Winthrop Frazer, of the New Richmond Independent; the Hons. L. W. Bishop and Ira Ferguson, of the State Legislature ; the Hon. H. V. Kerr, State Librarian ; the Hon. J. P. Nichols, Probate Judge; Gen. M. J. W. Holter and Alonzo W. Dimmitt, of the Auditor's Office; M. A. Wood, Recorder ; Henry B. Mattox, Clerk of the Court; the clerks of the different townships and villages; the secretaries of school boards and civil societies, more than a hundred in number ; the pastors and official members of the various religious societies ; Judge Philip B. Swing ; the Hons. John Shaw, Samuel A. West, J. E. Myers, and William Roudebush ; and particularly my co-laborers, R. J. Bancroft, Esq., J. L. Roudebush, Byron Williams, and John A. Penn; J. L. Rockey
PHILADELPHIA, PA., July, 1880.
THE OHIO VALLEY—GENERAL SITUATION AND TOPOGRAPHY OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN THE SCIOTO AND LITTLE MIAMI RIVERS—GEOGRAPHY OF THE PRESENT COUNTY.
"Where the grand Ohio winds its lone way Through fields and flowers and herbage richly gay."
THE Indians who lived in the beautiful Ohio Valley applied various titles to the stream from which it takes its name. The Shawnees called the Ohio River Kis-Ke-pi-la- sepe, that is, "Eagle"River. The Wyandots were in the valley generations before the Shawnees, and, consequently, their name of the river is the primitive one, and should be given the preference above all others. "Ohio"may be called an improvement on their expression, 0-he-rule, and was, no doubt, adopted by the early French voyageurs in their boat-songs, and is substantially the same word as used by the Wyandots, the meaning applied by the French- "fair and beautiful,""La belle riviere"—being precisely the same as that meant by the Indians : "great, grand, and fair to look upon."The imagination suggests with no difficulty the picture of what the Ohio Valley must have been fourscore years ago, with the Little Miami River rolling down dark and silent as to-day ; the play of light and cloud- shadow over the landscape ; the transparent haze that hung over the amethystine hills in the peaceful valleys of the Scioto. Visions of it throng backward and make up the picture as it was when
"Stout-hearted Louis Wetzel
Rode down the river-shore,
The wilderness behind him,
The wilderness before,
Pausing at times to gather
The wild-fruit overhead
(For in this rarest of June-days
The service-berries were red)."
And we see, as on canvas, how he rode
"Into the heart of the greenwood,
In to the heart of the June."
From Pittsburgh (the colonial Fort Duquesne) to its mouth the Ohio River is nine hundred and forty-nine miles in length, and on Clermont is eighteen hundred feet, or about one-third of a mile, wide, and its mean annual range from low to high water is some fifty feet, the extreme range being some fifteen more. Its greatest depressions are generally in August, September, and October, and its greatest rise in December, March, May, and June. The upward navigation is usually suspended by floating ice several weeks in the winter, and often in the summer rendered difficult by low water. Its current at its mean height is about three miles an hour ; when rising and higher, it is more; and when very low, it does not equal two miles. It is universally conceded that for beauty of scenery, salubrity of climate, and adaptation to the purposes of commerce and manufacture this Valley of the Ohio stands unrivaled in America.
Winding its way from the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela through an extensive agricultural region, the river's broad waters receive and distribute merchandise and the products of the soil over an area of thousands of miles, while from its contiguous shores are supplied fuel and mining resources that have so largely built up our country and enabled it to successfully compete in its manufactured articles with the continental lands. Nearly a century ago, on its banks and rich bottoms, extending back for miles, the unaccustomed luxuriance of the vegetation and the majestic size of the forest-trees, covered with thickest foliage, astonished and delighted the eye of the Eastern emigrant floating down its waters in search of a now borne in the far West. Even in winter, when many settlements were made, the scene, though divested of its summer glories, was far from being unattractive or uninteresting. Game of every description abounded in the woods, the noble river teemed with fishiond the valley seemed a paradise to the settler fresh from the barren Eastern settlements. William Dana Emerson—a poet of the Ohio Valley, born in Mari- etta in 1813—paid rich poetic tribute to the changeful beauty of the scenes of old and later times in this valley, and one of his early rhythmic efforts was addressed to the Ohio River, and is as pretty an accompaniment to the movement of the river as is Wordsworth's song to Yarrow. One of the sweetest of his stanzas runs :
"How Spring has decked the forest!
That forest kneels to thee;
And the long canoe and the croaking skiff
Are stemming thy current free ;
Thy placid 'purge is fringed with green,
Save where the villas intervene."
The territory between the Little Miami and Scioto Rivers, embracing in whole or in part twenty-three counties, was the "Virginia Military Reservation,"and was the patriotic tribute as partial reward to the sons of the old commonwealth of Virginia for their services in the Revolutionary war, rendered in the Virginia line on the Continental establishment. The word "Miami"in the Ottawa language is said to signify "mother,"and was originally the designation of the tribe who anciently bore the name of Te-wight-e-wee, and which tribe were the original inhabitants of the Miami Valley, and affirmed they were created in it. To the smaller of the two Miami Rivers was very early given the name of "Little Miami," —the best known and richest in historical incidents of any river in Ohio. The name "Scioto" was originally applied by the Wyandots to the river. But they, however, called it Sci-on-to, meaning, no doubt, "on to the Ohio ;" and any other signification has never been found by antiquarians. The surface of the country between the Little Miami and Scioto, particularly in the central and southern townships, is highly diversified. The several tributaries of the Ohio have cut deep valleys, and descend them with a comparatively rapid fall. The most considerable topographical features of Adams and Brown Counties are the valleys of Brush Creek and its outlying tributaries in the former county, and those of White Oak, Straight, and Eagle Creeks in the latter ; and particularly in Adams is the ground hilly and broken, and in its eastern part mountainous and not fertile. Scioto, Pike, Ross, and Highland Counties are partly broken in surface, having great hills, and sometimes mountains ; while the rest of the "Virginia Reservation,"excluding Clermont, is comparatively oven, and less varied in characteristics, with but few streams of water, and being of almost similar features. In Clermont County the surface is level or undulating, excepting the hills on the Ohio River, or on many inland streams or creeks; and, while it is thus varied in character, ranging from the smooth and scarce undulating plain to hills of no feeble pretensions, there is not a county in the State that has a smaller amount of wastelands within its borders. Though its hills might by some be objected to, they not only add to the richness of the valleys that lie between them, but appear unquestionably set apart by Nature to produce the most delicious fruits ; so that the husbandman can draw with confidence on every acre to contribute its full share to his comfort and support. It is the first fruit and berry county in Ohio in the quantity and quality of its peaches, pears, quinces, strawberries, and raspberries, and in tobacco is unsurpassed on the continent for fine leaf, Its peculiar situation and immediate proximity to Cincinnati have made it, as it were, a garden-spot for that great city, to the markets of which it daily contributes such vast amounts of agricultural, horticultural, dairy, and poultry products.
At an early day a portion of Clermont was regarded as a land of interminable swamps, and was settled slowly; its bottom-lands were hunned because of fever and ague, which everywhere seemed to visit the settler upon such localities. These first impressions were erroneous, for, while in a state of nature much of the land was swampy, covered with water for miles in the spring season, without any appearance of natural drains to bear off the water, or of any easy method to effect the object by artificial means, yet, in truth, it was found to be easily reclaimed so as to make fine farming-sites by removing the fallen timber and rubbish which encumbered the ground, stopping up all the natural drains, and holding the water in ponds upon the surface, until, by this slow process of soaking into the earth, or the slower one of evaporation (since it was so shaded with timber that the sun could hardly penetrate it), the water finally disappeared. When farms began to be opened and the fallen timber removed, and a passage for the water made, it was seen that no permanent obstacle by reason of swamps was to be regarded in making fine tillable farms. In the first quarter of the century of the country's history, the "wet land,"of which there was such a large proportion in the middle and northern part, was considered almost worthless. But a great change took place in pubhc opinion when it was ascertained that, by judicious drainage and cultivation, it improved rapidly in fertility. At that time these lands were covered with water more than half the summer, and were called slashes, but now the water leaves the surface in the woods early in the spring, In the early settlement the evenings were cool as soon as the sun went down, and it was a score of years before warm nights came ; and this coolness of the evenings was a matter of general remark among the emigrants from the old States. It is believed to have been owing to the immense forests that covered the country and shut out the rays and heat of the sun from the surface of the ground, for after sunset there was no warm earth to impart heat to the atmosphere.
No county in Ohio surpasses Clermont in the number and characteristics of its fine streams and creeks, of which the east fork of the Little Miami is the longest and most noled. Having its source near the Highland County boundary-line, it flows through Perry township, in Brown County, and nenters Clermont on its eastern boundary-line, in Jackson township, near Marathon, bears off south, passing through Williamsburgh township, borders upon Tate, winds through the centre of Batavia, bounds upon Union, and, after running into Miami township, finally empties itself into the Little Miami, near Milford. From the mouth to the point it first enters the county is probably twenty miles on a straight line, but, following the course of the stream, is not less than fifty. On one side or the other in its meandering through the county spreads out it fine, rich bottom, and sometimes on each, which contain the most fertile soils in the State and make the best improved farms in the West, particularly adapted to the production of corn, and now beginning to be planted with tobacco, of which is raised the brightest leaf. Many of the smaller streams were valuable at an early day for milling purposes, but as the country was developed, the land cleared, the forests removed, and the natural outlets for the water opened up, they poured out their waters so rapidly that, they ceased to be reliable for milling, and have most generally long since been abandoned.
