Columbiana County, Ohio
Columbiana County, Ohio
Source: "Historical Collections of Ohio", Vol. 1 - By Henry Howe, 1898,
Transcribed by Jeanne Hall
Columbiana was formed from Jefferson and Washington, March 25, 1803. Kilbourn, in his "Gazeteer," says: "Columbiana is a fancy name, taken from the Columbus and Anna. An anecdote is told pending its adoption in the legislature, that a member jocularly moved that the name Maria should be added thereto, so as to have it read Columbiana-maria." The southern part is generally broken and hilly, and the northern level and undulating. This is an excellent agricultural tract; it is well watered, abounds in fine mineral coal, iron ore, lime and free-stone. The water limestone of this county is of the best quality. Salt water abounds on Yellow and Beaver creeks, which also afford a great amount of water power. Forty years ago it was the greatest wool-growing county in Ohio, and was exceeded by but three or four in the Union. About one-third of the population are of Germanic origin, and there are many of Scotch-Irish extraction. In 1885 the acres cultivated were 118,656; in pasture, 90,692; woodland, 45,065; lying waste, 14,603; wheat, 159,241 bushels; corn, 645,329; oats, 580,660; wool, 552,862 pounds; apples, 515,913. School census, 17,060; teachers, 357. Area, 540 square miles. Miles of railroad track, 117.
The population of Columbiana in 1820 was 22,033; in 1830, 35,508; and in 1840, 40,394, which was greater than any other counties in Ohio, excepting Hamilton and Richland. The number of inhabitants to a square mile was then 46. In 1846 the county was reduced by the formation of Mahoning, to which the townships of Beaver, Goshen, Greene, Smith, and Springfield, formerly belonging to it, were added. The population of the county in 1860 was 32,836, and in 1880, 48,602, of whom 34,945 were Ohio-born; 6,344 Pennsylvania-born; 3,711 English subjects born; 852 German; 44 French; 32 Scandinavians.
Columbiana is one of the best fruit-producing counties in Ohio. The township of Middletown is especially noted for its raspberries and fine quality of peaches, which last is said to be a rarely failing crop. The fruit finds a near market in Pittsburg.
The first paper-mill in Ohio, and the second west of the Alleghenies, was erected in 1805-6 on Little Beaver creek, near its mouth, in this County. It was called the Ohio paper-mill; its proprietors were John Bever and John Coulter.
This county was settled just before the commencement of the present century. In 1797 a few families moved across the Ohio and settled in its limits. One of them, named Carpenter, made a settlement near West Point. Shortly after, Capt. Whiteyes, a noted Indian chief, stopped at the dwelling of Carpenter. Being intoxicated, he got into some difficulty with a son of Mr. C., a lad of about seventeen years of age, and threatened to kill him. The young man upon this turned and ran, pursued by the Indian with uplifted tomahawk, ready to bury it in his brain. Finding that the latter was fast gaining upon him the young man turned and shot him, and shortly afterwards he expired. As this was in time of peace, Carpenter was apprehended and tried at Steubenville, under the territorial laws, under the territorial laws, the courts being then held by justices of the peace, He was cleared, it appearing that he acted in self-defence. The death of Whiteyes created great excitement, and fears were entertained that it would provoke hostilities from the Indians. Great exertions were made to reconcile them, and several presents were given to the friends of the late chief. The wife of Whiteyes received from three gentlemen the sum of $300; one of these donors was the late Bezaleel Wells, of Stubenville. This was the last Indian blood shed by white men in this part of Ohio
Adam and Andrew Poe, The Indian Fighters.
Adam Poe, who, with his brother Andrew, had the noted fight with the Indians, once resided in this county, in Wayne township, on the west fork of Little Beaver. The son of Andrew - Deacon Adam Poe,- was living late as 1846 in the vicinity of Ravenna, Portage county, and had the tomahawk with which the Indian struck his father. The locality where the struggle occurred, he then told the author, was nearly opposite the mouth of Little Yellow creek. We annex the particulars of this affair from "Doddridge's Notes," substituting, however, the name of Andrew for Adam, and vice versa, as he then stated they should be placed:
In the summer of 1782 a party of seven Wyandots made an incursion into a settlement some distance below Fort Pitt, and several miles from the Ohio river. Here, finding an old man alone in a cabin, they killed him, packed up what plunder they could find, and commenced their retreat. Among their party was a celebrated Wyandot chief, who, in addition to his fame as a warrior and counselor, was, as to his size and strength, a real giant.
The news of the visit of the Indians soon spread through the neighborhood, and a party of eight good riflemen was collected, in a few hours, for the purpose of pursuing the Indians. In this party were two brothers of the names Andrew and Adam Poe. They were both famous for courage, size and activity.
This little party commenced pursuit of the Indians, with a determination, if possible, not to suffer them to escape, as they usually did on such occasions, by making a speedy flight to the river, crossing it, and then dividing into small parties to meet at a distant point in a given time.
The pursuit was continued the greater part of the night after the Indians had done the mischief. In the morning the party found themselves on the trail of the Indians, which led to the river. When arrived within a little difference of the river, Andrew Poe, fearing an ambuscade, left the party, who followed directly on the trail, to creep along the brink of the river bank, under cover of the weeds and bushes, top fall on the rear of the Indians, should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone far when he saw the Indian rafts at the water's edge. Not seeing any Indians, he stepped softly down the bank, with his rifle cocked. When about half-way down, he discovered the large Wyandot chief
And a small Indian, within a few steps of him. They were standing with their guns cocked and looking in the direction of our party, who by this time had gone some distance lower down the bottom. Poe took aim at the large chief, but his rifle missed fired. The Indians, hearing the snap of the gun-lock, instantly turned around and discovered Poe, who being too near to retreat, dropped his gun and instantly sprung from the bank upon them, and seizing the large Indian by the
cloths on his breast, and at the same time embracing the neck of the neck of the small one, threw them both down on the ground, himself being upmost. The Indian soon extricated himself, ran to the raft, got his tomahawk, and attempted to dispatch Poe, the large Indian holding him fast in his arms with all his might., the better to enable his fellow to effect his purpose. Poe, however, so well watched the motions of the Indian that when in the act of aiming his blow at his head, by a vigorous and well-directed kick, with one of his feet he staggered the savage and knocked the tomahawk out of his hand. This failure on the part of the small Indian was reproved by an exclamation of contempt from the large one.
In a moment, the Indian caught up his tomahawk again, approached more cautiously, brandishing his tomahawk, and making a number of feigned blows, in defiance and derision. Poe, however, still on his guard, averted the real blow from his head by throwing up his arm and receiving it on his wrist, in which he was severely wounded, but not so as to lose entirely the use of his hand.
In this perilous moment, Poe, by a violent effort, broke loose from the Indian, snatched up one of the Indian's guns, and shot the small Indian through the breast, as he ran up the third time to tomahawk him.
The large Indian was now on his feet, and grasping Poe by a shoulder and leg, threw him down on the bank. Poe instantly disengaged himself and got on his feet. The Indian then seized him again and a new struggle ensued, which, owing to the slippery state of the bank, ended in the fall of both combatants into the water.
In this situation, it was the object of each to drown the other. Their efforts to effect their purpose were continued for some time with alternate success, sometimes one being under the water, and sometimes the other. Poe at length seized the tuft of hair on the scalp of the Indian, with which he held his head under the water until he supposed him drowned.
Relaxing his hold too soon, Poe instantly found his gigantic antagonist on his feet again and ready for another combat. In this, they were carried into the water beyond their depth. In this situation, they were compelled to loose their hold on each other and swim for mutual safety. Both sought the shore to seize a gun and end the contest with bullets. The Indian being the best swimmer reached the land first. Poe, seeing this, immediately turned back into the water to escape, if possible, being shot, by diving. Fortunately, the Indian caught up the rifle with which Poe had killed the other warrior.
At this juncture Adam Poe, missing his brother from the party, and supposing, from the report of the gun which he shot, that he was either killed or engaged in conflict with the Indians, hastened to the spot. On seeing him, Andrew called out to him to "kill the big Indian on shore." But Adam's gun like that of the Indian's was empty. The contest was now between the white man and the Indian, who should load and fire first. Very fortunately for Poe, the Indian, in loading, drew the ramrod from the thimbles of the stock of the gun with so much violence, that it slipped out of his hand and fell a little distance from him; he quickly caught it up, and rammed down his bullet. This little delay gave Poe the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was raising his gun to take aim at him.
As soon as Adam had shot the Indian, he jumped into the river to assist his wounded brother to shore; but Andrew, thinking more of the honor of carrying the big Indian home, as a trophy of victory, than of his own safety, urged Adam to go back, and prevent the struggling savage from rolling into the river, and escaping. Adam's solicitude for the life of his brother prevented him from complying with this request.
In the mean time the Indian, jealous of the honor of his scalp, even in the agonies of death, succeeded in reaching the river and getting into the current, so that his body was never obtained.
An unfortunate occurrence took place during this conflict. Just as Adam arrived at the top of the bank, for the relief of his brother, one of the party who had followed close behind him, seeing Andrew in the river, and mistaking him for a wounded Indian, shot at him and wounded him in the shoulder. He however, recovered from his wounds.
During the contest between Andrew Poe and the Indians, the party had overtaken the remaining six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in which five of the Indians were killed. Our loss was three men killed, and Andrew Poe severely wounded.
Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of three valiant men on our part, and with that of the whole of the Indian party, with the exception of one warrior. Never, on any occasion, was there a greater display of desperate bravery, and seldom did a conflict take place which, in the issue, proved fatal to so great a proportion of those engaged in it.
The fatal issue of this little campaign on the side of the Indians, occasioned an universal mourning among the Wyandot nation. The big Indian, and his four brothers, all of whom were killed at the same place, were among the most distinguished chiefs and warriors of their nation.
The big Indian was magnanimous, as well as brave. He, more than any other individual, contributed by his example and influence to the good character of the Wyandots, for lenity towards their prisoners. He would not suffer them to be killed or ill treated. This mercy to captives was an honorable distinction in the character of the Wyandots, and was well understood by our first settlers, who, in case of captivity, thought it a fortunate circumstance to fall into their hands.
NEW LISBON IN 1846. - New Lisbon, the county-seat, is in the township of Centre, 155 miles northeast of Columbus, 35 miles from Steubenville and 56 from Pittsburg. It is on the line of the Sandy and Beaver canal, on the middle fork of Little Beaver, and is surrounded by a populous and well-cultivated country. The town is remarkably compact and substantially built; many of its streets are paved, and it has the appearance of a small city. The view was taken from the southeastern part of the public square, and shows, on the left, the county buildings, and on the right, the market. New Lisbon was laid out in 1802 by the Rev. Lewis Kinney, of the Baptist denomination, and proprietor of the soil; a year or two after, it was made the county-seat. It contains 1 Friend's meeting house, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal and 1 Reformed Methodist, 1 Disciples, 1 Dutch Reformed and 1 Seceder church, 3 newspaper printing offices, 2 woolen manufacturies, 2 foundries, 2 flouring mills, 14 mercantile stores, and about 1,800 inhabitants. Carriage making and tabbing are extensively carried on in this village. - Old Edition.
County officers in 1888: Auditor, Norman B. Garrigues; Clerk, Richardson Arter; Commissioners, Elwood Miller, Hugh McFall, George D. Flugan; Coroner, Samuel Badger; Prosecuting Attorney, P. M. Smith; Probate Judge, James G. Moore; Recorder, Abram Moore; Sheriff, John W. Wyman; Surveyor, Isaac P. Farmer; Treasurer, Jess Kepner. Newspapers: Ohio Patriot, Democratic, Wilson Shannon Potts, editor; Buckeye State, Republican, Ed. F. Moore, editor; The Journal, Republican, George B. Corbett, editor. Churches are Friends, Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist, German Reformed, Lutheran, Disciples, and Methodists. Banks: First National, J. F. Benner, president, R. B. Pritchard, cashier; Firestone Bros., Daniel W. Firestone, cashier; Lodge & Small. Principal industries are carriage-making, quarrying of building stone, sewer pipe, fire-brick, and iron-ore mining. Population in 1880, 2,028. School census 1886, 684; Superintendent, William H. Van Fossan.
The Ohio Patriot, now published in New Lisbon, is one of the oldest papers in Ohio, and, with the exception of the Scioto (Chillicothe) Gazette, is the oldest with the same continuous name. It was established in 1808, by William D. Lepper, who brought the materials from Pittsburg. It was printed in a log-house on Beaver street. There were at the time only four newspapers published in the State, viz., one each at Chillicothe, Steubenville, Cincinnati, and at Marietta. The Paper was only about the size of an 8 x 10 pane of window glass, and the first year was printed in German, under the title of Der Patriot am Ohio. Until 1818 there was no newspaper printed in Cleveland, and the legal advertisements as well as the job-printing for Cuyahoga county were done in the office of the Ohio Patriot.
