Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Genealogy and History
Francisco Gomez (abt. 1587 - abt. 1656)
Ana Robledo (abt. 1604 - 1680)
Francisco Gómez and Ana Robledo were the parents of our ancestor, Andrés Gómez Robledo. We know this from pages 35-37 of Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, by Fray Angélico Chávez.
Francisco was born in Coina, a town thirteen miles from Lisbon, Portugal. He was the son of Manuel Gómez and Ana Vicente, both of whom died when he was a child. The family was most likely a noble family as is suggested by Francisco’s later fate. Reared at first by his elder brother, Fray Álvaro Gómez, a Franciscan of Lisbon and Commisary of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, Francisco then passed on to the household of Don Alonso de Oñate at the Court of ailing King Phillip II in Madrid. He was likely in the court when King Phillip died in 1598. He no doubt was well-acquainted with the new king, Phillip III. Oñate brought him to Mexico City, and from there Francisco came to New Mexico to join the young colony of Alonso’s brother, Governor Juan de Oñate. 1604 is probably the year that young Francisco sailed to the New World.
The New Mexican capital was at San Gabriel del Yunque during Francisco’s early years there. He chose as a wife Ana Robledo, daughter of Bartolomé Romero and Luisa López Robledo, who were original 1598 settlers of New Mexico. Her Robledo grandparents were also among the 1598 colonists. Ana was born about 1604 in San Gabriel, the year of Francisco’s probable arrival in the New World.
With such close connections to the Oñate family and a background of nobility, it is no surprise that Francisco Gómez rose to become the most outstanding military official in New Mexico. His name appears often in early records. In 1616 and 1625 he was the leader of the Mexico City wagon train escort; in the latter year he conducted Gov. Sotelo and Fray Alonso Benavides, and a statue of the Virgin Mary which, as La Conquistadora, became forever famous in New Mexico through the initial efforts of his wife and children. We have the following about La Conquistadora:
She stands only 28 inches tall. She is made of willow wood, native to her native Spain. Having arrived in New Mexico in 1625, she is well preserved, thanks to the excellent care she receives from La Confradía de Nuestra Señora del Rosario (The Confraternity of Our Lady of the Rosary).
Her wardrobe of 130 elaborate dresses would be the envy of almost any woman in history. One dress, made by Cochití Pueblo artist Dorothy Trujillo, is of Native American design and includes small silver bracelets and a miniature squash blossom necklace.
The statue's jeweled crown's replacement value equals $65,378, while her pectoral cross, donated in 1960 by an anonymous admirer, is currently valued at $97,529. The replacement value of all of her jewelry equaled $180,856 in 2000.
Whole books have been written about her. And thousands of visitors have come to admire her at her special chapel at St. Francis Cathedral in Santa Fe. She is the center of attention at the annual Santa Fe Fiesta, where she is carried through the capital city's streets at the head of a grand procession.
She is the image of the Virgin Mary, the most venerated saint in the Catholic Church. She is the oldest Madonna figure in the United States. She is the most famous religious, cultural and historical artifact in all of New Mexico. She is listed as a New Mexico Registered Cultural Property.
At first Father Alonso Benavides showered Gómez with praise and favors, but he later thought Francisco too attached to the anti-clerical Governor Juan de Eulate. Gómez had always been a critic of certain friars in power, thus incurring their enmity and that of their followers. His Portuguese origin did not help. The following is a quote from Kiva, Cross and Crown, by John L. Kessell:
It was night before he rode back into Santa Fe. He made straight for the governor's quarters to report on the tribute payment and on the situation he had found at Pecos. He related exactly how he had admonished the Indians, assuming that the governor would be grateful to him "for having defended his honor and the cause of God." Instead, [Governor] Eulate exploded. By whose order, he demanded, had Pérez meddled in affairs at Pecos. That was none of his damn business! Stung by such "pharisaical words," [Luis] Pérez Granillo [our kinsman] made his exit, having, as he put it, formed a bad opinion of the governor. As for Francisco Mosoyo, that "great idolater and witch about whom our Father Custos has compiled an extremely full report," Ortega tried to rehabilitate him and his like-minded brother, "assigning them no greater penance than placing them in the home of Christian and honorable Spaniards." When Eulate heard what the friar had done, he bellowed. The accused must be released at once and sent back to Pecos with a letter informing Fray Pedro that they were not to be harmed but favored. What more could the missionary do.
At every turn, to hear the friars tell it, Eulate thwarted their missionary program. He abused or threatened mission Indians who worked for or cooperated with the Franciscans. He opposed mission expansion, denying escorts to friars who wished to carry the gospel to neighboring heathens, even though he exacted tribute and services from such people whenever he could. When certain encomenderos, like Capt. Francisco Gómez, volunteered as escorts, Eulate ordered them back. But perhaps most scandalous of all, the governor openly obstructed the building or repairing of churches and conventos, even threatening to hang the Indian laborers who refused to quit. With his outrageous bullying, he brought work on the Santo Domingo and San Ildefonso churches to a standstill, but the one they were all talking about was Pecos. A number of Spaniards had lent Father Ortega their oxen, presumably in the off season, to help build his grand church. One such cooperative citizen was diminutive Canary Islander Juan Luján [our ancestor], a resident of New Mexico since 1600. Eulate accosted him. If he did not send immediately to Pecos for his oxen, he could count on a fine of forty fanegas of maize! Ensign Sebastián Rodríguez [our ancestor], who had traveled to New Mexico with his wife in the company of Eulate and Father Ortega back in 1618, also had oxen on the Pecos project, as did Ensign Juan de Tapia. With them, the governor was even more brutal. If they did not go at once and bring back their animals from Pecos, "he would dispose of them and the oxen." When they protested that they had no horses to ride, Eulate yelled at them "to go on foot and bring in the whips, the yoke straps, and the yokes on their own backs!" The governor had made his point. "In order to avoid disputes and strife," Father Custos Esteban de Perea reluctantly ordered his religious to stop all building. At Pecos a frustrated Pedro de Ortega complied.
Francisco Gómez occupied every high office of importance, including that of High Sheriff of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. [His granddaughter, Francisca Gómez Robledo would one day marry Don Ignacio Roybal y Torrado, who also would hold this position.] In 1641, the dying Governor Rosas of New Mexico appointed him as interim Governor, but Gómez was not accepted by the hostile Cabildo of native New Mexicans in Santa Fe. [Our uncle, Antonio Baca; our ancestor, Diego Márquez, et al] Francisco is included in the list of New Mexico governors, indicating that he held the office for a short while in 1641. He was fifty-four at the time. New Mexico was in a virtual state of war between those who sided with the friars and those who sided with the civil government. Francisco was seen as belonging to the latter.
He surely played a major role in July of 1643 when the new Governor, Alonso Pacheco de Herédia, had eight captains of the military executed in the plaza for their roles in condoning the murder of Governor Luis Rosas. The very men who had rejected Francisco as interim Governor were among those who were beheaded.
Francisco was an encomendero under the encomienda system of New Mexico. That meant that the Indians of his encomienda district would have to pay him tribute/tax each year with food, labor, or other valuable products. His encomienda encompassed Pecos Pueblo among others, though he had no claim to the land. The Pueblos deeply resented the enriching of high-ranking Spaniards at their expense. It was one of the resentments that led to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt.
Colonial Spanish society was dominated by a caste system. At the top of the hierarchy were people who had been born in Europe (called Gauchupines, or, more respectfully, Peninsulares). Most administrative officials belonged to this group. Next were the Creoles [Criollos], people of pure Spanish descent who had been born in the Americas. Creoles did not occupy the top administrative posts, but they dominated the Catholic Church and political bureaucracies, owned land and mines, and were often encomenderos. Below the Creoles were the mestizos, people of mixed Indian and European descent. At the bottom of the caste system were the mulattos, Indians and negroes. Mestizos were considered racially inferior, and although "free," they were usually without power. In Mexico, the system was so elaborate that 16 classes of mestizos were distinguished. New Mexico, being on the fringe of things, had a more simplified system. In terms of government, the Spanish system was not at all democratic. Power was in the hands of European-born Spaniards and the Creoles. Most of the Spanish colonists in New Mexico were Creoles or mestizos. From the ancestors that we have been able to identify so far, several lines succeeded in maintaining a pure European ancestry clear into the 18th century.
Francisco’s enemies accused him of secretly practicing Judaism. They claimed he was born a Jew. We have no evidence of that, though many Jews of an earlier generation had converted to Catholicism to avoid execution. Genetic studies show that several of our ancestral lines have Semitic [Jewish or Moorish] origins.
Francisco was given a royal cedula [document or bulletin] making him a caballero hidalgo, the lowest level of Spanish nobility. The word comes from the Spanish phrase hijo de algo [son of some worth]. Although all the 1598 colonists had been promised hidalgo status, Francisco is the only one I know of who actually received it, and he didn’t arrive in 1598.
Probably to honor her husband, Ana Robledo was granted a coat of arms after Francisco’s death. Today tiles bearing this coat of arms is on the wall of the the Angélico Chávez Library at the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe.
Ana Robledo de Gómez spent her last years living in the Taos Valley with the family of her daughter, Francisca Gómez Robledo, the widow of Pedro Lucero de Godoy. When the Pueblos planned their Revolt in 1680, the leader was Popé, of the nearby Taos Pueblo. They attacked the Lucero de Godoy rancho killing Ana, Francisca, and three daughters of Francisca. Francisca’s other children were either soldiers or married women who lived elsewhere. There were more family members killed, but it is difficult or impossible to identify them.
