1816.  From the 1845 Census, it appears that the Serranos had three more sons, about 1819, 1826, and 1831.  Sons of that age were shown to be living in their home, although they were unnamed
In 1821, Mexico declared its independence from Spain, and the Serranos were now citizens of Mexico, not of Spain.  A daughter, María Francisca, was born about 1822.
On 10 August 1823, at Santo Tomás, Polito and Manuela were godparents for Pedro Ygnacio Chacón, son of Pedro Ygnacio Chacón and María Pascuala Martín of El Rito, a village near Abiquiú.  On 12 January 1825, they were again godparents, for José María Cresencio Valdés at Abiquiú.  The child’s parents were José Manuel Valdés and Mará Rita Gonzales.  The Serranos were stated to be residents of Barranco, a village near Abiquiú. 
“Hipolito Cayetano Serrano” and María Manuela Mestas were again listed as padrino y madrina, at the baptism of María Luisa Sálazar, daughter of José Miguel Sálazar and Rosalia Montoya in Abiquiú, on 8 November 1827.  A few months later, on 2 April 1828, María Manuela Mestas was the madrina and her son Manuel Antonio Serrano the padrino at the baptism of José de Jesús Suazo, son of Ygnacio Suazo and Micaela Durán.
On 12 February 1838, María Josefa del Refugio Velasquez, daughter of María Estéfana Velásquez and an unknown father, was baptized in Abiquiú with Miguel Serrano and his mother, María Manuela Mestas, as godparents.
Hipolito Serrano and his daughter María [Francisca] Serrano were godparents for María Guadalupe del Refugio Valdés at Abiquiú on 7 May 1840.  The child’s parents were José Mariano de Jesús Valdés and María Manuela de los Dolores Archuleta.
On 7 May 1840, Hipolito Serrano and María Manuela Mestas were padrinos at the baptism of Agapito Abeyta, three days old, son of María Ramona Abeyta and an unknown father.  About the same time they were godparents for María Gudalupe Abeyta, ten year old Ute Indian slave of unknown parentage belonging to Francisco Abeyta.  The following month, Hipolito Serrano and Margarita Trujillo were godparents of “Hijo” Archuleta, age three days, son of José Germán Archuleta and María Altagracia Vigil.
On 17 November 1844, María Gerónima Trujillo was baptized at Abiquiú with Hipolito Serrano and  María Francisca Serrano as godparents.  The baby’s parents were María Petra Trujillo and an unknown father.
On 26 February 1845, Francisco Estevan Velásques also had Hipolito and Francisca as godparents at his baptism.  Francisco was the son of María Serafina Velásquez and an unknown father.
 That same year the Serrano family appeared in the Mexican Census of Abiquiú: 
Don Hipolito Serrano, male, age 57
His wife, age 50 [should be 56]
Male age 28  [This is Miguel Cresencio Serrano]
Male age 26  [This is Juan Serrano, who appears in 1850 U.S. Census]
Male age 19  [José Serrano who appeared in 1850 U.S. Census]
Male age 14  [Valentín Serrano who appeared in CA in 1850]   
In 1846 the United States and Mexico went to war.  New Mexico was conquered, and the Serranos became citizens of the United States after twenty-five years under the flag of Mexico.  They were listed in the 1850 U.S. Census of New Mexico living in Rio Arriba County:                          
Polito Serrano, 63, farmer
María Serrano, 53
Juan Serrano, 30
José Serrano, 26
Ana María, 30 [a widowed daughter or wife of one of the sons here]
Luciano, 1  [no doubt a grandson]
On 22 April 1856, María Josefa Penuria Naranjo, daughter of Gregoria Naranjo and an unknown father was baptized at Abiquiú.  The godparents were Hipolito Serrano and Altagracia Mestas.  These bastard children were mostly the children of Indian female slave/servants and male members of the family who owned the servant/slave.  The American takeover caused this form of slavery to decline and later disappear.