Of the creeks emptying into the Ohio in the county, Bullskin is the best known, from the fact that at its mouth most of the early emigrants descending the Ohio landed and there tarried a while-sometimes a year or two--till they bought them homes or located their lands. It rises in Brown County, in Clark township, and flows south to the central part of Lewis, thence southwest into Clermont, through Franklin township into the Ohio at Rural, two miles below the Brown county-line. A small tributary to it is Painter's Creek, rising in Tate township. Bear Creek, having its source near Felicity, flows southwest, and empties into the Ohio in Washington township, about a mile above Neville ; and Maple; rising near the central boundary-line of Franklin and Washington townships, runs through the latter southwesterly and seeks the Ohio just below Neville. Big Indian Creek, rising in Tate, flows south into Franklin, thence south and west into Washington, and through it westerly into Monroe, thence southwest into the Ohio at Point Pleasant. Boat Run, having its source in the centre of Monroe, runs southwest, emptying into the Ohio at Clermontville. Twelve-Mile Creek, rising in the northern part of Monroe, flows southwest and through Ohio township, striking the Ohio just below New Richmond. Ten-Mile Creek, rising in the extreme eastern part of Pierce, flows westwardly, and for over a mile parallel with the Ohio, and then empties into Nine-Mile Creek (which has three forks), which, having its source in Union township, flows rather southwest, emptying into the Ohio at the boundary-line point between Clermont and Hamilton Counties ; in very early times it was also called John's or Muddy Creek. Obannon Creek rises in Wayne township and flows southwesterly into Goshen, thence northwesterly into Miami township and into Warren County, thence circles around into Clermont again, and in Miami township discharges itself into the Little Miami at Loveland. Stonelick Creek, having its head in Clinton County, comes into Clermont near Woodville, and flows southwest through Wayne and Stonelick townships, and finds its mouth in the east fork, just below East Liberty. Grassy Run, in Jackson township, rises near Logtown, and joins the east fork below Marathon and Pleasant Run ; running through the centre of same township, empties into east fork, in the Hutchinson settlements. Shaler's Run has its headwaters near Withamsville, and flows northeasterly through Union township into the east fork a mile or more below East Liberty. Backbone Run, in Batavia township, empties into the east fork at Infirmary Farm ; and Lucy's Run, rising near Amelia, finds the east fork just south of Batavia ; while Slab Camp Run, rising near Afton, empties into the east fork at Horseshoe Bend, Ubrey's Run, with headwaters in Monroe township, flows north past "Bantam Fair- Grounds"into Batavia township to the east fork. Poplar Creek, rising in the eastern part of Tate, flows northwesterly into Clover Creek, which, rising in Pike township, in Brown County, flows southwest, and thence northwest into Clermont County, thence same course, and emptying into the east, fork about a mile southwest of Concord. Little Indian rises in the southwestern part of Tate and flows southwesterly into Big Indian, in the northern part of Washington.
The county contains four hundred and thirty-eight square miles, and is bounded on the north by the counties of Warren and Clinton, on the east by that of Brown, on the west by that of Hamilton and the Little Miami River, and on the south by the Ohio River. There are but two inland townships, or ones not bordering in other counties,-viz., Batavia and Stonelick. Five townships, Wayne, Jackson, Williamsburgh, Tate, and Franklin, border on Brown County ; one, Wayne, on Clinton ; three, Wayne, Goshen, and Miami, on Warren ; three, Miami, Union, and Pierce, on Hamilton ; and five, Pierce, Ohio, Monroe, Washington, and Franklin, on the Ohio River. On the east the county is twenty-eight miles long; on the north, from Loveland to the Brown county-line, the distance is thirteen miles; on the south, from the Brown county-line to Hamilton county-line, by the river-road, is twenty-five arid seven- tenths miles ; and from the Ohio River to Loveland, by an air-line on the west, is fifteen miles. From Point Pleasant to the Brown county-line is nine miles; from New Richmond to same, eleven and one-half miles; from the Hamilton county-line, on the Ohio turnpike, to same, fourteen miles; from Moscow to same, eight and three-fourths miles ; and from the mouth of the east fork, on the Hamilton county-line, to same, fourteen miles. From New Richmond to Loveland is eighteen and one-fourth miles ; from Point Pleasant to the Warren county-line is twenty-one miles; from Moscow to same, twenty-four miles ; from Neville to same, twenty.six and one-fourth miles ; and from Chilo to same, twenty-seven miles. From the court-house to the Ohio River at Palestine is seven and one-half miles; to it at New Richmond, nine miles ; to it at Point Pleasant, ten and one-half miles ; to it at Moscow, thirteen miles; to it at Neville, fifteen and one-half miles ; and to it at Chilo, sixteen and one-half. From the court-house to the Hamilton county-line is six and one-half miles ; to that of Brown County, seven and three-quarter miles ; to that of Warren County, eleven miles ; and to that of Clinton County, thirteen and one-fourth miles.
The following table shows the fourteen townships of Clermont, with their number of acres of land :
NAMES OF TOWNSHIPS
Number of acres
Value of lands, exclusive of buildings
Acres of arable or plow-land
Acres of meadow or pasture land
Acres of wood land or uncultivated
Tate is the largest township in territory, and Ohio the smallest. Miami has the largest aggregate valuation, and the largest also per acre. Franklin has the largest number of acres of plow-land, and Tate has the largest of meadow and pasture-land, as well as of woodland or uncultivated land.
CHAPTER II. [*This chapter and the two that follow have been prepared by T. L. Roudebush.]
THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF CLERMONT COUNTY.
TOPOGRAPHICALLY considered, there is nothing striking in Clermont. Its surface is not so abrupt as that of Adams County, on the east, nor has it the wave-like contour of Warren County, on the north. Clermont has no high hills or mountains elevated above the surrounding country, nor deep and broad valleys caused by erosion. In a word, its general surface forms a plateau of table-land with a mean elevation of four hundred feet above low-water mark in the Ohio at Cincinnati. Its highest elevation is five hundred and forty-seven feet, in Goshen, near the Warren county-line ; the lowest is at Palestine, in Pierce, which is only five feet above the general level of the river. This table-land is bisected from east to west by the east fork of the Little Miami, whose course is so tortuous that its length through the county is five times the distance of an air-line between the point of entrance and its mouth, at the Little Miami. With its tributaries it drains two-thirds of the surface of the county. The channel of the east fork is about two hundred feet below the table-land through which it flows. Clover Creek, on the south, has not as deep a channel as somc of its other tributaries. Its source is in Tate township, where its channel has been modified by the drift.
Stonelick, on the north, has its source in Clinton County, and is a very rapid stream, and has cut a deep and narrow channel through the blue limestone. Its channel has also been modified by the drift, together with the slopes of its hills. Rocky Run, Brushy Fork, and other of Stonelick's tributaries have made the surface of Stonelick township very uneven and angular in its outline. The Obannon, on the northwest, drains quite an area in Goshen and Miami townships. It is not so rapid a stream as Stonelick, and has not cut so deep a channel.
The Ohio, on the south, through its principal tributaries, —Bullskin, Indian, Bear, and Boat Run, and Twelve-, Ten-, and Nine-Mile Creeks,--drains one-third of the surface of the county. These streams, as well as a large majority of them in the county, flow in a southwesterly direction. There are no stratified rocks to be seen in the channels of the east fork, Stonelick, Obannon, Clover, Indian, Bullskin, Twelve-Mile, and, in fact, all the streams that empty into the Ohio, for some distance above their mouths, showing that their channels at some time were much lower than at present. The lowest point in which the bed-rock in the channel of the east fork can be seen is near Perin's Mills, which is about six miles above its mouth. There are no great examples of the work of erosion in Clermont County besides the valley of the east fork as compared with other counties in Southern Ohio. Near Milford there is quite an area of gravel terraces, and several others exist on the east fork between its mouth and Perin's Mills on a smaller scale. At Talley's Ford, three miles above Batavia, there is a good example of an ancient drift-filled channel of the east fork. This is only one out of the numerous drift-filled channels of the various streams found in the county. The east fork at one time ran north of Batavia, striking its present channel at or near the bridge across Backbone Run. Stonelick has had its channel changed in several paces, and so with almost every stream of any size in the county. After careful examination, I have found over fifty drift-filled channels in Clermont County. Some of the smaller streams, especially those flowing east and west, have had their channels entirely filled up, and they are more numerous than the casual observer would think. Good examples are seen on Possum Hollow, in Stonelick township, where its channel cuts through an ancient drift-filled at right angles, which was much lower than the present one, and on Brushy Fork, a short distance south of the residence of Michael Yeager, In both the drift is over one hundred and fifty feet deep. There is one peculiarity in the topography of that part of the county bordering on the Ohio River, and it is this,-that the remains of the ancient plateau-hills are higher at their brows than at a distance of one or two miles back. There is a good example of this to be seen on the road lcading from New Richmond to Nicholsville, where the table-land is fifty feet lower at the distance of two miles from the former place than at its brow. There is ample proof that at some time in the geological history of the county a great many more of its streams flowed parallel with the Ohio River. In the northeastern part of thc county are extensive areas of swamp-land, which (once considered worthless, but now the most productive in the county, taken as a whole) are but the spurs of larger ones in Brown, Highland, and Clinton Counties.