CHILDREN OF FRANCISCO GOMEZ AND ANA ROBLEDO
 Francisco Gómez Robledo was born about 1631 in Jerez de los Caballeros, New Mexico. He married Juana López del Castillo [abt. 1640-23 Aug 1734]. He and his wife survived the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, but Francisco died in 1693 in Guadalupe del Paso and did not participate in the re-entry to New Mexico that year. A daughter, Ana María Gómez Robledo, was taken captive during the Revolt and died in captivity.
After his father’s death, Francisco was accused by hostile New Mexican friars of being a crypto Jew and practicing sorcery. He was imprisoned and had to convince the Inquisition that he did not practice Judaism. The enmity between New Mexico’s two factions was deeply venomous. A stripsearch revealed that Francisco was not circumcised and did not possess the small tail that the diabolic were “known” to have. His estate was confiscated during his confinement in Mexico City and sold to pay for his confinement, but he was able to regain most of it when he was found innocent. He got his offices and his encomiendas back and continued on with his prominent life, including his role as mayordomo of the religious confraternity of Nuestra Señora del Rosario [La Conquistadora]. [Spain in the Southwest, by John L. Kessell, page 116]
We have this from the website Beyond Origins of New Mexico Families:
On May 4, 1662, at Santa Fe, an inventory of the embargoed possessions of Francisco Gómez Robledo (ONMF: 36) was made as part of his arrest by the Inquisition. This first thing listed was his house "que cae en la esquina de la plasa Rl desta villa," indicating that the house of Francisco Gómez Robledo was right along the Plaza of Santa Fe at one of the corners. This house consisted of "una sala, tres aposentos, y un patio conseguerta abaj_ [missing letter(s)] espaldas" ("one living hall/living room, three rooms, and a patio that was entered from behind"). Among the items embargoed were his personal papers. According to the list, Gómez Robledo had fourteen appointments ("nombimientos") as Captain and Cabo (Squadron Leader), two royal "provisiones" as Sargento Mayor, another royal "provision" as Cabo, a "titulo de fiscal de su magd", and a "merced de alferez Rl." Of particular interest are three additional entries. Gómez Robledo held "dos titulos de teniente de govr y capn gl, and one "merced de titulo de teniente de govr y capn gl." This indicates that he was appointed Lieutenant Governor and Captain General, presumably of New Mexico, prior to 1662. The third entry is the most intriguing. It was recorded that among his personal papers Gómes Robledo had "una informacion de servicios, y en ella una sedula Rl de cavallero hijodalgo que esta en veinte fojas escritos en todo y tres en blanco" ("a report of services, and among this a royal decree of Caballero Hijodalgo"). Here is an indication that either Francisco Gómez Robledo, or possibly his father before him, was knighted by the King of Spain, most likely for services rendered in New Mexico. In either case, it would be extremely worthwhile for the adventurous researcher who is familiar with the process and documents of Spain pertaining to petitioning the king for acquiring the title and privileges of Caballero Hijodalgo to attempt to locate copies of these records. Perhaps, if such records still survive in some archive in Spain, there may be documents relating to the lineage of the Gómez and Robledo families.
In addition to the papers mentioned above, a list of the land holdings and encomiendas of Francisco Gómez Robledo were made. The land documents that Gómez Robledo had in possession were:
"El titulo de encomienda de la mitad del pueblo de Acoma, orto titulo de encomienda de total del pueblo de Tesuque, mas otro titulo encomienda de dos partes y media del Pueblo de los Taos; otro titulo de encomienda de todo el Pueblo de Pecos; otro titulo de encomda de la mitad del Pueblo de Sandia; y de ella despues trueque por la mitad de Abo - en dho titulo tiene la mersed de la mitad de xengopau y que son las encomiends que tiene el dho Sargto Myr Franco Gomes Robledo merced de estancia en el Pueblo de San Juo otro titulo del arroyo tesuque mersed de estancia en los Taos merced de la estancia de Barrancas, otro del Pueblo de San Juo que es una legua mas arriba, y esta sin poblar"
In all, Sargento Mayor Francisco Gómez Robledo possessed title to all or part of seven encomiendas in New Mexico. In addition, he had held five land grant titles. In is no surprise that his enemies wanted to see his downfall with the Inquisition. These enemies stood to profit from the loss of his encomiendas if he was found guilty.
Researcher: José Antonio Esquibel
Source: Archivo General de la Nación, Inquisición, Concurso de Peñalosa, Tomo I, Leg. 1, no.6, f. 33-34v (microfilm copy located at the New Mexico Records Center and Archives under the title: AGN-Inquisition of Mexico, Roll#1, Trial of Bernardo Lopez de Mendizabal, 1662).
 Andrés Gómez Robledo, our ancestor, was born about 1643 in Santa Fe. Like his father and his elder brother Francisco, he was a soldier. He married Juana Ortiz, daughter of Diego Montoya and María Ortiz de Vera. In 1680 when the Pueblos laid siege to the Spanish settlers who had taken refuge in Santa Fe, Andrés was the only officer, and one of just three soldiers killed during the siege. His grieving wife and children were in the exodus to El Paso after Governor Otermín surrendered the town of Santa Fe. His biography is elsewhere in this work.
 Francisca Gómez Robledo was born about 1627 in Santa Fe. She was the second wife of Pedro Lucero de Godoy [abt. 1600-1663]. They were married 8 April 1641, in Santa Fe. She was active in affairs connected with the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe. A widow, she was living at her rancho in the Taos Valley in August of 1680 when the Taos Pueblos attacked and killed Francisca, three daughters, and her mother.
 Bartolomé Gómez Robledo was named for his grandfather, Bartolomé Romero. He was born in Santa Fe about 1639. He was not married. He survived the Pueblo Revolt.
 Juan Gómez Robledo was accused of being a crypto-Jew but was found innocent like his brother Francisco.
 José Gómez Robledo was born about 1645 in Santa Fe; no information
 Ana María Gómez Robledo was born about 1636 in Santa Fe; no information.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Francisco Gomez del Castillo (abt. 1701 - before 1762)
Ursula Guillen (abt. 1712 - before 1790)
Francisco Gómez del Castillo and Úrsula Guillén were the parents of our ancestor, María Polonia Bárbara Gómez del Castillo [1739-after 1782], wife of our ancestor Cayetano Atienza Sevillano [1703-abt. 1772]. We know this from the baptismal record of María Polonia Bárbara on 6 February 1739, at the Catholic church in San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Francisco was born about 1701 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the son of Juana Luján, a mestiza. Juana was known to have had at least three children out of wedlock. To these she attached the surname Gómez del Castillo, using an ancestral name of her family. The name did not exist in New Mexico before Juana’s use of it on her children. But her children sometimes used the surname Luján instead. It is believed that Francisco’s father was Buenaventura Esquivel because there is a record of Juana’s bringing suit in Santa Fe in April of 1702 against “Ventura” for support of a child about the estimated time of Francisco’s birth. Juana claimed that Ventura wanted to marry her, but his brother interceded to prevent him from marrying her [because she was a mestiza]. The brother got the Governor involved to prevent the marriage. Ventura apparently was in love with Juana. The caste system was rigid in those days. Ventura was sent away to a post in Parral, Mexico, far away from his lover.
The teenaged Juana moved with Francisco from Santa Fe to the San Ildefonso-Jacona region about 1703, after a brief stay in Santa Cruz. She eventually became the matriarch of her clan of Gómez del Castillos. She married Francisco Martín, who was of mestizo extraction like herself, about 1720. They had no children. Francisco Gómez del Castillo was grown by that time.
Francisco’s father, Ventura, married first Rosa Lucero de Godoy and later Theresa Roybal, a criolla [creole], of a higher social status than Juana Luján, and lived in the area of San Juan Pueblo in Rio Arriba County. A creole was a person of Spanish ancestry born in the New World. The highest caste was of those born in Spain, called peninsulares [after Mexican independence derisively called Gachupines]. Theresa was likely a daughter or niece of Don Ignacio Roybal. Ventura and Theresa were living in San Juan at the junction of the Chama River and the Rio Grande at the time of the 1750 census.
On 20 April 1732, in San Ildefonso, Francisco married Úrsula Guillén, the daughter of Pedro Guillén and María Ramos. They were to have eleven children: seven daughters and four sons.
On 1 August 1732, in the Taos district, Francisco Luján [Francisco using his mother’s surname here] and Úrsula Guillén were the padrinos [godparents] for Francisco Guillén, son of Pedro Guillén and María Trujillo. Pedro was the name of Úrsula’s father, but she could have had a brother by that name also. It is not known whether Francisco and Úrsula ever lived in the Taos area themselves, but they may have.
About 1740, Francisco purchased a rancho between San Ildefonso and Santa Clara pueblos. His livestock multiplied, and he grew crops on the land. This land today lies just north of Santa Fe County in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. It probably is the piece of land west of the Rio Grande River [see map below] where the lands of Santa Clara Reservation and San Ildefonso Reservation do not meet.
On 20 October 1749, the Gómez Castillo rancho was attacked by Ute [Utah] Indians. Fifteen-year-old Francisco Simón Gómez del Castillo and his 3 ½-year-old brother, Josef Antonio Gómez del Castillo, were killed. The couple also lost two other sons, Tomás Luján Gómez del Castillo and Sebastián Gómez del Castillo, before 1750.
The surviving children of Francisco and Úrsula were all daughters, three of whom were listed as living with their grandmother, Juana Luján, in the 1750 Census. In the San Ildefonso district, Francisco and Úrsula were listed as living with three of their daughters and eight Indian women servants. Nearby was Francisco’s brother Juan Gómez del Castillo, his wife, Antonia Quintana, six children, six Indian women servants and one Indian boy. Francisco and Úrsula’s daughter, María Antonia Gómez del Castillo, also lived nearby with her husband, Marcos Lucero, with no children or servants. Also nearby was Juana Luján and her husband, Francisco Martín, and three granddaughters, and one Indian woman servant. The Spanish in the San Ildefonso area numbered only seven households, all descendants of Don Ignacio Roybal or of Juana Luján. They were all our ancestors, or uncles and aunts, and the children of these families.