The 1860 U.S. Census of Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 9th Precinct, Los Luceros is the last record we have of Hipolito and Manuela.  It stated than neither could read or write.  Hipolito was listed as 73 years of age, a farmer, real estate value $200, personal property value $40.  Manuela was listed as 64, but we know she was 71.  No one else lived with them. Neither is listed in the 1870 Census of New Mexico.  It can be presumed that they both died during the decade of 1860-1870.
[1]   José Guadalupe Serrano, known as Guadalupe, was baptized 9 December 1807, in the church of Santo Tomás Apostól in Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  Godparents for Guadalupe were Gregorio Torres and María Antonia Espinosa.  His parents were listed as residents of Barranco, a village near Abiquiú.  Guadalupe appears to have come to California during the gold rush.  He appears in San Luis Obispo as the father of an illegitimate child born of Dolores García named Dolores Lino Serrano, who was baptized at the Old Mission Church on 23 September 1850.  That is the only record of Guadalupe in San Luis Obispo.  His eventual fate is unknown.  Guadalupe does not appear in later censuses of New Mexico.  He probably died between 1850 and 1860.
[2]   José Manuel Gregorio Serrano, known as Manuel Serrano, was born 1 April 1809 and was baptized 10 April 1809 at Abiquiú.  His godparents were Don Marcos Delgado and Dona Guadalupe Valdés.  Manuel was to be followed by other Manuel Serranos in the next two generations:  the son of his brother Miguel Serrano  was named Manuel [1858-1916]; and Miguel’s grandson Manuel lived 1887-1924].
On 17 October 1830, in Abiquiú, Manuel married María Dolores Martín,, fourteen, of Plaza San Francisco.  She was the daugher of Juan Pedro Martín, deceased, and María Serafina Trujillo.  The witnesses were Pablo Romero, nineteen, of Plaza San Jose, single; and Juan Cristóbal Madrid, forty-five; Adaucto Olivas, thirty; Juan de Diós Martín, twenty-eight of Plaza San Joaquín.  The last three were married men. [New Mexico Roots LTD by Fray Angélico Chavez]
The 1845 Mexican Census of New Mexico shows Don Manuel Serrano, age 35, with a 33-year old wife.  They have a son aged 12 and daughters aged 10, 8, and 2.  This census does not correspond very well with the family’s listing in the 1850 U.S. Census of New Mexico.
Manuel  was in Abiquiú on 13 May 1849, as godfather to María Josefa García, He was listed in the 1850 Census of Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  His entry shows Manuel, age 40, born New Mexico; wife María, age 30, born New Mexico; son Luis, 16, born New Mexico; son Lorenso, 10, born New Mexico; son Guadalupe, 8, born New Mexico; daughter María, 6, born New Mexico; and daughter Josefa, 5, born New Mexico. If the census-taker was not a Spanish-speaker, this would account for what seems to be several errors.
Although he was listed in the census, Manuel may not have been home at the time.  There are indications that he may have been back and forth between California and New Mexico after 1846.  There is a seven-year gap between 1846 and 1853 when he and his wife had no children.  Manuel may have spent time in the California gold fields.
On 23 March 1852, Manuel was the godfather in Abiquiú for María Manuela García, four days old, the daughter of Rafael García and María Micaela Madrid.  Godmother was his wife María Dolores Martín.
In 1858 when the San Luis Obispo, California Vigilance Committee was active, Manuel is listed as a member.  His brother Miguel named a son for Manuel that year in San Luis Obispo.
