The Learned Professions
The term law, though used in a great variety of relations, always means an established rule, -- is sometimes called the rule of action, -- is sometimes called the rule of action, -- and its seat is the bosom of God and its voice the harmony of the world, as all things in heaven and earth do it homage, the very least us feeling its care and the greatest as not exempted from its power. The employment of the lawyer is pre-eminently one of trust and confidence, and the law so regards it, for it excuses the lawyer from revealing what his client has confided to him; but, what is still more to the purpose, men so regard it. The province of an attorney is to vindicate rights and redress wrongs, hence it is a high and holy function, and men come to him in their hours of trouble, - not such trouble as religion can solace or medicine cure, but the trouble arising from innocence accused, confidence betrayed, reputation slandered, liberty assailed, property invaded, promises broken, the domestic relations violated, or life endangered. The guily and the innocent, the upright and the dishonest, the wronging and the wronged, the knave and the dupe alike consult him, and with the same unreserved confidence. It is not given to man to see the human heart completely unveiled before him, but the lawyer, perhaps, come more nearly to this than any other, for there is no aspect in which the human character does not present itself in his secret consultations. All the passions, all the vices, and all the virtues are by turns subjected to his scrutiny; and he has thus studied human nature in its least disguised appearances, and has watched it under all trials, in the light and in the shade, in ecstasy and in despair, in glory and in shame.
Attorneys in Ohio are first mentioned in the act passed by the Governor and judges of Aug. 1, 1792, wherein it was provided that no person should be admitted to practice as an attorney in any of the courts of the then Territory unless he was a person of good and moral character, and well affected to the government of the United States and of the Territory; and should pass an examination of his professional abilities before one or more of the territorial judges, and obtain from him or them before whom he was examined a certificate of possessing the proper abilities and qualifications to render him useful in the office of an attorney. And, further, should have taken in open court and subscribed an oath that he would do no falsehood, nor consent to the doing of any, in the courts of justice; and if he knew of an intention to commit any, that he would give knowledge thereof to the justices of the said court, or some of them, that it might be prevented; that he would not wittingly or willingly promote or sue any false, groundless, or unlawful suit, nor give aid or consent to the same; and that he would conduct in the office of an attorney within the said courts to the best of his knowledge and discretion, and with all good fidelity as well to the courts as to his client. It was further provided that parties might plead or manage their own causes personally, or by the assistance of such counsel as they should see fit to engage, but neither the plaintiff or defendant were permitted to employ over two lawyers each; and when only two lawyers were attending court, neither of the parties to a suit could retain more than one; nor in any cause should fees for more than one attorney be taxed.
The next law pertaining to attorneys, passed June 15, 1795, made it imperative that the lawyer should take an oath that he would behave himself in the office of counsellor-at-law (or attorney, as the case might be) in the court according to the best of his learning, and with all good fidelity, as well to the court as to the client, and that he would use no falsehood, nor delay any person's cause for lucre or malice. The act of the General Assembly of Oct. 29, 1799, required that any person wishing to practice law should obtain a license from the Governor of the Territory, and that any person to be entitled to receive a license should produce a certificate, signed by two or more of the judges of the general court, attesting his due examination and qualifications, with certificate of some lawyer that the candidate had read law four years.
Under the law of Feb. 4, 1804, the Supreme Court admitted the candidates, on successful examinations, to the practice of the law until the adoption of the new constitution, when, in 1852, an enactment passed, putting the admission of applicants to the bar upon the District Courts, who from that to the present time have admitted such persons as passed the required examinations in legal lore and had proper testimonials as to character. Under the act of Jan. 28, 1819, it was necessary to have been a year a resident of the State, and to have read law continuously for two years.
Lawyers were first taxed professionally in 1825, by the act of February 7th, which required the Court of Common Pleas in every county once a year (at the term next preceding the 1st day of July) to make duplicate lists of all attorneys practicing their profession in the county and resident thereof, and affix to each such sum as should appear just and reasonable, not less than five nor more than fifty dollars, which sum said attorney had to pay into the county treasury, as a license for practicing his profession. On Feb. 22, 1830, the law was modified so as to put the assessing of this tax upon the county assessors instead of the courts, with power to the county commissioners and auditor to amend their (assessors') assessments as they deemed most proper. Lawyers paid a license up to the adoption of the new constitution, in 1851, and none since, save to the general government a short period during and at close of the great Rebellion.
A law of March 8, 1831, made it penal for an attorney to encourage, excite, and stir up any suit, quarrel, or controversy between two or more persons, with intent to injure such person or persons.
The Clermont bar has occupied a high niche in the legal jurisprudence of the State, in the past and present, on account of the learning and ability of its members, as well as their personal and political standing, and reputed excellence before juries and in the examination of witnesses. Then there were the visiting lawyers, - men distinguished for ability and eloquence, - patriarchs in the legal profession of Ohio, of celebrated legal attainments and intellectual abilities, who met at various courts to measure weapons with each other. There were giants in the early days in the country court-houses, and many of them who attended the first courts at Williamsburgh became the nation's pride in legal lore and political reputation.
The first resident attorney in the county was Thomas Morris, admitted in 1804, who had not mistaken his profession or his powers, and who soon took a leading position as a lawyer whose reputation and business rapidly accumulated. As a lawyer he quoted more frequently than most attorneys from the Bible, and those quotations, being apt and accurate, added greatly to the conclusiveness of his arguments before a jury. In a legal contest with Benham (Joseph S.), an able lawyer, in which he (Benham) wielded his sarcasm and eloquence against the citizens of villages, who, he affirmed, when they got a few mechanics and one or two professional men put on airs of importance and dignity, Mr. Morris retorted with a power and eloquence that was sorely felt by his distinguished opponent. He contrasted the city gentlement with the free, honest, independent citizens in country villages, and made a most powerful defense of the noble position and calling of mechanics and laboring men. The vindication and triumph was complete, and Mr. Benham said afterwards that Morris was harder to vanquish than any lawyer he ever contended with.
In a case of great importance before the court in Brown County, he desired a continuance of his case, a principal witness being absent on account of high waters. The court refused the motion, and Mr. Morris procured a horse, swam the stream, and with his witness behind him returned and replunged again into the swollen creek, entered the court, and gained his case. These two incidents are illustrative of his unconquerable energy as well as his ability as a lawyer, and his reading Blackstone by the light of hickory bark in his log cabin had a significant connection with his subsequent grand success.
From the year 1804 up to 1810 we find, among other resident lawyers, Levi Rogers, who was also a doctor of established reputation, a preacher of marked ability, sheriff from 1805 to 1809, prosecuting attorney in 1809, and represented the county in the Senate of the General Assembly. He was a man of singularly good judgment, and had the affections and confidence of the people to a wonderful degree.
David C. Bryan was admitted to the bar in 1806. The same year he was elected a representative in the Legislature, prosecuting attorney in 1807 to 1809, senator from 1807 to 1811, and clerk from 1810 to 1828. He was a gentleman of thorough, systematic education, which made him a good business lawyer and a most valuable public official.
Thomas S. Foote began to practice law in 1809, having been a hatter previously, and was prosecuting attorney from 1811 to 1825, and was well posted in law. He was very popular and a genial man of the old school, and died in Batavia, Nov. 17, 1827.
David Morris was admitted at the same time, and was prosecuting attorney in 1810, and a representative in the year 1816. He was a printer, and published the second paper in Clermont. He was a close reasoner, but not very much given to legal business, for which he had not the aptitude that he so eminently possessed in the editorial chair.
In 1811 was admitted Roger W. Waring, who had for the preceding ten years been clerk of the courts; was a most scholarly man, of quiet and gentle disposition and sensitive but lovable nature. He came from a noble family of Kentucky, was one of the two representatives from Clermont in the first Legislature of Ohio, in 1803; was many years a magistrate, and of all the men identified with the first history of the county no one had a purer or more honorable record than he. He also was, like all the educated men of his time, a surveyor, and his records as clerk and his surveys bear high testimony to his ability and efficiency as a public functionary.
This year, also, was admitted Daniel F. Barney, a safe business attorney, popular surveyor, but not an advocate of noted powers. In 1814, T. Freeman was an attorney at Williamsburgh.
Up to 1815 many distinguished lawyers from Cincinnati, Kentucky, and various counties in Ohio attended our courts. There was Joshua Collet, afterwards Common Pleas and Supreme judge, of a wonderful analytic mind and prompt, decisive intellect.
Jacob Burnet, from the very first organization of the county and for over ten years, had the principal law practice, and was subsequently a senator in Congress and judge of the State Supreme bench.
John Kerr, Secretary of State for a long time, practiced in this county's courts with great success, as did also Arthur St. Clair, Jr., - son of the old Governor, - who was not only popular among the attorneys, but specially esteemed by Clermont ladies, one of whom he married during his legal trips to the county.
Aaron Goforth was well known as a first-class lawyer, served as prosecuting attorney several terms of court, and left an honorable record; and R. S. Thomas had a lucrative practice, while as a speaker he was not so well known or noted as his competitors.
Martin Marshal, of Kentucky, came of an honored and celebrated judicial lineage in the nation's history, of a stock pre-eminently legal and judicial, and in the first forty years' history of Clermont his name shines out most brilliantly as an able lawyer and most successful advocate, with traits of character that made him popular with all.
In the first few years of the county courts there practiced regularly a man whose very looks and instincts were judicial, and who in after-years was congressman, postmaster-general, and then, for nearly a third of a century, one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States. We refer to John McLean, who spoke in the log court-house in Williamsburgh in 1804 and 1805, before rustic courts and juries, and afterwards delivered opinions from the magnificent court-chambers in Washington City, as one of the highest judicial functionaries of the world.
In 1815 was admitted Owen T. Fishback, who came from Kentucky, and who died in the year 1864, having practiced with great success and honor for fifty years, - a longer time than any other lawyer who ever lived in the county. He was State senator in the years 1823 and 1824, representative in 1826, prosecuting attorney from 1825 to 1833, and president judge of the Court of Common Pleas from 1841 to 1848. Half a century an ornament to the bar, of strong opinions which he was accustomed to strongly express at all proper times, he was a man who left a decided impress on the history of his time and that of this county. He reared a large family of sons and daughters, well and most favorably known, one of whom - W. P. Fishback - is one of the ablest lawyers in Indianapolis. Judge Fishback was a man of wonderful original thought, of backbone and nerve in the highest degree, and yet withal was of warm-hearted temperament and nature, and sympathized with distress and suffering in all forms, and was of that genial public spirit to lead him to take an active part in all public improvements and humanitarian reforms.