About half a mile west of the fine court-house in New Lisbon, which has succeeded the structure shown in the old view, is the Vallandigham homestead. Here Clement Laird Vallandigham first appeared July 29, 1820, then an infant, who was destined to act a prominent part in the history of the Nation's terrible struggle for existence; to become "the bold leader of the Ohio Democracy in the turbulent times of 1863." It was with singular emotions in remembrance of his history that we stood in front of the place with the photographer, Mr. Moore, and selected the spot from where we wished him to take the view which appears on these pages.
The mansion is on the Canton road, on the margin of the town, on a knoll well elevated from the street.. We felt as we looked that it was one of the most quaint old-style, home-like appearing spots we had seen for many a day. The grounds, ample with the surroundings that seem vital to the culmination of the happiest sort of life, garden, orchard, shrubbery, forest trees and grassy lawn, with a grand outlook upon not far distant bold-wooded hills. Personally we should prefer living in such a spot than in a regal city mansion, with its adjuncts of house and stone-walled prison-like streets, and rattling, deafening vehicles, and tides of surging, worrying, care-laden, conflicting and never-to-be-satisfied, ever-complaining humanity. In these rural homes it is the nature woos the spirit with her gentle influences of trembling, dancing leaves and opening flowers and care-free animal life; where, too, morning comes on in smiling beauty and evening gently closes the scene for calm repose.
The 17th of September, 1853, was a proud day for the inmates of the mansion. It was in the midst of the exciting Vallandigham campaign when was witnessed the tremendous outpourings of the Democracy in every part of the State to bring back "their exiled hero" from Canada as Governor of Ohio. On that day one of those wild, surging, enthusiastic political processions passed by the place.
"Over the gateway," said the Wellsville Patriot, "was a plain white muslin, bearing the simple inscription, 'VALLANDIGHAM'S BIRTHPLACE,' and upon the grassy lawn, near the old homestead, now rendered dear to every freeman, stood the aged mother of Hon. C. L. Vallandigham, the great apostle and champion of human rights during the reign of terror and high-handed usurpations of the Lincoln Administration. What must have been her feelings when that great procession of freemen as they passed sent forth their hearty huzzas in honor of her exiled and persecuted son! . . . 'Vallandigham's birthplace' is now consecrated and classical ground, and the present century will not have passed into eternity until pilgrimages will be made from every spot where the fire of liberty is unquenched and sages and patriots will revere the spot and love to look upon it as every freeman does the hallowed grounds of Mount Vernon, Monticello, the Hermitage or Ashland."
The family still occupy the old home, and ere we left the place we obtained a pamphlet containing the lecture of Mr. Vallandigham upon the Bible, of which he was a close student, and a book, as he once wrote in a letter to his brother James, "without an intimate and constant study of which no man's education can be finished and no man's character can be complete."
The ancestors of Mr. Vallandigham were on the paternal side Huguenots and on the maternal Scotch-Irish. The family came from French Flanders and the original name was Van Lendeghem. It was under that name that his ancestors came to Stafford county, Virginia, in 1690. These were Michael Van Lendeghem and Jane, his wife. A son of these, who had become a lessee in Fairfax county under Lord Fairfax, for more agreeable sound and easier pronunciation, changed his family name from Van Lendeghem to Vallandigham. His father, Clement Vallandigham, was born in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, was an Old School Presbyterian clergyman and came to New Lisbon in 1807, where he was ordained pastor and commenced preaching the Gospel under a tent. His congregation were largely Scotch-Irish people who had settled in and around the place. He died in 1839 and is remembered as a small man, who, though not a great preacher, was a most exemplary character, to whom his congregation were strongly attached, and he thus filled the very excellent role of a much-beloved village pastor.
His salary being insufficient for his support, he, to make up the deficiency and to prepare his four sons for college, established a classical school in his own house, which is here shown by the engraving. This school was later continued by his two oldest sons. Here were taught the Armstrongs, the Begges, the Blocksomes, the Brookes, the Grahams, the Harbaughs, the Hissins, the McCooks, the McKaigs, the McMillans, the Richardsons and others who have occupied high positions in the professions and in business. Among them was the late General Wm. T. H. Brookes, a gallant officer in the Mexican war and in the late civil War, and Col. Geo. W. McCook, who was in 1871 the Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio.
His son, Clement, here began his education, and before he was two years old acquired the alphabet and was ready for college years before he was old enough to enter. All through his early life he was a great reader and an untiring student.
Mr. Vallandigham graduated at Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, and began the practice of the law at New Lisbon. In 1845 he was elected to the Legislature, and, although the youngest member, became the leader of the Democratic party in the House, but voted against the repeal of the Black Laws, preferring to submit the question to popular vote, declaring that he so voted because the "measure would result in the most effectual putting down of this vexed question for perhaps twenty years to come. It would probably fail as the question of negro suffrage in New York, where the people had voted against it by a majority of 50,000."
In 1847 he removed to Dayton, where he became part owner and editor of the Western Empire and continued the practice of his profession. In his salutatory address he said: We will support the Constitution of the United States in its whole integrity, "protect and defend the Union," "maintain the doctrine of strict construction" and "stand fast to the doctrine also of STATES RIGHTS, as embodied in Mr. Madison's Virginia report and Mr. Jefferson's Kentucky resolutions of 1798." He also advocated "free trade," "a fixed tenure to every office under the Federal Government that will properly admit it" and "popular education."
The newspaper was not a satisfying scope for his larger ambition. He was a thoughtful, studious writer, but his pen was not adapted to the lighter but no less important details necessary for successful editorship. In 1852 he made a strenuous effort to secure the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant-Governor, but was defeated by Wm. Medill, and over this result he felt very bitter. In 1856 he was nominated by the Democracy of his district for Congress, his competitor being Col. Lewis D. Campbell, called the "Butler County Pony." The latter was declared elected. The election being contested, Vallandigham was rewarded the seat. He continued a member until March, 1863, he having been defeated in his canvass for re-election in the State election the year before but Gen. Robert L. Schenck. While in Congress he was adjudged one of the ablest debaters and best parliamentarians on the floor of the House and as honest in his purposes and sincere in his convictions. He opposed the war because he believed that it was impossible to conquer the South.
Having returned home, Mr. Vallandigham engaged with his usual boldness to denounce the war, the draft then pending and, as Whitelaw Reid expresses it, "stirred up the people with violent talk and particularly excited them over alleged efforts on the part of the military authorities to interfere with freedom of speech and the press, which he conjured them to defend under any circumstances and at all hazards."
It was then a most gloomy period in the progress of the war and Gen. Burnside, who had just been put in command of the military department of the Ohio, under date of April 13, 1863, issued from his headquarters at Cincinnati the famous "General Order No. 38," wherein he proclaimed that henceforth
". . .All persons within our lines who commit acts for the benefit of the enemies of our country will be tried as spies or traitors, and if convicted will suffer death . . . The habit of declaring sympathy for the enemy will not be allowed in this department. Persons committing such offences will be at once arrested, with a view to being tried as above stated or sent beyond our lines into the lines of their friends. It must be distinctly stated that treason expressed or implied will not be tolerated in this department."
Vallandigham, angered at this order, expressed his determination to defy it and to assert his constitutional right to discuss the policy of the administration in the conduct of the war, and announced that he would speak at a Democratic mass-meeting to be held at Mount Vernon on Friday, the 10th of May, which he did, and to a large audience.
Beginning with an allusion to the American flag, which was flying over them, he said, "that was the flag of the Constitution; that it had been rendered sacred by Democratic Presidents;" claimed that the Union could have been saved if the plans he had proposed had been sanctioned and adopted; he declared that he abided by the Constitution; that he "was a freeman;" that he did not ask Dave Tod, Abraham Lincoln or Ambrose E. Burnside for his right to speak as he had or was doing; that his "authority for so doing was higher than General Order No. 38; it was General Order No. 1 - the Constitution!" that "the only remedy for all the evils was the ballot box."
Some of his more intemperate remarks having been reported to Gen. Burnside, on the Monday following he despatched a company of the 115th Ohio, under Capt. Hutton, by a special train to Dayton to arrest him, which was effected that night and he returned immediately to Cincinnati with his prisoner. A scene of wild excitement the next day ensued in Dayton; the streets were crowded with his friends and adherents and that night the office of the Republican newspaper was burnt by a mob. Gen. Burnside sent up an ample military force and, proclaiming martial law, quelled all further disturbance.
The day after his arrest Mr. Vallandigham issued the following address:
To the Democracy of Ohio: I am here in a military bastile for no other offence than my political opinions, and the defence of them and the rights of the people, and of your constitutional liberties. Speeches made in the hearing of thousands of you, in denunciation of the usurpation of power, infractions of the Constitution and laws, and of military despotism, were the causes of my arrest and imprisonment. I am a Democrat; for Constitution, for law, for Union, for liberty; this is my only crime. For no disobedience to the Constitution, for no violation of law, for no word, sign or gesture of sympathy with the men of the South, who are for disunion and Southern independence, but in obedience to their demand, as well as the demand of Northern Abolition disunionists and traitors, I am here today in bonds; but
"Time, at last, sets all things even."
Meanwhile Democrats of Ohio, of the Northwest, of the United States, be firm, be true to your principles, to the Constitution, to the Union, and all will yet be well. As for myself, I adhere to every principle and will make good, through imprisonment and life itself, every pledge and declaration which I have ever made, uttered or maintained from the beginning. To you, to the whole people, to time, I again appeal. Stand firm! Falter not an instant!
Mr. Vallandigham was arraigned before a court presided over by Gen. R. B. Potter, who finding him guilty on some of the specifications, sentenced him to close confinement during the war, and Fort Warren, in Boston harbor, was designated. Mr. Lincoln changed this to his conveyance through our military lines into the Southern Confederacy, and in the event of his return that the original sentence of imprisonment be carried out. Judge Leavitt, of the United States District Court, was applied to for a writ of habeas corpus to take the prisoner out of the hands of the military. The application was ably argued by Hon. Geo. E. Pugh and Hon, Aaron F. Perry and the United States District Attorney, Hon. Flamen Ball, in behalf of Gen. Burnside. Judge Leavitt briefly took the case under advisement and denied the writ, in a calm and carefully considered opinion. The Democratic party bitterly assailed this decision, and some of the points of the learned judge were, after the war, decided adversely by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the Indiana conspirators. The sentence for Mr. Vallandigham's conveyance under military escort to within the lines of the Confederacy was then carried out.
The widely known Ohio journalist, Mr. W. S. Furay, now (1888) of Columbus, was then correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, and in Murfreesboro on the arrival of Mr. Vallandigham. He was with the party who took him into the Southern lines. His account, as written at the time, here follows.
Among the transactions which during the war it has been my fortune to witness I shall not soon forget the conveyance of the Hon. Mr. Vallandigham beyond the lines of our army and his delivery into the hands of the rebels; which I consider an event fraught with the greatest interest to the patriot, giving evidence as it does of a final determination on the part of the government to save the nation at all hazards: the first distinction of the right to protect itself against insinuating and cowardly copperheadedism of the North, more dangerous and malignant than the open and armed treason of the South.
Vallandigham at Murfreesboro. - It was about ten o'clock on Sunday night (May 24) that the somewhat suppressed whistle of a locomotive announced that an extra train with Mr. Vallandigham on board had arrived. He had been sent from Cincinnati in charge of Capt. Vallandigham with a squad of the Thirteenth regular infantry. He was at once taken in custody by Maj. Wiles, provost marshal-general of the department, in accordance with an order from headquarters to take him to a point near our outposts, keep him there until morning, and then under cover of a flag of truce to pass him within lines of the enemy.
None saving those immediately surrounding Gen. Rosecrans knew of his arrival. Had it been known through the camp all sense of disciple and restraint would have been lost, and a crowd of ten thousand men would have instantly collected around the provost marshals, swayed by the wildest and most ungovernable excitement which could have found no vent but in slaying him on the spot. So intense and burning is their hatred for the man who by every speech made in and out of Congress the last two years had tended to encourage the rebels, to render more difficult and dangerous the task of their subjugation, and to put far off the happy period when in the midst of peace the soldiers may return to home and friends.
Starts for Dixie. - It was two o'clock in the morning when Vallandigham stepped into a spring wagon and started for that Dixie, which, notwithstanding it was now night, began to loom up most distinctly before him. Not one of those who accompanied Mr. Vallandigham that night will ever forget it.