In 1762 his mother, Juana Luján, died, leaving a will. Francisco Martín had predeceased her. Her rancho was divided among her heirs. Francisco Gómez del Castillo died sometime between 1752 and 1762, before his mother.
On page 410 of Volume I of the Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Úrsula Guillén alleged in May of 1766 to Governor Velez Cachupín in a petition that she owned a rancho between San Ildefonso and Santa Clara, which had been purchased by her deceased husband, Francisco Gómez del Castillo from Don Joseph de Orcasitas; that she had lived on said ranch in quiet and peaceful possession for twenty-six years; that she still held possession in spite of the fact that Ute Indians had attacked the ranch, killed two of her sons, and driven off her stock; that on the 20th of that month the [Pueblo] Indians of San Ildefonso had gone to her rancho while she was engaged in planting, and had told her that Felipe Tafoya [the Indian advocate] had sent them an order that the lands of the ranch should be partitioned among them by their [Pueblo] governor; that in view of the fact that they exhibited no order from Governor Velez, and the notification was not brought by any Spanish official, she had not permitted them to make a partition of the lands until she could lay the matter before the Spanish governor. She calls attention to the fact that during a very long period the Indians had failed to make any claim to the rancho when it had been sold and passed from the possession of one owner to another and that at the time that her husband had been placed in possession of it, the Indians had been summoned to appear and the boundaries had been designated by Domingo Vigil. In conclusion, she states that in order that the governor may understand the matter, she transmits with her petition four documents. These do not form a part of this archive, and a subsequent statement by Governor Velez shows that he ordered that they be returned to her.
This petition was examined by Governor Velez on May 24, 1766, and he ordered that it and the four instruments accompanying it be transmitted to Felipe Tafoya, that as attorney for the Indians, he might reply to the same.
This he did immediately, calling the attention of the governor to the fact that the recitals in the instruments referred to were not of a character to make clear the number of varas contained in the ranch, some of them containing no mention even of the boundaries, or referring to the original grant as giving that information, although the said grant was not attached to the proceedings and consequently was not available for the purposes of the case. [a vara is from 32-43 inches, a.k.a. “a Spanish yard.”]
In regard to one of the instruments, which he says did mention the boundaries, as being on the north the lands of the pueblo of Santa Clara and on the south the lands of his clients, the people of San Ildefonso, he says that this simply leaves open the question as to the exact location of those boundaries and that nothing has been presented in the case which militates against the proof already adduced by the Indians in regard to their boundary being at the point where the stones were buried in the ground in the form of a cross.
In conclusion he asks that the governor’s previous decision be carried into effect, and that after the landmark shall be established at the proper point, the number of varas from there to the house of Úrsula Guillén be measured, as well as the distance from the house to the boundary of the pueblo of Santa Clara.
On May 24, 1766, Governor Velez reviewed the case and ordered that his previous decision be carried into effect, commanding the deputy alcalde and the attorney for the Indians to proceed at once to place the Indians in possession of their ancient boundary, and to measure from there to the ranch house and from the latter to the boundary claimed by the Santa Clara Indians, and to set forth the whole matter in a proper document in order that the claimants of the ranch might not thereafter trespass upon the lands of the Indians.
On May 26, 1766, the substitute chief alcalde, Don Antonio José Ortiz, with Felipe Tafoya, attorney for the Indians, in the presence of the parties interested, and the principal Indians of the pueblos of San Ildefonso and Santa Clara, proceeded to comply with the order of the governor.
At the point where the stones had been buried in the ground in the form of a cross, a landmark of stones and mud was erected and from said landmark a distance of 200 varas was measured in a northerly direction to the corner of the house, and from said corner the measurement was continued toward the north a further distance of 126 varas to the boundary of the pueblo of Santa Clara, making the total distance between the boundaries of the two pueblos 326 varas [about 980 feet]
On June 23, 1766, Governor Velez ordered that the preceding instrument be attached to the other papers in the case and that a certified copy of his decisions of April 12, 1765, and May 5, 1766, and also of his last decree of May 24, 1766, be given to the Indians as well as the proceeding immediately following that decree and the one in which the order is given. He further ordered that the original proceeding should be deposited in the government archives.
Úrsula died sometime after 1766.
Area where Francisco and Úrsula lived
CHILDREN OF FRANCISCO GOMÉZ DEL CASTILLO AND ÚRSULA GUILLÉN
 María Polonia Bárbara Gómez del Castillo, our ancestor, was baptized 6 February 1739, at the Catholic church at San Ildefonso, Santa Fe County, New Mexico. She married our ancestor, Cayetano Atienza Sevillano [1703-abt. 1772], on 8 December 1757, at the church in Santa Clara Pueblo. She died after 1782. Their biographies are elsewhere in this work.
 Lugarda Josefa Gómez was baptized 6 July 1728, in San Ildefonso. She married Cristóbal Trujillo on 27 April 1744, in Santa Clara Pueblo, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. She died at Pojoaque, NM, on 29 May 1785, age 55.
 Juana María Gómez del Castillo was baptized 6 January 1730 at San Ildefonso; no information.
 María Antonia Gómez del Castillo was born about 1731. She married Marcos Lucero de Godoy 20 October 1749, at Santa Cruz, NM. She died 4 April 1813 in Pojoaque. They are shown in the 1750 Census living near her parents with no family yet. They had at least one daughter, María de Jesus Lucero, who married José Julian Quintana in June 1772 in Santa Fe.
 Francisco Simón Gómez del Castillo was baptized 31 October 1733 in San Ildefonso. He was killed by raiding Ute Indians when age fifteen, 17 September 1749. He was buried at Santa Clara at the church cemetery.
 María Prudencia Antonia Gómez del Castillo was baptized 10 April 1737, in San Ildefonso. She married Cristóbal Cháves Gallego on 30 October 1757, in Santa Clara, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. She died before 1782.
 María Josefa Gómez del Castillo was baptized 29 March 1741, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She married Pedro Antonio Trujillo on 8 December 1757 in Santa Clara, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Pedro Antonio inherited lands on the Pojoaque River in 1751, which were sold by a relative in his name. [He was yet a minor at the time.]
 Tomás Luján Gómez del Castillo was baptized 11 March 1743, in Santa Clara, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. He died before 1750.
 Josef Antonio Gómez del Castillo was baptized 17 April 1745. He was killed by Ute Indians on 17 September 1749, at age 3 ½ with his brother Francisco. They were bureied at the church in Santa Clara.
 Sebastián Gómez del Castillo was baptized 3 February 1747, in Santa Clara, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. He died before 1750.
 Juana Gómez del Castillo was born about 1753. She married Juan Domingo Trujillo on 2 July 1773.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Francisco Jose Casados (abt. 1693 - after 1750)
Maria Barbara de Archibeque (abt. 1702 - after 1750)
Francisco José Casados and María Bárbara de Archibeque were the parents of our ancestor, Gertrudis Casados [abt. 1738-]. We know this from the Surname Index of New Mexico and from the book, Origins of New Mexico Family.
Francisco was the son of Francisco Lorenzo de Casados [abt. 1670-after 1716], a native of Cádiz, Spain, and Ana Pacheco. The son’s age was listed as twenty-three in 1716. That would have him born in 1693, if he gave his age correctly. [Most people didn’t know exactly how old they were.] If he was born in 1693, he was probably born in Mexico proper [then New Spain]. The Casados family was not among the first settlers of New Mexico in 1693-94, but was there by 1696. The father had been a soldier in New Spain [Mexico] before being sent to New Mexico.
Bárbara, half French Basque, was the daughter of adventurous Juan de Archibeque [aka Jean L’Archeveque] [1671-1720] and Antonia Gutiérrez [abt. 1677-before 1719]. Her mother probably died when Bárbara was born or when she was an infant because her parents had no children younger than she.
Francisco’s mother also died when he was very small, and his father later remarried. [p.35, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 1, Archive #80]. The elder Casados sometimes used the name Francisco José Casados and sometimes Francisco Lorenzo Casados.
It appears as if both father and son were on military escort duty to the interior of Mexico in late 1715 and early 1716. They were given joint power of attorney by María de Quiros on 31 October 1715 to bring one of her sons to New Mexico. [p.179, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 2, Archive #239d]
Soon after his return from Mexico, the younger Francisco was married in Santa Fe, 28 October 1716, to María Bárbara de Archibeque. His father was alcalde of Santa Fe in 1716, so he probably was elected to that post upon his return. Her father was something like the commander-in-chief of the New Mexico military forces. It was a marriage between two very prominent families. Barbara’s brother Miguel was married to María Roybal, a daughter of Don Ignacio de Roybal, the high sheriff of the Inquisition in New Mexico.
In 1719 Bárbara’s father married again, to María Manuela Roybal, of the family into which Bárbara’s brother Miguel was already married. The marriage was short because Juan de Archibeque was killed in 1720 on the Platte River by the Pawnees during an expedition to uncover French encroachment on lands which were claimed by Spain. Since her father was prosperous by New Mexico standards, Bárbara received a considerable inheritance.