As a whole, the topography of Clermont County has given its surface a picturesque appearance. In the Palaeozoic Era at one time it was but a vast inclined plane, with as smooth a surface as a table, but by the convulsions of nature and erosion it has been transformed into lull, dale, plain, and valley, which have afforded homes for an industrious and energetic people. From the table of altitudes given below the reader will have a better idea of its topography:
Loveland, above low-water mark in the Ohio River at Cincinnati 130
Branch Hill, " 120
Miamiville, “ 115
Milford, “ 95
Tobasco, “ 510
Withamsville, “ 509
Bantam, “ 478
Bethel, “ 503
Amelia, “ 498
Olive Branch, “ 473
Perin's Mills, “ 115
Batavia, “ 137
Williamsburgh, “ 159
Goshen, “ 449
Edenton, “ 402
Woodville, above low-water mark in the Ohio River at Cincinnati 511
Newtonville, " " " " " 465
Brownsville, " " " " " " 472
Marathon, " " " " " " 397
Monterey, “ " “ " " " 364
Boston, " " " " " " 349
Btoneliek, " " " “ ” “132
Palestine " " " " " " 5
New Richmond, " " " " " " " 10
Moscow, " " " " " " 15
Utopia, “ " " " " " 19
In Clermont County we have the oldest exposed bedded rocks in the State, with no intervening geological formations between the Cincinnati group and the drift, which in this county assumes a different character from that found in any other in the State. Of the three general classes of rocks that form the earth's crust,-viz., igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary,—they belong to the last. In order that the reader may have a better idea of the bedded rocks of Clermont County, they will be treated under the following heads: 1. Geological Position and Equivalents ; 2. Division of the Series ; 3. Lithographical Characters and Composi- tion; 4. Palaeontology and General History.
1.—GEOLOGICAL POSITION AND EQUIVALENTS.
In the geological scale they belong to the Palwozoic Era (or "life-giving"), Silurian Age, and Lower Silurian Period; the youngest strata of which the bedded rocks of Clermont County belong has been christened by Meek and Worthen as the Cincinnati group, and as an equivalent for the Hud- son River group of New York, though at the present time there is a difference of opinion as to its equivalents. It is bounded below by the Trenton limestone and above by the Upper Silurian formations.
2—DIVISION OF THE SERIES.
As has been previously stated, the oldest exposed rocks in Ohio are found in Clermont County, and not at Cincin- nati (as one would suppose from the name), from the fact that the Cincinnati antielinal or axis lies to the eastward of Cincinnati, and that the dip of the strata at that place is to the northward; the discussion of which will be left for another more appropriate place.
At Point Pleasant the lowest rocks in the State are found, and there present the best exposures and section, and hence are called the Point Pleasant beds, Their vertical range, from observation, is in the neighborhood of fifty feet, and horizontal from very low-water mark in the Ohio River at the southwest corner of the county to Chilo, and more properly from New Richmond to the latter place.
In an ascending order, the Cincinnati beds proper come next. They begin at the highest stratum of the Point Pleasant beds and extend to the lowest of the Lebanon beds, and constitute ninety-five per cent of the bedded rocks of Clermont County: On account of a difference in their fossil contents, as well as their lithographical characteristics, they are for convenience divided into three subdivisions,—viz., the river quarry-beds, the middle or Eden shales, the hill quarry-beds. The vertical range of the first division is fifty feet, with a horizontal one of limited
extent in the southern part of the county, where the altitude is not above one hundred feet. The second has a ver- tical range of two hundred and fifty feet, and a horizontal one where the altitude is not over four hundred and fifty feet.
The third general division is called the Lebanon beds. It has a vertical range of fifty or sixty feet, and a horizon- tal one of about one-third of Wayne township and a small part of Goshen.
3.—LITHOGRAPHICAL CHARACTER AND COMPOSITION OF THE CINCINNATI GROUP.
"This whole series is composed of alternating beds of limestone and shale, most commonly called blue clay." The limestone may in general terms be described as an even-bedded, firm, durable, semi-crystalline limestone, par- tially, and sometimes almost entirely, made up of the fossil remains of the invertebrates—viz., articulates, mollusks, radiates, and protozoans--that once had an existence in the old Silurian sea of which these rocks formed the bottom. In color it varies from a light blue to a dark or gray shade, but the prevailing color may be said to be a grayish blue. The limestone in the Point Pleasant beds and the lower strata of the river quarry-beds varies more than in any of the other general subdivisions. They are lighter in color; while in one place they are slaty in structure. in an- other they assume lenticular forms of concretionary origin, —so much so as to entirely destroy their value as build- ing-rock. The layers are also exceptionally heavy, attain- ing a thickness of sixteen to twenty inches, and are often so free from fossils as to afford no indication of the kinds of life from which they were derived. The courses in the river quarry-beds vary in thickness from one to twelve inches, and form a very compact limestone, which in some places is almost entirely made up of crinoidal stems. The thinner layers, when struck by a hammer, ring like pot-metal. They are abundant in Twelve-Mile Creek, in Ohio township. The courses in the middle or Eden shales are not so thick and more fossiliferous, and constitute what quarrymen call " shelly stone." The Lebanon beds are very fossiliferous, and are of but little value in an economic sense. The Lebanon beds and Eden shales, as to composi- tion, are nearly uniform, about ninety per cent. of them being carbonate of lime. The river quarry- and Point Pleasant beds are more silicious, some courses giving as high as twenty-three and one-half per cent. of salacious matter.
The shales, clays, or marlites which, with the limestones, make up the Cincinnati group and constitute a large part of the system,—certainly Iour-fiftlis of it in the two lower divisions, and probably not less than three-fifths of the whole extent. The proportions of limestone and shale do not appear altogether constant, it is to be observed, at the same horizon, a larger amount of stone being found at one point than at others. In color they are of a lighter blue than the limestone, and weather into a drab, though it is shown by analysis that they are different as to composition, drab shale having a larger percentage of carbonate of lime. Fully sixty-five per cent. of their mass, taken as a whole, is silicious matter, On exposure to the elements they slake almost like lime, and furnish the materials for a fertile soil. In some places—not confined to any division-- they are heavily charged with fossils, which is the case in the trilobite and crenoid beds on Stonelick Creek and Rocky Run, in Wayne and Stonelick townships. Where such is the case, the fossils, as a general thing, are in a good state of preservation. The proportion of shale to limestone in the Point Pleasant beds is 1.5 to 1 ; river-quarry, 4 to 1 ; Eden shales, 10 to 1 ; Lebanon beds, 2 to 1. Prof, Orton has called attention (though he lets it pass as one of the unsolved geological problems) to a peculiar feature of the blue limestone beds,—viz., a waved structure of the solid limestone somewhat analogous in form to the wave-lines and ripple-marks of the higher series of the State.
This peculiar structure was noticed by him in the upper beds of the formation, but, from personal observation, it is found throughout the whole series. The rocks exhibiting this structure are the most compact beds of fossiliferous limestone. The bottom of the waved layer is generally even, and beneath it is always found an even bed of shale. Its upper surface is diversified with ridge sand furrows. The distance between the ridges varies from one to four feet. The greatest thickness of the ridge is from four to eight inches, while the stone at the bottom of the furrow is reduced to one or two inches, and sometimes it entirely disappears. The waved layers are overlain by shale in every instance. They are often continuous for a considerable extent, and in such cases the axes of the ridges and furrows have a uniform direction. This direction varies in different localities. Not being the proper place for a discussion as to the cause, I will only give the localities where they may be seen. The most extensive bed that has come under the writer's observation is near the residence of Frank Wissel, in Stonelick township, where it forms the bed-rock of Stone- lick Creek. In this bed the thickness of the layer is seven inches and the height of the ridges four, with the distance of two feet and a half between them. On a branch of Coon Hollow, in Stonelick township, near the residence of Mrs. Josiah Willeg, is another layer, having a vertical range of fifty feet above the one already given. In thickness and height of ridges they are almost identical, but in direction there is fifteen degrees' difference. On the farm of Joseph Smith, in Jackson township, is a layer that forms a part of the south bank of the east fork at an elevation of ten feet above low-water mark. This layer was noticed for Over two miles. In thickness it ranged from six to nine inches, but the direction, height, and distance apart of the grooves was constant. In this layer the axis of the ridges and furrows was ten degrees south of east.
At least twenty other points where layers of this kind are seen have been observed by the writer, though four or five of them belonged to the same horizon undoubtedly. In regard to what series they are the most abundant, the Eden shales must claim the preference. In an economic sense, they are unfit for anything save burning into lime, though they would make first-class building-atone if they had an even surface.
The economical products of the bedded rocks of Clermont County are numerous, but only a few have been utilized. Building-stone and lime are the only ones that are of any importance, though the manufacture of cement from the concretionary layer in the Point Pleasant beds must, in the course of time, become profitable, The above bed also furnishes the most desirable building-stone. Its limestones are compact, hard, and of a beautiful color, presenting, in conjunction with the Dayton stone, an attractive appearance.
4.—PALAEONTOLOGY AND GENERAL HISTORY.
That the discussion of this division of the subject may be understood without using geological technicalities, the topics discussed will be : 1. The Origin of the Bedded Rocks; 2, Their Palaeontology or Vital History ; 3. Their Physical History,
1.—THE BEDDED ROCKS OF CLERMONT COUNTY,
like all of the great limestone strata that enter into the structure of the earth, were formed beneath the sea, as has already been hinted. Their beds, both of limestone and shale, are wholly of marine origin, This is determined by the remains of plants and animals which the formation contains, the plants being entirely confined to seaweeds and the animals belonging to the class heretofore mentioned, which are only found in the sea.