Col. McKibben, senior aid to Rosecrans, assisted by Lieut.-Col. Ducat, had the general charge. Col. McKibben had once sat in Congress with this same Vallandigham, and although differing on many points they had fought together against the iniquity of the Buchanan administration. When taking his seat in the wagon the prisoner remarked to Col. McKibben in a jocular manner: "Colonel, this is worse than Lecompton!" This was true in a deeper sense than he intended it, for the offense against the nation for which he was to be punished was much worse than the infamous attempt of Buchanan to fasten Negro slavery upon the outrages inhabitants of Kansas.
The prisoner himself was in charge of Major Wiles, the able provost marshal-general of the department, efficiently assisted by Capt. Goodwin of the Thirty-seventh Indiana.
Capt. Doolittle and Lieut. Kelly of the Fourth regular cavalry commanded the two companies of cavalry forming the escort of Gen. Rosecran but which, for this occasion, were the escort of Vallandigham. A second small wagon, with a trunk and some other baggage, followed the vehicle containing the prisoner. Major Wiles and Capt. Goodwin rode in the wagon, Col. McKibben and Col. Ducat preceded, and the escort followed. Your correspondent, who was kindly permitted to form one of the party, went loosely and ad libitum.
The Procession of the Way. - Such was the remarkable procession which at this silent hour passed along the streets of Murfreesboro, through the quiet and slumbering camps, and down the Shelbyville turnpike towards rebellious Dixie. Guard after guard, picket after picket, sentinel after sentinel, was passed, the magic countersign opening the gates in the walls of living men which, circle behind circle, surrounded the town of Murfreesboro.
The men on guard stood looking in silent wonder at the unwonted spectacle, little thinking that. they were gazing on the great copperhead on his way through the lines. Stone river was passed, and several miles traversed when your correspondent began to wonder where the mythical "front' so often spoken of might be. An Hours Rest. - Just as the first faint dawn appeared in the east the party stopped at the house of Mr. Butler, in order to wait for daylight: for we were now near our outposts. The family stared about them in great surprise when they were wakened up, but made haste to provide whatever conveniences they could for enabling the party to take an hour's repose.
Here, for the first time, I was introduced to Vallandigham, and as none of us felt like sleeping we commenced what to me was an extremely interesting and profitable conversation. Mr. Vallandigham talked with entire freedom; told me with the greatest apparent frankness his views of the policy of the administration; discussed dispassionately the circumstances of his arrest and trial and stated clearly what he supposed would be the ultimate result of his punishment. He manifested no bitterness of feeling whatever, seemed inclined to do full justice to the government in reference to its dealing with himself, and spoke very respectfully of Gen. Burnside. In spite of my fixed opinion of the bad and dangerous character of the man I could not but entertain for him a sentiment of personal respect which I had never felt before.
An Apt Quotation. - After an hour passed in conversation there was an effort made to obtain a little sleep, and Mr. Vallandigham himself had just fallen into a doze when Col. McKibben waked him, informing him that it was daylight and time to move. Some poetical remark having been made about the morning, Mr. Vallandigham raised himself up on his elbow and said, dramatically:
"Night's candles are burnt out,
And jocund day stands tip-toe
on misty mountain tops."
He had evidently forgotten the remaining line of the quotation, but it seemed so applicable to his own case, in view of the wrathful feelings of the soldiers towards him, that I could not forbear adding aloud,
"I must be gone and live, or stay and die."
I indulge in no vanity when I say that the extreme appositeness of the quotation startled every one that heard it, including Mr. Vallandigham himself.
Again Upon the March. - The cavalcade again set forth, and just as the first rays of sun tinged with gold the trees upon the western hills we reached our remotest outposts. Major Wiles and Col. McKibben now went forward with a flag of truce toward the enemy's videttes, who could be plainly seen stationed in the road, not more than half a mile off. The rest of the party halted, and Col. Ducat, Capt. Goodwin, Lieut. Kelly, Mr. Vallandigham and myself took breakfast at the house of a Mr. Alexander, just on the boundary line between the United States and Dixie. After all were seated at the table Col. Ducat informed Mrs. Alexander, who presided, that one of the gentlemen before her, pointing him out, was Mr. Vallandigham.
Immediately the woman turned all sort so colors, and exclaimed, "Can it be possible? Mr. Vallandigham! Why I was reading only last night of your wonderful doings! I must introduce you to the old man, shure!"
The "old man" is understood to be much more than half "Secesh." and he and not a remarkably handsome daughter united in giving the prisoner a warm welcome.
Vallandigham in Dixie. - After breakfast was over, and while waiting for the return of the flag of truce, I had another long and interesting conversation with Mr. Vallandigham, which I shall again have occasion to refer to.
The flag at length returned, and Col. Webb of the Fifty-first Alabama having signified his willingness to receive the prisoner, Major Wiles and Capt. G00dwin alone accompanied him a short distance within the rebel lines and handed him over to a single private soldier sent to take him in charge.
By nine o'clock the whole matter was over, and the party mounting their horses galloped back upon the now heated and husky turnpike to Murfreesboro.
The bearing of Mr. Vallandigham throughout the whole affair was modest, sensible and dignified, and so far as the man could be separated from his pernicious principles won him respect and friends.
In conversation with your correspondent he candidly admitted that the dealings with himself were necessary and justifiable if the Union was to be restored by war. He admitted that in that case the government would be obliged to use all the physical force of the loyal states and could tolerate no opposition. This, however, he declared would be at the expense of the free principles of the constitution; whereas he thought by the adoption of his plan, not only might these principles be conserved, but the Union of the States ultimately restored.
The life of Mr. Vallandigham by his brother, Rev. James L. Vallandigham, gives some interesting items. His interview with Gen. Rosecrans lasted about four hours. At first Rosecrans was disposed to lecture him for his opposition to the war and concluded by remarking, "Why, sir, do you know that unless I protect you with a guard, my soldiers will tear you in pieces in an instant?" To this Mr. Vallandigham in substance replied, "That, sir, is because they are just as prejudiced and ignorant of my character and career as yourself; but, General, I have a proposition to make. Draw your soldiers up in a hollow square tomorrow morning and announce to them that Vallandigham desires to vindicate himself, and I will guarantee that when they have heard me through they will be more willing to tear Lincoln and yourself to pieces than they will Vallandigham." The General shook his head, saying, "he had too much regard for the life of his prisoner to try it." The genial manner of his prisoner won upon him, and when he arose to go he put his hand on Mr. V's shoulder and said to Col. McKibben, of his staff, "He don't look a bit like a traitor, now does he, Joe?" and on parting shook him warmly by the hand.
When he was left in charge of the Confederate sentinel, hours elapsed before word could be sent and returned from Gen. Bragg, whose headquarters at Shelbyville were some sixteen miles a way. "They were hours," said Mr. Vallandigham, "of solitude, but calmly spent - the bright sun shining in the clear sky above me, and faith in God and the future burning in my heart." He was kindly received by General Bragg in Shelbyville, where he remained a week, mostly in seclusion, and then was directed to report on parole to General Whiting at Wilmington, from which place he took, on the 17th of June, a blockade-runner to Nassau and thence by steamer to Canada, where he arrived early in July and awaited events. The Ohio Democratic Convention which had met in June at Columbus had by acclamation nominated him for Governor.
The banishment of Vallandigham and sentence by court martial created a profound sensation throughout the country, and a large Democratic meeting held at Albany, presided over by Erastus Corning, passed a series of resolutions condemnatory of the "system of arbitrary arrests," and asking President Lincoln to "reverse the action of the military tribunal which has passed a cruel and unusual punishment upon the party arrested, prohibited in terms of the Constitution, and restore him to the liberty of which he had been deprived."
To this request Mr. Lincoln made a full, frank reply, putting in it some of his characteristic, homely touches of humor, for instance saying: "I can no more be persuaded that the government can constitutionally take no strong measures in time of rebellion, because it can be shown that the same could not be lawfully taken in time of peace, than I can be persuaded that a particular drug is not good medicine for a sick man, because it can be shown not to be good food for a well one." He closed by stating that when he felt that the public safety would not suffer thereby he should with great pleasure accede to their request.
The Ohio Democratic Convention, which met in June in Columbus, after nominating Mr. Vallandigham for Governor, passed resolutions strongly condemning his banishment as a palpable violation of four specified provisions of the Federal Constitution, and appointed a committee, largely ex-Congressmen, to go to Washington and intercede for his release. This committee, as will be seen by their names appended, were gentlemen of high character, a majority of whom are yet living, though some quite aged and feeble: Mathias Burchard, formerly a Judge of the Supreme Court; George Bliss, member of Congress from the Akron District; ex-Governor Thomas W. Bartley; Hon. W. J. Gordon, of Cleveland, a wealthy retail merchant; Hon. John O'Neil, late President pro tem. of the Ohio Senate; George S. Converse, of Columbus; Louis Shaeffer, of Canton; Abner L. Backus; Congressmen George H. Pendleton, Chilton A. White, W. P. Noble, Wells A. Hutchins, F. C. LeBlond, William E. Finck, Alexander Long, J. W. White, J. F. McKinney and James R. Mottis.
In the correspondence which ensued, Mr. Lincoln offered to accede to their request provided they would agree, as individuals, to certain specified things in aid of the forcible suppression of the rebellion. To this they would not agree, regarding the proffer as involving an imputation upon their sincerity and fidelity as citizens of the United States, and stating that they had asked for Mr. Vallandigham's release as a right due the people of Ohio.
"At this point," says Mr. Grelley in his History of the American Conflict," "the argument of this grave question concerning the right in time of war of those who question the justice or the policy of such war to denounce its prosecution as mistaken and ruinous, was rested by the President and his assailants - or rather it was transferred by the latter to the popular forum where, especially in Ohio, it was continued with decided frankness, as well as remarkable pertinacity and vehemence. And one natural consequence of such discussion was to render the Democratic party more decidedly, openly, palpably anti-war than it had hitherto been."
THE VALLANDIGHAM CAMPAIGN.
A vivid and interesting sketch of Vallandigham and the celebrated campaign of 1863 was published in the Cincinnati Enquirer a few years since. It consisted of personal reminiscences from the pen of the veteran Ohio journalist, W. W. Armstrong, who was Secretary of State for Ohio from 1863 to 1865. It has a peculiar interest from being from a fellow-townsman and a personal and political friend of Mr. Vallandigham, though not in sympathy with his extreme views.
After the adjournment of Congress in March, 1863, and while I was Secretary of State, Vallandigham came to Columbus. He visited my office and there informed me that he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor. As I was originally from his home county and our families had been friends, he counted upon my support for the position. I said to him very frankly:
"Colonel, this is not your time to run for Governor. I think Hugh J. Jewett ought to be nominated."
As usual, he gritted his teeth and said he was astonished that I of all other all men in the State should be opposed to his nomination. I replied that Jewett, by party usage, was entitled to a renomination if he would take it; that his candidacy in 1861 had been judiciously managed; that his speeches and letters had been patriotic and conservative, and that, being a "war" Democrat, or not so radical as he (Vallandigham), that he would poll a greater vote, and with the then dissatisfaction existing with the State administration he could be elected; but he had made up his mind to be a candidate and could not be swerved from his purpose. . . . . .
The Convention. - The conservative Democrats of Ohio did not desire to nominate Vallandigham for Governor, but his attest, trial by Military Commission and his banishment excited every radical and ultra peace Democrat in the State, and they rallied in their strength at all the county conventions and captured the delegates. One radical can always be counted upon to do more work than ten moderate men. The day of the convention approached, and it soon became evident that it would be the largest ever held in the State, and would partake of the character of a mass-meeting more than of an assemblage of cool and collected delegates.
The day before the convention assembled the city of Columbus was invaded by thousands of Democrats, bitter, assertive and defiant in their determination that come what would, they would defy "Order No. 38" and exercise what they claimed to be their constitutional right of free speech. Convention day came, and with it delegation after delegation, with bands of music, flags flying, hickory bushes waving, from every section of the State. Great processions with men on horseback and in wagons crowded the streets, and the sidewalks were black with excited men. No hall in the city was large enough to contain one-tenth of the bold Democracy present who desired to attend the convention. It was held on the east front of the State House, in the open air.
Ex-Governor Medill, of Lancaster, Ohio, once a leading and very active Democratic politician, an old, good-looking bachelor, was chosen President of the Convention. No useless time was spent in the preliminaries. They were hurried through. The radicals soon ran away with the convention, and Medill, always a good presiding officer, could hold no check on the extravagant demonstrations in favor of the Man in Exile. A vote by counties was demanded, and under the rules the demand was sustained. The name of Hugh J. Jewett was presented before that of Vallandigham. The announcement of Jewet's name was heard with almost grim silence, and from his own county a tall delegate arose and declared that Muskingham was for Vallandigham, and asked that Jewett's name be withdrawn. The delegate who presented it declined to accede to the request. Then Vallandigham's name was mentioned. The roar and noise of that crowd in his favor could be heard for miles.