In 1729 Francisco and Bárbara sold a home and land in Santa Fe to José Riaño. Riaño was married to María Manuela Roybal, who had been Bárbara’s step-mother and was the sister-in-law of Bárbara’s brother Miguel. [p.206, The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 1]
Living with his wife in Santa Fe in 1731, Francisco listed his age as thirty-two, but he was more like thirty-eight if his statement of his age had been correct in 1716. They were still living in Santa Fe at the time of the 1750 Spanish Census with three children still at home: Antonio, Miguel, and Polonia. Also in the residence was a servant/slave named Rosalia, who had two children, probably sired by one of the men of the house. This is the last record we have of Francisco and Bárbara.
CHILDREN OF FRANCISCO JOSÉ CASADOS AND MARÍA BÁRBARA DE ARCHIBEQUE
 María Antonia Casados, born abt. 1719; no information
 María Feliciana Casados, born abt. 1720; married Pedro Antonio Trujillo, 6 May 1741, Santa Fe, NM; died before 1799, New Mexico
 Francisco Casados, born abt. 1722, no information
 Miguel Casados, born abt. 1727; married María Diega Domínguez, 26 June 1750, Santa Fe Military Chapel.
 María Apolonia Casados, born about 1730; married 1st to Bernardo de Sena, 10 April 1752, Santa Fe; married 2nd Antonio Guerrero, 4 September 1758; married 3rd Juan Dionisio Casillas, 24 June 1761, Santa Fe. June 3-9, 1766, she was involved in writs, proceedings, etc. in the matter of the tutoring of a minor [p.243, SANM, Vol.2]
 María Rosalia Casados, born abt. 1733; no information
 Gertrudis Casados, our ancestor, born about 1738 in New Mexico; married Nicolás Martín about 1754. Their biographies are elsewhere in this work.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Francisco Lorenzo Casados (abt. 1670 - after 1716)
Ana Pacheco (abt. 1676 - before 1704)
Francisco Lorenzo Casados and his wife Ana Pacheco were the parents of our ancestor, Francisco José Casados [the younger] [abt.1693-after 1750]. We know this from the book, Origin of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, page 157.
Francisco Lorenzo was born about 1670 in Cádiz, Spain, where he had known Juan Páez Hurtado, a future governor of New Mexico [1704-1705; acing 1716-1717]. Casados probably joined the military in Spain with Páez Hurtado and went with him to New Spain.
Nothing is known of Ana Pacheco’s background. I believe Francisco Lorenzo met her in New Spain [Mexico] and married her there. They married early in the 1690’s. The only certain child of theirs was our ancestor, Francisco José Casados, who was born about 1693, probably in New Spain. A María de la Cruz Casados, who married Juan Joseph Archuleta, in 1712 was probably their daughter as well.
On page 4 of Volume 1 of The Spanish Archives of New Mexico is a record that a Francisco Joseph Casados was in New Mexico in 1696 and was granted a lot in Santa Fe. He served as alcalde of Santa Fe in 1716 [same source, p.5] This is no doubt our Francisco Lorenzo simply using a portion of his name. His entire name could have been José Francisco Lorenzo Casados. It was customary for Hispanic families to add to their child’s given name the name of a member of the Holy Family even though that name was not used except for legal matters. Men usually took José or Jesús, and women took María. That is why the records contain variations of names for the same person.
Francisco Lorenzo Casados, using that name, first appears in New Mexico records on 23 May 1704, when he purchased property in Santa Fe from Antonio Fresqui. It was recorded in the presence of Alcalde Antonio Montoya. The following year, on 9 November, Casados purchased another piece of property in Santa Fe from Juan de Ribera and his wife. [p.66 The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 1]
He was listed as a widower in 1704, probably in his military record. His son Francisco José would have been about eleven years old at the time. Francisco Lorenzo later married again, but his second wife’s name is unknown. He was listed as a married man in a 1716 record.
On 12 April 1708, Francisco Joseph de Casados petitioned for a small tract of land near the city of Santa Fe. The petition was granted by the Governor, the Marqués de la Peñuela and possession given by Juan García de las Rivas. Gaspar Gutiérrez, Secretary of Government and War; and Cristóval de Góngora, Secretary of the Cabildo [City Council] signed the grant. [page 66, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 1]
Casados was a member of the Confraternity of St. Michael, which organization restored the ancient chapel of San Miguel in 1710.
On October 18-20, 1712, a suit was filed by Francisco Lorenzo Casados with the Governor in Santa Fe on account of a mule claimed to be due the plaintiff from Miguel de Dios and Ramón de Medina. [p.169, Vol. 2, Spanish Archives of New Mexico]
Francisco Lorenzo, now a captain, was listed as age forty-six when he and his son Francisco José apparently were assigned to escort duty to the interior of Mexico in late 1715 and early 1716. They were given joint power of attorney by María de Quiros on 31 October 1715 to bring one of her sons to New Mexico. [p.179, The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Vol. 2, Archive #239d]. They were back in New Mexico by summer. It appears that an election was held at that time making Francisco alcalde of Santa Fe. He is shown on records functioning in that role in late 1716.
That is the last record we have of Francisco Lorenzo.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Francisco de Salazar Hachero (abt. 1600 - 1643)
Francisco de Salazar Hachero was the father of Bartolomé de Salazar, [abt. 1630-1673], according to the Great New Mexico Surname Index. We have the following about Francisco from Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, by Fray Angélico Chávez, p. 101:
FRANCISCO DE SALAZAR first appears in the soldier-escorts of 1625, and then in 1643. In 1634, if it was the same man, he was Procurator General of New Mexico. Deeply involved in the Governor Rosas murder affair, he was beheaded with other officers in 1643. In the 1642 trial his full surname was given as Salazar Hachero.
We have the following from pages 109 and 110 of Spain in the Southwest--A Narrative History of Colonial New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California, by John L. Kessell, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 2002:
When [Governor Luis] Rosas, the king’s representative [in New Mexico] actually struck with a cane and bloodied the heads of two friars who ventured to Santa Fe as emissaries [of the friars, who were in a state of hostilities with the governor], calling them liars, pigs, traitors, heretics, and the like, any hope of reconciliation vanished [between the Catholic Church partisans and Governor Rosas and his backers]. Each side blamed the other for the dismal state of the colony and the discontent of the Indians. The Taos people murdered their missionary, and another was killed among the Jemez, perhaps in an Apache attack. A deadly epidemic in 1640 carried off three thousand Pueblo Indians, more than ten percent of the population.
Morale could hardly have been worse in the spring of 1641 as the heavy, mule-drawn covered wagons of the triennial mission supply service [from the interior of New Spain] crawled northward over the camino real accompanied by armed riders and the retinues of replacements for Rosas and [Head Friar Juan de] Salas. [The new] Gov. Juan Flores de Sierra y Valdez was sick. Trying to supervise the residencia [a sort of trial at the end of a governor’s term] of Luis de Rosas, he accepted the counsel of the former governor’s enemies. Cabildo elections, meanwhile, brought outspoken critics [of Rosas] Francisco de Salazar and Juan de Archuleta [I] [also our ancestor] to power as regidores and Antonio Baca [our uncle] as an alcalde ordinario. Then [the new Governor] Sierra y Valdez died, and the anti-Rosas Cabildo [Santa Fe’s town council], outmaneuvering Lt. Gov. Francisco Gómez, assumed all interim governmental powers. Now they had Rosas just where they wanted him.
A young soldier, Nicolás Ortiz, became their means of revenge. Born in Zacatecas, Ortiz had first appeared in Santa Fe about 1634 as a teenaged member of an armed escort; he stayed on and married María de Bustillo, niece of Antonio Baca. After the new Governor, Luis Rosas, arrived in Santa Fe in 1637, Nicolás was again assigned to do escort duty, departing for Mexico City with the caravan that had brought Rosas to New Mexico. He would not appear in New Mexico again until 1641 when he arrived escorting the train conveying the next governor, Sierra y Valdez. Upon Ortiz’ return to Santa Fe, he found his wife María visibly pregnant. Later she would testify that she had been Governor Rosas’ mistress for four years. Ortiz masked his rage for several months and left town for the Zuni-Hopi country on an Apache campaign. Meanwhile the anti-Rosas faction, led by Antonio Baca, grabbed control of the government, confined Rosas, seized his property, and recorded the discovery of María in a chest under Don Luis’s mattress.
It was a cold January 25, 1642, when the cuckolded Ortiz finally avenged his shame. Out of the darkness with a party of masked men, he burst into the house where Rosas was being held and dispatched the notorious ex-governor with a dozen thrusts of his sword. When Baca returned from his campaign, he presided over the murderer’s acquittal and sent him with the record of the proceedings to Mexico City. Taken into custody enroute and retried by the governor of Nueva Vizcaya in Parral, the hapless Ortiz was condemned to be hanged, after which his severed head and sword hand were to be displayed on the gibbet. But he escaped.
Antonio Baca did not. Along with brother-in-law Juan de Archuleta and other relatives and associates in the anti-Rosas clique, the incredulous Baca found himself in the summer of 1643 confined by order of the new governor,. Alonso Pacheco y Heredia, and sentenced to be beheaded. The Custos [head friar] Hernando de Covarrubias insisted on administering the last rites to the eight men facing death. Baca could not believe that he was to be executed, but he was. Armed with secret and detailed instructions from the unbending Bishop-Viceroy Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, who considered the friars and their faction guilty of treason, Pacheco had resolved to carry out the harshest possible punishment against the lay leaders, “to get rid of them by a brief and exemplary punishment.”
Father Covarrubias and the New Mexicans who carried out the gory business on the morning of July 21 must have experienced conflicting emotions. Self-serving or not, these men had stood by the Franciscans, and their executioners were kin to the condemned. Covarrubias reported that when Francisco de Salazar’s punishers tried to behead him with his own dagger, they made a bad job of it. “For God’s sake,” he screamed, “sharpen that thing and put me out of my misery!” Then, claimed Covarrubias, Salazar’s severed head recited the entire true and essential creed of the Roman Catholic faith.