There are occasional layers that have a solid and structureless character (especially those forming the Point Pleasant beds), but in the great majority of them we can mark the remains of the various living forms of which they are composed. Some of the layers are only ornamented with the impressions or casts of bivalve shells. Others are almost, if not entirely, composed of shells and corals, though in the heavy strata the latter are wanting.
The growth of the limestone layers seems to have been interrupted at frequent intervals (notably in the Lebanon beds, and for a greater length of time in the Eden shales) by the deposition of shale. The clay and sand of the shales, which constitute more than half of their mass, was derived from the waste of the land that bounded the Silurian sea, and were transported to their present location by oceanic currents. The calcareous or lime portion had the same origin as the limestones. On the East Fork and Shaylor's Run, near East Liberty, Wissel's Run, near its mouth, are extensive layers of shale that are non-fossiliferous, showing that they were formed when the oceanic currents were strong. The layers are more abundant in the middle part of the Eden shales, and not in the upper, as has been claimed.
That the growth of the blue limestone beds, as represented in Clermont County, was slow there is an abundance of proof. As all their calcareous (or lime) portions were derived from matter that must have been fashioned through the agency of the animal kingdom, it must have been slow. As has been previously stated, the surfaces of the limestone layers are generally covered with valves of sea-shells, which are well represented in the flagging-stone found in Stonelick Creek, near the residence of Ira Williams, in Stonelick township, and also in a branch of Brushy Fork, on the farm of David Meek. Again, in some layers the entire mass seems to be made up of shells that have in one sense never solidified,—that is, they can be picked out and gathered with as little difficulty as the shells on the seashore to-day. Good examples of these layers are found at Woodville, Wayne township, on the Jackson pike, near Owensville, in Stonelick township, and on the farm of Charles Williams, in the same township. In Clermont County there are several sections ranging from ten to fifty feet in thickness, and contiguous to sections of non-fossiliferous layers of about the same thickness, show- ing that a great many local agents were at work in the "old Silurian sea." Some of the shells found represent tender youth, others vigorous manhood, while not a few extreme old age. In some layers one genus had undisputed sway, while in others some two or three found an abiding-place.
The valves of the Strophomena alternata form a greater proportion of the fossil remains of the blue limestone rocks of Clermont County than any other one species.
The shales, or at least some of their beds, are rich in fossils, as has already been mentioned. Many of the most delicate forms of the entire series are found only in these deposits. Certain crinoids (as the Glyphtocrinus decadactylus) and trilobites (Culymene Lenunaria), as noted in some horizons, are rarely seen in other beds. They occur in the shales in mature and well-grown forms, not at a single horizon, but in repeated beds. These facts go to prove that in those beds of shale the growth was as slow as, if not slower than, in the limestone. And the reason that they have not been found abundantly in all the lime- stone and shale layers is that there was a too rapid depo- sition of materials which destroyed such kinds of life. On a branch of Coon Hollow the brachiopod shell Zygospia modesta (Hall) contributes to the blue limestone series many successive layers several inches in thickness. There are numerous examples in Clermont County where the solid rock is built-up by shells so minute that a microscope must be called to the aid of the observer.
On the farm of B. F. Clark, in Wayne township, there is a layer of shale, a natural section of which is shown by Stonelick Creek, fully ninety-five per cent. of which is made up of the heads, arms, bodies, etc., of the crinoid Glyptocrinus decadactylus, A section is also exposed on the Obannon, near Goshen, where about the same per cent. of the layer is made up of like remains. On Rocky Run, near the residence of Peter Anderson, Esq., is a layer of shale almost entirely made up of perfect trilobites of the species Culymcne Lenanaria. There are other examples, but these will suffice in this connection.
2.—PALEONTOLOGY OR VITAL HISTORY.
The fossils of the bedded rocks of Clermont County, to which reference has been frequently made in the preceding pages, are very numerous and cannot fail to attract the attention of the most thoughtless observer when viewed aside front their value to the scientist, especially when it is remembered that in them we have the well-preserved re- mains of the first animal life that appeared on the globe, though countless ages have intervened between their exist- ence and ours. The Cincinnati group, which is all represented by the bedded rock of Clermont County, is to the
geologist classical ground, as there is no other locality in the world where there are 80 many well-preserved forms of the inhabitants of that wonderful life-giving or producing sea, and where they can behold representatives of the lower divisions of the animal kingdom to a certainty. To give a description of all the fossils of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, as found represented in the bedded rock of Clermont County, would fill a volume of itself; so that only the division, horizon, and locality of the various fossils will be given. The remains of plants are less abundant and inter- esting than the animal fossils already noted. The plants of the blue limestone belong wholly to the lowest divisions of the vegetable kingdom, and are in all cases of marine origin. Fucoids (seaweeds) are quite numerous throughout the whole series, and assume a great many different forms. The most peculiar are the dumb-bell and arrowhead. The latter was first noticed by that veteran palwontologist L. C. Moore, Esq. It was found on Back Run, a branch of the east fork, about two miles northeast from Batavia, at a horizon of one hundred and seventy-five feet, and associated with the former. The cross-bone fucoid is found about twenty feet below the trilobite horizon on the Obannon, at Goshen, on Stonelick Creek, and on a branch of Coon Hollow, near the residence of Thomas Daugherty, in Batavia township. The writer has some found at the latter place that are of an enormous size, being over six inches in diameter and four feet long. In the same horizon rery diminutive ones are found. The beds at Goshen, Clark's, and Daugherty's belong to the same horizon, and have a vertical range of ten to twelve feet. There are several other localities in the county where they can be found, but these are the most prominent. The corals of the Cincinnati group are very numerous and interesting. During the past year the writer has discovered some five or six new species. The star and bullhorn (common names) are the most interesting. The former is found in abundance on the farm of Valentine Dollar, in Stonelick township ; the latter at least in four or five localities. The various forms of the genus Chaetetes are found almost in every horizon in the country.
The Graptolite family is only represented by one species* (Graptolithus gracilis), which was first discovered by L. C. Moore, Esq., and is found in a single horizon in the bed of the east fork a short distance above Batavia.
The most beautiful of all the fossils found in Clermont County are the various genera of the crinoid family. Of these the genus Glytocriuus decadactylus (Hall) is the most abundant and interesting. It is found in only one horizon in Clermont County, at an elevation of three hun- dred and twenty-five feet, with a vertical range of not to exceed six feet, though stems are found to a greater altitude. One peculiarity of this as well as other specks is that it is not found continuously, but in colonies, or, to use a miner's term, in pockets. On Stonelick, near the residence of B. F. Clark, Elijah Cowen found over two hundred in one colony, and in some ten or fifteen, over twelve hun- dred perfect specimens. They were all large and well pre- served. The same horizon is found on the Obannon, near * Since writing the above two other species have been discovered.
Goshen, where similar colonies were found by Dr. A. B. Anshutz, though in not so large a number. The specimens obtained from this locality are the best in the State. A great many have been mounted by Harry Anshutz, Esq.
There are only two other localities in the county where this species is found,—viz., on Rocky Run, and near the residence of W, South, deceased, on a branch of Brushy Fork. The writer has a fine specimen of the species (Anomalocrinus incurvus), which was found at a much lower horizon on the same stream where the M. & C. Turnpike crosses it.
Several other species have been noted by Dr. A. B. Anshutz, L. C. Moore, Esq., Dr, J. B, Thompson, Enoch Johnston, Esq., and the writer, which space will forbid mentioning. Of the genus Agelacrinus (Vanuxem), one species (Agelacrinus vorticellata) has been noted, its horizon being found near Batavia, in a natural section exposed by the east fork. This genus is closely allied, as well as the other genera, to the crinoids. In the ascending scale the next division of the animal kingdom that we come to is the Mollusca. Of the five general divisions into which this family is divided, all are well represented by forty-five genera and at least one hundred and fifty species, and go to make up fully nine-tenths of the fossils found in the bedded rocks of Clermont County.
Of the division Cephalophoda, the genus Orthoceras is the most abundant,—at least is represented by several species which reached a greater size than any of the inhabitants of the Lower Silurian Period.
The species Orthoceras Tuibidum is found in a dozen different localities, representing at least half that number of horizons, but is generally found in the Eden shales. One of the best localities known is on the farm of Thomas Daugherty, in Batavia township. The species 0. Duseii is also found in different localities, while it is generally found in the shale, by no means always. Some two or three specimens (typical) can be seen crystallized in the flagging forming the sidewalks of Owensville. The largest specimens of the former, some six inches in diameter and twenty in length (but not representing all—only a part—of the specimen), belong to Dr. J. B. Thompson, of Bethel, and were obtained near that place at an elevation of four hundred feet.* (Enoch Johnson, L. C. Moore, and the writer have specimens of this and other species that are remarkably large,) Of the latter P. T. Stuart, of Perin's Mills, has the largest, which is eighteen inches long, and was found at the horizon of one hundred and eighty feet. Of all the species that have been examined by the writer, one in the possession of L. C. Moore, Esq., is the most interesting from its peculiar shape, which might be named the Mori/ (or fan) orthoceras. It was found near Batavia in a cut made by the Cincinnati and Erie Railroad, at the horizon of one hundred and seventy-five feet. This specimen is eleven inches long and two in diameters. The siphuncle is plainly shown, and at the lateral end is a fan-hake expansion ; hence the name.