In 1818, Benjamin Morris, county recorder from 1832 to 1841, was admitted, but never took much of a hand in the practice of the legal profession, being more given to literary tastes, which he employed and cultivated in editing newspapers or writing and contributing many varied and valuable articles of an historical nature for the press.
In 1821 was admitted the most eloquent advocate known in his time, - Thomas L. Hamer. He read law with Thomas Morris, at Bethel, who, with Thomas Porter (admitted the previous year to the bar at Batavia), recommended him for admission to the practice, whereupon he then moved to Georgetown, where he was admitted, and which was his subsequent home. He was elected several times to the Legislature, served in Congress from 1833 to 1839, was elected again in 1846 while in Mexico, where he died a general in the United States army. Hamer was not only an able and eloquent attorney but a most popular man personally, and when he fell in Mexico no man's prospects in the land were brighter for the Presidency than his. As he studied law in Clermont, and practiced so much here, he is considered almost one of our bar, which delights to revive reminiscences of his moving oratory before juries and glowing speeches on the hustings.
In 1828, Hiram Bell came to the bar. About this time the bar was lively with Morris and Fishback, of our own county; Hamer, of Brown; Marshal, of Augusta; Tom Corwin, of Warren; Este, Fox, Benham, John C. Wright, Hammond, and other bright luminaries of Cincinnati; and Richard Collins, of Hillsboro', the man large in stature and larger in heart and mind. There were noted combats in the forensic arena of those days, sharp and warm intellectual fights before the bench, and appeals to the jury not excelled before any bar in Ohio.
On Aug. 21, 1824, Richard Collins and Learner B. Collins opened an office in Batavia, the former then residing at Hillsboro', but afterwards moving to his elegant homestead at "Horse-Shoe Bend," on the east fork, between Bantam and Williamsburgh.
Joseph S. Benham, on Oct. 16, 1824, opened an office in Batavia, as William H. Harrison, Jr., son of the future President, had done in the previous month, but both lived in Cincinnati. The same year Thomas Moorhead, an Irish attorney, and the second captain of the Batavia Light Infantry, came to practice. He was a very eccentric man, of warm impulses and many generous traits.
July 16, 1825, Theodore D. Burrows put out his shingle as a lawyer; a quaint young man, who did not achieve the practice of law, but in 1831 was appointed clerk of the courts, which position he held to 1846, and the next year (1847) was elected to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by Gen. Hamer's death, and re-elected in 1849. Mr. Morris was a faithful, conscientious, and popular official, and for a quarter of a century exerted a controlling influence in the county's history, being a leader of public opinion and a man in whom the public reposed great confidence.
In 1830, John Jolliffe began practicing, and was the prosecuting attorney from 1833 to 1837. He was a good lawyer, and noted throughout the State as a prominent anti-slavery leader, and was celebrated as the black man's advocate in the days of the "Fugitive-Slave Law."
Samuel and John T. Brush about this time had quite a practice, the latter living in the county.
In 1832 came the well-known Thomas L. Shields, who kept up a very large practice till his departure, in 1855, to his ancestral estates, near Pittsburgh. As a land-attorney he won distinction, was of a most genial disposition and warm-hearted instincts.
The same year Jacob T. Crapsey and Calvin A. Warren, both sons-in-law of Thomas Morris, were at the bar, with good practice and many clients.
Alexander Herring, who had been auditor from 1828 to 1830, practiced some, but did not give law his exclusive attention. In 1833, George B. Tingley came in with his briefs and practiced some.
In 1834, George S. Lee was admitted, was prosecuting attorney from 1837 to 1839, and practiced with success till 1851, when he was elected the first Probate judge in the county.
In 1836 was admitted, by the Supreme Court, Reader W. Clarke, who was a member of the Legislature in the years 1840 and 1841, clerk of the courts from 1846 to 1851, congressman from 1865 to 1869, and who subsequently held important positions in the departments under President Grant's first administration. He was in practice over a third of a century, and was the keenest politician ever produced in Clermont, and, withal, the most successful business man of our practicing lawyers. His father, Houton Clarke, was one of the county pioneers, and one of the first magistrates in Clermont.
This year, 1836, Thomas J. Buchanan began his professional career, and was a representative in 1837, '38, and '39, and in the last year speaker of the House of Representatives. A brilliant speaker, a rising barrister, and a man of State reputation in the political field, he was cut down in the prime of life by the ravaging scythe of Time ere his genius, unequaled in the county, had reached its zenith.
Now appeared at the bar, in 1835, John W. Lowe, who became a distinguished attorney, faithful and scrupulous. He married a daughter of Judge Fishback, rose to a large practice, became noted in the political and social circles, and gave his life to his country on the battle-field at the battle of Carnifex Ferry, in West Virginia, where he fell bravely and gallantly leading his beloved regiment, the Twelfth Ohio Infantry, into action, in defense of the endangered Union.
In 1838, George W. Dennison, a most successful business attorney of Batavia, was admitted; also Dennis Smith, prosecuting attorney from 1839 to 1845, and a member of the Legislature in the years 1849 and 1850. Smith also preached as an elder in the Baptist persuasion, was fat and witty, and is now a judge and a rich man in Illinois.
In 1839, B. F. Ellsberry was admitted.
In 1842 the admissions were Joseph Frybarger and William Howard. The latter had been admitted at Augusta, Ky., in 1840, and on December 1st of that year came to Batavia and opened his office, and is now the senior member of the bar. He had to be here two years, under the Ohio laws, ere he could be regularly enrolled at the bar. He was elected prosecuting attorney in 1845 and 1847; served as lieutenant in the Mexican war; as State senator from 1849 to 1851; congressman from 1859 to 1861; and commanded the Fifty-ninth Ohio Regiment Volunteer Infantry during the Rebellion as its lieutenant-colonel.
Philip B. Swing, judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio, was admitted at Dayton, Ohio, by the Supreme Court, and examined by the celebrated Gen. Robert C. Schenck, late minister to Great Britain, then in large and noted practice. In 1847, Mr. Swing served part of the year as prosecuting attorney, and soon acquired a State reputation for his ability at the bar. Just after the appointment, in 1871, of Mr. Swing to the Federal judgeship at Cincinnati, Senator Allen G. Thurman, one of Ohio's ablest and purest jurists, remarked to the writer of this chapter, "that Grant's selection of Judge Swing was the best appointment the administration had made, and he predicted that Judge Swing would make a name on the bench that would add never-dying lustre to the Ohio bar."
In 1846, Moses D. Gatch had an office in Batavia and E. F. W. Ellis in Felicity.
Julius A. Penn, son of Elijah T. Penn, ex-collector of the county and one of the pioneers, was admitted at Georgetown, and still continues in practice, in which he has been uninterrupted for thirty-seven years, save the year he was an honorable officer in the army, and when, under President Andrew Johnson, he was the collector of internal revenue of this congressional district.
Shepherd F. Norris came from Adams County to Batavia, and his valuable services as judge and legislator are described in the chapter on the courts.
The admissions in 1843 were John S. Griffith, the popular clerk of the courts from 1851 to 1854, and from 1857 to 1860, and still in active practice as one of the best lawyers in Ohio; Thomas M. Lewis, the bachelor barrister, judge of the court in 1876, a brave captain in the late Rebellion, and a braver defender of the fair sex; Joseph N. Hartman; and Henry N. Talley, now retired from active practice.
In 1844 were admitted to the bar the late H. B. Hoes, of Afton, and the late W. B. Fisher, for many years the well-known editor of the Wilmington Republican.
The admissions in 1845 were W. A. Glancy, Larret W. Carver, of Felicity, and Thomas Q. Ashburn, an account of whose life is given in the judicial chapter.
R. M. Griffith, of Bethel, Turpin D. Hartman, of Marathon, and George L. Swing were admitted to the Clermont bar in 1846. The latter served as probate judge, and is yet one of the leading attorneys of the county. This year, W. H. McHugh and E. F. W. Ellis had law-offices at Felicity, and Moses D. Gatch and James Evans at Batavia.
In 1850 the admissions were Wm. Yost, of Goslien, and George W. Fishback, the popular editor of the St. Louis Democrat, who was the main-spring of its prosperity.
S. F. Dowdney, yet in successful practice, was admitted at Georgetown, and practiced at Felicity till 1858, when he took his seat as Probate judge, which he held for the six succeeding years; and he also was State senator from 1865 to 1869.
John Johnston, now in Cincinnati, was admitted about this year; was prosecuting attorney from 1853 to 1855, and State senator in 1861 and '62, and maintains a large practice in the city.
About 1847, Milton Jamieson was admitted at Georgetown; served in the Mexican war, was editor several years of the Clermont Courier, practiced his profession with success, and is now president of the Batavia First National Bank and the leading business man of Clermont.
Thomas Morris, son of Jonathan D., practiced in 1850; and in 1851, S. M. Penn opened out an office and practiced a while.
Admissions in 1853 were Orin Temple and W. P. Fishback, - the latter was prosecuting attorney from 1855 to 1857, and is now clerk of the United States District Court of Indiana at Indianapolis.
In 1854 were admitted George McLefresh, of Chilo, W. A. Townsley (now the distinguished criminal lawyer of Batavia), and Charles H. Collins, who was prosecuting attorney from 1857-58. The same year E. G. Norton had an office at New Richmond, and David Thomas at Felicity.
In 1857, George W. Hulick, who was a Probate judge from 1864 to 1867, and who is at present one of the foremost lawyers of the county, was admitted, and W. B. Lakin was an attorney at New Richmond.
In 1858, Lowell H. Smith, M. S. Pickleheimer, of Osgood, Ind., George W. Gregg, A. T. Cowen, and J. Milton McGrew became attorneys in Clermont County. The latter was clerk of the courts from 1855 to 1858, and is at present sixth auditor in Treasury Department at Washington. Of Judge Cowen a sketch appears in this book.
In 1859, Sidney A. Fitch, of Colorado (where he achieved distinction), and William Arthur, of Union township (prosecutor from 1862 to 1864), were admitted to the profession.