The vote by counties began. Allen, Ashland Auglaize and even old Ashtabula answered "Vallandigham!" The B's followed the same way unanimously. When the Secretary reached the C's Cuyahoga county responded solidly for Jewett and her vote was most vigorously hissed. And after that, until Seneca county was reached, there was no vote for Jewett.
Vallandigham Nominated. - The people became impatient, and it was moved and seconded by thousands that the rules be suspended and Vallandigham be nominated by acclamation. MEDILL put the motion, and it was carried amidst the wildest shouts, the swelling notes of the crowd reminding one of the fierce roar of the ocean in its most turbulent moments. In a moment Vallandigham was proclaimed the unanimous nominee of the convention, and then was witnessed a scene of enthusiasm among "Val's" friends that exceeded anything ever before known in the political history of the United States. The jubilee continued for at least on hour. The next step was the
Nomination of George E. Pugh for Lieutenant Governor. - The game little Senator did not want the nomination, but he could not resist the demand made for his acceptance, and on that night in front of the Neil House made one of the most fiery and eloquent speeches that ever fell from the lips of this ever great and ready orator. It was defiant and audacious.
The Republican Convention. - The Democratic State Convention was held in the second week of June, and two weeks after the Republican State Convention convened. Governor Tod was confident of a renomination, but Smith of the Cincinnati Gazette, Halstead, of the Commercial, and Cowles, of the Cleveland Leader, and others were afraid of his defeat were he renominated. They conspired to nominate John Brough, and, although he asserted he was not a candidate for nomination, his friends were at work secretly and efficiently.
Governor Tod and his supporters were thrown entirely off guard by the loud assertions of Brough that he was not in the field for the nomination. To the surprise and the mortification of Governor TOD he was beaten for a renomination by a small majority. To do him justice, however, I may safely say that had Tod worked personally with the delegates as he was advised to do, he would have outflanked the Brough managers. He stood upon his dignity, his right for an indorsement, and went down. The personal relations between Tod and Brough were never friendly after this convention. Governor Tod had very many weaknesses, but he was kindhearted and generous to a fault. "My brave boys," as he styled the Ohio volunteers, never had a better friend.
John Brough. - Brough was a great popular orator. He had a sledge-hammer style about him that made him powerful. He used vigorous English, and had a directness about him which always told with the people. Like Tod, he was originally a Democrat: was at one time one of the editors and proprietors of the Cincinnati Enquirer; was Auditor of State, retiring from that office to go into the railroad business. He was not a tall man, but was very fleshy and never very cleanly in his personal appearance. He chewed enormous quantities of tobacco, did not believe in prohibitory laws, and could not be labeled as the exemplar of any particular purity. Of him some campaign poet wrote:
"If all flesh is grass, as people say,
Then Johnnie Brough is a load of hay."
The Campaign. - Both parties having placed their candidates in the field there opened a campaign which, for excitement, for rancor and for bitterness will, I hope, never again be paralleled in this country. Vallandigham in exile in Canada, the command of his forces was given George E. Pugh, while Brough led in person the Republican cohorts. Every local speaker of any note joined in the battle of words, and "Order No. 38" was "cussed and discussed," by night and by day, from the Ohio River to the lake and from the Pennsylvania to the Indiana line, before great assemblages of people. The great political meetings of 1840 were overshadowed in numbers by the gathering of both Democrats and Republicans in 1863. It was the saturnalia of politics.
The Democratic meetings were especially notable for their size and enthusiasm. Every where in the State were they very largely attended, but particularly in the northwest, the Gibraltar of the Ohio Democracy then as now, and in the famed counties of the wheat-belt region, Richland, Holmes, Crawford, et al., it was no unusual sight to see a thousand men, and sometimes half as many women, mounted on horseback, forming a cavalry cavalcade and escort body, and in each procession were wagon-loads of girls dressed in white, each one representing a State of the "Union as it was." Glee clubs were numerous and the song of
"We will rally 'round the flag,
Shouting Vallandigham and freedom."
was as common with the Democrats as was the other song with the Republicans:
"Down with the traitors,
Up with the stars,
Hurrah, boys, hurrah,
The Union forever."
Intense Excitement. - The excitement became so intense in many communities that all business and social relations between Democratic and Republican families were sundered. Fights and knock-downs between angered people were an every-day occurrence, and the wearing of a butternut pin or an emblem of any kind by a Democrat was like water to a mad dog before the irritated and intensely-radical Republicans. The women wore Vallandigham or Brough badges, just as their feelings were enlisted, and if there is intensity in politics or religion it is always among the sisters of the different flocks.
Ludicrous Incidents. - I was an eyewitness, on the occasion of a Democratic mass-meeting at Kenton, to a lively scrimmage between several Democratic and Republican girls, in which there was pulled hair, scratched faces and demoralized wardrobes, and, strange to say, the surrounding crowd of men interfered only to see fair play between the combatants. Another instance, and a ludicrous one, I recollect. At McCutcheonville, Wyandot county, on one of the brightest of autumnal days, there was a Democratic meeting in a grove adjacent to town. Judge Lang, of Tiffin, and myself were the speakers of the day.
While the Judge was addressing the people, a gaunt, tall young lady, wearing a Brough badge, stepped up behind a fat, chunky little girl, who was sitting on a log, and snatched from her dress the Vallandigham badge she was wearing. The little girl turned around, eyed the trespasser but a moment, and then made one lunge, and with the awkward blow that a woman delivers, hit the Brough girl under the chin and brought her to the ground. With her eyes snapping fire, and her cheeks aflame, she put her arms up akimbo, and like a little Bantam rooster, spreading his wings, hissed out, "I can whip any --- Brough girl on the ground." Such occurrences were frequent, and all manner of tricks, by both parties, were played upon speakers and orators. The only wonder is, thinking of the bitter feeling engendered, that more bodily harm was not done.
The Orators, etc. - Colonel "Dick" Merrick, of Maryland, who died a few months ago in Washington City, ex-Governor Hendricks, Hons. J. E. McDonald and D. W. Voorhees, of Indiana, were among the many distinguished speakers from other states who participated in the Ohio canvass. Morton, of Indiana, Harrison of the same State, Secretary Chase and leading Republicans from the East assisted Brough and the local Republican orators. One of the most effective Republican speakers on the stump was Colonel "Bill" Gibson, of Seneca county, and one of the most sought after orators in Northern Ohio was Hon. H. M. Jackson, of Bucyrus, whose "heavenly tone" made him conspicuous in the battle for "free speech.'
"Sunset" Cox. - Sam Cox, then representing the Columbus district in Congress, had frequent opportunities to air his eloquence and show his pluck. On a September day he had had a meeting near Camp Chase, in Franklin county. The soldiers there announced that he would not speak. The Democrats declared that he should and must, so "Sunset" was accompanied to his meeting by a hundred city Democrats armed with revolvers, while the country Democrats came in loaded down with rifles and shotguns. The soldiers, seeing that they would be promptly met with their own weapons, concluded that Cox might expound at will without interruption. Cox then made a good speech; and when or where was there the occasion that he ever made a poor one? In his old district in Ohio he is as popular now as he was then. Hundreds of little "Sam Coxes" are named after him, and the old Democracy remember his sunshiny and cheery ways and are jealous of the Turk who has him now within his boundaries. Every Democratic orator in Ohio in 1863 acquitted himself with credit and was busy from the beginning to the closing of the fight.
The Result - The strain on the public mind was intense. All men of all parties and all classes were anxious for the strife to be over. The Democrats in the last few weeks of the campaign felt that they were beaten, but the splendid discipline of the Democratic organization was manifested by their determined effort to the very last hour of election day. The vote cast for Vallandigham showed what a hold he had over people, being the highest vote then ever cast for a Democrat in the State. Brough'S majority on the home vote was 61,297, but the vote of the soldiers in the field ran his majority up to over 100,000, or a little over. Only about 3,000 votes were cast for Vallandigham by soldiers in the field. The law, however, was very defective and admirably calculated to give unlimited opportunities for duplication of votes. It was crude and unsatisfactory, but as a war measure "it served the purpose for which it was passed.
Vallandigham in Exile. - While the great fight in his behalf in Ohio was being waged, Vallandigham, like a caged lion, was fretting and worrying, was "watching and waiting across the border." He made his headquarters most of the time in a little hotel in Windsor, Canada, a small town opposite Detroit. From the windows of his room he could see a gun-boat, with the American flag flying, which had been detailed to protect the Detroit river. His sarcastic remarks in reference to his prosecutors, and to his political opponents who were preventing him from leading his own campaign in Ohio, were heralded throughout the land, and spies were numerous, keeping vigil that he should not return.
It was about agreed upon at one time that Vallandigham should come to Lima, Ohio, and make a speech, in defiance of his sentence and the authorities, but the more conservative Democratic leaders were satisfied an attempt would be made to rearrest him, which would bring about riot and bloodshed, and in deference to their wishes, Vallandigham did not return, although he could easily have escaped from Canada, as he did in 1864, when he crossed to Detroit in disguise, entered a sleeping car, and the next morning appeared at a Democratic Convention at Hamilton, Ohio, where he was chosen unanimously as a delegate to the Chicago Convention. He was enthusiastically received by the Democratic people, and remained unmolested by the civil and military authorities. Vallandigham was prompted to return by political friends in his own district, who had vainly labored to have him nominated for delegate-at-large to the Chicago Convention, Judge Rufus P. Ranney, of Cleveland, was the choice over him by a small majority in a very excited convention.
The End. - After 1868 Vallandigham pursued the profession of the law with ardor, and to his enthusiasm in the defense of a client he met with the accident that deprived him of life. His last appearance in the political arena was at the Democratic State Convention in Columbus in the first part of June, 1871. He was a delegate, and, I think, chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, and secured the passage in the convention of what is known in Ohio politics as the "new departure" resolutions, pledging the Democracy to the recognition and validity of all the amendments to the constitution, including the fourteenth. A week or two after this convention he came to his death in a room at a hotel in Lebanon, Ohio, by the accidental discharge of a pistol. He died as he lived, courageously, but sensationally.
Had Vallandigham survived to this date (1886) he would have been but thirty-six years of age, younger than Thurman, younger than Payne, and about the same age as Durbin Ward, George H. Pendleton, George W. Morgan, John O'Neil, Frank Leblond and other prominent Ohio Democrats.
He had not been called away I think that by his eloquence, by his logic and his high order of talent he would have worn out and dissipated that bitter prejudice which existed against him. He had a good personal presence, a pleasant smile, and agreeable and resonant voice, a dignified bearing and those faculties which enabled him to have a magnetic power over the people. The prize which he always looked forward to as a reward for his party services was a seat in the United States Senate, and he was chagrined to the heart when it escaped him in 1867. In his private and domestic circle he was charming, and, although there will always be a discussion as to the right and policy of the position he assumed during the war, no one will deny that he had a profound love for the constitution of his country and was unwavering and unswerving in adhering to any position that he deemed right.
SALEM IN 1846.
Salem is 10 miles north from New Lisbon in the midst of a beautiful agricultural country, thickly settled by Friends, who are industrious and wealthy. This flourishing town was laid out about 1806 by Zadock Street, John Strong and Samuel Davis members of the Society of Friends, from Redstone, Pa. Until within a few years it was an inconsiderable village. It now contains two Friends meeting-houses, 2 Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian church, a classical academy, in good repute, under the charge of Rev. Jacob Coon, 24 mercantile stores, 2 woollen factories, 3 foundries, 1 grist-mill, 2 engine shops and about 1,300 inhabitants. There are 4 newspapers published here, one of which is the American Water Cure Advocate, edited by Dr. John P. COPE, principal of a water cure establishment in full operation in this village. The engraving shows the principal street of the town, as it appears on entering from the east. Street's woolen factory is seen on the left. - Old Edition.
Salem is on the line of the P. Ft. W. & C. Railroad, 67 miles from Pittsburg, and contains about 6,000 inhabitants, with a post-office business of over $10,000 annually. It is on high land, about 60 feet above the railroad station and on one of the most elevated points of land in the State. Newspapers: Salem Republican, Rep., J. K. Rukenbrod, editor; Salem Era, E. P. Rukenbrod, editor; Buckeye Vidette, Greenback, J. W. Northrup. Churches: 2 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Disciples, 1 Episcopal, 3 Friends, respectively of the Guerney, Wilbur and Hicksite divisions. Banks: Framers' National, Furman Gee, President, Richard Pow, cashier; City, Boone & Campbell, proprietors; H. Greiner & Son.