Of the gasteropod shells of the group, at least fifteen genera, with five times that number of species, are recognized. At the horizon of three hundred feet they were found in abundance, associated with the brachiopods. On Stonelick Creek, near the residence of Elijah Cowen, on Still Run, near the residence of Jacob Balthizer, and on Coon Hollow, near the residence of Josiah Pierce, they are found. There are other localities in different horizons, but the one of one hundred and fifty feet seems the most prolific.
The species Orthis biforata is found throughout the whole series, and is one of three out of sixty species representing twelve genera, This species, at the horizon of four hundred feet, is very numerous. On a branch of Stonelick Creek, near the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth Ware, they are lying loose in the bed o the stream, where they can be picked up by the hundred, of all sizes. The species Strophomena alternata has also a wide vertical range, but there are not so many varieties as has the first. Leptcena cericea also has a great vertical as well as horizontal range, but does not attain full size in the bedded rocks of Clermont County. There are many species of the lamellibranch mollusks found in different horizons in the county. The genus Avicula is well represented by one species, the Avicula demissa, which is found in the :lame horizon with the crinoid Glyptocrinus decadactylus and trilobite Claymene Lenanaria.
Of the divisions of the animal kingdom, the branch Articulata, to the masses as well as to the geologist, is the most interesting. Not only are they interesting on account of their beauty, but from the enormous size that some of the species of trilobites have attained. There are only two species found in Clermont County, representing that many genera,—viz., Claymene Lenanaria and Asaphus gigas,—and, so far as has been observed, are found in the same horizon, that of four hundred feet,—probably less,—with the exception of two, which are four hundred and fifty. The first species is the most abundant. The only localities in which it has been found are on Hunter's Run (a branch of Stonelick Creek) and at Orebaugh's steam grist-mill, at Newtonville, in Wayne township, which are in the same horizon as, and fifty feet higher than, the following localities : At Clark's saw-mill, on Stonelick Creek ; on Rocky Run, near the residence of Peter Anderson ; on a branch of Brushy Fork, near the residence of William South, deceased, in Stonelick township ; on the farm of Thomas Daugherty, in Batavia township ; near Harlow's grist-mill, on the east fork, in Jackson township ; and on the Obannon, near Goshen in Goshen township. The vertical range of all these beds, representing two horizons, is not to exceed ten feet. On the farm of Thomas Daugherty the horizon is within three feet of the surface of the table-land. The second species has been found in connection with the first at only two localities,—viz,, at Clark's saw-mill, on Stonelick, and at Orebaugh's, at Newton,-where they were found (and the horizon exposed) by the digging of a well. Here it was struck at eight feet from the surface. It is a shale about three feet in thickness. From this locality some very fine specimens have been obtained, now in the possession of Dr. W. E. Anderson, of that place. At Clark's mill at least two thousand have been found in the last twenty years of the former, and twenty of the latter.
The Asaplius gigas found here it larger than at Newtonville, but not so well preserved. Of the various species of the star-fish, only one has been found so far in Clermont County, which was the Paleaster incomptus, at Goshen, by Harry Anshutz, Esq., which was unknown to the writer until after the preceding pages had -been written ; hence the cause of its being noted in this connection.
3.--PHYSICAL HISTORY OF THE CINCINNATI GROUP.
The third topic of this general division will be treated under the following heads: 1. The Cincinnati Anticlinal, including a discussion of the dip of its beds; 2. The Date of its Upheaval, as determined by its relations to surrounding formations.
1. The gentle fold in the strata of the Mississippi Valley which traverses the central regions of Tennessee and Kentucky, and which afterwards enters Ohio in its southwest corner, passing thence across the State to Canada in a direction little east of north, has long been recognized under the name of the Cincinnati anticlinal., or the Cincinnati axis, and was one of the earliest folds that constitute the Appalachian mountain system. The strata on both sides of the Cincinnati anticlinal axis dip in opposite directions ; thus, the strata that are formed on top of the hills in Clermont County can be followed to the eastern side of Brown, where they disappear below the river with a marked easterly dip, while on the west the same beds are carried beneath the river with a stronger westerly dip. In traveling east or west from this axis you strike the coal-fields of Ohio and Indiana at about the same distance through the same intervening formations. The real existence of these facts within the observation of' the mediocre proves the proposition beyond a doubt. And that it passes through Bethel is claimed by Professor Orton, who has made a special study of it, though we are inclined to think that it is several miles too far east.
By measuring the height of the same stratum at different places would establish it somewhere in Clermont County beyond a doubt. The easterly, westerly, and northerly dip are respectively five, twelve, and forty-seven inches to the mile, and that it is continuous throughout the State has been proven where artesian and other wells have been sunk to a sufficient depth.
2. From the multitude of fossils found in the rocks that once formed the bottom of the Silurian sea, representing by their appearance extreme age, proves the fact that the Cincinnati axis was of very slow growth. " It was only a gentle flexure of the earth's crust, involving the Lower and Upper Silurian, and to some extent the Devonian, formations of Ohio." To the southward its emergence as an island from that ancient sea was probably of earlier date than in Ohio, and so was it in Clermont County before Franklin in the central part. Thus different portions of the geological series of this general region known as an island have been involved in the different stages of its history. From the foregoing facts, and many more that might be adduced, it appears that the Cincinnati axis in Clermont ?County was raised above the sea just after the close of the Lower Silurian period, and that it underwent many oscillations, but those of elevation exceeded those of' depression, and, too, that the rate of movement was exceedingly slow, which is shown by the small dip of the strata that have been elevated, by the want of any anticlinal fracture in the Cincinnati beds; and, too, that the Lebanon beds once crowned all of the anticlinal axis in Clermont County there is no doubt. The denuding agencies to which the bedded rocks of Clermont County have been exposed during the cycles of time since they were added to the dry land of the globe would certainly appear a sufficient reason for the loss of the greater part of the crows.
Nowhere in the State is the drift so interesting as in Clermont County, where it has not only modified the topography of the county by the filling up of ancient river channels and causing new ones to be made, but has reversed the order of glacial deposition as found elsewhere, where local agents have so destroyed its uniformity of composition, depth, and horizon as to perplex the student of geology as to its history. Bringing, as it has, the precious metals from the distant north, furnishing a soil which for fertility cannot be excelled, and a horizon for springs so important to a people given to stock-raising, it must necessarily be treated of under the following heads,—viz., 1. Origin and General History ; 2. Division of the Drift.
I. ORIGIN AND GENERAL HISTORY.
As has been before stated, there are no records left in Clermont County of the fifteen geological periods intervening between the Lower Silurian and Quaternary, representing some of the most important epochs in geological history and immense cycles of time. That such is the case every one will acknowledge when it is remembered that this portion of the Silurian island was above the sea, while other portions of the continent were below it.
At the close of the Tertiary (or third period) there was a general upheaval of the northern part of the continent, raising it several thousand feet above its previous or present height. This phenomenon was followed by intense cold area the formation of extensive continental glaciers, which, in the course of time, moved southward, down, as it were, an inclined plane, grinding and crushing everything in their path. Thus it was that the basins of the Great Lakes were formed, and the debris scattered all over the State in the form of bolder or Eric clay. This bowler clay, the oldest of the drift series, is not universally found in Clermont County, nor is it uniform in depth or stratification. Immediately after the first phenomenon a second one occurred, in which there was a general depression of the central and northern portions of the continent and the return of a milder climate, which melted the glaciers that had found a resting-place, as it were, in the Buckeye State. The result of this depression was the return of a milder climate, as has already been stated, and the appearance of vegetable life in Clermont County and elsewhere in the central and southern portions of the State, as attested by the numerous forest-beds found overlying the native soils and bowlder clay. This phenomenon has been styled the inter-glacial stage. This stage was succeeded by another, which might be called the iceberg, the cause of which was a partial re elevation of the land and a partial return of a cold climate, productive of local glaciers and icebergs, which was followed by a partial subsidence, and is known as the terrace epoch, the last geological phenomenon experienced during the Quaternary Period.
2, DIVISION OF THE SERIES.
Under this head the following subdivisions will be made, and treated of in the order in which they are given: 1. Bowlder Clay ; 2. Forest-Beds ; 3. Yellow and White Clays ; 4. River-Terraces ; 5. Alluvial Dept sits.
1. Bowlder Clay,—The evidences of glacial action are numerous in Clermont County, though but two terminal moraines of small areas are found within its limits as far south as the Ohio River. Of these, one is on Bull- skin Creek, about two miles from its mouth, in Franklin township; the other near Blairville, in Pierce township. From natural and artificial section it is probable that the bowlder clay covers one-tenth of the ancient floor or bedded rocks in the county. It is not confined to any definite horizon, it being in some places one hundred feet below the surface, while in others it forms it. In some localities it is stratified, while in others it is not. As to structure and composition it is almost universally the same, being a blue clay (the flour of hmestones and shales that have been ground by the glacial mills) intermixed with small pebbles and bowlders of crystalline rocks and fragments of limestone scratched and considerably worn by attrition, all belonging to a higher series than ours.