In 1861, J. A. Adams and E. A. Parker had law-offices at Milford, and R. L. McKinley practiced at Felicity. That year were admitted Jonathan Palmer, G. A. Frazier, and Perry J. Nichols. The following year F. B. Keyt had a law-office at Batavia, and the admissions for that period and the following years were: 1863, J. T. Johnson, C. L. Moss, William Pease, James S. Brunaugh (Probate judge from 1872 to 1878); 1864, John R. Kennedy, William H. Standish, of Chicago, and William T. Cramer; 1866, W. H. Fagaley; 1867, Benjamin J. Ricker, of Pierce, A. M. Siuks (clerk of Common Pleas from 1864-67); 1868, J. H. Moss, of Kansas, Peter F. Swing, Thomas A. Griffith (prosecuting attorney, 1870-74), and Samuel A. West, of Milford the latter three in active practice in the county; 1869, John Quincy Brown, of Illinois, Ambrose Temple, of Cincinnati, Adam Moser, of Kansas, and M. A. Leeds, of Amelia; 1870, Randolph S. Swing, who was a member of the California Constitutional Convention in 1878, but at present an attorney at New Richmond; 1871, Madison Eppert, of Locust Corner, William Eppert, of Amelia, Reuben Utter, of Neville, Burwell Britton, of Williamsburgh, and Henry B. Mattox, clerk of Clermont Common Pleas from 1879 to 1882; 1872, John Walker, of Felicity, Philip T. South, of Bethel, and S. D. Shepherd, of Newport, Ky.; 1873, J. N. Altman, of Bethel, and John S. Parrott, clerk of courts from 1876 to 1879; 1874, Seneca Behymer, of Amelia, and J. C. McMath, who was admitted by the Supreme Court at Columbus; 1875, William W. Dennison, Josephus H. Hall, of Monterey, S. F. Townsley, of Bethel, John R. Woodlief, sheriff from 1872 to 1874, and editor and proprietor of Clermont Courier in 1878-79, R. J. Bancroft, county recorder from 1869 to 1875, and John W. Lennin, the latter admitted at Cincinnati; 1877, Charles T. Jamieson, editor of Urbana (Ohio) Citizen and Gazette, James B. Swing, John J. Howard (prosecuting attorney from 1879 to 1881), and William Britton, of Williamsburgh; 1878, O. P. Griffith, William R. Walker, John W. Davis and George McMurchy, of New Richmond; 1879, Henry W. Schumacher, of New Richmond, Corwin Smith, of Williamsburgh, and Jefferson Johnson.
We have not the dates of admission of Peter H. Hastings, now in Cincinnati, but for twenty-five years an attorney at Felicity; George W. Richards, sheriff in 1854 and 1855; Thomas O. Low, late judge of the Dayton, Ohio, Superior Court; Perry J. Donham, of New Richmond, but now a leading attorney in Cincinnati; Orville Burke, of Bethel; John D. Hovey, of Branch Hill; C. W. Rishforth, of Williamsburgh; Joseph Tritt, of Springfield, Ohio, prosecuting attorney of Clermont from 1864 to 1866; Frank Davis, the leading attorney of New Richmond, and prosecuting attorney from 1874 to 1878; L. D. Manning, in active practice at Batavia; and M. S. Williamson, of Loveland; all admitted years ago outside of the county. T. D. Hamilton, of New Richmond, has removed to Colorado, and John W. Dixon, late of Moscow, to Maryland. W. C. Mellen, born in Massachusetts, and a graduate of Harvard, lives near Milford, on Hamilton County side, and has practiced since 1843; and Thomas B. Paxton, late Hamilton County solicitor, formerly resided at Loveland, and was a member of the Clermont bar.
Some who years ago were enrolled as practitioners in the temple of justice have gone into other professions and avocations; many are yet young in the profession, with their futures to make either of illustrious renown or dull mediocrity; while there still remain in constant daily practice several of the old Nestors, who, with over a third of a century's uninterrupted attention to the study and the practice of law, are yeat of the opinion that there is much for them to learn in this grandest of all sciences, upon which rests the foundation of our governmental and social system, and who in future fights in the forum look forward to new fields of triumph and renown in the sharp encounters of wit, learning, reasoning, eloquence, and persuasion.
"We will revive those old times, and in our memories preserve and still keep fresh, like flowers in water, those happier days."
In the doings of our old courts, and things connected therewith, many noted and remarkable occurrences took place (see the chapters on the judiciary and jails), which it would be absolutely impossible to happen nowadays. In the old days things were done with more - much more - time to do them in, and judges and lawyers could afford to cultivate other sides of character than that of the mere business lawyer, and they did so. And thus, in the olden times of the old log, and then stone, court-house at Williamsburgh, and in the first twenty years of the present one in Batavia, the bar abounds in reminiscences and anecdotes. In the more dry and sharp business transactions which occur at the present time in our courts there is no room for wit, sentiment, or anecdote, but the time was when it was not so. Then lawyers were not mere lawyers; they were many-sided characters, eloquent, humorous, and witty, and wise for men in their day in matters pertaining to things out of their offices as well as having a knowledge of their routine work. They used to cultivate the heart as well as the mind, were men of feeling as well as of brain, and hightoned honor prevailed for the most part among them. Hence, they stood among their fellows as distinguished men; and they maintained the character and dignity of their profession as the most exalted in which a human being could engage, and did not use their knowledge to pander to vice nor retail it to offenders of the statutes of the land. With the exception of about a dozen of our old attorneys who rank among the best in the State, but little attention is now paid to forensic eloquence by the lawyers, and in Clermont the oratory of the forum is almost a thing of the past. The members of the bar show no disposition to listen to eloquent appeals to the jury, much less to take time to cultivate oratory; and a flight of a fugitive from the limits of propriety, - the fetters of the business of the law. But the days were when the court-room was the place where oratory held sway. It was when a Burnet, a McLean, a Marshal, a Hamer, a Morris, a Corwin, a Fishback, a Pugh, and men of their stamp spoke.
The Medical Profession
The true physician is not only ever ready to obey the calls of the sick, but his mind is thoroughly imbued with the greatness of his mission and the deep responsibility he habitually incurs in its discharge. These obligations are greater and more enduring because there is no tribunal other than his own conscience to adjudge penalties for carelessness or neglect. The good physician therefore ministers to the sick with due impressions of the importance of his office, reflecting that the case, the health, and the lives of those committed to his charge depend upon his skill, attention, and fidelity; and he also adapts his deportment so as to unite tenderness with firmness, and condescension with authority, in order to inspire the minds of his patients with gratitude, respect, and confidence. Every case confided to the charge of a physician should be treated with attention, steadiness, and humanity, and reasonable indulgence should be granted to the mental ailments and caprices of the sick. Secrecy and delicacy, when required by peculiar circumstances, should be strictly observed, and confidential intercourse, to which doctors are admitted in their professional visits, should be used with discretion, and with the most scrupulous regard to fidelity and honor. The obligation of secrecy extends beyond the period of professional services, and none of the privacies of personal and domestic life, no infirmity of disposition or flaw of character, observed during professional visits and attendance, should ever be divulged by him except when he is imperatively required to do so. The force and necessity of this obligation are indeed so great that doctors have, under certain circumstances, been protected in their observance of secrecy by courts of justice. The members of the medical profession, upon whom are enjoined the performance of so many important and arduous duties towards the community, and who are required to make so many sacrifices of comfort, ease, and health for the welfare of those who avail themselves of their services, certainly have a right to expect and require that their patients should entertain a just sense of the duties which they owe to their medical attendants. These are some of the most important tenets of the code of ethics that govern and have ever guided the regular physicians of Clermont, men of a noble calling; a sacred profession; and to this profession, from the organization of Clermont to the present day, the good people of the county owe a great debt of gratitude for their zeal, ability, and characters, as displayed in their calling, not surpassed and hardly equalled by any other county in the State.
The first law passed regulating the practice of physic and surgery in Ohio, was the act of Jan. 14, 1811, by the Ninth General Assembly, convened at Zanesville. In this law the Legislature, recognizing the practice of physic and surgery as a science so immediately connected with the public benefit and so interesting to society that every encouragement for its promotion should be given, and every abuse of it, so far as possible, suppressed, proceeded to its regulation. The State was divided into five medical districts, each to contain three medical censors or examiners, to be appointed by the Legislature, who should hold their appointments during good behavior, or until such time as a medical society should be incorporated in Ohio. Any person desirous of exercising the profession of a physician or surgeon, as a means of obtaining a livelihood, had to obtain a license for that purpose from some of the above medical boards. To procure said license the applicant had to produce a certificate of good moral character, that he had attended three full years to the theory and practice of medicine under the guidance of some able physician or surgeon, or a license from some medical society showing his having been admitted as a practitioner, and to give satisfactory answers to such questions as might be put to him by the censors or examiners in anatomy, surgery, materia medica, chemistry, and the theory and practice of physic. It was provided in this act that if any person who should not be, at the time of its taking effect, a resident of the State, and a regular practitioner of physic or surgery, should presume to act in the capacity of a physician or surgeon without the required license, except in cases of urgent necessity and where no regular physician could be obtained, the person so offending should be deprived of the assistance of the law of the State in the collection of any debts or fees which might arise in such practice. The license was a brief document, either printed on smooth, handsome paper, or written on parchment in a fair, round hand, in words and form as followeth:
"State of Ohio, Medical District No. ___. - Know all men by these presents, that we,____, medical censors for district No. ____, have examined, agreeably to law, _____, of _____, in the county of ____, and State of Ohio, and do find him duly qualified for the practice of medicine. We therefore, by the authority in us vested, do license him to practice physic and surgery within the bounds of this State. In testimony whereof we have subscribed our names and affixed the seal of office. Done at ____, this ____ day of ____, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred, etc.
"_____ ______, Censors."