The crowd summoned to the plaza that afternoon included Juan de Archuleta II and other relatives of the victims. [no doubt including Francisco Salazar’s son, Bartolomé] Governor Pacheco addressed them gravely, reiterating the pardon to the majority of the anti-Rosas partisans, revealing his secret instructions from Mexico City, and announcing the executions. As a mute warning to associates of the executed eight, Antonio Baca’s head was nailed to the gibbet. The governor also told the assembled people that he had ordered the traitors’ property seized; the proceeds would pay for a peacekeeping force of thirty men enlisted that very day. And when the governors and friars clashed violently again during the 1650’s and 1660’s, Juan de Archuleta II sided with the civil authorities at that time.
In the conspiracy of army captains that resulted in the assassination of former-Governor Luis Rosas of New Mexico in 1642, at least two others of our direct ancestors, Diego Márquez and Juan de Archuleta I were beheaded with Francisco. Most of the persons involved in the plot were close family of the beheaded three ancestors:
Key Figures in the Assassination of Governor Luis Rosas in 1642
1. Nicolas Ortiz: Born in Zacatecas, Mexico in 1618, he came to New Mexico as a soldier in 1634, when he was sixteeen. He later married María de Bustillo, a daughter of Simón de Bustillo and Juana de Zamora, a sister of Antonio Baca. In 1637 Ortiz was sent away on escort duty with the return trip of the Santa Fe-Mexico City wagon train that had brought the new Governor Luis Rosas to New Mexico. Rosas may deliberately have kept Ortiz in Mexico City so he could romance his wife. Upon Ortiz’ return from Mexico City in 1641, accompanying yet another new governor, his wife was visibly pregnant. On January 25, 1642, Nicolás murdered ex-Governor Rosas with the assistance of other anti-Rosas men. After being acquitted in Santa Fe, he was sent to Mexico City for a final verdict. But he was arrested by the Governor of Nueva Vizcaya, (retired), and sentenced to hang. He escaped from prison and was not heard from again. It is not known what became of María and her baby after the assassination.
Nicolas was our cousin-by-marriage. His wife María was the daughter of our uncle, Simón Pérez de Bustillo [abt.1576-] and our aunt, Juana de Zamora [Baca]. María was also the half-sister of the executed Nicolás Pérez de Bustillo.
2. Antonio Baca: Antonio was the main ring-leader in the anti-Rosas faction that brought about the Governor’s death. He was also the leader of the people who defied the Governor by barricading themselves with the Friars at Santo Domingo Pueblo. His turbulent career ended when he was beheaded along with seven others July 21, 1643, in a plaza in Santa Fe.
AntonioBaca [[abt.1590-1643] was our uncle, the son of Cristóbal de Baca. He was also married to an aunt of ours, Yumar Pérez de Bustillo [abt.1591-]. The
unfaithful María de Bustillo was Yumar’s niece. Two of Antonio’s siblings were our direct ancestors.
3. Diego Márquez: The major accomplice in the death of Governor Rosas. He also was beheaded in 1643. His half-breed illegitimate son, Juan Márquez, 36 years old in 1639-40, an alferez and treasurer of the Holy Crusade was said to have been murdered by orders of Governor Rosas, which accounts for Diego’s part in the Rosas Murder. He apparently was related to co-conspirators Cristóbal Enriques, who was also executed, and Agustín Carvajal.
Diego Márquez [abt.1601-1643] was our direct ancestor.
4. Cristóbal Enríques: He was a first cousin of Agustín de Carvajal. (Pg. 15 "origins"). Their mothers were sisters. In 1660 Agustin was accused of marrying his close relative, Estefania Enriquez, Cristóbal's daughter. Estefania was a second cousin of Agustin's first wife, María Márquez. Cristobal was among the eight conspirators beheaded in 1643.
Cristóbal seems to have had kinship to our Márquez family.
5. Agustín Carvajal: He was one of the fourteen men ordered executed for sedition by Governor Pacheco in 1643 but escaped the sentence along with his Durán y Chaves brother-in-law (Fernando). He was the son-in-law of Cristóbal Enríques, who was executed.
Agustín seems to have had kinship to our Márquez family.
6. Juan Ruiz de Hinojos: He was another soldier beheaded in 1643 for the Rosas anti-faction affair. Beatriz Pérez de Bustillo was his mother. His brother Miguel acted as bondsman for Nicolás Ortiz.
Juan was our uncle, the brother of Miguel Hinojos, our direct ancestor. He was also our cousin through his Pérez Bustillo kinship.
7. Nicolás Pérez de Bustillo: He was an adopted son of Simón Pérez de Bustillo and Juana de Zamora [a sister of Antonio Baca, who was executed]. He played a brief and tragic political role that ended in 1643. Along with his uncle, Antonio Baca, and his cousins, he, too, was beheaded in 1643. He was a mestizo, probably a natural son of Simon’s with an Indian woman. In 1642 he declared that he was related to Nicolás Ortiz on his father's side.
Nicolás was our double cousin. His mother was the sister of our ancestor María de Villanueva [Baca] and of Antonio Baca. His father was the brother of two of our ancestors, Ana Pérez de Bustillo [Archuleta] and Beatriz Pérez de Bustillo [Hinojos].
8. Juan de Archuleta: He was the son of Asencio de Arechuleta and Ana Pérez de Bustillo, who was the daughter of Juan Pérez de Bustillo. He was also involved in the faction opposing Governo rand was beheaded along with the others in 1643. Antonio Baca was his uncle-by-marriage. Nicolas Ortiz was his cousin by marriage. Nicolas’ wife, María de Bustillo, was his first cousin.
Juan de Archuleta was our direct ancestor. He was a first cousin to Nicolás Pérez de Bustillo, Juan Ruiz de Hinojos, and Juan de Archuleta. He was a nephew to Antonio Baca.
9. Diego Martín Barba: He was the son of Alonzo Barba and was a captain living in Santa Fe in 1642. He was one of the eight men ordered beheaded in 1643 for complicity in the death of Governor Rosas.
No known kinship to us.
10. Francisco de Salazar: Salazar was the Procurator General of New Mexico in 1634. He was deeply involved in the Rosas murder affair and was also beheaded in 1643. In 1642 during the trial he gave his full name as Francisco Salazar Hachero.
He was our direct ancestor, but there is no known kinship to other conspirators.
11. Fernando Durán y Chaves: He testified against Governor Rosas in favor of the friars and attend the execution of the eight conspirators to get in good graces with the new Governor, Pacheco. But then, the Governor condemned him along with thirteen others to be executed for sedition for his support of the friars. He escaped with his brother-in-law Agustín Carvajal and the others. He later returned to New Mexico and died about 1668.
Fernando was a son ofPedro Durán y Chávez and Isabel Bohórquez de Baca, a sister to Antonio Baca and to two of our direct ancestors: María de Villanueva [Baca], wife of Simón de Abendaño; and Alonso Baca. Thus he was our cousin. He was the brother of Pedro below.
12. Pedro Durán y Chaves: He was the nephew of Antonio Baca and one of the four masked men who accompanied the assassin, Nicolas Ortiz, in the murder of Governor Rosas. For his complicity, he was banished from New Mexico by Governor Guzmán. He returned to New Mexico later and then headed to El Paso during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. He and his family later received permission to move south into New Spain.
Pedro was our cousin, the son of our aunt, Isabel Bohórquez de Baca. Isabel was the sister of Antonio Baca and of our ancestors María de Villanueva [Baca] and Alonso Baca. Pedro’s wife was our aunt, Elena Domínguez de Mendoza, so he was also our uncle-by-marriage. He was the brother of the above Fernando Durán y Chaves.
13. Diego del Río de Losa: He witnessed the murder of Governor Rosas. At that time he was secretary of the Cabildo (City Council). Francisco del Río listed on pg. 92 of "Origins of New Mexico Families" was his son, not his brother.
No known kinship to us.
14. Antonio de Salas: He was a guard at the Palace of the Governors when Rosas was assassinated.
Antonio was the second husband of María de Abendaño, our ancestor, after her annulled first marriage to Diego de Vera. So Antonio was our step-ancestor. He and María de Abendaño together reared our ancestor, María de Vera, who later married Diego de Montoya.
15. Francisco López de Aragon: In 1642 he acted as the attorney for Nicolas Ortiz. His wife was Ana Baca, who was an aunt or a cousin of ours.
Francisco was an uncle or cousin by marriage.
16. Francisco Luján: He was involved in the Rosas murder affair but escaped the execution of less fortunate compatriots. He was the brother of Juan Luján II below.
Francisco was our direct ancestor, the father of Domingo Luján, who was in the 1693 re-colonizing of New Mexico.
17. Juan Luján II: He was involved in the Rosas affair somehow but avoided execution. He was the brother of the above Francisco Luján. His daughter María later married Juan de Archuleta II. Both were our direct ancestors. Juan II was our direct ancestor, as was his brother Francisco.
18. Alonzo Ramirez de Salazar: In what capacity he served in the assassination of Governor Rosas is unknown, but it would appear that, along with Juan Ramírez de Salazar (most probably a nephew), was involved with the political affairs in 1641-43. He may have been a relative of our direct ancestor Catalina Salazar, wife of Luis Martín Serrano, one of the masked men who broke down the door, January 25, 1642. And Francisco (noted above), brother of Catalina. The Salazars were from Nueva Viscaya. As a captain, he barely escaped execution for sedition under Governor Pacheco. He also came to New Mexico in the 1620's. With the Salazars
If Alonso was the brother of Catalina de Salazar, he was our uncle.