In Stonelick township, on the farm of Wm. Cook, are some very heavy deposits, at least forty feet in thickness, and covered by two or three feet of surface soil. Near the residence of Elisha Williams it crosses the present bed of Brushy Fork at right angles, showing that the channel ran in another direction and at a lower horizon once in its history. On the farm of John Rapp are also some very heavy deposits. On the farm of A. J. Turner a heavy deposit is shown by a natural section of Possum Hollow. It is at least fifty feet thick. This stream shows a section of an ancient drift-filled channel, where the structure and composition were different, being almost wholly composed of flat limestones set on edge and mixed with enough concre- tionary matter to cement the whole together like grouting. In Miami township are some heavy deposits, on the farms of Daniel Turner, E. W. Jones, John Armstrong, and Thos. Highlands. In Union township there are some very heavy deposits on Salt Run. In Batavia township it is shown along the Williamsburgh turnpike, on the Bata- via Hill, where it has not so many bowlders, etc,, in it, and closely approximates to till. On Backbone Run, on the farm of Thos. Marsh, a typical section is shown, where it has been stratified, also at the mouth of Backbone Run. Some very heavy deposits are seen in Union and Pierce townships, along the line of the Ohio River branch of the C. & E. Railroad. On the farm of John Shaw, one and a half miles northeast of New Richmond, some of the largest bowlders ever noticed by the writer in the bowlder clay were seen, where it has completely filled up the chan- nel of an ancient rivulet.
In a great many places the bowlder clay is overlaid by a greater or less thickness of line laminated clay without pebbles, which belongs to it, their composition being the same, and origin identical. Again, at various places, it is overlaid with stratified gravel and sand. Good examples of this are seen at Turner's Hill, near Stonelick ; on the farm of Wm. Shutnard, near Blairsville, in Pierce township ; and at least in a dozen other localities the same thing has been noted. In every case the gravel and sand showed that they had been deposited in water. In all the exam- ples given there is more or less conglomerate.
2. Forest-Beds.--This name was given to one of the divisions of the drift which consists of a thin sheet of soil that covers the bedded rocks and bowlder clay to a great extent in Clermont County (the origin of which has already been given), and was the product of a growth of vegetation which after the retreat of the glaciers covered the greater part of the morainic material left behind them. This was for ages a land-surface which sustained a forest of arbores- cent and herbaceous plants, the home of the mammoth, mastodon, giant beaver, and doubtless many other animals. It does not always overlay the bowlder clays, but sometimes rests on the rocky floor of the county. It varies from five to thirty-.five feet in thickness so far as it has come under the notice of the writer.
In some localities the logs, stumps, etc., are found in a horizontal position, while in others they are vertical. Not only have logs, stumps, etc., been found, but great masses of leaves and vegetable matter, together with vivianite (or sulphate of iron), seams of ochreous clays, and beds of bog-iron ore. Near the residence of B. F. Clark, in Wayne Township, it was struck at five feet from the surface, in which wood, leaves, and vivianite were found to the depth of thirty-five feet, at which point or depth the bedrock was not reached. On the farm of Thomas Shumard, in Stonelick Township, at twenty-six feet from the surface logs were struck, also leaves found. On the farm of A. G. Hartman, at thirty-six feet from the surface logs were struck, and at twenty-two feet a seam of bituminous coal two feet in thickness was found, that looked as though it had originated there. In Union township, on the farm of John Avey, at the depth of twenty-five feet, coal was found, and at thirty feet from the surface leaves carbonized. In the town of Batavia it has been found at twenty feet below the surface, when leaves, wood, etc., have also been found in a good state of preservation. In the town of New Richmond, at thirty-six feet below the surface, limbs of trees were found in a good state of preservation. These are only a few out of a hundred that might be given. Some of these wells were at a higher elevation than the surrounding country, while others seem to have been at one time in swales.
There is only one locality in Clermont County where these forest-beds are found to cover any extent of country, and that is in Tate township, where they are universally found at fifteen to twenty feet below the surface. There are several instances known to the writer where wells within one hundred feet would show opposite drift formations. In the one the bowlder clay would be found resting on a rocky. floor overlaid by a forest-bed of considerable thickness and last by a stratum of clay, white ; the other would have a stratum of yellow clay resting on the rocky floor, which was not over ten feet from the surface. As these beds can only be seen by artificial sections, their horizontal extent can never to a certainty be ascertained, but must ever continue to be the most interesting division of the series.
3, Yellow and White Clays.—It will be remembered, at the close of the interglacial stage., that there was a partial re-elevation of the land and a partial return of local glaciers and icebergs. As the re-elevation was gradual, the first phenomenon would be icebergs, followed by local glaciers, which transported the waste. of the bowlder clay as far south as the Ohio River in Clermont County. In composition the yellow is almost identical with the bowlder, but in structure it has no scratched limestone of any series imbedded in it, but has, to a greater or less extent, crystalline rocks well worn and of various sizes. Its vertical range is, taken as a whole, about fifteen feet, with a horizontal one of two-thirds of the surface of Clermont County, and forms the surface soils of a great portion of it. This clay, in an economic sense, is the most important of all the series, as from it immense quantities of brick are annually manufactured for home and foreign consumption. It should have been remarked that in one or two localities it only covers the bedded rocks to the depth of two or three feet, as is the case in that portion of' Stonelick and Jackson townships through which the Jackson pike runs, and that all the heavy deposits of gravel and conglomerate are overlaid by it, showing conclusively that those peculiar formations could only be accounted for by the theory that the stratified gravel and sand had been transported by icebergs and deposited in a mass in quiet waters.
The white clays, which constitute the surface-soils of about one-fourth of Clermont County, are stratified and of a finer structure, and have no limestone or crystalline rocks in them, and are locally known as the swamp-lands of the county. Over nearly all of Clermont County here and there bowlders or erratic blocks are found on the surface, sometimes resting on the rocky floor of the county, but almost universally on the clays. These bowlders are generally composed of metamorphic and crystalline rocks, such as are found in the Canadian highlands today, and which have been brought to their present locality by icebergs. These bowlders are more abundant in Stonelick township than in any other part of the county. A few of the largest will be mentioned: Near the residence of Henry Long, on the township road, is one that will weigh twelve tons ; on the farm of Ezekiel Mitchell are some three or four of the same dimensions ; on the farm of John Rapp is one that will weigh twenty tons, in which copper-ore has been discovered ; on the farm of J. L. Gerard is one, on the north slope of the hill, one hundred feet above the bed of Stone- lick, and about the same from the brow of the hill ; on the same farm are several others, some on the table-land and two at the base of the hills of Still Run ; near Perinsis Mills are some very large ones, on the farms of Daniel Turner, E. W. Jones, and Thomas Highlands ; in the townships bordering on the Ohio River they are not so numerous ; on the farm of John Shaw several were noticed ; near New Richmond and Blairville a few have been also noted by the writer. Mention has been made by Prof. Orton of one at Bethel, on the farm of Col. Perrine. As to kind, the granites are the most abundant, especially the red, though greenstones and slate are occasionally seen.
4. River Terraces.—These terraces belong to the terrace epoch, the last phenomenon of the Quaternary Period and chapter of the drift. They are not numerous in Clermont County, the most extensive one being near Milford. That these gravel terraces were formed under a different order of things than now exists there is not the least doubt, from the fact that they are elevated at least fifty feet above high-water mark, and from their arrangement have been deposited in still water ; which is explained by the following theory, viz., that the continent sank during the later stages of this period considerably below its present level, and that it was afterward re-elevated. During the period of their formation a portion of Clermont County was submerged and covered by a large body of fresh water, in which these terraces were formed from the sand and gravel brought down by the streams now found in the county, At the close of this period there was a gradual elevation of the continent, as has been previously stated, and a subsidence of the fresh water, causing the deposits in the channels to be carried by the force of their currents to lower levels, constituting the upper portions of the river-bottoms of to-day, and filling and changing the course of some of the small streams of the county. These terraces in many cases changed the channels of the streams, as is to be observed at Milford; for the Miami at one time ran northeast of the town, with the mouth of the east fork near the cemetery.
5. Alluvial Deposits.—That the present system of draining was but little affected by the drift in Clermont County is obvious, from the fact that not all of its surface was covered by its deposits, and that. they were not continuous and uniform, and that but few of the channels of the streams have been changed from what they were at the beginning of that most interesting of all periods,--viz., the Quaternary. In the discussion of alluvial deposits, the writer takes the liberty of going beyond the effects of surface erosion. Let it be understood that at the beginning of the glacial epoch the bed of the Ohio River, as well as that of its tributaries, was much lower than at the present time. The first deposit of the drift was the bowlder clay, which is found in many of the channels of the lesser streams of the county, and which is the lowest stratum of the deposits, resting as it does, in most instances, on the bedded rocks. Next in the ascending order is the forest-beds, which are found in the Ohio Valley, at a distance of thirty to forty feet below the present surface, and which at one time constituted the ancient soil of the valley, and were formed during the inter-glacial stage, when the channel of the river was Sixty feet lower than at the present time and above high-water mark, and not, as one would suppose, from sediment deposited by annual overflows, together with the leaves, logs, etc., found in that horizon. This forest-bed is covered by ochreous clay, sand, gravel, etc,, to a depth of fifteen to thirty feet. As has been stated, at the close of the terrace epoch there was a vast amount of deposits in the channels of the various streams emptying into the Ohio east fork and Miami Rivers. These deposits consisted of gravel and sand, with occasional layers of clay, which at Blairville is manufactured into the best of brick. During the time that has intervened between the last of the drift epochs to the present erosion has been actively at work, bringing sand, gravel, and rocks of con- siderable size from higher altitudes, and depositing them on the lowlands that border on the above-named streams. That the reader may have a better idea of how the channel of the east fork has been filled up,--not only its present, but ancient,—a few sections will be given as obtained from the digging and driving of wells. At the residence of T. C. Teal, Esq., a drive-well was sunk to the depth of thirty-six feet in the ancient channel without striking the bedded rocks, of which the following is a section : Two feet of soil, ten feet of case gravel, four of fine sand, six of case river-washed gravel, six of fine blue sand having phosphate of iron in it, two of laminated blue clay, six of case sand. The bottom of this well is twenty feet below the bottom of the present channel of the east folk, which is solid limestone. On the farm of James Gerning, on the opposite side of the east fork, a well was sunk forty feet through gravel, sand, etc. ; on the farm of George Turner is a drive-well twenty-six feet deep, where about the same order was ob- served; at Perin's Mills are several which have been w- iled to the depth of from twenty-six to forty-two feet, where about the same order of' deposits was obtained ; and in every instance the bedded rocks were not reached. That the drift deposits of Clermont County will always continue to be an interesting feature of its geology cannot be denied, but that they may be fully understood will require time, as but little more can be known of them except by artificial sections as furnished by railroad cuts and wells; and, too, that the alluvial deposits:, as represented by the valley of the east fork, will, as they have in the past, be a source of wealth to it which cannot be estimated in the future.