The boards met in June and November, on the first Mondays, to grant licenses, for which they received five dollars for each license so issued for the purpose of defraying expenses of their office; and immediately after each meeting the name of every person so licensed was published in some public paper of the State. Each board kept a seal, appointed its secretary, and any copy of a license it issued was received in any court in Ohio as evidence. The first of the five medical districts consisted of Hamilton, Clermont, Warren, Greene, Butler, Montgomery, Preble, Miami, Darke, and Clinton Counties, and its three censors were Daniel Drake, of Hamilton; Joseph Canby, of Warren; and Richard Allison, the latter of Clermont County. These were the three most eminent physicians in Ohio and Dr. Drake had a reputation co-extensive with the Union, and which extended to Europe. Dr. Allison was the most distinguished surgeon in the West, and ranked high in the practice of physic, being a member of many societies in the Eastern cities, where, among scientific, medical, and literary men, he was a general favorite. He married Rebecca Strong, a daughter of Maj. Gen. David Strong, of New Jersey, a gallant officer in the Revolutionary war, and his wife was a woman of remarkable beauty and accomplishments, and many years his junior in years. Surviving him, she married, some two years after his decease, the Rev. Samuel West. Dr. Allison bought large tracts of land in Clermont, and at the confluence of Stonelick with the east fork of the Little Miami laid out and established, May 15, 1815, the town of Allisonia. He was a singular man to leave his Eastern home of luxury and ease for the wilds of the West; but being a lover of beautiful scenery, and with faith in the grand future of Ohio, he came and practiced for many years in Clermont and Cincinnati, and died about 1816, leaving his wife, before mentioned, but no children. The doctor dying a few months after laying out his town, it never was built up, although he had sold many lots in it, and it had one of the best mills in the county, and this town soon went to decay. Dr. Allison came to Hamilton County at a very early date, and on Dec. 31, 1787, he had his survey of four hundred and forty-one acres, No. 1771, located in Stonelick, and on May 19, 1788, that of survey No. 1730, of four hundred and thirty-four acres, in Franklin township. He resided at the mouth of Stonelick, in a splended residence, most of the time from 1801 to his death, and rode the area of territory extending from Loveland to Williamsburgh, Bethel, and nearly to New Richmond.
On Jan. 14, 1813, a new law was passed repealing the act of Feb. 8, 1812, in which it was provided that any person practicing medicine without first having obtained a license or a diploma from a medical society in the United States, should, for so offending, forfeit and pay a sum of not more than seventy nor less than five dollars for every such offense, one-half to the person who should sue for the same and the other half for the use of the medical board of that district in which the offense was committed. This new act also divided the State into seven medical districts, and seven medical censors were appointed in each. The first district was composed of Hamilton, Clermont, Warren, Butler, and Clinton Counties, and the censors were Daniel Drake and John Sellman, of Hamilton; Daniel Millikan and Charles Este, of Butler; Joseph Canby and Jeptha F. Moore, of Warren; and Levi Rogers, of Clermont; to meet on the first Mondays of April and November. Dr. Rogers, besides being a noted physician of skill, culture, and extensive practice, was a man of varied accomplishments and wonderful good common sense.
He was admitted to the bar and practiced law, and acted for several terms of court as prosecuting attorney under its appointment. He was a preacher of the gospel, expounded the word of the Lord with rare eloquence, and solemnized the marriages of hundreds of couples. He was elected sheriff of the county in 1805, re-elected in 1807, and resigned a few months before his second term expired. In 1811 he was elected State senator, and was the author of the two laws we have given for the regulation of the practice of medicine. No man ever lived in Clermont of such versatile genius, and the acts of 1812 and 1813, introduced and passed by him, of themselves would be permanent monuments to his ability and zeal as a physician. Hardly a household existed in the county where Levi Rogers was not know, and that, too, in terms of kind affection and loving memory. At the expiration of his senatorial term he was appointed surgeon in the army, in the war of 1812, then in progress, and served with distinction. He was born in Philadelphia, where, at its oldest medical university (Jefferson), - the best in America and equal to any in Europe in thoroughness and rank, - he graduated with high honors. He came to Clermont County in 1804, and settled at Williamsburgh, but after a while removed to Bethel. He died in the year 1814, in the prime of life, and in his death the spark of life departed from one of the brightest of the medical profession that ever lived in Ohio. He left two sons - Dr. John G. Rogers and Levi Rogers - and five daughters. Of the latter, Ann died young and unmarried; Clara married John White (both now living in Batavia); Mary married Firman White; Cynthia married William Donham; and Mrs. William Page, who with her husband went to the West at an early day. The memory of this bright intellect in medicine and belles-lettres will ever be cherished by the people in this the county of his adoption, where he won his honors and left an honored name.
Between the two laws before mentioned and the one of Feb. 8, 1812, the Legislature, believing that well-regulated medical associations had been found useful in promoting the health and happiness of society by more generally diffusing the knowledge of the healing art, and thereby alleviating the distress of mankind, organized a medical society for the whole State, consisting of a large number of physicians whose names are there recited, representing every county in Ohio, and of any other physician or surgeon who should produce his diploma and ask admission or be thereafter admitted as provided in its provisions. This society was called "The President and Fellows of the Medical Society of the State of Ohio." This law repealed the first act hereinbefore narrated, provided for seven medical districts, and put the fine for practicing without a license or diploma at not less than five or more than one hundred dollars, but had this proviso: "that nothing should be so construed as to affect any physician then in regular practice or any person called on to afford relief to the sick or distressed in any sudden emergency." This act was repealed in toto by the law of next year (heretofore given, of date of Jan. 14, 1813), which had had no exemption for anybody practicing for a livelihood without a license or diploma.
The members of this society designated for Clermont were Richard Allison, Levi Rogers, Alexander Campbell, and Robert H. Smith. Dr. Campbell was a member of the Eighteenth General Assembly, elected in 1819, where he had for his colleague David Morris. Dr. Robert H. Smith died the same year of the creation of this society, at Milford, where he had built up an extensive practice and had resided for several years, riding a great distance up and down on each side of the Little Miami River. This society, through its district mettings, granted licenses, but having too much circumlocution in its provisions, it had to give way to the act of 1813, and to the regular censors to issue licenses. The sixth section was, however, a good one, as it provided for the several members of the society, according to their abilities, to communicate useful information to each other in their district meetings, and said meetings should, from time to time, transmit to the annual convention of the society such curious cases and observations as might come to their knowledge, which the said observations on the state of the air and on epidemical and other disorders as it might think proper, for the benefit of the profession and people in general.
The fourth law passed in Ohio affecting physicians was the act of Jan. 28, 1817, and which divided the State into eight medical districts, - the first comprising the counties of Hamilton, Clermont, Clinton, Warren, and Butler. Dr. Alexander Campbell, of Pleasant township (now Georgetown), a noted old-time practitioner, was the censor for Clermont. Before an applicant could get his license from the district censors, in addition to the questions asked as provided by the three previous laws, he now had to deliver a thesis on some medical subject. The fine for any one (heretofore it had been any male person) practicing medicine without having obtained a license as stipulated in its rigorous requirements was put at any sum not exceeding two hundred dollars, and to be paid, when collected, into the county treasury (heretofore the fines went part to the medical boards and part to the party informing or suing), the same as fines collected for other offenses. This act was slightly amended by the law of Jan. 30, 1818, by attaching Huron and Medina Counties to the eighth district, and that persons having received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in any regular college or university of another State could practice in Ohio on application, etc.
The sixth law (passed Feb. 22, 1820) regulating the practice in Ohio repealed the section (9) of the statute of Jan. 28, 1817, imposing a fine for any practicing without a license, thus throwing the profession open to the world, and further amended that act by permitting any ten members of any medical society to be made a special medical district.
The seventh statute concerning the practice of physic and surgery was on Jan. 15, 1821, dividing the State into the same number of medical districts as there were circuits of Common Pleas Courts, - to wit, nine. Clermont and Hamilton Counties made the ninth district, and for Clermont the censor or examiner was Dr. William Williams, of Milford, for many years the partner of Dr. Leonard A. Hendrick. Dr. Williams practiced about fifty years in the north of the county, was known to nearly every family, and his practice extended up to Batavia and Withamsville. He was a member of the Twenty-second General Assembly, having been elected representative in 1823, and with Judge O. T. Fishback, then senator, were the main instruments in securing the law that removed in the following year the county-seat from New Richmond to Batavia, and permanently fixing it there. The following advertisement appeared in The Western Patriot, published in Batavia, fifty-six years ago:
"All persons indebted to William Williams and Leonard A. Hendrick, either by note or book account, are requested to make immediate payment. Produce will be taken at cash prices till the middle of November next; after that time cash will be required. Those who do not comply with the above request may expect their accounts to be settled as the law directs.
"Oct. 9, 1824. WILLIAMS & HENDRICK."
Dr. Hendrick, for over half a century in active practice, - a charter member of the Milford Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 35, and a social and genial gentleman, and, like his partner, a splendid doctor, - died but a few years ago, as did also the esteemed Williams, both universally beloved in the profession to which they were ornaments.
Dr. L. A. Hendrick was the second president of the county medical society, in 1854, and Dr. Williams third, in 1855.
The eighth law on physicians was that of Jan. 28, 1825, and merely changed some of the districts by transfers of counties.
The ninth statute affecting medicine and the practice of it provided for taxing doctors, who, up to this act, had escaped taxation for their profession per se. It provided that the Court of Common Pleas in every county, at the term preceding the first day of July, annually, should make duplicate lists of all physicians and surgeons practicing their profession within such county and resident therein, and affix to each such sum as should appear to them reasonable and just, not less than five nor more than fifty dollars, one of which said lists should be deposited with the county clerk and the other with the treasurer, to whom the physician so assessed had to pay the amount thereof, along with his other taxes; and it was made the duty of the prosecuting attorney of the county, on the first day of December, annually, to institute suits against all doctors entered upon said lists who had failed to deposit their receipts for payment of the same with the clerk of the court.
The tenth act, of Feb. 8, 1826, referred only to the medical societies of Trumbull, Portage, and Green Counties, making the first two districts by themselves; and the eleventh statute (Jan. 16, 1827) to the counties of Belmont and Monroe.
The twelfth law on physicians continued the tax on them (passed Feb. 22, 1830), but made it the duty of the assessors, in their annual returns, to make lists of all the doctors, and return them to the county auditor, who, with the county commissioners, at their annual meeting in June, examined said lists so returned, and, if necessary, added to or corrected the same, and estimated the annual income of each of said practicing physicians, and charged a tax upon each according to the amount of his income, not exceeding five dollars. This enactment continued in force until the adoption of the new constitution in 1851, which prohibited such taxes on physicians and attorneys, and since then none have been levied, save by the general government, under the internal revenue act, during and after the great Rebellion for a brief period.