19. Juan Tapia: He escaped death for treason in 1643. He was a native of New Mexico.
Juan was the son of another Juan Tapia and Francisca Robledo, our aunt. He was our cousin. We also have Tapia ancestors in our Córdova-Mendez ancestry.
20. Manuel de Peralta: He was condemned to death for sedition, but was not among the eight captains executed. Evidently he fled from New Mexico and never returned.
Manuel does not appear to have been close kin to us, although we do have the surname Peralta in our family tree..
21. Luis Martín Serrano: Luis was accused by a later governor, Mendizábal,of having been the masked intruder who broke down the door of the home in which ex-Governor Rosas was a prisoner the night he was killed. Mendizabal did not like Luis because he was friendly with the friars during Mendizábal’s feud with them. The Governor’s claim never resulted in any prosecution of Luis.
Luis is our direct ancestor through three of his children.
CHILDREN OF FRANCISCO DE SALAZAR HACHERO
 Bartolomé de Salazar, our ancestor. See his biography.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Francisco Xavier (c. 1628 - after 1682)
Graciana Griego ( - abt. 1680)
Francisco Xavier and Graciana Griego were the parents of Francisco Xavier de San Juan according the Great New Mexico Surname Index.
Francisco’s parents are unknown, but we know that Graciana was the daughter of Juan Griego II [c.1605-] and his wife, Juana de la Cruz [c.1610-]. The Griegos had been one of the military families who came with Juan de Oñate in 1598 to settle New Mexico. This was nine years before the first permanent English settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.
In Fray Angélico Chávez’s Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, page 113, there is an account of Francisco:
FRANCISCO XAVIER first appears [in New Mexico] in the wagon train escort that brought Governor Mendizábal to Santa Fe in 1658. In 1661 he said that he was thirty-three years old. His wife, mentioned in 1663, was Graciana Griego, daughter of Juan Griego. In 1680 Francisco was Secretary of Government and War and Alcalde Ordinario, holding the rank of Maese de Campo. He escaped the [Pueblo] Indian massacre [of the Spanish settlers] with four daughters and two sons declaring that he had lost two mulatto slaves at Picuris, [killed in the massacre]. [Apparently these were mestizo minors, half-breed children of Indian slaves.] The following year he passed muster as a widower, fifty-one or fifty-two years of age, with two sons and three daughters. [One of the girls had married in the meantime.] He was a native of Sevilla [Seville] in Spain and was described as having a good build, very gray hair, and the scar of a wound on the left side of the forehead.
In 1682 Francisco Xavier left Guadalupe del Paso [Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico] for New Spain [the interior of Mexico]. Permission to leave had been readily granted, for Otermín had promised the Indians the year before that he would never allow Xavier and two other men to return [to New Mexico] because of their extreme cruelty to the Pueblo Indians. The Indians made this request to Vargas in 1692 [when negotiations were being made for the Spanish to return to New Mexico], but by this time the Xaviers were gone.
Francisco Xavier II, known as Francisco Xavier San Juan, son of Francisco Xavier and Graciana Griego, did not return to New Mexico either, but some of his children did return.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Gregorio Anselmo Quintana (1748 - after 1822)
Maria Concepcion Valdes (1759 - after 1822)
Gregorio Anselmo Quintana and María Concepción Valdés were the parents of Francisco Estevan Quintana [1801-1880]. We know this from Estevan’s baptismal record at Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.
Concepción was born in 1759 in Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico and was baptized there at the Santo Tomás Apostole Church on 20 December 1759. Her parents were Ignacio Luis Valdés and Juana Martín [Martín Serrano].
Gregorio was a son of Nicolás Quintana [1712-after 1790] and María Antonia Herrera. We know this from his baptismal record. He was born in Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, and was baptized in the church there on 14 May 1748. His godparents were Juan Bustos and Teresa Sanchez.
Somehow Gregorio was in Abiquiú, in the Chama River Valley, and met María Concepción Valdés. Perhaps he was there to visit the children of his uncle, Francisco Quintana, who lived there. The couple was married on 27 March 1781 in the Santo Tomás Apostól Catholic Church in Abiquiú. At the time of their marriage Gregorio was not yet a resident of the Chama Valley. In the marriage record it stated that he was “de otra villa.” They seem to have lived in the Chama after the marriage, however
Gregorio seems to have been close to two others of his cousins who lived in the Chama: Gabriel and Maria Manuela Quintana, both children of his uncle, José Quintana, who had been killed by Indians in 1748, and of Lujarda Herrera.
On 13 March 1783, María de los Dolores Naranjo was baptized in Abiquiú with Anselmo Quintana and María Concepción Valdés as godparents. Later that year, on 6 September, Concepcíon was the godmother and Juan Antonio Velasquez the godfather at the baptism of Rafael, a seven-year-old Moqui Indian boy of unknown parentage. Rafael was a slave/servant probably belonging to the Quintanas.
The Quintanas were again godparents on 28 October 1784 for Juan Domingo Trujillo, age two days, son of Juan Domingo Trujillo, Sr. and María Ygnacia Martín.
Also baptized at Santo Tomás Apostole Church on 17 December 1784 was María de la Luz Quintana, daughter of Gregorio Anselmo and Concepción.
Another daughter, María Feliciana Quintana, was born about 1786. We do not have a baptismal record for her, however. Concepción was the godmother at the baptism of María de la Trinidad Marquez with Pablo Velasquez as the godfather on 7 June 1787. The parents of Trinidad were José Santos Marquez and María Mónica Tafoya.
A son, Nicolás Quintana, named for his grandfather, was baptized 25 January 1788 in Abiquiú. The godparents were Juan Batista Valdés and María de las Nieves Martín. These may have been Concepción’s parents; if not, a brother and sister-in-law.
On 16 March 1789, Concepción was the godmother at the baptism of José Miguel Chacón, son of José Antonio Chacón and María Juana Guadalupe Archuleta. The godfather was Pedro Ygnacio Gallegos.
Later that same year the Quintanas had a daughter, named for her mother, María Concepción Quintana, who was baptized on 12 December 1789, at Abiquiú with Manuel Martín and María Manuela Quintana as godparents.
The Spanish Census of 1790 shows the family living in the Plaza de San Iñacio in Abiquiú. Gregorio Quintana, Spanish, was erroneously listed as age 30; and Concepción Baldés was listed as Spanish and as age 28. They had one daughter age 3 and one son aged 1. It appears as if their daughter Luz had died by this time. [The b and v in Spanish are interchanged by most persons in those days. The sounds are almost identical in Spanish.]
The records are bare for the next five years. Then, on 3 January 1795, María Josefa Quintana, daughter of Gregorio and Concepción, was baptized at Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiú.
On 1 April 1796, Teodora, a two year old Ute Indian girl, a servant/slave of Gregorio and Concepción, was baptized at Abiquiú. Her godparents were Francisco Trujillo and Josefa Jirón.
On 11 April 1799, Gregorio and Concepción were godparents for Juan Julián Martín, the son of José Ignacio Martín and María Paula Salazar.
Interestingly, on 13 October 1799, Cayetano Hipolito de Jesus Serrano, then about twelve years old, who would become the father of Miguel Serrano [c.1816-1899], was the godfather at the baptism of María Dolores, an Indian servant/slave belonging to Gabriel Quintana, a first cousin of Gregorio Anselmo Quintana. As early as 1799 we have a documented connection between the Quintana and Serrano families. Miguel Serrano would marry Gregorio and Concepción’s granddaughter, Prudencia Quintana, in California in 1847. Another daughter, María Inés Quintana, was baptized at Abiquiú on 23 February 1800. Godparents were Severino Martín and María Paula Salazar.
The many persons surnamed Martín who served as godparents on these pages were probably members of the family that went by two surnames: Martín Serrano and were relatives of Cayetano Hipolito Serrano and his son Miguel Serrano. Many of this family chose to use only one of their two surnames, and some even converted to Martinez.
José Bernardino Martín was baptized at Abiquiú on 22 June 1800 with the Quintanas as his godparents. His parents were Pedro Martín and María Manuela Cisneros.
On the 10 August 1800, José Antonio Quintana, a five-year-old Comanche boy, who was a servant/slave of the Quintanas was baptized at the church in Abiquiú. His godparents were Rafael Trujillo and María Santa Ana. This Genízaro boy later married Ana María Coris and named one of his sons José Gregorio in 1824 and another Francisco Estevan Quintanain 1836. Because no children are shown for José Antonio between 1824 to 1835 in Abiquiú, it is believed that José Antonio may have been with Francisco Estevan Quintana [1801-1880] in the Taos Valley or just living elsewhere.
On 12 February 1801, the Quintanas were godparents for Juan de Jesús Maita, son of Pablo Maita and Ana María Martín. The baptism took place at Abiquiú.
What appears to have been the Quintanas’ final child was a son, Francisco Estevan Quintana, born 1 August 1801 in the Chama Valley and baptized at Santo Tomas Apostole Church in Abiquiú. Godparents were Manuel Martín and Ana María Larrañaga. The boy was boy from the Ute Indians. The boy was baptized on 22 September, 1822, at Abiquiu. At that time Gregorio was seventy-six and Concepcion about sixty. Concepción was the godmother and her son, Francisco Estevan Quintana, was the godfather. They, no doubt, died in the Chama Valley.
Children of Gregorio Anselmo Quintana and María Concepción Valdés
Maria de la Luz Quintana was baptized 17 December 1784, in Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiú, Río Arriba County, New Mexico. She apparently died before 1790 because she does not appear in the Spanish Census of that year in her parents’ family.