Manufacturers and Employees. - J. Woodruff & Sons, stoves, 72; Victor Stove Co., stoves, 52; W. J. Clark & Co., stepladders, screens, etc., 12; Boyle & Carey, stoves, 26; Bakewell & Mullins, sheet metal works, 100; W. J. Clark & Co., sheet metal works, 32; Purdy, Baird & Co., sewer pipe, 6; Salem Lumber Co., sash doors, etc., 10; J. B. McNabb, canned goods, 16; Salem Steel Wire Co., steel wire, etc., 350; Silver & Deming Manufacturing Co., pumps, feed-cutters, etc., 170; Buckeye Mills, 4; S. L. Shanks & Co., steam boilers, 17; Buckeye Engine Co., engines, etc., 181; Salem Plow Co., 12; M. L. Edwards Manufacturing Co., butchers' and blacksmith's tools, 15; Stanley & Co., flour, etc., 6; Carl Barchoff, church organs, 35. - State Report for 1887.
Population in 1880, 4,041. School census, 1886, 1,464; George N. Caruthers, superintendent.
The following sketch of Salem's late history is from the pen of an old resident:
[photo] Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846. Eastern Entrance Into Salem.
Salem has an interesting history in connection with important national events. Being originally settled by Quakers they instilled into the minds of the people the true ideas of human freedom, and it early became the seat of a strong ant-slavery sentiment. "The Western Anti-Slavery Society" had its headquarters in this city before the war of the Rebellion, and their organ, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, was published here and ably conducted Benj. S. Jones, Oliver Johnson and Marius R. Robinson, editors, who waged an incessant, fearless and aggressive warfare upon institution of human slavery, its aiders and supporters, including among the latter the National Constitution is interpreted by acts of Congress, as well as most of the churches of the country.
In consequence the contest grew hot and hotter as the "Disunion Abolitionists," "Covenanters" and "Infidels," as they were termed, became more aggressive; and as the spirit of liberty grew and spread they, with more force and effect, demanded the unconditional freedom of the Southern bondmen.
At a session of one of these annual conventions of that period, held in the Hicksite Friends' Church, during a terrible Philippie by a prominent actor against the aggressions and encroachments of slavery on northern soil, as evidenced by the Fugitive Slave Law then but recently enacted, a man arose in the audience with telegram in hand and disturbed the speaker long enough to announce that on the four o'clock train, due at the station in thirty minutes, There would be as passengers a Southern man with wife and child who had with them a colored slave girl as nurse."
"Now," said the informant, who was in full sympathy with the sentiment and spirit of the meeting, "if we mean what we say, let us go to the station and rescue the slave girl." The enthusiasm became intense - the meeting adjourned and in a body marched to the depot. Soon the train rolled in and instantly a score of men boarded the train, found the girl, forced her off the coach on to the station platform, where she was seized and hurried by others on "the underground railroad" to a place of safety. Her owners, badly frightened, passed on apparently glad to themselves escape being kidnapped. The liberated slave-child was, by the same meeting, christened Abby Kelly Salem, in honor of Abby Kelly Foster, who was one of the speakers at the convention, and in commemoration of the place where the "slave" was forcibly made free. The girl grew up to womanhood, and was for years a citizen of the city.
The old "Town Hall,' yet standing in all its ancient pride, of which a cut of the interior is shown in these pages, was the place where the meetings of the Anti-Slavery Conventions were generally held. On its plain wide platform eloquent appeals in behalf of the slave, like as if inspired by Him who made of one blood all nations of men, were often poured out in words that burned by such men as Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, William Wallace Hubbard, Parker Pillsbury, Horace Mann, John Pierpoint, Oliver Johnson, Garret Smith, C. C. Burleigh, Samuel Lewis, Fred. Douglass, Lucretia Mott, Francis D. Gage, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Marius R. Robinson, Jacob Heaton, Owen Lovejoy, W. H. Burleigh, J. F. Langdon, Sojourner Truth, Stephen S. Foster, Abby Kelly Foster, James Mott and George Thompsonof England, with others of like reputation.
In that old hall, for the promotion of the education and the elevation and progress of political opinion, the voice of John A. Bingham, James A. Garfield, Joshua R. Giddings, S. P. Chase, Wm. Dennison, W. D. Henkle, Jane G. Shishelm, Benj. F. Wade, Geo. W. Julian, Neil Dow, Charles Jewett, Loring Andrews, James Monroe, Susan B. Anthony, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Collyer, John P. Hale, Edward F. Noyes, Jacob D. Cox and others (most of whom are numbered with the dead). If those old walls could speak what a story they could tell. It was there where seeds of political and religious freedom were sown which grew into a harvest yielding much fruit.
John Morgan - [Born at Huntsville, Alabama, June 1, 1826; made a raid through Ohio in the summer of 1863; was killed by a Union soldier September 4, 1864, while attempting to escape from a farm-house near Greenville, Tenn.]
[Morgan's surrender took place about seven miles south of New Lisbon under a cherry tree shown in the foreground on the left, and a few hundred yards from the farm-house of John Hepner seen in the distance. Morgan was at the time crossing from the Steubenville to the Wellsville road.]
It was this early teaching that "all men were created equal" and endowed with inalienable rights of life and liberty, that induced Edwin Coppock, a near-by farmer's boy, born of Quaker parents, to shoulder his musket and go forth to join the immortal John Brown in opening the war for freedom on Harper's Ferry. There with his old chief he fired a shot that made slavery tremble to its fall. Coppock was captured and hanged at Charlestown, Virginia.
The following letter to his uncle, living within a few miles of Salem, was the last he ever wrote. It will be read with interest. It is full of prophecy, very long since fulfilled to the letter.
He wrote it two days before his death, and spoke of the coming event with the nerve and fearlessness of a true man. His grave is in Hope Cemetery, Salem, and marked by a plain sandstone shaft, erected to his memory by the late Howell Hise. It bears only the simple inscription - "Edwin Coppock."
Charlestown, Dec. 13, 1859.
My Dear Uncle - I seat myself by the stand to write for the first and last time to thee and thy family. Though far from home and overtaken by misfortune, I have not forgotten you. Your generous hospitality towards me, during my short stay with you last spring, is stamped indelibly upon my heart, and also the generosity bestowed upon my poor brother who now wanders an outcast from his native land. But thank God he is free. I am thankful that it is I who have to suffer instead of them.
The time may come when he will remember me. And the time may come when he may still further remember the cause in which I die. Thank God for the principles of the cause in which we were engaged will not die with me and my brave comrades. They will spread wider and wider and gather strength with each hour that passes. The voice of truth will echo though our land, bringing conviction to the erring and adding members to that glorious army who will follow its banner. The cause of everlasting truth and justice will go on conquering and to conquer until our broad and beautiful land shall rest beneath the banner of freedom. I had fondly hoped to live to see the principles of the Declaration of Independence fully realized. I had hoped to see the dark stain of slavery blotted from our land, and the libel of our boasted freedom erased, when we can say in truth that our beloved country is the land of the free and the home of the brave; but that cannot be.
I have heard my sentence passed, my doom is sealed. But two more short days remain for me to fulfill my earthly destiny. But two brief days between me and eternity. At the expiration of those two days I shall stand upon the scaffold to take my last look of earthly scenes. But that scaffold has but little dread for me, for I honestly believe that I am innocent of any crime justifying such punishment. But by the taking of my life and the lives of my comrades, Virginia is but hastening upon that glorious day, when the slave will rejoice in his freedom. When he can say, "I too am a man,' and am groaning no more under the yoke of oppression. But I must now close. Accept this short scrawl as a remembrance of me. Give my love to all the family. Kiss little Joey for me. Remember me to all my relatives and friends. And now farewell for the last time.
From thy nephew,
The same spirit, when the Rebellion made its aggressive move on Fort Sumter, aroused the patriotism of Quaker Salem, and the first two volunteers for the war in the county enlisted in this "City of Peace;" namely, Thomas J. Walton, yet a resident and business man here, and Wm. Meldrum, an employee in the Republican office, and who, in March, 187, died at San Francisco, Cal.
After them Salem and the county of Columbiana furnished not less than 3,000 soldiers for the war; many of them met the fate of brave men on the field of battle, falling with face to the foe.
THE MORGAN RAID THROUGH OHIO
One of the most exciting events to the people of Ohio in the Rebellion was the raid of Morgan. When this dashing officer, at the head of less than 2,000 of his troopers, crossed the entire width of the state from west to east, and although more than 40,000 men were in arms and in pursuit, his audacity would have triumphed in his successful escape back within the Confederate lines but for circumstances which even wise foresight could not have anticipated. As his surrender took place within this county, we here give the history of the raid, mainly from Whitelaw Reid's "Ohio in the War,' and in an abridged form:
The Object of the Raid. - Little progress had been made in the organization of the State militia, when in July, 1863, there came another sudden and pressing demand for it.
In July, 1863, Rosecrans at Stone River was menacing Bragg at Tullahoma. Burnside at Cincinnati was organizing a force for service against Buckner in East Tennessee. The communications of Burnside and Rosecrans extended through Kentucky, covered by some ten thousand troops under Gen. Judah. Bragg felt that if these communications were threatened by a division, the advance of Rosecrans and Burnside would be delayed, and these officers kept from reinforcing each other. Gen. John Morgan was the man selected for this service. He had orders to go where he chose in Kentucky, to attempt to capture Louisville, but was forbidden to cross the Ohio river.
Morgan's Plan. - Morgan at once set about preparing for his raid, but in defiance of orders to the contrary he determined to cross the Ohio river somewhere near Louisville, make a rapid detour through southern Indiana and Ohio, and cross the river back into Kentucky at Buffington Island, about forty miles below Marietta. In pursuance of this plan men were sent to Ohio to gather information and examine the fords of the upper Ohio.
His plan was daring and brilliant, as was also its execution, and but for the unexpected and unprecedented high water for the time of the year, which enabled gun boats to pass up the river with troops to cut off his escape, he would have brought his daring raiders through in safety.
Morgan Crosses Kentucky. - On the 2d of July he crossed the Cumberland with twenty four hundred and sixty men, and after a skirmish with Judah's cavalry, was half way to Columbia before Judah (who had trusted to the swollen condition of the stream to prevent the crossing) could get his forces together. The next day he had a severe fight at the crossing of the Green river with a Michigan regiment under Col. Moore; they made a determined resistance, and Morgan, having no time to spare, was obliged to withdraw, found another crossing and hurried on through Campbellstown to Lebanon. Here were stationed three regiments, but two of them being some distance from town he overwhelmed the one in the town before the other two could get up and hastened on to Springfield, eight miles north, where he paroled his prisoners and turned northwest, marching direct for Brandensburg on the Ohio river, sixty miles below Louisville. Having tapped the telegraph wires, he learned that the forces at Louisville were too strong for him and gave up all desires against the city, but captured a train from Nashville when within thirty miles of Louisville.
Two companies were sent ahead to secure means of transportation across the Ohio river, which the main force reached upon the morning of the 8th, having crossed the state of Kentucky in five days. Here he found the two companies sent forward had captured two packet boats, the "J. J. McCombs," and "Alice Dean," and he prepared for crossing, when some Indiana militia on the other side opened fire upon them with musketry and an old cannon mounted on wagon wheels; Morgan sent two of his regiments across, and bringing up his Parrott rifles the militia were forced to retreat, the two rebel regiments pursuing. The main force was about to follow, when a little tin-clad, the "Springfield," came steaming down the river. "Suddenly checking her way,' writes Basil W. Duke, Morgan's second in command, "she tossed her snub nose defiantly, like an angry beauty of the coal pits, sidled a little toward the town, and commenced to scold. A bluish white funnel-shaped cloud spouted from her left-hand bow, and shot flew at the town; then changing front forward she snapped a shell at the men on the other side. I wish I were sufficiently master of nautical phraseology to do justice to this little vixen's style of fighting; but she was so unlike a horse, or even a piece of light artillery, that I cannot venture to attempt it."
Morgan Crosses the Ohio in Indiana. - It was a critical moment for the raiders, as every hour of delay brought Hobson nearer in pursuit; but when Morgan's Parrotts were turned upon her she was compelled to retire, owing to the inequality of the range of guns; the raiders then crossed the river, burned their boats, and had marched six miles before night.