The thirteenth law on the profession in Ohio was passed Feb. 26, 1824, by the Legislature, which believed that well-regulated medical societies had been found to contribute to the diffusion of true medical science, and a correct knowledge of the healing art, and this statute was the last general act regulating the profession in its practice of physic and surgery (save a small amendment in 1831) passed under the old constitution, and brings the time down to the physicians now in active practice. It divided the State into twenty medical districts, of which Hamilton and Clermont constituted the first medical society, the law organizing and establishing such a society in each district. The district medical societies organized under this law selected not less than three or more than five censors, who had the charge of examining all applicants for licenses, and any person presuming to practice without having first procured a license could not collect any debt arising from his practice, and moreover was liable to a fine of ten dollars, to be recovered in any action brought by the overseers of the poor, and same when recovered into the poor fund. Provision was likewise made for a State medical society, composed of delegates of the district societies, and to convene annually in December at the capital. On Feb. 24, 1831, the foregoing act was amended by striking out the ten-dollar fine for practicing without license, but the part prohibiting any docotr without a license from the collection of debts for his services was left in full force.
Composing the society in the first district were five physicians from Hamilton, and Josiah Lyman, L. A. Hendrick, John G. Rogers, and William Wayland, of Clermont, four bright stars in the medical firmament of the county never excelled as a body in the length and ability of their services.
Dr. Lyman was born in the State of Vermont, where he received the following diploma:
"STATE OF VERMONT.
"The Medical Society as by law established. The Censors having examined and approved Josiah Lyman, relative to his knowledge of the healing art, he is admitted a member of this Society, and is entitled to its privileges, honors, and immunities, and we hereby recommend him to the public as a person well qualified for the practice of physic and surgery.
"Witness our President and the seal of the Society, affixed this 15th day of December, A.D. 1813.
"E. HUNTINGTON, President.
"LUTHER E. HALL, Secretary."
A few afterwards Dr. Lyman came West, and located in Batavia about 1821 and practiced extensively till his death. He was the father of Dr. D. S. Lyman, president of the Clermont Medical Society in 1858, and who, like his father, is eminent in his profession, and, like him, well read and of reputation thoroughly established for skill and learning.
Dr. William Wayland, Sr., was born in Madison Co., Va., June 20, 1783, and first came to Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1806, where he remained for some time, when he returned to Virginia. On Oct. 12, 1812, he again came to Chillicothe, then the capital of Ohio, and the principal scat of wealth, culture, and business. In 1814 he commenced the practice of his profession at Circleville, the shiretown of Pickaway County, and during that year served a short term as surgeon in the United States army in the war with Great Britain. In 1815, after the death of the learned and lamented Dr. Levi Rogers, at the solicitation of the Rev. George C. Light, Dr. Wayland located at Bethel, in Clermont County, where he soon acquired the confidence of the community and obtained a large practice in his profession, which he continued to enjoy until 1826, when he removed to Batavia, where he continued his practice for some twenty years. In 1829 he was elected State senator, and for two years filled that position to the general satisfaction of his constituents, and in 1842 he united with the Batavia Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he remained a member till his death, on Oct. 6, 1838. He was a fine type of the old-school gentleman, and of extraordinary mind and energy, and left a decided impress for good on the society of the county, in which he lived for forty-five years. For over half a century he was a prominent member of the Masonic order, and in his younger days was very active in its work. Possessed of marked characteristics, he carried into his loved profession nearly all the attributes necessary to the true physician, and died leaving the heritage of a successful life.
Dr. John G. Rogers was born a physician of the first class, inheriting from his distinguished father, Dr. Levi Rogers, a bright intellect and common sense hardly equaled in the State, and by severe study and a practice of nearly threescore years, he has achieved a proud name in the profession. In 1822 he was settled in New Richmond, and from that day to this time his mind and body have been daily given to the noble calling which he has, by an eventful life, honored and elevated. Under his medical attendance, in the little village of Point Pleasant, quietly nestling on the beautiful Ohio, the great "Soldier of the Age" - the conqueror of a rebellion, and the twice President of the United States - was born, Ulysses Simpson Grant. Dr. Rogers has been twice married, - his first wife being Julia, daughter of Hon. Thomas Morris, who died in 1828.
Dr. Rogers was the first president of the county medical society, organized in 1853, and again its president in 1859 and 1867. In his prime of life a man of commanding physique, fine address, and warm social and conversational powers, he could visit the sick in the lust or palace, be his patients black or white, with true dignity to himself and profession and satisfaction to those needing his valuable services. At this writing, he lives in feeble health, but, as the father of medicine in the county, being the chief patriarch among the many venerable ones of the profession, he is held in deep love and respect by the physicians of the county, who know his great worth, as well as by the thousands of others who have been recipients of his services and his many acts of kindness and favor.
Dr. Levi Rogers was the first physician in Williamsburgh, and he lived on lot No. 40, where the "Masonic Hall" now stands. His house was made of rond-poles, with door so low that one must stoop in passing through, and was covered by clapboards held in place by more poles. Floor it had none but mother-earth, and light was obtained through greased paper stretched across the vacant "chinks," and heat was secured and cooking performed in a fireplace of sticks and clay. Such, for a time, was the abode of that gentleman and scholar, the father of the venerable Dr. John G. Rogers. Afterwards Dr. Dunleavy practiced at Williamsburgh, and was there succeeded by Dr. Ralph Sharp, in the year 1815. This eminent practitioner was licensed at Batavia, N. Y., in 1812, was assistant surgeon in the war that broke out that year, and served under Brady. In 1815 he married Nancy Whippy, and settled at Williamsburgh. In 1819 he removed to Milford, but in 1821 he returned to the former town, where he died in 1830, universally beloved for his kind, lovable traits of character, his great learning, and his ardent patriotism, which showed itself in the battles of "Lundy's Lane" and "Chippewa," where his gallantry under fire in care of the wounded and dying was the cause of his special mention by the commander-in-chief in his report to Congress. He was a pioneer in its noblest sense, and no man in Clermont left better and truer friends than this able and skillful physician.
After Dr. Ralph Sharp's advent in Williamsburgh, came Dr. Andrew F. McCall, who practiced there some, but was the first physician in Batavia after it was laid out, and then practiced at last at Bethel, where he died after following his medical duties over a third of a century, with honor to himself and credit to the high profession which his zeal, skill, and virtues enlarged and magnified.
Dr. Erastus C. Sharp died in 1867, after working zealously nearly half a century as a doctor who had great success, and for a circuit an area embracing for a while parts of Clermont, Brown, Adams, and Highland Counties, and his name is still held in great veneration by the many people who remember his pleasant ministrations. He was president, in 1864, of the county medical association, and three years later, on his death, it passed eulogistic resolutions on his life and labors.
Dr. Leavitt Thaxter Pease was born at Martha's Vineyard, Mass., April 20, 1809, and moved in 1818 to Amelia with his father, Martin, an old sea-captain. He learned the saddler's trade at Bethel, but being of a too weak constitution to follow it, studied medicine with Dr. William Thompson in that town, and began the practice in 1831; was married in 1834 to Nancy A. Fee, and in 1835 settled at Williamsburgh, where he resided till his death, May 24, 1874. He aimed to be very thorough, and took another course of lectures after he had been in practice several years, and graduated in 1841 from Ohio Medical College. Skillful as a general practitioner and as a surgeon, he arose to a most lucrative practice and amassed a nice fortune. He was president of the Clermont Medical Association in 1860, and was constantly being called into consultation by the neighboring physicians, who all recognized his skill and cool discernment in aggravated cases of illness.
Dr. Delos C. Sharp, son of Dr. Ralph, began practicing in 1843, and still continues at Williamsburgh, as does also Dr. Erastus C. Sharp, son of Dr. E. C. Sharp, Sr.; and over half a century a Dr. Clark practiced there, - a man of considerable skill and wit.
Dr. William Thompson was born near Danville, Ky., June 19, 1796, and was a son of Rev. William J. and Lucretia Thompson (whose maiden name was Lucretia Webster). In the early part of the century he removed to Clermont, where he lived till his death, May 9, 1840. He obtained his education by the fireside of his father's house as his best advantages, and qualified himself for teaching school, which he followed until he began the study of medicine. January 1, 1820, he married Sarah, daughter of John and Elizabeth Hill, and in April of that year began his studies under Dr. Higgins (a noted practitioner who had studied under the celebrated Dr. Drake, and who had many good students), at Neville, where he remained till 1823, when he commenced the practice at Bethel. Three years later he took a course of lectures in the Ohio Medical College, and then continued for twenty years, uninterruptedly, a large practice. He was a well-informed physician, a gentleman, and an incessant worker in the profession, and his special success in midwifery gave him great popularity. He was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in personal appearance six feet high, erect and slender in form, fair complexion, black hair, blue eyes, and aquiline nose. Of his children, Meramis, L. O. M., Aurelius P., and Mildred H. died young; but the following are still living: Sarah R., Berzelius, D. W., and Dr. William Eberle Thompson, - the latter in active practice at Bethel as his honored father's successor after a score of years, and who read medicine with Dr. S. L. Scoville, and graduated at Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, opening out in practice in 1860. In the old Bethel graveyard the grave of the Christian physician of noble skill, who had read the science at the feet of the learned Dr. Higgins, is marked by a marble slab bearing the following inscription:
"Erected to the memory of Dr. William Thompson, who died May 9th, 1840, in the 44th year of his age.
"'Go, stranger, ask the sick and poor,
Who always promptly found their door
When the King of Terror's pallid bands
Stalked ghastly o'er these Western lands?
They'll tell you, with a gently-trembling tear,
His dust lies here.'"
From 1800 to 1805, Dr. David Lufburrow held forth at Bethel. He was an old-school doctor of solemn rigor, and a disciple of Esculapius equal to the emergencies of frontier life.
"Old Dr. Albert Dart" practiced all over the county, and resided at various places. He had great experience, and could be relied on in severe cases of any disease.
From 1815 to 1820, Dr. R. W. Hale was the physician at Chilo, and was the first to engage in practice there.
Dr. Hiram Cox (father of Judge Joseph Cox, of Cincinnati) practiced several years in Batavia between 1830 and 1836.