María Feliciana Quintana was born about 1787 in the Chama Valley. On 2 December 1813, she married Juan Bautista Trujillo at the Santo Tomás Apostole Church at Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. We have a few records of her family abstracted from Abiquiú Baptisms 1754-1870, compiled by Thomas Martinez. On 1 April 1825, her son José Ygnacio Trujillo, 4, was baptized and buried. The family resided at that time on the Plaza de San Francisco in Abiquiú. On 14 February 1826, a daughter, María Candelaria Trujillo, 13 days old, was baptized and buried at Abiquiú. On 16 June 1833, another daughter, Juana Gertrudis Trujillo, age 1 day, was baptized. Her godparents were José María Trujillo and María Josefa Martín.
Nicolás Quintana, named for his paternal grandfather, Nicolás Quintana [1712-after 1790], was baptized on 25 January 1788. His godparents were Juan Batista Valdés and María de las Nieves Martín. It is believed that Nicolás did not live to adulthood. There are no children baptized with him as their father and no other records of him.
María Concepción Quintana was named for her mother. She was baptized at the Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiú on 12 December 1789. Her godparents were Manuel Martín and María Manuela Quintana, Gregorio’s cousin. Concepción may have died young because no marriage was found for her in Abiquiú.
María Josefa Quintana was baptized 3 January 1795, which means that she may have been born in December of 1794. Her godparents were Gabriel Quintana, her father’s cousin, and María Antonia Vigil [Gabriel’s wife whom he married 23 Sept. 1762 in Santa Cruz]. Josefa married Merced Romo. On 8 June 1823, she was the godmother and Juan de Diós Trujillo the godfather of José Eugenio Espinosa, the son of Francisco Espinosa and María Guadalupe Archuleta. On an unrecorded date, María Rosalia Romero, one day old, was baptized at Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiú. Her godparents were Gabriel Romero and Rosalia Trujillo.
María Inés Quintana was baptized 23 February 1800, at the Santo Tomás Apostole Church in Abiquiú. Her Her godparents were Severino Martín and María Paula Salazar. Nothing else is known of her. No marriage record was found for her in Abiquiú, which may indicate an early death.
Francisco Estevan Quintana, born 1 August 1801, the youngest child, was baptized in the Santo Tomás Apostole Church with Manuel Martín and Ana María Larrañaga as godparents. Estevan later moved his family to California in 1843 and died in San Luis Obispo in 1880.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
General Ignacio Pesqueira (1820 - 1886)
Of all the governors and public men which Sonora has had, there is no one more popular than the illustrious person whom I am now describing. General Ignacio Pesqueira was born on December 16, 1820, in Arizpe, at that time the capital of the provinces of Sonora and Sinaloa, and died at his hacienda of Bacanuchi on January 4,1886.
His ancestors were well known persons of the old Sonoran capital, particularly the Hon. Mrs. Petra Garcia de Pesqueira, mother of the general. At an early age he was sent over to Seville, Spain, living there for some time, and then going on to Paris to continue a commercial career.
Being in Seville a short time after the death of Ferdinand VII, he affiliated with the cause of liberty as proclaimed by his student comrades, and took active part in the democratic movements which were started in Andalusia.
He returned from Europe at the early age of 18, arriving in Mexico full of enthusiasm, seeing that country fighting between two diametrically opposed ideas. The one was attempting to reintroduce the spirit of the twelfth century, and the other represented the liberal spirit of the nineteenth. He affiliated himself with the latter, and thus opened the doors to a glorious future.
He was initiated to war with a good general tfrrea, whose biography also should be included in the catalog of illustrious men of Mexico. He attracted the attention of the Governor of the State by the fearless-ness and skill with which he tracked down the Apaches, who were ravaging our soil, and was named by him Colonel Inspector of the National Guard on the Frontier. Well known for his liberal principles and ascendant patriotism, he was elected Deputy to the State Legislature. He was occupied at that post when the pronunciamento was issued, by the gandarist party, which put the Governor Jose de Aguilar in prison.
Pesqueira, in favor of legality, entered the army on the side of executive power, and heightened the struggle between the parties. He occupied the capital of the state and chased the revolters away. In the resulting readjustment Pesqueira was elected proprietary governor with great acclaim by everyone.
After the revolt of Comonfort, Juarez was the essence of justice itself and the rightful one to be elected by the country. Pesqueira supported him spontaneously and actively, in order to defend the Constitution of '57, which was being vigorously attacked by the old army along with the clerical group.
Pesqueira, struggling with all sorts of obstacles, organized the campaign of Sinaloa, which had been in the district of the reactionaries. On April 3rd he took the port of Mazatlan after a very bloody and drawn-out battle. He was rewarded for this glorious day by being made Constitutional Governor of Sonora, Provisional Governor of Sinaloa, and General in Chief of the forces of both territories plus the Territory of Lower California.
He returned to Sonora because of political and military problems which required his presence, since his enemies had incited the various tribes to revolt and plundering. At a point known as "Las Guasimas" he escaped being captured by his opponents, saving the old soldier Jose Montijo at the same time with a great deal of difficulty.
On April 15, 1861 he went from Hermosillo to Esteves, where the reactionary group had established itself. Even though Sonora was a great distance from the war zone at the time of the war of French Intervention, he did not wish to miss the honor of being represented in the Republican Army which was advancing to fight, and so Pesqueira organized a contingent of 1,000 men who marched in two sections, reaching Guaymas in July 1862. The Colonels Garcia Morales and Gabriel Corella went along with him.
The governor appointed by Maximilian attempted to enlist Pesqueira's support and offered him the governorship of the territory of Sonora, but those propositions were patriotically and energetically refused.
It would take many pages to relate the interesting life of this illustrious son of Sonora. I will be satisfied to say that in the troubled times when he governed, he knew well how to defend national honor. In the short intervals of peace he was an active supporter of public education, hiring the well qualified professor Leocadio Salcedo, who started our high school in 1863.
After retiring to private life at his hacienda of Bacanuchi, he died on January 4, 1886.
[Translated from Compendio de Historia del Estado de Senora, pp. 304-307, by A. C. Schwarting, February 27, 1939.]
Submitted by Barbara Ziegenmeyer, March 23, 2009.
Ignacio Luis Valdes (1702 - 1780)
Juana Martin [Martin Serrano] (1729 - 1768)
Ignacio Luis Valdés and Juana Martín were the parents of María Concepción Valdés. We know this from the Index of Surnames of the New Mexico Genealogical Society. Additional documentation is necessary to bolster the information from the Index. The Index also states that they were married in 1742.
Juana was the daughter of Juan Martín and Margarita San Juan Luna.
Ignacio Luis was the son of José Luis Valdés and María Medina de Cabrera. This is stated in the well-documented work “Origin of New Mexico Families,” by Fray Angélico Chávez, on page 301-302. Ignacio’s father was killedthe year of Ignacio’s birth by the Zuñi Indians in the Mission church of Zuñi while he and two other Spanish soldiers were singing an alabado after Mass on Sunday, March 4, 1703. Ignacio’s aunt, Catalina Valdés, nicknamed “La Prieta” [the dark one] was the one murdered by her husband, Miguel Lujan, in 1713.
Ignacio was married in 1742 to Juana Martín, whose family had earlier dropped the double surname “Martin Serrano. Juana was twenty-seven years her husband’s junior. Ignacio Luis had married previously to Gertrudis Dominguez [1706-before 1742] on 11 February 1721 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Ignacio and his second wife, Juana, were living in Abiquiú, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico in 1759 when their daughter María Concepción was born. Presumably he died there.
CHILDREN OF IGNACIO LUIS VALDÉS AND MARÍA MEDINA DE CABRERA
 Isabel Valdés, born October 1731, daughter of Ignacio and Gertrudis Dominguez, died 11 November 1731, at Santa Cruz, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, at age of one month.
 Domingo Valdés, born January 1737, son of Ignacio and Gertrudis Dominguez, died 14 October 1737, age 10 months.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
Jean L'Archeveque (1672 - 1720)
Maria Antonio Gutierrez (abt. 1681 - abt. 1702)
Jean L’Archeveque, also known as Juan de Archibeque, and his wife, María Antonia Gutiérrez, were the parents of our ancestor María Bárbara Archibeque. We know this from the Surname Index of New Mexico and the book Origins of New Mexico Families, by Fray Angélico Chávez, Revised Edition, pages 129-131.
Jean L’Archeveque was born 30 September 1672, in Bayonne, in southwestern France. His parents were Claude L’Archeveque and Marie d’Armagnac. Bayonne is the center of the Basque-speaking region of France, so Jean would have spoken Basque as his first language. He received a good education, learning to read and write French.
In 1684 life had become difficult for Jean in Bayonne. His father’s import business was failing. Necessity required that he find other work. In 1684, at the age of twelve, he joined on the crew of a ship of the French West India Company and set sail for the West Indies. He arrived at the west end of the island of Hispaniola [present-day Haiti]. There, at Petit Goave, Jean contracted himself as an indentured servant to the merchant Sieur Pierre Duhaut. Duhaut was preparing to join a croup of colonists led by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, that planned to settle in the Mississippi Valley. Duhaut was one of the few people of means among La Salle’s transient low-life colonists.
The expedition embarked and headed across the Gulf of Mexico. They landed instead on the coast of Texas at Matagorda Bay on 20 February 1685, and built Fort St. Louis nearby. The plight of the colonists was extremely difficult. There wasn’t enough food, the Indians were hostile, and pestilence took its toll.