Up to this point the movements of Morgan had created but little alarm in the North, they had been used to panics from threatened invasions of Ohio and Indiana. Heretofore such invasions had amounted to little more than raids through Kentucky for horses, the Ohio river being looked upon as the extreme northern limit of these expeditions; but when it was learned that Morgan had crossed the river, consternation spread throughout Indiana and Ohio, all sorts of rumors and conjectures were circulated as to his intentions; at first Indianapolis and its State Treasury were said to be his objectives, then Cincinnati and its banks, then Columbus and its Treasury, and the alarm extended to the lake shore. Morgan had anticipated this alarm, desired it and did all he could to circulate delusive and exaggerated reports of his strength and intentions and, by means of expert telegraphers, tapped the wires and kept informed of the movements against him. It was a part of his plan to avoid large towns and large bodies of militia, to cause false alarms and the concentration of the forces in the larger towns for defence, and then by rapid marching pass around the defended points, cross Indiana and Ohio and into Kentucky before his purpose could be divined or any adequate force be brought against him.
Reaches the Ohio Line. - He rapidly crossed Indiana, burning bridges, looting small towns, overwhelming any small force that offered any opposition, and releasing the prisoners on parole, until on Monday, July 13th, he reached Harrison, on the State line between Indiana and Ohio.
"Here," writes Duke, "Gen. Morgan began to maneuver for the benefit of the commanding officer at Cincinnati. He took it for granted that there was a strong force of regular troops in Cincinnati. Burnside had them not far off, and Gen. Morgan supposed that they would of course be brought there. If we could get past Cincinnati safely, the danger of the expedition, he thought, would be more than half over. Here he expected to be confronted by the concentrated forces of Judah and Burnside, and he anticipated great difficulty in eluding or cutting his way through them. Once safely through this peril, his escape would be certain, unless the river remained so high that the transports could carry troops to intercept him at the upper crossings. Thinking that the great effort to capture him would be made as he crossed the Hamilton and Dayton railroad, his objective was to deceive the enemy as to the exact point where he would cross it, and denude that point as much as possible of troops. He sent detachments in various directions, seeking, however, to create the impression that he was marching to Hamilton.
When Morgan entered Ohio his force amounted to less than 2,000 men, the others having been killed or captured in skirmishes, or, unable to keep up with the rapid marching of his flying column, had fallen behind exhausted, to be picked up by the citizen soldiery, who hovered round his line of march.
Passes Around Cincinnati. - While Cincinnati was filled with apprehension and alarm at Morgan's advance, he, on the other hand, was equally apprehensive of danger from that city, and by the greatest march he had ever made slipped around it in the night. Duke says of this march: "It was a terrible, trying march. Strong men fell out of their saddles, and every halt the officers were compelled to move continually about in their respective companies and pull and haul the men, who would drop asleep in the road. It was the only way to keep them awake. Quite a number crept off into the fields, and slept until they were awakened by the enemy. . . At length day appeared just as we reached the last point where we had to anticipate danger. We had passed through Glendale and all of the principal suburban roads, and were near the Little Miami railroad.
". . . We crossed the railroad without opposition, and halted to feed the horses in sight of Camp Dennison. After a short rest here and a picket skirmish we resumed our march, burning in this neighborhood a park of government wagons. That evening at four o'clock we were at Williamsburg, twenty-eight miles east of Cincinnati, having marched since leaving Summansville, in Indiana, in a period of thirty-five hours, more than ninety miles - the greatest march that even Morgan had ever made. Feeling comparatively safe here, he permitted the division to go into camp and remain during the night."
While Morgan was swinging his exhausted men around Cincinnati the following dispatches were sent to Gen. Burnside in that city:
"11.30 P. M. A courier arrived last evening at Gen. Burnside's headquarters, having left Cheviot at half-past eight P. M., with information for the general. Cheviot is only five miles from the city. He states that about 500 of Morgan's men had crossed the river at Miamitown, and attacked our pickets, killing or capturing one of them. Morgan's main force, said to be 3,000 strong, was then crossing the river. A portion of the rebel force had been up to New Haven, and another had gone to New Baltimore, and partially destroyed both of those places. The light of the burning town was seen by our men. When the courier left Morgan was moving up, it was reported, to attack our advance."
"1 A. M. A courier has just arrived at headquarters from Colerain. He reports that the enemy, supposed to be 2,500 strong, with six pieces of artillery, crossed the Colerain pike at dark, at Bevis, going toward Burlington, or to Cincinnati and Hamilton pike, in direction of Springdale."
"1.30 A. M. A dispatch from Jones' station states that the enemy are now encamped between Venice and New Baltimore."
"2 A. M. Another dispatch says the enemy are coming in, or a squad of them, from New Baltimore toward Glendale, for the supposed purpose of destroying a bridge over the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton railroad, near Glendale."
"2 A. M. A dispatch from Hamilton says it is believed that the main portion of Morgan's force is moving in that direction, going east. At this writing - quarter past 2 A. M. - it is the impression that Morgan's main force is going east, while he has sent squads to burn bridges on the C. H. & D. R. R., and over the Miami river, but he may turn and come down this way, on some of the roads leading through Walnut Hills or Mt. Auburn."
The next day it was apparent that Cincinnati was not to be attacked, and the officials began to comprehend something of Morgan's purpose. The militia, which, owing to incomplete organization, had not been of much service heretofore, began to be more effectively disposed: some at Camp Chase, for protection of the capital and to be thrown down into Southeastern Ohio to head off Morgan in front; others were assembled at Camp Dennison, to be sent after him by rail.
The Chase After Morgan. - All through the southern part of the State companies were mustered and hurried by extra trains to the points of danger. Hobson, who had done some remarkable marching, was only a few hours behind, and so close that Morgan had but little time burning bridges or impressments of fresh horses. Judah, with his troops, was dispatched by boats up the river to head off the galloping column. More than 50,000 militia, called out by Gov. Tod, were preparing to close in upon him from all parts of the state, and Morgan's raid now became a chase. An overwhelming force was now closing in upon him from every side. Thoroughly realizing his situation, Morgan hastened forward to the ford at Bluffington Island.
Excitement and Plundering. - In the meanwhile the excitement and apprehension throughout southern Ohio was unprecedented. Horses and cattle were hurried to hiding places in the woods; silver plate, jewelry, and other valuables were buried while families left their homes and fled to more secure territory. Many ridiculous things were done.
"At least one terrified matron, in a pleasant inland town, forty miles from the rebel route, in her husband's absence, resolved to protect the family's carriage-horse at all hazards, and, knowing no safer plan, led him into the house and stabled him in the parlor, locking and bolting the doors and windows, whence the noise of his dismal tramping on the resounding floor sounded through the livelong night like distant peals of artillery, and kept half the citizens awake and watching for Morgan's entrance."
Horses and food were taken whenever wanted by raiding parties on both sides during the war, but no such plundering was known as that of Morgan's raid. Duke frankly admits this. He says, "The disposition of the wholesale plunder exceeded anything that any of us had ever seen before. The men seemed actuated by the desire to pay off in the enemy's country all scores that the Union army had chalked up in the South. The great cause for apprehension which our situation might have inspired seemed only to make them reckless. Calico was the staple article of appropriation. Each man (who could get one) tied a bolt of it to his saddle, only to throw it away and get a fresh one at the first opportunity. They did not pillage with any sort of method or reason: it seemed to be a mania, senseless and purposeless. One man carried a bird-cage with three canaries in it for two days. Another rode with a chafing dish, which looked like a small metallic coffin, on the pommel of his saddle till an officer forced him to throw it away. Although the weather was intensely warm, another slung seven pairs of skates around his neck, and chuckled over the acquisition. I saw very few articles of real value taken; they pillaged like boys raiding an orchard. I would not have believed that such a passion could have been developed so ludicrously among any body of civilized men. At Piketon, Ohio, some days later, one man broke through the guard posted at a store, rushed in, trembling with excitement and avarice, and filled his pockets with horn buttons. They would, with few exceptions, throw away their plunder after a while, like children tired of their toys.'
Ridiculous action was not confined to Morgan's men. Some militia marched from Camp Dennison after Morgan until near Batavia, then halted, and felled trees across the road, "to check him should he return.' A drawbridge was partially destroyed at Marietta, although Morgan did not come within twenty miles of the place. At Chillicothe they fired on some of their own militia, and burned a bridge over a stream always fordable.
Morgan Reaches the Ford at Buffington Island. - The evening of July 14 Morgan encamped at Williamsburg, twenty-eight miles east of Cincinnati. From there he marched through to Washington C. H., Piketon (Col. Richard Morgan going through Georgetown), Jackson, Vinton, Berlin, Pomeroy, and Chester, reaching the ford at Buffington Island on the 18th. "At last the daring little column approached its goal. All the troops in Kentucky had been evaded and left behind. All the militia in Indiana had been dashed aside and outstripped. The 50,000 militia in Ohio had failed to turn it from its pre-determined path. Within precisely fifteen days from the morning it had crossed the Cumberland - nine days from its crossing into Indiana - it stood once more on the banks of the Ohio. A few more hours of daylight and it would be safely across, in the midst again of a population to which it might look for sympathy if not for aid. But the circle of the hunt was narrowing. Judah, with his fresh cavalry, was up, and was marching from the river against Morgan. Hobson was hard on his rear. Col. Runkle, commanding a division of militia, was north of him. And at last the local militia in advance of him were beginning to fell trees and tear up bridges to obstruct his progress. Near Pomeroy they made a stand. For four or five miles his road ran through a ravine, with occasional intersections from hill-roads. At all these crossroads he found the militia posted, and from the hills above him they made his passage through the ravine a perfect running of the gauntlet. On front, flank, and rear the militia pressed; and, as Morgan's first subordinate ruefully expresses it, 'closed eagerly upon our track.' In such plight he passed through the ravine, and shaking clear of his pursuers for a little, pressed on to Chester, where he arrive about one o'clock in the afternoon."
Battle at Bluffington Island. - Here he halted an hour and a half to breathe his horses and hunt a guide. This delay in the end proved fatal. This done, he pushed on and reached Portland, opposite Buffington Island, at eight in the evening. He found at the ford an earthwork hastily thrown up and guarded by a small body of men; it was a "night of solid darkness" as the rebel officers declared it, and the worn-out condition of horses and men decided him to wait the morning before attacking the earthwork and attempting to cross. Another for him unfortunate delay. "By morning Judah was up. At daybreak Duke advanced with a couple of rebel regiments and found it abandoned. He was rapidly making the dispositions for crossing when Judah's advance struck him. At first he repulsed it and took a number of prisoners, the adjutant-general of Judah's staff among them. Morgan then ordered him to hold the force on his front in check. He was not able to return to his command until it had been broken and thrown into full retreat before an impetuous charge of Judah's cavalry, headed by Lieutenant O'Neil, of the Fifth Indiana. He succeeded in rallying them and reforming his line. But now, advancing up the Chester and Pomeroy road, came the gallant cavalry that over three states had been galloping on their track - the three thousand of Hobson's command - who now for two weeks had been only a day, a forenoon, an hour behind them.
As Hobson's guidons fluttered out in the little valley by the river bank where they fought, every man of that band who had so long defied a hundred thousand knew that the contest was over. They were almost out of ammunition, exhausted, and scarcely two thousand strong. Against them were Hobson's three thousand and Judah's still larger force. To complete the overwhelming odds that, in spite of their efforts, had been concentrated up them, the tin-clad gunboats steamed up and opened fire.
Morgan comprehended the situation as fast as the hard riding troopers, who, still clinging to their bolts of calico, were already beginning to gallop toward the rear. He at once essayed to extricate his trains, and to withdraw his regiments by columns of fours from right of companies, keeping up meanwhile as sturdy a resistance as he might. For some distance the withdrawal was made in tolerable order; then under a charge of a Michigan cavalry regiment, everything was broken and the retreat became a rout. Morgan with not quite twelve hundred men escaped. His brother with Colonel Duke Ward Huffman, and about seven hundred men, were taken prisoner. This was the battle of Buffington Island. It was brief and decisive. But for his two grave mistakes of the night before Morgan might have avoided it and escaped.
The loss on the Union side was trifling, but among the killed was Major Dan'l McCook, farther of one of the tribes of the "Fighting McCooks."
Morgan Continues His Flight. - "And now began the dreariest experience of the rebel chief. Twenty miles above Buffington he struck for the river again, got three hundred of his command across, when the approaching gunboats checked the passage. Returning to the nine hundred still on the Ohio side he once more renewed the hurried flight. His men were worn down and exhausted by long continued and enormous work; they were demoralized by pillage, discouraged by shattering of their command, weakened most of all by their loss of faith in themselves and their commander, surrounded by a multitude of foes, harassed on every hand, intercepted at every loophole of escape, hunted like game night and day, driven hither and thither in their vain efforts to double on their remorseless pursuers. . . . Yet to the very last the energy of this daring cavalryman displayed was such as to exhort our admiration. From the jaws of disaster he drew out the remnants of his command at Buffington.