In the index of the 1860 U.S. Census of Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Manuel is listed on page 027 as living in the 9th Precinct. In the 1880 Census both Manuel and Dolores were still alive:
16 June 1880 Collote and Canones
Manuel Serrano, 60 [he was 71], farmer
Maria Dolores, wife, 57
Luis, son, 40, laborer
Antonio, grandson, 13, herder
Jesus M. Serrano, 22, farmer
Manuela, wife, 18
Emilia, 1, daughter
Guadalupe Serrano, white female, 36, keeping house
Maria Josefa Serrano, 32, head, keeping house
Manuel, son, 10
Jose Seferino, 6, son
Delfina, 4, daughter
Breiana, 6/12 [Nov], daughter
These are Manuel’s children:   Luis María Eugénio Yldefonso Serrano, baptized January 27, 1833, Abiquiú, godparents:  Hipolito Serrano and María Manuela Mestas; María de Jesús Serrano, baptized January 24, 1835, Abiquiú, probably died before 1850; María Guadalupe Serrano, baptized March 8, 1837, Abiquiú, godparents Miguel Antonio Abeyta and María Rosa Vigil, died before 1843; Bernardo Serrano, born 26 August 1842, in Abiquiú; María Manuela Serrano, baptized November 3, 1839, Abiquiú, godparents Miguel Serrano and María Francisca Serrano, died before 1843;  Lorenzo [Luis] Serrano, born about 1840, appears in 1850 U.S. Census; Antonia María Serrano, baptized March 6, 1842, Abiquiú, was probably the eight-year old Guadalupe Serrano listed in the 1850 Census, never married, living with brother Jesús María Serrano’s family in 1880; another María Manuela Serrano, baptized April 16, 1843, Abiquiú, godparents Miguel Martinez and María de Jesús Villanueva, married Luciano Archuleta about 1855, living next door to Mauricio Serrano in 1870 in Canones; María Josefa Serrano, baptized April 27, 1846, Abiquiú, godparents Juan Ygnacio García and María Gertrudis Abeyta, widowed 1880;  María Virginia Serrano, baptized October 16, 1853, godfather Francisco Abeyta; Jesús María Serrano, baptized March 8, 1856, Abiquiú, godparents Miguel Antonio Abeyta and María Rosa Vigil, married Manuela Unknown.
[3]   José Mauricio Serrano, known as Mauricio, was born in 1811 or 1812 in New Mexico.  All indications are that he was a son of Hipolito and Manuela, although we  have not found the baptismal records of their children after 1809. 
            On March 29, 1835, Mauricio Serrano and his sister María Francisca Serrano were godparents for José Miguel Ruperto García de la Mora.  His parents were Juan Cristóval García de la Mora and María Manuela Archuleta.
About 1836 Mauricio married María Dolores Abeyta, apparently of the family that appeared so frequently as godparents of children of Mauricio’s brother Manuel’s children.  She was the daughter of Juan Nepomuceno Abeyta and María Manuela Castelo [Castillo].  They were godparents on June 24, 1836, for María Rafaela Gallegos, indicating that they had probably already married by that time.
The family is listed in the 1845 Mexican Census of New Mexico in Abiquiú:  Mauricio, age 33, head; wife age 24; sons aged 6 [Ventura] and 3 [Teodoro]; daughters aged 7 [Manuela] and 2.
The Jose Serrano listed in the 1850 U.S. Census of Abiquiú is Mauricio.  He is listed as household #712, age 38, laborer; wife María, 29; Ventura, 10, female [a male]; Viviana, 9, female; Bernardo, 8, male; Rosa, 6 female; Teodoro, 5, male; José, 1, male [José Antonio]. 
Mauricio may have been in California during the gold rush because no children are born to him between 1849 and 1853, much as the case with his brother Manuel.
           Presumably Mauricio lived out his life in New Mexico. The 1870 Census shows him living in Canones, age 57, a musician.  Dolores was listed as age 51. Neither could read or write.  Two sons lived with them:  Tranquilino, age 13, and Eliseo, age 9.
           In the 1880 U.S. Census of Rio Arriba County, Mauricio and Dolores were living in Canones with a nine-year old niece named Andrea.  Next door lived their son Teodoro, 33, and his family.  Mauricio’s age was given as 65 [he was 67 or 68] and Dolores’ as 60.  In this census he was listed as a farmer.