Dr. Allen Woods was born in Cynthiana, Ky., Oct. 4, 1805, and was the son of Allen Woods, who removed from Kentucky to Pleasant township (then in Clermont) in 1806, and laid out the town of Georgetown. The doctor's father was elected coroner of Clermont in 1808, and in 1809, on the resignation of Sheriff Levi Rogers, was sheriff to fill the unexpired term of Rogers. When the doctor was a boy the county of Brown was created out of Adams and Clermont, and was attended with great excitement and led to violent animosities in the press and many street fights. Dr. Woods read medicine with that brilliant medical light, Dr. Philip J. Buckner, and attended the lectures of the Ohio Medical College. He practiced medicine one year with Dr. Buckner as partner at Georgetown, and in 1832 moved to Felicity, where he acquired a very large and lucrative practice till 1851, when he settled on his elegant farm just back of Chilo. He was married for the first time on Nov. 16, 1837, to Miss Cornelia Jane Whipple, a native of Windsor Co., Vt., - a woman of rare culture and most amiable disposition, by whom he had one son, Lieut. Frank H. Woods, killed at Chickamauga; and his second marriage was on March 18, 1847, to Miss Eliza Porter, of Brown County, - a noble woman of unsurpassed domestic virtues and Christian graces, by whom he had a large family of sons and daughters, among whom is Professor Austin Woods, superintendent of the Batavia High School in the years 1873, '74, and '75. The county has hardly had a better practical physician or more skillful surgeon than Dr. Woods. Deeply read in English literature and the best Shakspearean scholar in the county, he is a poet himself, although his modesty has prevented his giving his sweet and cultured effusions to the public. He is now mostly retired from active practice, save in a few old families who insist on retaining his services, and lives in ease and comfort, surrounded by a happy family, in a pleasant home overlooking the grand Ohio.
For many years Dr. Job Dart was a contemporary of Dr. Woods, and was much esteemed as a practitioner.
Dr. A. V. Hopkins was born in Kentucky, on June 12, 1791, and died in Amelia, on April 9, 1871, having lived fourscore years, two-thirds of which was spent in active battle for the alleviation of distresses of mankind. He came when young to Clermont County, and on Dec. 3, 1818, married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Fee, one of the pioneers of the county, and was a brother-in-law of Dr. L. T. Pease, of Williamsburgh. Dr. Hopkins received a good medical education, and read medicine under the best practitioners of his day, and having settled in Bethel, at once grew into a large practice. In 1821 he purchased two lots in that town of Kelly Burke, and there resided till his removal to Batavia, about 1834, and here he practiced several years. His last place of residence (having at an early day been at Williamsburgh) was Amelia, and for a large area of territory, extending in every direction, he rode at the calls of the suffering and sick. Well read in physic, quick and skillful as a surgeon, of a vast fund of general information derived from hard study and daily observation, he was a doctor popular with the people and esteemed by the profession for his learning and many social qualities. He was a representative in the Twenty-third General Assembly, elected in 1824, and had Gen. Thomas Gatch for his colleague, and was greatly instrumental in securing the passage of the first general school law in Ohio (the famous act of 1825), and for which labors, to him, Gen. Gatch, and State Senator Thomas Morris this county owes a debt of great gratitude. He was elected county infirmary director in 1855, and re-elected in 1858, and served six years. A distinguished physician, a very prominent Mason (which order turned out to his funeral in large numbers and with its grand honors), a devoted father and kind neighbor, he made a great mark in the threescore years of his life in the county of his adoption.
Dr. James Charles Kennedy, of Batavia, whose solid reputation as a physician is not confined to Clermont County or Ohio, but extends to distant States, was born in Butler Co., Pa., on Feb. 11, 1809. In 1812 his parents removed to Clermont County and settled in what is now a part of Brown. He received a good common-school education, and in 1829 began the study of medicine under Dr. Edward Newton, at Felicity (where Dr. Newton practiced from about 1828 to 1840), and had for his fellow-pupil L. M. Lawson, who practiced a short time at Felicity and afterwards moved to Cincinnati, and became one of the most distinguished of the profession in the land as a practitioner, professor in college, and editor of medical journals. Dr. Kennedy finished his elementary studies with Dr. George B. Bailey, at Georgetown, and in 1831 began the practice of medicine at Felicity; and in 1839, having taken the requisite courses of lectures, graduated with high honors at the Medical College of Ohio. In connection with Judge James H. Thompson, of Hillsboro', and Col. John Allen, of Georgetown, he was appointed by the Forty-sixth General Assembly as a commission to proceed to Mexico and accompany back to Ohio the remains of Gen. Thomas L. Hamer, who had died in defense of his country.
In 1847, Dr. Kennedy was elected a representative to the Legislature from the joint district of Clermont and Brown, and had as his colleague the late Judge Shepard F. Norris. In 1854 he removed to Batavia, where he has since resided in the house bought of the late Hon. Jonathan D. Morris, and built by ex-United States senator Thomas Morris. The doctor was one of the founders of the county medical society in 1853, was its president in 1873, and has been its corresponding secretary from its organization. In 1877 he was first vice-president of the State medical society, and is a member of the United States Medical Society. He remains in most active practice at this writing, and is often called at great distances for consultation in critical cases. His contributions to the medical press on various topics, scientific and medical, have made him known throughout the State; but his investigations and writings on the subject of insanity have attracted the attention of the learned and scientific all over the land. His paper on "Mental Action, Normal and Abnormal," reported from the proceedings of the Ohio State Medical Society for May, 1878, caused a sensation in the profession, and led to his being subpoenaed by Judge Curtis, of New York City, to attend, as a witness for the defendant, the trial of Tom Buford, in 1879, in Kentucky, for killing Judge Elliot, of the Court of Appeals, wherein the defense of insanity was made. The doctor attended the trial, and, notwithstanding the attempted browbeating of lawyers, gave in evidence and elucidated his theories with ability and honor and acquitted himself with credit, and gained new laurels in addition to those already before won by his brains and decisive character. Dr. Kennedy is one of the few physicians who read and study constantly. Keeps posted in current medical literature, which, with a native mind of unusual brilliancy and vigor and a constant practice, makes him a physician equal to the emergencies of the age with all its progress and culture. The State medical society, at its session in 1879, requested him by resolution to deliver at its meeting of 1880 an address on "Insanity."
Dr. Thomas Boude came from Augusta, Ky., to Felicity at an early day, and practiced till about 1840, and after him was the lamented Dr. Washington B. Utter, a bright light in the profession, who died young, ere his great abilities were fully ripened.
Dr. John W. Kennedy, a brother of Dr. J. C., born near Ripley, Ohio, began the study of medicine in 1841, moved to Felicity in 1842, and commenced reading with his brother. He attended the Ohio Medical College in the winter of 1842 and '43, and finished his studies in reading in 1844, when he went into partnership with his brother, and which continued for ten years till his brother's removal to Batavia. He then practiced alone until 1864, when his declining health forced him to retire, and he then went into the drug business, in which, with his son Frank, he still remains. He was a good practitioner and highly esteemed by his many patients.
Dr. John Locke Kennedy, son of Dr. J. C., was one of the most brilliant minds ever born in Clermont; was assistant surgeon in the Union army, served under the brave cavalry general Custer, and was all through the "Price Raid," in Missouri. He married a daughter of Dr. William Wayland, Jr., and died about 1866, leaving his wife and two sons to mourn the loss of a kind father and most devoted husband.
In 1834 the following physicians in Clermont were on the tax lists to pay medical licenses "to practice physic and surgery:" J. P. Arbuckle, Elisha Bennett, of Withamsville; Thomas W. Brown, of Mulberry; Thomas Boude, of Felicity; Hiram Cox, of Batavia; William B. Chipley, of Bethel; William Doane, of Withamsville; L. A. Hendrick, of Milford; William Herbert, A. V. Hopkins, of Bethel; J. T. Johnson, of New Richmond; J. C. Kennedy, L. M. Lawson, of Felicity; Edward McNeal, S. G. Meek, of Goshen; A. F. McCall, of Bethel; Edward Newton, of Felicity; George Philips, Thomas M. Pinkham, of Bantam; Leavitt T. Pease, of Williamsburgh; Isaac and John Thacker, of Goshen; William Thompson, of Bethel; S. G. Thornton, of Batavia; William B. Thompson, Wheaton Thomas, John G. Rogers, of New Richmond; Nathan Shephard, Erastus C. Sharp, of Williamsburgh; William Wayland, William Wayland, Jr., of Batavia; William Williams, of Milford; and James Warren. Of the above, Dr. Elisha Bennett is still in practice, and in 1851 and 1852 served two years in the Legislature as Representative. Dr. Thomas Boude was the son of John Boude, the third sheriff of Clermont, and Dr. W. B. Chipley married Sidney, a daughter of United States Senator Thomas Morris, and moved to Washington, Mo. Dr. William Doane was representative in the Legislature in 1831 and 1832 (two terms), senator in 1834 and 1835 (one term of two years), and representative in Congress from 1839 to 1843 (two terms), and was splendid physician and a noted man in politics. Dr. S. G. Meek was one of the original proprietors of the town of Goshen, and Dr. Thomas M. Pinkham still lives at Bantam, having retired with a competence from a successful practice.
Dr. William Wayland, Jr., graduated in 1834, at Ohio Medical College, began practice same year in Batavia, and continued to his death, May 24, 1852. He was a fine physician, of splendid mental powers, and very popular with all classes in his extensive practice, in which he was cut down by the fell destroyer in the prime of a noble manhood. In 1843, Dr. Joseph A. Weaver began the practice of dentistry in Batavia, and continued till his death, a few years ago, and in 1846, Dr. Henry Collins practiced medicine there and for a few years following. In 1839 the following were the licensed physicians in Clermont: Batavia, William Wayland, Sr., William Wayland, Jr., A. V. Hopkins, Samuel Y. Thornton, each $4 license; Williamsburgh, Leavitt T. Pease and E. C. Sharp, each $4; Bethel, A. F. McCall, $3, William Thompson, $5; Bantam, Thomas M. Pinkham, $3; Felicity, Thomas Boude, J. C. Kennedy, Allen Woods, each $4; Moscow, William Johnson, $4; Neville, John Miller, $4; New Richmond, John G. Rogers and J. T. Johnson, each $4; Withamsville, William Doane, $3, and Elisha Bennett, $4; Milford, L. A. Hendrick and C. M. Williams, each $5, William Williams, $4; Mulberry, T. M. Brown, $5; Goshen, Alfred B. Noble, $5; Edenton, Collins Leever, $2.