In March of 1687, a group of seventeen desperate men struck out from the forsaken fort bound for New France [Quebec]. Among the group was Pierre Duhaut and his bond servant, Jean L’Archeveque, now fourteen; a haughty nephew of La Salle; and a surgeon named Liotot. When the group reached the Trinity River, the members of a hunting party, which included the surgeon Liotot and the nephew of La Salle, quarreled among themselves. That night the surgeon placed an axe in head of La Salle’s nephew and two other men while they were sleeping. Apparently someone repulsed by the violence went back to Fort St. Louis to notify La Salle. He came to investigate, accompanied by a priest and others. As he approached Duhaut, Jean L’Archeveque distracted La Salle by seemingly disrespectful actions. When La Salle turned his attention to Jean, Duhaut unloaded his gun’s charge into La Salle’s head. He fell dead. The group stripped La Salle’s body, abused it, and dragged it into the bushes to the horror of the priest who witnessed the event and later wrote of it. Duhaut and another major conspirator were then killed by others in the main group. Released from his bondage by Duhaut’s death, Jean returned to the ailing colony on Matagorda Bay. [Spain in the Southwest, by John L. Kessell, pp. 137, 143-146, 165, 202, 210-211, 145]
In 1688, while Jean and five others were away from the fort trading with the Hasinai, the Karankawa Indians attacked Fort St. Louis, killed most of the remaining few colonists, and took the rest, some women and children, captive. The trading group returned to discover the massacre. Jean was one of the six surviving Frenchmen who went to live with the Hasinai [Teja] Indians. There he learned to speak the Caddoan language and submitted to being tatooed by having black dye made from walnut hulls forced into cuts made on his face, chest, and arms.
In April of 1689, when Jean was yet sixteen, the Spanish commander, Alonso de Leon, entered Texas to explore the rumors that the French had established a colony in Texas, which was claimed by Spain. He discovered the scene of the massacre and heard of the existence of the six Frenchmen. De Leon sent the men a message written in French with an Indian runner. The message urged the Frenchmen to give themselves up. Only Jean L’Archeveque and Jacques Grollet agreed to meet de Leon. Jean wrote back on the margin of a sketch of a ship, “We are sorely grieved to be among the beasts like these who believe neither in God nor in anything. Gentlemen, if you are willing to take us away, you have only to send us a message.” This sketch is still existent at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The two teenagers arrived at the Spanish camp wearing deer skins around their waists and nothing else.
The young men were formally examined at the Guadalupe River on May 1. They informed the Spaniards in detail all that had befallen the little French colony and explained how they had been away from the settlement at the time of the Karankawa attack. They declared that there were a few other survivors scattered among the Indians. They were then taken to Mexico City, where they were questioned by the Viceroy, the Conde de Galvé, and then sent to Spain as prisoners. After thirty months, the youths were returned in chains to New Spain in 1692 to work in the silver mines at Zacatecas.
In 1693 Velasco, representing Diego Vargas’ expedition to recolonize New Mexico, was in Zacatecas. He explained that if they volunteered as colonists, it would be their way out of the mines. L’Archeveque and Grollet were described by Velasco, the recruiter and leader of the party, as “streaked in the face,” meaning that their faces were tatooed. The men signed on as colonists, but Grollet remained in Guadalupe del Paso for a few years, where the two had encountered another Frenchman, Pierre Musnier, who had also been with La Salle. Of the three Frenchmen, only Juan continued on to Santa Fe.
Among his fellow travelers on the journey to New Mexico were our ancestors Miguel de Quintana and his wife Gertrudis Moreno Trujillo; Nicolás Moreno Trujillo and his wife María de Aguilar; Jose de Atienza and his wife Estefania Moreno Trujillo; Jose Cortés del Castillo and his wife María de Carvajal; all from Mexico City. The expedition arrived in Santa Fe on June 22, 1694. Jean’s companion, Jacques Grollet later became the founder of the Gurulé family of New Mexico. Jean’s own name was Hispanicized to Juan de Archibeque. Juan was twenty-one years old when he arrived in New Mexico. The two were stationed at the garrison in Santa Fe.
Also traveling with the group to New Mexico was sixteen year old Antonia Gutiérrez and her husband, Tomás de Hita [Itta]. At Zacatecas, Tomás was murdered by a mulatto at a rancho near the town before the colonists started north. Antonia stayed with the Miguel García de la Riva family from Mexico City and started for a new life in New Mexico under terribly depressing conditions. She had been born in Tezcuco, in the Valley of Mexico, the daughter of Mateo Gutiérrez and was described as tall, broad-faced, with brown hair and eyes. She was referred to as “La Vermeja,” the redhead. [p.129, Origins of New Mexico Families, Revised Edition, by Fray Angelico Chávez] The García de la Riva family received a grant in the Pajarito area sometime after arriving. It is unknown if Antonia joined them there.
In 1697 the young widow Antonia Gutiérrez married Juan de Archebeque at Santa Clara, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Santa Clara lies just southwest of Santa Cruz. Juan was a private at the Santa Fe garrison.
The couple had two children, Miguel and María, before Antonia’s death about 1701. Juan did not marry again for about eighteen years. During this period he had two sons out of wedlock, Juan II and Agustín. It is known that Juan II was sired with Archibeque’s orphaned servant girl, María de Mascareñas, and the son assumed his mother’s surname after the death of his father. Both illegitimate sons were reared in the Archibeque household, which suggests that Agustín was probaly sired by a servant girl also. All those persons carrying the Archibeque name today are descended through Agustín. We are descended through Juan’s daughter María.
In 1701 Juan de Archibeque purchased land in Santa Fe but continued as a soldier. In 1704 he served as a scout on an expedition with Juan de Ulibarri, who was second in command at the Santa Fe garrison. There is a record that Juan served as second alcalde [lower rank than first alcalde] of Santa Fe in these early years. In both 1715 and 1720, Juan was Captain of the , War Council. On January 1, 1716, the Cabildo elected Juan de Archibeque as procurador, which was probably something like quartermaster general.
Juan, by 1719, still in the military, was now a trader with operations as far away as Sonora and Chihuahua and sometimes buying directly from Mexico City. On 23 June 1719, at San Ildefonso, he married María Manuela Roybal, daughter of our ancestor, Don Ignacio Roybal. Manuela’s sister María Roybal had married Juan’s son Miguel in 1716. Don Ignacio, the father of the women, was wealthy and ranked high in the Santa Fe scene, so Archibeque was likely very esteemed himself. Manuela and María were our aunts. We are descended from their niece, Magdalena Roybal. The Roybals owned a rancho in the San Ildefonso area, where the family lived. They probably owned a home in Santa Fe as well because Don Ignacio was very active there.
A year later, on 17 June 1720, Captain Archibeque was with Don Pedro Villasur’s expedition into the country of the Pawnee Indians [Nebraska]. Juan had strongly recommended this reconnaissance mission to see if the French were making inroads into Spanish-claimed territory. The Pawnees were led by a Frenchman, and Juan was sent as an envoy to the Pawnees after interpreting letters from the Frenchman. On 17 August 1720, the Pawnees suddenly attacked, catching the Spanish unprepared. Forty-four New Mexicans were killed, including Juan de Archibeque and the commander, Colonel Villasur. Juan’s body was left unburied on the banks of the Platte River. The few survivors carried home the story of his end to his family. Juan was almost forty-eight years old. The Villasur expedition is like the Custer’s Land Stand in New Mexico history.
The Archibeque estate was valued at 6,118 pesos. His young widow had not yet produced any children. About 1728 she married the very wealthy Jose de Riaño [aka Reaño], who owned the Piedra Lumbre Basin in the Chama Valley. They had one surviving son, José Riaño II. Riaño Senior died in 1743, leaving a will in Santa Fe. Manuela then married Felipe Rojas y Sandoval on July 13, 1755. She died in 1778, fifty-eight years after Jean L’Archeveque.
CHILDREN OF JEAN L’ARCHEVÉQUE AND MARÍA ANTONIA GUTIÉRREZ
 Miguel de Archibeque, was born about 1698. On 2 November 1716, he married María Roybal [1697-1744], our aunt, at San Ildefonso. He was apparently a trader, for at the time of his father’s death in 1720, Miguel was gone from Santa Fe on a trading trip to Sonora for his merchant father. Miguel wrote a will on August 14, 1727, in Santa Fe, and died soon afterward. María. Their only son, Lorenzo Claudio, died in infancy. A daughter, Antonia Juliana de Archibeque, married Juan Manuel Gabaldón, 26 July 1735, and had a large family. María de Archibeque and her husband Francisco Casados were the witnesses. In 1744 Juan Manuel probated the estate of his mother-in-law.
 María de Archibeque, our ancestor, was born about 1702. Her mother may have died giving birth to her. She married Francisco José Casados, Alcalde of Santa Fe, on 28 October 1716, in Santa Fe, and was the mother of our ancestor Gertrudis Casados, [abt. 1738-bef. 1780]. wife of Nicolas Martín [abt.1730-]. In 1729 Francisco and María sold a house and some land to José Riaño, the new husband of María’s stepmother, María Manuela Roybal. [Spanish Archives of NM, Vol. I, p.206] Casados was very prominent in Santa Fe.
ILLEGITIMATE SONS OF JEAN L’ARCHEVEQUE
 Agustín de Archibeque On 17 May 1739, in Santa Fe, Pascuala Padilla sold some lands to Agustín. The transaction was before Alcalde Antonio Montoya, our uncle, the famous Indian fighter.[SANM V.1, p.20] He married Manuela Trujillo. Agustin was probably the son of an servant of Juan de Archibeque as was his brother Juan. He may have been a mestizo. All the Archibeques of New Mexico today are descended from Agustín.
 Juan de Archibeque II was Juan’s son by María de Mascareñas, an orphan who came to the Archibeque home to work as a servant. After his father’s death, Juan II used his mother’s surname, Mascareñas.
Submitted by Donald Rivara, June 23, 2009.
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