           These are his children:  Teodoro de Jesús Serrano, baptized December 23, 1844, Abiquiú, godparents José Lino Trujillo and María Gerónima Valdés, died before 1847; another Teodoro de Jesús Serrano, baptized at Abiquiú, January 12, 1847, godparents Antonio Abeyta and María Rufina Abeyta, parents living in Barranco at the time of his birth; José Antonio Serrano, baptized February 6, 1849, Abiquiú, godparents Jesús María Sálazar and María Ysadora Trujillo, parents living in Barranco at the time of his birth; Antonio María Serrano, baptized June 17, 1853, Abiquiú, godparents José Archuleta and María Altagracia Vigil; parents resided in Canones at the time of his birth;  Severino Serrano, baptized August 26, 1855, Abiquiú, godparents José Tomás Montano and María Francisca Sálazar; Carlos Tranquilino Serrano, baptized February 24, 1857, Abiquiú, godparents José Vivian Montoya and Ana María Valdés
[4]  María Francisca Serrano, known as Francisca, was born about 1822 in or near Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.  She is the only known daughter of Hipolito Serrano and Manuela Mestas.
 On 29 March 1835, she was the godmother for José Miguel Ruperto García de la Mora, son of Juan Cristóval García de la Mora and María Manuela Archuleta,  in Abiquiú.  Godfather was Francisca’s brother Mauricio Serrano.
Shortly thereafter Francisca married  Manuel Esquípulas Sálazar.  Their daughter, María Rafaela de los Dolores Sálazar, was baptized 20 June 1839, at Abiquiú.  Godparents were José Antonio Manzanares and María Paula Abeyta.
Another daughter, María Rufina Sálazar, was baptized at Abiquiú on 29 September 1841, at the age of four days.  Padrinos were José María Chaves and María de Jesús Martinez.
Esquípulas appears to have been gone in the middle 1840’s.  Francisca was listed as the head of the  household in the 1845 Mexican Census of Abiquiú:  Dona Francisca Serrano, female, age 23, widow, head; 3 females aged 23, 4, and 3.  Yet Francisca’s presence in Abiquiú is well documented.  On 4 May 1842 she and her brother Miguel Cresencio Serrano [our ancestor] were padrinos for María Catarina Valdéz, daughter of Pedro Ygnacio Valdés and Mariana Gonzales, age eight days, at Abiquiú. 
Francisca and her father, Hipolito Serrano, were listed as godparents at the baptism of María Gerónima Trujillo on 17 November 1844, in Abiquiú.  The mother was María Petra Trujillo.  The father was listed as unknown, the usual listing when the mother was an Indian slave/servant impregnated by a household member or other person.
On 26 February 1845, Francisca and her father were again godparents at the baptism of Francisco Estevan Velásquez, illegitimate son of María Seferina Velásquez.  Seferina was also probably a slave/servant.  Two months later Francisca and her father were again godparents for María Virginia Sálazar, daughter of María de la Luz Sálazar and an unknown father.
On 19 April 1846, Francisca and her brother, Manuel Serrano, were the padrinos for the child of what may have been a servant/slave of Francisca and Esquípulas.  The child was named Miguel Cresencio Salazar, son of María Manuela Sálazar and unknown father [possibly Francisca’s brother Miguel Cresencio Serrano, our ancestor, who was on his way to California at this time].
Esquípulas appears on the scene again in 1846, when he and Francisca were godparents at the baptism of María Teodora Trujillo, daughter of María Estéfana Trujillo and an unknown father, 4 August 1846.
Francisca was either dead or not living in New Mexico at the time of the 1880 Census.  No record could be found of her there, nor of Esquípulas.
[5]   Juan Serrano was born about 1819.  He appears in the 1850 U.S. Census in his parents’ household and is the twenty-six year old son mentioned in the 1845 Mexican Census.  Nothing else known of him.
[6]   José Serrano was born about 1823.  He is the nineteen-year-old son enumerated in the 1845 Mexican Census with his parents.  He was still living with his parents in the 1850 U.S. Census.  His age was given as twenty-six.
[7]   Valentín Serrano was the fourteen-year-old son mentioned in the 1845 Mexican Census.  He was in California at the time of the 1850 U.S. Census. The San Luis Obispo  Old Mission Church records show that he sired an illegitimate child that year.  It is believed that he moved to Los Angeles later in that decade.  He does not show up in the 1858 Vigilance Committee list nor in the 1860 Census of San Luis Obispo.  Nor does he show up in the census in New Mexico.  A Valentín Serrano was listed in the 1860 Census in Los Angeles.  That, no doubt, was he.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.


Copyright © Genealogy Trails