Dr. David Wood, father of County Recorder Marcellus A. Wood, began practicing about 1845, at Point Isabel, and died in 1855, in the prime of life; was a good physician and very studious.
Dr. W. P. Kincaid, a graduate of the Ohio Medical College, located in the village of Neville, Clermont Co., in the year 1843, where he successfully practiced his profession for over twenty years, and changed his location to New Richmond in 1868, where he still is engaged in active practice.
He became a member of the Ohio State Medical Society in 1853, and in 1863 received the highest honor that scientific body could confer upon a member, by being elected its president.
In 1861 he was elected by the State medical society a member of the examining board, to act in conjunction with the professors of all the regular medical colleges in the State in the examination of candidates for the degree of doctor of medicine, and served in that capacity for three years.
He has for many years been a working member of the American Medical Association, also of the district and county societies, and in 1867 was elected Professor of Surgery in the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio, but, owing to other engagements, declined to accept the honorable position.
He was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1857, and served two sessions in that honorable body.
Dr. Erasmus D. Hopkins, a son of Dr. A. V. Hopkins, graduated at Ohio Medical College, and died at Amelia, in 1849, of cholera. He was practicing at Cherry Grove, and went to Amelia to assist his father in the epidemic prevailing, and was cut down by the fell destroyer in the thirtieth year of his age.
Dr. Thomas M. Pinkham graduated at Ohio Medical College in 1828, settled at Bantam, but retired from active practice in 1878, after half a century's assiduous attention to his profession. He was born at Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in 1802, and was the son of an old sea-captain. He read medicine with Dr. William Wayland in Bethel, and with Whitman and Cobb in Cincinnati.
Dr. Daniel A. McLain, born in 1809 in South Carolina, came to Clermont in 1828; studied medicine with Dr. William Thompson at Bethel in 1838 and '39; attended Medical College of Ohio in 1841 and '42, and has been in practice ever since.
Dr. William Ellsberry, born in Tate township in 1808, studied with Dr. William Thompson, and been in practice at Bethel since 1844. His son, Dr. W. S. Ellsberry, graduated at Ohio Medical College in 1873, and practices in connection with his father.
Dr. Julius D. Abbott read with Dr. R. B. Davy, of Cincinnati, and graduated at the Cincinnati College of Medicine in 1874, locating at Bethel the same year.
Dr. A. C. Moore, of Amelia, was born in Belmont Co., Ohio, Jan. 11, 1825, and after being a few years old came to Clermont with his father, who was for many years county surveyor. He graduated from a medical college at Columbus in February, 1850, and 1851 located at Locust Corners, in 1853 at Bantam, in 1855 at Moscow, and in 1866 at Amelia, where he still remains. Since 1869 he has been a member of the State medical society.
Dr. T. J. Mullen, of New Richmond, is the son of one of the pioneer families of Clermont, and ranks as one of the leading members of his profession.
The following were the physicians of all schools, as found from official sources, practicing in Clermont in 1862. It is possible that others whose names are not recorded were also practitioners. Their names and those of others of later period may be found in the several township histories: Batavia, Drs. J. C. Kennedy, H. McCaskey, A. C. McChesney, Joseph McMillen, and J. C. & J. A. Weaver (dentists), Williamsburgh, Drs. L. T. Pease, E. C. Sharp, Sr., E. C. Sharp, Jr., and D. C. Sharp. New Richmond, Drs. J. G. Rogers, T. J. Mullen, W. V. Peck, Jr., Adolph Schroem, and Dr. Stokes (homeopathic). Felicity, Drs. H. Bradley, J. W. Kennedy, M. L. Day, N. S. Hill, and Matthew Gibson (independent). Chilo, Dr. Allen Woods. Bethel, Drs. S. S. Scoville, William Ellsberry, D. A. McLain, W. E. Thompson, and S. S. Chase. Laurel, Dr. S. B. South and Dr. I. N. Brown (eclectic). Nicholsville, Dr. Philip Kennedy. Milford, Drs. C. D. Gatch, P. B. Gatch, William Williams, and Thomas M. Brown. Miamiville, Dr. Alfred Buckingham. Goshen, Drs. J. E. Myers (graduated at Ohio Medical College in 1851, and was elected to Legislature in 1859 as representative and served two years; been in most active practice for twenty-nine years), D. S. Lyman, and T. Thacker. Years before, Drs. Bart Emory, M. T. Ross, Albert Dart, Cortland Williams, A. Robb, R. Westerfield, I. N. Thacker, and Dr. Haviland had practiced there. Loveland, Drs. R. C. Belt and John P. Emory (the latter was elected representative from Clermont in 1853, served two years in the Legislature, and was one of the best members Clermont ever had. Of late years the doctor has devoted his time and attention mostly to horticulture on his elegant homestead two miles from town). Amelia, Drs. N. J. Barber, A. V. Hopkins, W. W. Robinson, and Cyrus Gaskins (eclectic). Bantam, Drs. Thomas M. Pinkham and J. B. Collins. Marathon, Drs. J. W. Mendenhall, Lewis Behymer, and Michael Bickmore (last two eclectic). Boston, Drs. J. S. Combs and B. Blythe (eclectic). Cedron, Dr. A. H. Glenn. Point Isabel, Dr. A. B. McKee. Withamsville, Drs. H. L. Donham, Elisha Bennett, J. M. Witham. Olive Branch, Dr. W. W. Ingalls (eclectic). Mulberry, Dr. Eli Elstun. Neville, Dr. W. P. Kincaid. Moscow, Drs. William Johnston, Abram C. Moore.
In the past decade several pronounced cases of trichina spiralis attracted the attention of the profession, and one case in particular, reported by Dr. W. S. Anderson, of Newtonville, was one to greatly interest the county association. The prevalence of smallpox at certain towns was the especial study of some of the physicians, and the discussions thereon in the county society's meeting developed the fact that the profession understood thoroughly this disease, once the most dreadful to be feared. Of late falls and winters malarial fevers, in slight attacks, have generally been the predominating complaint, but in general the county has been free from epidemic diseases.
THE CLERMONT COUNTY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
was organized May 11, 1853, for the acquisition of medical knowledge, by encouraging observation and comparison of the experience of its members. The constitution of this association, which has been productive of so much good to the profession in Clermont, and thereby conducive to the best interests of society in general, provided that the duty of its censors should be to ascertain the eligibility and qualifications of applicants for membership, who are required to be graduates of a regular medical school, or be a practicing physician, of such attainments that he might graduate by taking one course of lectures at a medical college; and if the censors recommended the applicant, and two-thirds of the members voted for him, he might enroll his name as a member of the association. It is made the duty of each member to keep a faithful record of all cases of interest which he treats, noting the age, color, sex, and condition of the patient; the causes, where obvious; the type, symptoms, treatment, duration, and termination of the disease; and, when practicable, the post-mortem appearances, the material parts of which he shall embody in an intelligible form, and present it to the association, for the use of such members as may wish to consult it. The discussions of the meetings of the association have elicited much able and useful information upon a large variety of medical and scientific subjects, and the happy and pleasant interchange of experience in extraordinary cases have largely tended to give strength and tone to the profession in the county. On several occasions papers of more than usual merit were read by distinguished physicians from abroad, as well as by the members. The association holds semi-annual meetings on the third Wednesday in May and October, and frequently special sessions at the time and place of the Teachers' Institute.
The names of those who have been members of the association, but have removed from its jurisdiction, are as follows: Drs. A. Robb, S. B. Crew, H. R. Collins, George O. Butler, J. S. Wright, J. B. Collins, Asher Goslin, H. P. Willis, A. C. McChesney, A. C. R. Seyvert, J. C. Magginis, and J. L. Waffensmith. The deceased members are L. A. Hendrick, L. T. Pease, D. Barber, A. V. Hopkins, Wm. Johnston, M. Smith, J. Comciras, E. C. Sharp, Sr., W. V. Peck, Jr., W. C. Hall, F. Dennis, J. Locke Kennedy, Joseph McMillen, W. S. Moore, Wm. Williams, and C. D. Gatch. The latter was in Ford's Theatre, in Washington, when the lamented Lincoln was assassinated, in April, 1865, and as the first physician to reach the dying President and examine the wound of the martyr of his country.
The living members of the association are H. L. Donham, John G. Rogers, J. C. Kennedy, Allen Woods, D. S. Lyman, W. P. Kincaid, D. A. McLain, T. J. Mullen, Wm. Ellsberry, S. S. Scoville, J. W. Mendenhall, J. H. Gray, Thos. W. Gordon, H. McCaskey, J. O. Marsh, Enos B. Fee, W. E. Tucker, Thos. M. Brown, W. S. Anderson, W. E. Thompson, W. A. Carmichael, N. J. Barber, A. B. McKee, Harvey Bradley, A. S. Bryan, L. W. Bishop, A. C. Moore, E. L. Moore, R. B. Davy, N. S. Hill, A. W. Ashburn, W. A. Bivens, W. J. Strofe, L. H. Medaris, Thos. L. Scott, C. C. Walton, J. H. Love, Colin Spence, R. C. Belt, J. A. Wheeler, A. Morris, W. S. Ellsbury, S. B. South, John P. Richardson, Frank H. Danby, C. T. McKibben, Isaac Redrow, R. F. Ermann, T. A. Mitchell, J. L. Moore, Samuel L. Witham, and H. Bradley. The last named, a well-known practitioner at Felicity for more than twenty-five years, Dr. N. S. Hill, the popular physician of Neville and Dr. N. J. Barber, of New Richmond, all served as surgeons in the Union army, with credit to themselves and honor to the profession.
Dr. A. B. McKee, of Felicity, served in the Mexican war, and was severely wounded in the wrist; and again, in the Union army, serving as a captain, he was so dangerously wounded that he had to retire from the service.
The officers from 1853 to 1880 were as follows:
1853. - President, John G. Rogers; Vice-Presidents, L. A. Hendrick, L. T. Pease; Recording Secretary,
D. Barber; Corresponding Secretary, H. Kennedy; Treasurer, A. V. Hopkins; Censors, W. P. Kincaid,
D. S. Lyman, D. A. McLain.
1854 - President, L. A. Hendrick; Vice-President, William Ellsberry; Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, D. S. Lyman; Treasurer, S. B. Crew; Censors, J. G. Rogers, W. P. Kincaid, J. S. Combs.