In an economic sense, there are no minerals in Clermont County besides the blue limestone rocks that are found all over it at or near the surface to a great depth, and the yellow clays, which are also found in abundance, from which millions of' brick are annually manufactured for home and foreign consumption.
The blue limestone rocks vary as to composition and thickness, and are chiefly quarried for burning into lime and for building purposes. Those strata that are made up of the remains of the various inhabitants of the Silurian sea are not suitable for building-rock, being what quarry- men call " shelly," and are more readily affected by the ele- ments, as they are not so compact in structure as those. having no fossils in them„ Again, they are generally from one to two inches in thickness, and cannot be so profitably quarried as those from six to twelve. They do not yield as much lime by fifteen per cent. Among their many disadvantages they have one advantage over their thicker brethren, being in demand for flagging. Good examples are seen in the bed of Stonelick Creek, near the residences of Elijah Cowen and Ira Williams, and in a branch of Brushy Fork, near the residence of William South, in Stonelick township, where they are quarried in large quantities.
The Cincinnati beds have no very heavy strata in Clermont County. The only stratum that is over twelve inches in thickness is seen on a brunch of Salt Run, in Union township, where one measures sixteen. From this stratum bases for gravestones and rock for building purposes have been quarried, and it would burn into a good lime for underground masonry, abutments for bridges, etc. For plastering the Jima would set too quick, and be what plasterers call "too hot." Its composition is ninety-five per cent of carbonate of lime, with only a trace of magnesia ; and if this stratum were near a railroad, with good facilities for transportation, its lime would outsell the famous Springfield for many things. While it is true that you find a layer now and then of considerable thickness, as a general thing they soon run out, being local.
The largest limekilns in the county are situated on Coon Hollow, in Batavia township, where from three to five thou- sand bushels are annually burned for home consumption. Near New Richmond there are several small kilns. There are several quarries located at different places in the county, where more or less rock is quarried for home consumption, but the only ones where they are for export are located in the Point Pleasant beds, which are exposed along the Ohio River just above low water from New Richmond to Chilo. They furnish a most desirable building stone, being compact, free from fossils, of a good color, and easily worked as com- pared with the rocks of the Cincinnati beds. In thickness, the strata range from eight to twenty inches, and are very uniform. Several thousand perches are annually taken to Cincinnati on flatboats.
The following persons have quarries: Jerry Deleany, W. P. Flanigan, Bushman Laycock, and J. A. Cox. The foundation-stones of the piers of the Cincinnati suspension bridge were obtained from these quarries.
A heavy concretionary stratum is also found in the same horizon, which is useless for building purposes, but makes a good article of hydraulic cement. To the geologist, as well as the masses, these beds and quarries are the most interesting and profitable of any found in the limits of the county, and must continue to be a good investment to those who have been so fortunate as to become the owners of them.
In the drift deposits of Clermont County, which cover two-thirds of its surface, platinum, gold, and silver have been found, together with the various ores of iron, copper, and lead.
Platinum has only been found at one place in the county, —viz., at Elk Lick,—and was first discovered in 1869 by a German geologist from Vienna, Austria.
The existence of gold in the drift of Clermont County was first discovered, in 1869, on the farm of Robert Wood, near Elk Lick. A short time after its discovery, Capt. Glass organized a company, and spent between two and three thousand dollars in the building of a flume to wash the gravel in which the gold was found. After two hundred rods had been built a freshet occurred, which washed it all away but one section of sixteen feet, from which twenty dollars in gold-dust was obtained.
After this unfortunate circumstance occurred, work was discontinued. Other parties also prospected on the same farm and near Batavia, but without success. In April, 1872, John and Joseph Dumford obtained fifteen dollars in two hours by crevassing on Wissel's Run, in Stonelick township. In August of that year the "Stonelick Valley Mining Company" was organized. It leased the farm of A. J. Turner, and commenced to tunnel through the hill near his residence from the Possum Hollow side. After spending one hundred dollars and penetrating the bill about thirty-five feet, it was abandoned! These are the only companies that were ever organized to develop the Clermont County gold-mines, though every ravine and gulch in it has been prospected for that precious metal. From one to thirty colons can be found in a pan of dirt by crevassing in the beds of any of the streams found in the county.
The most prominent places besides those given are on the farms of William Cook, George Smith, and Clemons Groth, in Stonelick township. On the farm of the latter, Clinton Hill found a piece worth fifty cents in a pocket in the Erie clay. On the pike leading from Batavia to the county infirmary, at the spring east of the latter, colors can be found by washing the gravel.
In a word, the Clermont Comity gold-fields are wherever you find bowlder or Erie clay and gravel, The gold found is very pure, ranging from twenty-two to twenty-three carats in fineness, and is what miners call "float,"—that is, gold that has been carried some distance from the drift proper by erosion (or the force of running water or ice), and deposited in the crevices of the rocks in the bed of the streams and the pockets or holes in the Erie clay, wherever that forms the bed-rock, Flint-gold has a bright metallic lustre, like coins just from the mint. As gold is always found in situ with the Primary rocks, of which there are none exposed in Clermont County, it becomes an undisputed fact that its origin is foreign.
Though gold is seldom found among our northern erratics, there is where it came from, and, in fact, all the minerals of Clermont County. William Cook and Jasper Dumford, each had specimens of gold in quartz of great purity, and worth about forty cents each. The writer has a specimen of quartz with silver in it that was found on Sugar-Camp Run in 1872. This is the only one that has ever been found in the county, as now known.
Copper has been found in connection with lead near Fax Rock, on Salt Rae, in Union township, and at several other places in the county. In 1871 a piece of galena-ore (or sulphuret of lead) was found on the farm of John Moore, in Stonelick township, weighing eleven pounds.
It is claimed, with some authority, that the early settlers obtained their lead from this locality. One thing is known,—that pieces of various sizes are found on it at the present time. Not only has lead been found on the Moore farm, but in Union, Batavia, and Pierce townships in small quantities.
The only beds of iron-ore of any extent found in the county are on the farm of Samuel Morehead, in Jackson township, which have a surface area of about twenty acres and a vertical range of two feet, and of the variety called bog. Analysis shows that it contains about forty-one per cent. of metallic ore.
On the farm of Jasper Dumfold, in Stonelick township, red hematite ore has been found in considerable quantities in the bed of a small brook. One of the best specimens of that kind of ore ever seen by the writer was found on the farm of Bertrand Fomarin, in the same township.
There are fifty places in Clermont County where some of the numerous iron-ores can be found, especially bog and red hematite, Argillaceous ore is universally found in the yellow clays, and is a shell of iron inclosing a nodule of clay. Sulphate of iron is found in the drift on the farms of A. J. Turner, F. Wissel, and Clemens Grotte, in Stonelick township. In the tunnel on the farm of A. J. Turner, for four inches above the bed-rock, or bowlder-clay, it constitutes ten per cent. of the mass.
Though sulphate of iron and argillaceous iron-ore are of no practical value, they are not without scientific interest. As before remarked, all the above ores are found in the drift, whose origin has been before given.
Bituminous coal has been found on the farms of Dr. J. B. Cline and John Avey, in Union township, twelve feet below the surface, and was discovered by the digging of wells. It has also been found on the surface. Though having been exposed to the elements for ages, it burns readily. In Jackson township, on the farm now owned by Albert Hartman, a seam two feet thick was struck in the drift twenty-six feet from the surface. This is the only place yet known to the writer where it was not promiscuously mixed with sand and pebbles, and sometimes logs and leaves.
Near the residence of Mrs. Maria Dumford, in Stonelick township, sulphate of lime (or plaster of Paris) is found between the layers of limestone. It is very pure, and is found in uneven sheets.
There was a time when the mineral springs of Clermont County were not without value to the pioneer settlers. As early as 1798 salt was made from brine obtained from a well near Woodville (now claimed to be in Warren County). It was twenty-eight feet deep, and sunk partly in the drift and limestone. The stock of the wooden pump can still be seen, though the brine in the well was exhausted over forty years ago. There are several salt springs in the vicinity, but that was the only one ever utilized. The salt manufactured from its brine was first-class in every respect. It is supposed to have been used by the Indians. Near Salt Run, in Union township, brine was obtained from a well, from which salt was manufactured at an early date. Several springs existed years ago, but are now gone. Near Elk Lick, in Batavia township, are several salt springs ; from them salt was manufactured by the "Jersey Settlement," though the quantity was small as compared with the amount made at Woodville. They are now hardly licks, and in the course of time will entirely lose their mineral ingredients. On the line between Clermont and Brown Counties, in Jackson township, there were several springs fifty years ago, from the water of which salt was made. They are now licks, which in Clermont County number over fifty, and were the great resorts of the wild animals before and during its early settlement. In Stonelick township there are several wells that are brackish which have been sunk in the salt horizon. These springs, though a greater part of them are situated in the drift, certainly do- rive their salt from the blue limestone rocks and shales.