Crosses the Muskingham. - When foiled in the attempted crossing above, he headed for the Muskingham. Foiled here by the militia under Runkle, he doubled on his track and headed again toward Blennerhassett Island. The clouds of dust that marked his track betrayed the movement and on three sides his pursuers closed in on him. While they slept in peaceful expectation of receiving his surrender in the morning, he stole out along a hillside that had been thought impassable, his men walking in single file and leading their horses, and by midnight he was once more out of the toils, marching hard to outstrip his pursuers. At last he found an unguarded crossing of the Muskingham, at Eaglesport, above McConnelsville, and then with an open country before him, struck out once more for the Ohio.
The Surrender. - This time Gov. Tod's sagacity was vindicated. He urged the shipment of troops by rail to Bellaire, near Wheeling, and by great fortune, Major Way, of the Ninth Michigan Cavalry, received the orders. Presently his officer as on the scent. "Morgan is making for Hammondsville,' he telegraphed General Burnside on the 25th, and will attempt to cross the Ohio at Wellsville. I have my section of battery and will follow him closely.' He kept his word and delivered the finishing stroke. "Morgan was attacked with the remnant of his command at eight o'clock this morning,' announced General Burnside on the next day, "at Salineville, by Major Way, who after a severe fight, routed the enemy, killed about thirty, wounded some fifty, and took some two hundred prisoners. Six hours later the long race was ended: "I captured John Morgan today at two o'clock P. M.' telegraphed Major Rue, of the Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, on the evening of the 26th, "taking three hundred and thirty-six prisoners, four hundred horses and arms.'
Morgan and his men were confined in the Ohio penitentiary at Columbus; on the nigh of November 27 he with six others escaped by cutting through the stone floor of his cell (with knives from the kitchen table) until they reached an air chamber below, from which they tunneled through the walls of the prison and by means of ropes made from their bed clothes scaled the outer wall; hastening to the depot they boarded a train on the Little Miami railroad for Cincinnati, and when near that city they jumped from the train, made their way to the Ohio river, which they crossed and soon were within the Confederate lines. A year later Morgan was killed while on a raid in an obscure little village in East Tennessee.
The following letter written a few days after Morgan had passed through Butler county, is an amusing addition to the history of the raid. It was written by Mr. C. F. Warren, merchant, of Cincinnati, to his friend, H. H. Ford, Esq., of Barton, Geauga county, and dated Jones Station, July 19th. It is here for the first time published and is given as an illustration of the spirit of the times.
I returned last night after an absence of two weeks, during which time Morgan's forces passed through, creating great consternation throughout the country; they came within a mile an a half of us at the nearest point., and at Springdale, the little village just below us, they called up our butcher, Mr. Watson, at one o'clock at night, and bade him get some breakfast. He began to make excuses, among others no fire; Morgan suggested that it would be better for him to make the fire than for him to do it, as it might be inconvenient to put his fire out, so Watson took the hint and got their breakfast. After it was ready and the coffee on the table, Mrs. Watson was called to take a cup of it first, and none of them touched it until they were satisfied that she had not poisoned it.
They took horses from every man along the road, but did not take other property except forage for their horses and food for themselves. Mr. Jones, (a neighbor), and Newton (the hired man) were out scouting before and after they passed, and took one prisoner in the graveyard at Springdale and sent him to the city. As soon as he found he was covered by their rifles he began crying and begging not to be shot.
Morgan's men were very much fatigued, getting to sleep in their saddles and falling to the ground without waking. After they passed, Ned and a neighbor's boy, younger than he, and the darky concluded to follow them a while, and on their return met Hobson cavalry just out of Glendale. As soon as they saw them, Ned and the boy wheeled their horses into a cross road and called to the darky to follow; at the same time the cavalry were close to Newton and called on him to stop - they wanted his horse - and also that of the boy. Ned was on an old black and had on my spurs, and he put the horse to the top of his speed; he had to go round a half-square; two of the cavalry broke through the fence with their horses and thought to head them, but old black was too sharp for them, and when they saw that they could not catch them, they both discharged their pieces, the balls striking in a potato patch near them; by this time they had reached the Princeton pike, where they encountered two more and had another race and two more shots after them, but the worn-out and jaded horses were no match for the fresh ones the boys rode, and the later "made port with flying colors."
Newton in the meantime was caught and compelled to swap my bay mare Kate for a three-year-old filly, shoeless, footsore and unbroken to harness. . . . Nearly all the neighbors kept patrol around their premises, so there could be an immediate alarm given, and the scouts were going and coming to our station to telegraph Gen. Burnside. There are any amount of incidents connected with the passage of Morgan's troopers through the county that are interesting, as showing their contempt for Vallandigham copperheads; one old copper lost three horses and thought to get them back, if they only knew what he was. So he harnessed up the poorest horse he could get that would travel fast enough to catch them, and went after them, overtook the rear guard and told them he wanted to see the officer in command. The colonel came back and the old doctor began to say "that he was for Vallandigham, and opposed to the war," etc.
The colonel bade him drive up into the middle of the regiment, and as they could not be delayed they would listen to his complaints as they went along. Very soon word came to the colonel that two soldiers had given out entirely, and the colonel said to our doctor and his fellow-copperhead "that he should be under the necessity of using his wagon for the soldiers." The doctor protested vehemently, "could not ride on horse-back at all.: The colonel hinted that he need trouble himself about that, as he intended him to walk. After trudging along until his feet were blistered he began to complain again, that his boots hurt him so that he could not walk, and begged for his wagon again, but the colonel had a more convenient way of relieving him, and ordered a couple of soldiers to pull off his boots, which they did, and he went on in his stocking feet until they camped; his partner driving the wagon had not said anything about his politics all this time. After they had camped the doctor thought his troubles were over; but not so. They compelled him to learn a song and sing it, the chorus being, "I'll bet ten cents in specie that Morgan'll win the race."
This was the sentiment, but not the exact words; now, just imagine an old dignified chap, somewhat corpulent, who never smiled, the oracle of all the Democrats in the town where he lived, singing a song of that kind, set to a lively negro minstrel tune, and a soldier standing over him brandishing a saber and shouting at the top of his voice, "Go it, old Yank! Louder! Louder!" etc. - and you have the picture complete; after all this they were about to depart when the officer in command suddenly concluded the horse they were driving was better than some he had, and kindly permitted them to unharness him and put another in his place; they then took what money he had except nine dollars, and brought him three little rats of horses, whose backs were raw from the withers to the rump, gave him three cheers and started him for home.
Thus far since his return he has not been heard to say "Peace" once, or even "Hurrah for Vallandigham!" and it is extremely doubtful whether he will.
The doctor's companion was a sort of "Hail fellow, well met," and although begged not to tell the story could not possibly resist it; it was entirely too good to be kept.
The capture of Morgan occasioned great rejoicing, and Prentice, of the Louisville Journal, the newspaper wag of that era, alluding to the habitual seizure of horses by Morgan's men, suggested that a salute of one gun be fired for every stable door in the land. One who was present just after the surrender wrote: "Morgan's men were poorly dressed, ragged, dirty, and very poorly used up. Some of them wore remnants of grey uniforms, but most of them were attired in spoils gathered during the raid. They were much discouraged by the result of the raid and the prospect of affairs generally. Morgan himself appeared in good spirits and quite unconcerned at his ill luck. He is a well-built man, of fresh complexion, sandy hair and beard. He last night enjoyed for the first time in a long while the comforts of a sound sleep in a good bed. Morgan was attired in a linen coat, black pants, and white shirt and light felt hat. He has rather a mild face, there being certainly nothing in it to indicate unusual intellectual abilities." Reid says of him, "He left a name second only to those of Forrest and Stuart among the cavalrymen of the Confederacy, and a character, amid which much to be condemned, was not without traces of noble nature."
Among the anecdotes told of him during his raid through Ohio is this. A Union soldier, after his surrender, was in the act of breaking his musket across a rock, when one of Morgan's officers drew a revolver, intending to shoot him, which Morgan seeing at once forbade, and then added: "Never harm a man who has surrendered. In breaking his musket, he has done just as I would were I in his place."
Morgan was a lieutenant of cavalry in the Mexican war. At the opening of the civil war he was engaged in the manufacture of bagging at Lexington, Ky. During the winter of 1862-63 he commanded a cavalry force which greatly annoyed Rosencrans's communications. By his raids in Kentucky he destroyed millions in value of military stores, captured railroad trains and destroyed railroad bridges in rear of the national army, rendering it necessary to garrison every important town in the state. He moved with great celerity, and, taking a telegraph operator with him, he misled his foes and at the same time learned their movements. Morgan was physically large, powerful man and could endure any amount of bodily exertion, outriding and without sleep almost every other man in his command.
East Liverpool is on the Ohio river and a railway through the valley, the Cleveland and Pittsburg river division, 48 miles west of Pittsburg and about 100 miles southeast of Cleveland . It is very pleasantly located in the midst of the bold, picturesque scenery of the upper Ohio. It was first settled by Thomas Fawcett, who came from Pennsylvania about 1799. The name of St. Clair was given to the village after the township in which it was then situated, but it was called Fawcettstown for many years. In 1830 a post office was established with the name East Liverpool, to distinguish it from Liverpool in Medina county. From this time on the town gradually grew, and in 1834 the village of East Liverpool was incorporated.
East Liverpool has 4 newspapers: Crisis, Dem., J. C. Deibrick, publisher; Evening and Weekly Review, Rep., W. B. McCord, publisher; Potter's Gazette, Rep., Frank Scrawl, publisher; Tribune, Rep., J. N. Simms, editor. Churches: Episcopal, Catholic, Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Evangelical Lutheran and St. John's German Lutheran. Banks: First National, Josiah Thompson, president, F. D. Kitchel, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees. - McNicol, Burton & Co., pottery ware, 113 hands; Burford Brothers, pottery ware, 59; Dresden Co-operative Co., pottery ware, 222; S. & W. Baggot, pottery ware, 48; H. Brunt & Sons, 31; Rowe & Mounfort, pottery supplies, 35; Standard Cooperative Pottery Co., pottery ware, 61; Goodwin Brothers, pottery ware, 170; Golding & Sons Co., flint and spar, 8; C. C. Thompson & Co., pottery ware, 205; Cartwright Brothers, pottery ware, 84; Croxall & Cartwright, pottery ware, 47; Knowles, Taylor & Knowles, pottery ware, 613; A. J. Bover, machine work, 14; Monroe Patterson, pottery machinery, 5; George Morely & Sons, pottery ware, 49; J.Wyllie & Son, pottery ware, 66; Vodrey Brothers, pottery ware, 64; William Brunt, Son & Co., Pottery ware, 190; Homer Laughlin, pottery ware, 137; George Harker, pottery ware, 105; Friederick, Shenkle, Allen & Co., pottery ware, 50; Burgess & Co., pottery material, 22; R. Thompson & Sons, knob tops, 46; Wallace & Chetwynd, pottery ware, 101, - State Report for 1887.
[photo] H. Bower, Photo., East Liverpool, 1887.
Knowles, Taylor & Knowles POTTERY, EAST LIVERPOOL.
[The view shows what is said to be the largest pottery in capacity and production in the world. The fuel is natural gas. The decorating building appears on the left, the main works on the right and the hills on the Virginia side of the Ohio in the distance.]
Population in 1880, 5,568. School census in 1886, 2,582; A.J. Surface, superintendent.
The great feature of East Liverpool is its pottery industry. Being in the heart of a country rich in mineral and chemical deposits, it has grown to be the centre of the pottery interests of the United States. Although in the immediate vicinity of East Liverpool are valuable coal beds, most of its factories use natural gas.
The first pottery was established in 1840 by James Bennett for the manufacture of yellow ware from clay discovered in the vicinity of the town. Mr. Bennett was financially aided in this enterprise by Nathan Kearns and Benj. Harker. Almost immediately after, Harker established the present works of Geo. S. Harker & Co., but it was not until 1862 that any great progress was made, when Congress imposed a tariff of 40 percent on earthen ware, which resulted in giving a new impetus to the industry. Up to 1873 none but yellow ware had been produced. In that year Messrs. Knowles, Taylor & Knowles turned their attention to the production of white granite ware, meeting with success. Others followed their example, among them Homer and S. M. Laughlin, who in the autumn of the same year built a large factory for the production of white ware. Since then considerable attention has been given to the production of C. C., or cream-colored, ware and to decorative pottery. At the present time over fifty kilns are devoted to the manufacture of white ware, twelve or more to cream-colored ware and over thirty to yellow ware. The value of the yearly production of a white ware kiln is from $30,000 to $35,000, a C. C. kiln about $25,000 and a yellow ware kiln $15,000 to $18,000, while the annual output of all the potteries is more than $2,000,000.