1855 - President, William Williams; Vice-Presidents, D. S. Lyman, S. S. Scoville; Recording Secretary, S. B. Crew; Corresponding Secretary, J. S. Combs; Treasurer, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, Thomas M. Brown, L. T. Pease, W. P. Kincaid.
1856 - President, Andrew V. Hopkins; Vice-Presidents, William Ellsberry, Philip Kennedy; Recording Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, Joseph McMillen; Treasurer, E. C. Sharp; Censors, D. S. Lyman, S. S. Scoville, T. J. Mullen.
1857 - President, William Ellsberry; Vice-Presidents, D. A. McLain, J. S. Combs; Recording Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, S. S. Scoville; Treasurer, J. G. Rogers; Censors, W. P. Kincaid, T. M. Brown, D. S. Lyman.
1858 - President, D. S. Lyman; Vice-Presidents, L. T. Pease, T. M. Brown; Recording Secretary, S. S. Scoville; Corresponding Secretary, D. A. McLain; Treasurer, J. G. Rogers; Censors, S. B. Crew, J. G. Rogers, William Williams.
1859 - President, John G. Rogers; Vice-Presidents, W. P. Kincaide, E. C. Sharp, Sr.; Recording Secretary, J. S. Combs; Corresponding Secretary, S. B. Crew; Treasurer, L. T. Pease; Censors, A. V. Hopkins, J. C. Kennedy, T. J. Mullin.
1860 - President, L. T. Pease; Vice-Presidents, D. A. McLain, J. S. Combs; Recording Secretary, S. S. Scoville; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, T. J. Mullen; Censors, D. S. Lyman, Philip Kennedy, E. C. Sharp, Jr.
1861 - President, S. S. Scoville; Vice-Presidents, J. G. Rogers, W. S. Anderson; Recording Secretary, J. W. Mendenhall; Corresponding Secretary, A. C. McChesney; Treasurer, J. S. Combs; Censors, L. T. Pease, S. B. Crew, D. S. Lyman.
1862 - The war of this year prevented the annual meeting and election; old officers held over.
1863 - President, W. P. Kincaid; Vice-Presidents, William Ellsberry, J. G. Rogers; Recording Secretary, Hugh McCaskey; Corresponding Secretary, W. V. Peck, Jr.; Treasurer, D. A. McLain; Censors, W. E. Thompson, J. S. Combs, W. V. Peck, Jr.
1864 - President, E. C. Sharp, Sr.; Vice-Presidents, D. A. McLain, T. J. Mullen; Treasurer, H. McCaskey; Recording Secretary, J. Locke Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, L. T. Pease, William S. Anderson, Harvey Bradley.
1865 - President, W. C. Hall (of Fayetteville, Brown Co.); Vice-Presidents, D. A. McLain, A. C. McChesney; Treasurer, Philip Kennedy; Recording Secretary, J. W. Mendenhall; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, J. S. Combs, William E. Thompson, J. C. Magginis.
1866 - President, William S. Anderson; Vice-Presidents, J. S. Combs, N. S. Hill; Treasurer, D. A. McLain; Recording Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, H. McCaskey; Censors, W. C. Hall, L. T. Pease, W. E. Thompson.
1867 - President, J. G. Rogers; Vice-Presidents, L. T. Pease, D. S. Lyman; Treasurer, D. A. McLain; Recording Secretary, F. Dennis; Corresponding Secretary, H. McCaskey; Censors, F. Dennis, W. S. Anderson, T. J. Mullen.
1868 - President, T. J. Mullen; Vice-Presidents, H. Bradley, W. C. Hall; Recording Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Corresponding Secretary, Hugh McCaskey; Treasurer, D. A. McLain; Censors, E. C. Sharp, D. S. Lyman, Philip Kennedy.
1869 - President, D. A. McClain; Vice Presidents, N. S. Hill, W. P. Kincaid; Recording Secretary, Harry P. Willis; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, Wm. E. Thompson; Censors, Adolph Schroem, W. S. Anderson, T. J. Mullen.
1870 - President, N. S. Hill; Vice-Presidents, W. E. Tucker, W. S. Anderson; Recording Secretary, H. P. Willis; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, W. E. Thompson; Censors, W. P. Kincaid, D. S. Lyman, W. E. Thompson.
1871 - President, Adolph Schroem; Vice-Presidents, Philip Kennedy, A. C. Moore; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, D. A. McLain; Censors, J. S. Coombs, H. Bradley, L. T. Pease.
1872 - President, A. C. Moore; Vice-Presidents, R. B. Davy, L. H. Medaris; Treasurer, W. E. Thompson; Recording Secretary, Allen W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors (no names given on the record).
1873 - President, James C. Kennedy; Vice-Presidents, L. H. Medaris, H. L. Donham; Treasurer, L. W. Bishop; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, C. C. Walton; Censors, J. S. Combs, W. S. Anderson, Philip Kennedy.
1874 - President, Harvey Bradley; Vice-Presidents, Philip Kennedy, C. C. Walton; Treasurer, L. W. Bishop; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, J. C. Richardson, A. C. Moore, J. C. Kennedy.
1875 - President, Philip Kennedy; Vice-Presidents; * Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, L. W. Bishop; Censors, J. P. Richardson, L. W. Bishop, D. A. McLain.
1876 - President, J. S. Combs; Vice-President, J. P. Richardson; Treasurer, L. W. Bishop; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, A. Morris, Wm. Ellsberry, D. S. Lyman.
1877 - President, A. Morris; Vice-President, N. S. Hill; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Treasurer, Philip Kennedy; Censors, W. A. Carmichael, T. J. Mullen, Wm. Ellsbury.
1878 - President, W. S. Anderson; Vice-Presidents, J. P. Richardson, A. C. Moore; Treasurer, Philip Kennedy; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, H. Bradley, T. J. Mullen, Isaac Redrow.
1879 - President, L. H. Medaris; Vice-President, S. B. South; Treasurer, Philip Kennedy; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, J. S. Combs, J. T. Wheeler, A. Schroem.
1880 - President, L. W. Bishop; Vice-President, S. W. Ellsberry; Treasurer, Philip Kennedy; Recording Secretary, A. W. Ashburn; Corresponding Secretary, J. C. Kennedy; Censors, N. S. Anderson, T. J. Mullen, and J. S. Coombs.
THE ECLECTIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE.
A little more than half a century ago there was awakened considerable inquiry into the science of medicine, and out of this originated the eclectic system; and the reasons for the movement were found in the character of the practice of medicine during the early part of the century. The eclectic physicians discarded the common use of blood-letting, free purgation, mercury in its different forms, antimony and nauseants, blisters, and medicine in large doses to influence the kidneys and skin, claiming that with such treatment the appetite for food was lost, digestion impaired, debilitation and prostration produced, and the recovery of the patient made a matter of doubt. There was revolt in several sections of the country against the old-school practice, at the head of which new movement appeared Drs. Benn, Tidd, and Thompson; and after a short lapse of time the new eclectic system obtained a foothold in a number of States, and succeeded in organizing colleges and establishing periodicals and journals.
The Union Eclectic Medical Society of Clermont was organized on October 18, 1856, with Dr. J. S. Martin, President; Dr. B. Blythe, Vice-President; Dr. Richard Marsh, Secretary; Dr. W. M. Ingalls, Treasurer; Board of Censors, Drs. M. A. Kelly, C. H. Thomas, H. C. Nicholson, I. H. Day. At its seventeenth annual meeting, May 30, 1873, it was reorganized with the following officers: President, Dr. I. H. Day; Dr. I. N. Brown, Secretary; and Dr. Eben Behymer, Treasurer. Its present membership includes twenty-five physicians in active practice, quite a number of whom live just outside of the county limits. It was reorganized under the name of "Clermont Eclectic Medical Association," and adopted a new constitution, the fourth section of which provides that " he word Eclectic, as used by this Association, is understood to be synonymous with universal freedom of thought, investigation, and action within the legitimate scope of medical practice. That medicines are beneficial only when used medicinally, or in medicinal doses, guarded by a correct diagnosis. And to this end we claim the fullest liberty in prescribing for each particular case as dictated by our better judgment, having regard to any permanent impression made or condition entailed upon the patient."
In 1873-74, Dr. Cyrus Gaskins, of Amelia, was the president of the Eclectic Association. He graduated in 1859 at the "Cincinnati College of Eclectic Medicine and Surgery and Eclectic Medical Institute," and has since enjoyed and extensive and lucrative practice, probably standing at the head of his school in the county.
Of the early graduates of duly chartered eclectic colleges who had located in the county for the practice of that system of medicine, but who have deceased or removed, were Drs. John S. Watts, of Felicity; S. H. Chase, of Bethel; E. B. Chatterton, of Mount Repose; W. M. Ingals, of Amelia; B. Blythe, of Boston; Richard Marsh, of Marathon; and A. B. Gaskins, Edwin Behymer, W. W. Robinson, A. McKay, G. W. McDonald, and R. M. Avey.
The eclectic school of medicine has at present the following practitioners in the county: Drs. Cyrus Gaskins, Amelia; J. H. Day, Point Isabel; Isaac M. Brown, Laurel; Mathew Gibson, Felicity; B. F. Mitchell, Felicity; J. H. Norman, Edenton; W. D. Cole, Moscow; W. O. Davis, Chilo; J. S. Galloway, Lindale; O. D. Simmons, Laurel; R. T. Leacock, Olive Branch; George W. Moore, Batavia; J. T. Ricker, Locust Corner; Dr. Wilber, Henning's Mills; and Quincy A. Brown, Bethel.
Drs. B. Blythe and W. M. Ingalls were rather celebrated practitioners, and the latter was at one time the president of the Ohio Medical Society, and for many years a contributor to the Eclectic Medical Journal of Cincinnati, the recognized organ of that school of medicine, and edited with unusual ability by the distinguished Dr. John M. Scudder.
The Clermont County Eclectic Medical Association holds its annual meetings at Amelia, and the exercises consist of essays, discussions, comparisons of practice, and lectures by distinguished practitioners from abroad. The fragmentary condition of the records precludes the giving of much interesting matter pertaining to its work, but, in the main, the association is in a prosperous condition.