There are also several springs in the county that hold in solution sulphur, iron, and magnesia. On the farm of John Good, in Jackson township, is a spring, on the bank of Pleasant Run, which is strongly impregnated with sulphur. On the same stream and township, on the farm of T. D. Hartman, is a large spring, the water of which holds in solution sulphur, iron, and magnesia. There are many springs that hold iron in solution in their water in this county, but are of neither scientific nor medicinal value, but only contribute their mite in making Clermont one of the most peculiar counties, geologically speaking, in the State.
In an economic sense, we have now come to one of the most important divisions of the geology of the county. Those who have studied the structure of the blue limestone rocks of the Cincinnati group (which have a thickness of one thousand feet) well know that they form an impervious strata, through which the water dist falls on the surface cannot to any extent percolate and forms large underground reservoirs in the shape of broad and shallow sheets or narrow rills, and that but little of the water-supply comes from wells or springs that are sunk and have their source of supply in its bedded rocks, but' that the greater portion of it comes from wells and springs that have been sunk and have their origin in the bowlder clay, which is the horizon of nine-tenths of the springs in Clermont County.
On the farm of G. W. Boutell, near Charleston, in Goshen township, is a spring, having its source in the bowlder clay, that furnishes that neighborhood with an abundance of water. On the farms of J. W. S. Robinson and A. J. Turner are several large springs that have their origin in the drift. On the farm of John Armstrong, in Miami township, are several that are of like origin and would make a six-inch stream if confined to one waste-way. On the farm of G, Swing, in the same township, is one that runs a four-inch stream, a part of which has been utilized by the Cincinnati Turnpike Company for a watering-place. On the farm of Ezekiel Edwards, in Union township, are a series of springs, at the foot of the second bottoms, in which the bowlder clay forms the bed-rock. These springs extend a distance of half a mile, and if collected would make a stream two feet in diameter. There are hundreds of others that might be named of like character. On the farm of A. M, Marsh, in Stonelick township, is a well thirteen feet deep that has its source of water-supply in the bowlder clay, that in an ordinary sense is inexhaustible. On the farm of Daniel Long, in Jackson township, a well was dug a few years ago that never could be walled up all the way, the vein, which was also in the bowlder clay, being too strong. On the farm of Harmon Cover, in the same township, a well was dug some three years ago in which the bowlder clay was penetrated for some distance, and while the hands were eating their dinner a loud noise like the rushing of water was heard, and upon examination it was found that a vein had burst out some four feet from the bottom. This well furnishes an inexhaustible supply of water during the most severe droughts.
While it is true that you do not always find water in the bowlder clay, yet it serves a twofold purpose by being an impervious stratum, so that where there are basins it holds all the surface water, and by having seams of sand and gravel running through it, that are like surface streams, constantly carrying their underground waste-water to a lower level. By the clearing of the forests and the ditching of the swamp-lands the streams of Clermont County do not furnish one-fifth the water-power they did fifty years ago, and as the country grows so will it decrease in a like ratio, so that in the course of time artificial means must be resorted to for stock and manufacturing purposes by the digging of wells, cisterns, and reservoirs.
The surface soils of Clermont County may be divided into two distinct classes as to origin,-viz., native and foreign. The native soils are those which have been formed in situ from the disintegration of the surface or blue lime- stone rocks and the decomposition of vegetable matter. They are chiefly found on the southern slopes of the hills of the Ohio and its tributaries, and constitute one-third of the surface of the townships bordering on that river. As the surface rocks are all the same, they do not differ much as to composition. In color they vary from a light to a dark brown, in proportion CO the amount of organic matter incorporated with them. Near the stratified rocks they are generally of a greenish east. In depth they vary from two to ten inches, being the shallowest of all the soils. They are very fertile, producing large crops for years in succession without exhausting their fertility. They are tenacious and do not pulverize as readily as the foreign, and are more liable to bake if stirred when wet. They hold moisture better than any of the other soils, and corn especially seems to stand a drought without firing, when it would have been ruined on the others. They do not wash badly, being neither light, porous, nor friable. They are naturally adapted to the growth of Indian corn, tobacco, and wheat. The famous tobacco- and wheat-lands of Franklin, Washington, Monroe, and Ohio townships belong to this class. All kinds of fruits do well on them. The vine especially rewards the husbandman with large crops, and in the course of time the cultivation of the grape on these soils will become the leading interest, agriculturally, of Southern Clermont. They are always covered with a large girth of timber, of which buckeye, hackberry, black- and white-walnut, white- or blue- ash, and red-elm are the most abundant. They have but one disadvantage to offset their great excellences in part: their slight depth in most places makes their tillage difficult. A good example of them may be seen in the vineyard and tobacco-field of W. W. Perkins, near Batavia.
The foreign soils are subdivided into four classes,-viz., yellow, white, and black clays, and alluvial. The yellow clays constitute one-third of the soils of the county, and are found on the northern slopes of the hills of the tributaries of the Ohio River and all the rolling land not included above. They are formed from the weathering of the drift and the decomposition of vegetable matter. In depth they range from two to ten feet. At the surface they are of a dark-brown color to the depth of four to eight inches, owing to the amount of organic matter present. At the depth of six to eight inches from the surface there is a sub-soil, generally ten inches in thickness ; from this brick are made, the oxide of iron in its composition giving them a cherry- red appearance,-a color so desirable for brick. The yellow clays are naturally adapted for the growth of corn, oats, grassy and potatoes. For a few years after the forests that once covered them are cleared off they produce magical crops of almost everything. But, not having an abundance of organic matter in their composition, they become worthless if cultivated for a number of years in succession. They are very friable and porous at the surface, but the opposite where not exposed to the direct action of the elements. They are not good, for wheat, and the worst to wash of all the clays. Though very tenacious, they readily yield to the action of the elements, and after a hard freeze will melt down like unslaked lime. The most productive as well as profitable orchards in the county are found on the yellow clays. Their loose surface and hard, compact sub-soil seems to be the normal one of a large majority of the fruits grown in this latitude. They support a dense and luxuriant growth of vegetation. The poplars, ashes, beeches, and sugars grow to an enormous size in these clays. You seldom, if ever, see a poplar or sugar on any soils save yellow clays and alluvial.
The white clays constitute the connecting link between the yellow and black clays in this county, and are the famous oak-ridges long noted for their enormous growth of vegetation. They have not the vegetable matter of either of the other clays, but excel them in organic. They are, taken as a whole, the poorest land, agriculturally, in the county. They are of the same depth as the yellow, but finer in structure, and have been undoubtedly formed in water. They surpass the other clays for wheat, as it does not freeze out on them. The most prominent forest-trees found growing on the white clays are white- and burr-oak, black-ash, white beech, and white,- black,- and shellbark-hickory.
The black clays are nothing more than the white ones stained with vegetable matter, and are found in the maple- and hickory-swamps of this county, and constitute about one-fourth of the areas of Goshen, Wayne, Jackson, and Williamsburgh townships. They are very fertile, but must be surface or underdrained to be productive. At the surface their color is a deep black, and ranges in depth from one to five feet. They do not pack or bake so readily as the white, on account of the immense amount of vegetable matter present. They are particularly adapted to the growth of the grasses, oats, and potatoes of the late varieties. The timber found on them differs from that on any other of the soils in this section of the State. Maple, sweet-gum, white- elm, the hickories, Spanish-oak, red- and white-oak, and gray-ash constitute the principal forest-trees. While the different varieties of timber do not reach the enormous size that they do in other soils, yet the forests are very dense. A good example of the black clays may be seen on the farms of James Turner and J. II, Burns, in Jackson township.
The alluvial soils are the combined result of drift and erosion. They are only found in the valley of the Ohio River and its tributaries, and constitute about one-fortieth part of the soils of the county. They are composed of vegetable matter, clay, and silt. They are the most fertile of the soils of the county, having in their composition all of the best elements of the others. Those which are below highwater mark are the most fertile, being recuperated almost annually by the overflow of the streams on which they border. They are easily tilled, and produce remunerative crops of all kinds. Oats is the only cereal that does not flourish well on them. In depth they vary ; on the gravel terraces, the most ancient of the drift-soils, they are not over two feet in depth, with an underlying stratum of gravel. On the overflowed lands they range from three to fifteen feet in depth. The fruits do not flourish well on them. Dry weather is their only enemy. In the early settlement of the county they were covered with a luxuriant forest- vegetation which has long since disappeared before the axe of the hardy yeomanry of this county. Huge sycamores, wide spreading elms, towering walnuts, and ashes are still occasionally met with on the immediate borders of some of the numerous streams of the county. These soils are well represented in the east fork valley. Agriculturally speaking, they are the only ones that have not been almost entirely exhausted by the past and present system of tillage.
The soils of Clermont County are naturally fertile, producing large and remunerative crops of all the products of this latitude, but they must be handled with judgment and care; and when the masses know that the wealth of any country is in its soil, as represented by its products, they will no doubt take care of one of the greatest interests of the nation, viz., agriculture.
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