Senator John Sherman, in an address at Liverpool, June 23, 1887, gave a very interesting account, from the standpoint of a perfectionist, of the growth and causes that led to the development of this great industry. Said he:
Several years ago I came among you, but I was not then as familiar with the great industry that has given you wealth and name throughout the land as well as abroad as I am now. I believe that the manufacturing of pottery or chinaware first assumed large proportions here in 1861 or 1862, but in that time it met with discouragements and did not prosper. At that time all, or nearly all, the white china used in this country was imported from England. The English manufacturers, hearing of your efforts and your success through their representatives, made strenuous effort to keep off a duty on their goods. You came to Congress and asked that a reasonable duty be placed upon imported white ware and decorated china that you might carry on successfully and profitably your industry. It was there that I first learned of the great industry you were pursing.
At that time this business was scarcely known in the United States. We had here in this locality all the clay and all the materials for manufacturing their goods, and you had the money and the pluck and ability to utilize them. But with English competition and cheap labor in that country you could not succeed. All the people in the West used common brown pottery because they could not afford to pay the high prices asked for imported ware. I have eaten my meals many a time from the brown plates or from the tin ware in the homes of good and honest men who could not afford to buy the English china. Owing to the encouragement given to the tariff after the war, this industry grew and you prospered. I then visited your town and your potteries and found you had been going ahead and were manufacturing superior ware, and in 1883, when an attempt was made to break down the tariff on these goods, with your true friend, Major McKinley, and others, we stood by you and the tariff was continued. A gentleman said to me East Liverpool cannot compete with England, and the attempts of the potteries in that place will be futile, and argued that it was better to break down the tariff and depend upon England. . . . . The result of the protection given you has driven English goods from our market, and it has brought English labor in your midst, skilled workmen who are making finer and better goods than England can make and selling them cheaper. I was astonished today when I saw the kind and class of goods you are making, and have never seen any decorated ware more beautiful or more delicate in Europe. The time is not far distant when the works of art in china from East Liverpool will sell as high and be in as great demand as the finest goods from Europe.
Your country here, fellow citizens, is beautiful; your hills are grand, and buried under you by the magic wand of the enchanter is that marvelous discovery, natural gas, which by the light of a friction match is even now illuminating the world, and will work revolutions in your potteries and in all the industries of the United States. You have coal or gas, railroad, a river and protection. Go on in good work, and East Liverpool will soon rival the old Liverpool of England.
May 2. -Came today from Martin's Ferry by rail through the valley to East Liverpool, passing Steubenville; returned at 8 P. M. to Steubenville. East Liverpool lies on undulating ground well elevated from the river and only two or three miles from that giant State, Pennsylvania. The potteries are somewhat scattered; some by the river bank; some on the second level near high valley hills.
The town is open, the buildings scattered, the streets wide and airy; one is named Broadway. A certain quarter, on a side hill, consists mainly of dwellings, and, being away from the observation of strangers, bears the eccentric appellation "Seldom Seen," so I was told, for by me it was "Never Seen."
The ride up the river was attractive, for from Steubenville one passes through several pottery villages, as Calumet, Toronto, Walker's, etc. This part of the valley is a hive of industry for the manufacture of what are called "clay goods." The development of this industry is enormous; it is estimated that of white ware alone E. Liverpool produces one-third of all manufactured in the United States; Trenton one-half, leaving one-sixth to the scattered establishments elsewhere.
[photo] Filson, Photo., Steubenville
The decline of Day on the Upper Ohio
[The view was taken near the close of day from Huscrosft's farm on the Richmond road about three miles above Steubenville, looking up the Ohio river. The Emglebright, or Half Moon farm appears in the distance on the right, or West Virginia side of the river.
Of white ware Knowles, Taylor & Knowles produce twice as much as any other two companies in the country. Besides the 500 hands employed under cover in their works they have 700 men in their pay in the country. They use fifteen tons of clay daily and turn out a crate of ware every ten minutes.
The shades of evening were over the valley when I boarded the cars for Steubenville. The scenery was impressive; the broad curving river and the bold lofty hills misty in the deepening shadows of the coming night loomed up almost alpine, their summit lines and forms in continuous change by the changing position of my outlook from the cars, now elongated and then massed in peaks. Surely no scenery could surpass it in grandeur. I remember nearly forty years since going through the same region in a steamer with the mother of the gifted
Willis said "nature uncorks her champagne twice a day, morning and evening." Then shade darkens into shade in infinite gradation, while the high lights on the distant water or the mountain summits attract with a power of beauty akin to Divine truth on the heart of man. On that long ago passage up the river it was towards the close of a day in early June that we sat on the upper deck and drank in the beauty of the upper Ohio. From the continual changes in the valley the river came under the eye of a succession of beautiful lakes bordered with grassy meadows and softly sloping wood-crowned hills.
Just above Steubenville, on the West Virginia side, is a spot known as the Englebright, or Half Moon farm, which is greatly admired. It occupies a broad expanse of meadow land a mile and a half long in the shape of a half moon, with the river on the west making the inner curve, while lofty hills frame the outer convex line.
Cole, the artist, in his youth, nearly seventy years ago, lived in Steubenville. He made studies of the Ohio river scenery and introduced it largely in his pictures, notably in his celebrated series, "The Voyage of Life." He was early famous for his exquisite paintings of our natural scenery, and took some specimens to England. The English critics, who knew nothing of the glories or our forests at that season, their own being devoid of any brilliancy of hue, pooh-poohed at his pictures as untruthful and farcical.
In traveling through the West one often meets with scenes that remind him of another land. The foreigner that makes his home upon American soil does not at once assimilate in language, modes of life, and current of thought with that congenial to his adopted country. The German emigrant is peculiar in this respect, and so much attached is he to his fatherland that years often elapse ere there is any perceptible change. The annexed engraving illustrates these remarks. It shows the mud cottage of a German Swiss emigrant, now standing in the neighborhood of others of like character, in the northwestern part of this county. The frame-work is of wood, with the interstices filled with light-colored clay, and the whole surmounted by a ponderous shingled roof a picturesque form. Beside the tenement hop vines are clustering around their slender supporters, while hard by stands the abandoned log-dwelling of the emigrant - deserted for one more congenial with his early predilections.
[photo] Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846. The Cottage of a German Swiss Emigrant.
The preceding paragraph is from our original edition. The Swiss cottage was in Knox township on the old State road about 60 rods west of Mahoning, and near the site of a Switzer cheese factory. This township was settled by Swiss and is noted for its manufacture of Switzer cheese.
On our first appearing in the county we unexpectedly came across this unique structure, when we alighted from old Pomp and made a pencil sketch for this engraving. On our second appearing we learned it had stood up to within a few years; and as there is, alas! nothing permanent in this, gone too must be that feeding curly tailed specimen in the foreground, whose sole business and high pleasure in life was to eat, grunt and grow fat; his usefulness to our kind coming when he should no longer eat but be eaten.
WELLSVILLE in 1846.- Wellsville is at the mouth of Yellow creek, on the great bend of the Ohio river, here it approximates nearest to Lake Erie, fifty miles below Pittsburg and fourteen from New Lisbon. It was laid out in the autumn of 1824 by William Wells, from whom it derived its name. Until 1828 it contained but a few buildings; it is now an important point for the shipment and transshipment of goods, and does a large business with the surrounding country. The landing is one of the best, in all stages of water, on the river. This flourishing town has 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Reformed Methodist, and 1 Disciples church, 1 newspaper printing office, 1 linseed-oil and 1 saw-mill, 1 pottery, 1 raw-carding machine, 1 foundry, 16 mercantile stores, and in 1840 had a population of 759, and in 1846, 1,066. The view, taken from the Virginia bank of the Ohio, shows but a small part of the town. About a mile below, on the river-bank, in a natural grove, are several beautiful private dwellings. The "Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad," ninety-seven miles in length, will commence at Cleveland and terminate at Wellsville, and whenever built will tend to make Wellsville a place of great business and population. A survey for this work has recently been made, and there is a good prospect of its being constructed. - Old Edition.
[photo] Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846.
Wellsville, on the Ohio.
Wellsville, situated on the Ohio river, at the confluence of Little Yellow creek, forty-eight miles below Pittsburg, on the P. C. & W. R. R. Newspapers: Evening Journal, Independent, Edward B. Clark, publisher; Union, Republican, F. M. Hawley, publisher; Saturday Review, W. B. McCORD, publisher. Churches: Presbyterian, Methodist, Disciples, Episcopal, Catholic, and Baptist. Banks: First National, J. W. Reilly, president, James Henderson, cashier; Silver Banking Company, Thomas H. Silver, president, F. W. Silver, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees. - C. & P. R. R. shops, railroad repairs, 295 hands; Wellsville Plate and Sheet-Iron Company, plate and sheet-iron, 210; Wellsville Terra-Cotta Works, sewer-pipe, etc., 45; Whitacre & Co., wood-turning, 45; Stevenson & Co., sewer-pipe machinery, 25; J. Patterson & Son, yellow-ware, 32; Pioneer Pottery Works, white granite-ware, 87.-State Report for 1887. Population in 880, 3,377. School census, 1,386; James L. McDonald, superintendent.
Walker's, forty-six miles below Pittsburg, on the Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad, two miles east of Wellsville and two west of East Liverpool, is the location of the oldest and most extensive works in America manufacturing terra-cotta and vitrified clay gods. The works are built at the foot of the highest bluff on the Ohio between Pittsburg and Cairo, with a frontage of more than a mile on the river. Here are over 300 acres of land rich in clay and coal, on which are erected factories and dwellings for operatives. The deposits of clay are said to be the richest and largest in the Union, yielding a great variety of clays suitable for fire-brick, sewer-pipe, and fancy terra-cotta wares. This great industry was established in 1852 by Mr. N. U. Walker.
The place has the advantage of low freightage to all points on the Ohio and Mississippi. The Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad also runs through the works, with ample sidings and direct communications with all main lines running east and west.
The Ohio "Geological Report" says: "Nearly all the river works make terra-cotta, but at N. U. Walker's the best ware of the district and the most of it is made. His daily product would amount to twenty-four tons of ware-about twenty in flues, etc., and four in statuary and finer grades of work.
Leetonia, at the intersection of the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R. and Niles and New Lisbon R. R. was laid out in 1866 by the Leetonia Coal and Iron Company, of which William Lee, a railroad contractor, was one of the incorporators, and from him the village took its name. In 1866 the post-office was opened and first hotel started. Few places in the State can show such rapid growth in the same period of time. In 1865 it had but a single farmhouse; in 1870 a population of 1,800; it now contains about 3,000. Newspaper: Democrat, Democratic. T. S. Arnold; publisher. Churches: Presbyterian, Methodist, Disciples, Catholic, Lutheran. Bank: First National, William Smick, president, W. G. Hendricks, cashier.
Manufactures and Employees. - Cherry Valley Iron Company, pig, bar, and muck-iron, 360 hands; Grafton Iron Company, pig-iron, 70; Randall, Rankin & Co., flour and feed; Leetonia Boiler-Works Company, boilers and bridges - State Report. Population in 1880, 2,522. School census 1886, 948; G. W. Henry, superintendent.
COLUMBIANA, sixty miles from Pittsburg, on the P. Ft. W. & C. R. R. Newspaper: Independent Register, Republican, John Flauger, publisher. Churches: Reformed, Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian and Lutheran. Bank: J. Esterly & Co., J. Esterly, manager; Shilling & Co., S. S. Shilling, manager.
Principal Industries. -Enterprise Works, formerly Columbiana Pump Works; Eureka Flouring Mills; two bending works, planning mill, and extensive buggy manufacturing. Census in 1880, 1,223. School census in 1886, 948; G. W. Henry, superintendent.
SALINEVILLE, on Yellow creek and P. Ft. & W. R. R., sixty-three miles from Pittsburg. Newspaper: Ohio Advance, J. K. Smith, proprietor. Churches: Methodist, Presbyterian, Disciples and Catholic. Bank: Cope & Thompson. Principal industries: manufacturing salt and coal-mining. Population in 1880, 2,302. School census in 1886, 974; William H. Hill, superintendent.
East Palestine, formerly called Mechanicsburg, was incorporated in 1875. Newspapers: Valley Echo, Independent, T. W. & R. M. Winter, publisher; Reveille, S. H. Maneval, publisher. Churches: 2 Presbyterian, 1 United Brethren, 1 Methodist. Bank: Chamberlain Bros. & Co. Principal industry: coal-mining. Population in 1880, 1,047. School census in 1886, 626; G. B. Galbraith, superintendent.
Washingtonville, on the boundary-line of Columbiana and Mahoning counties, and on the Niles and New Lisbon R. R., about one and a-half miles north of Leetonia. It claims a population of about 1,600 people; the main occupation being coal-mining and coke-burning. The principal mines are operated by the Cherry Valley Company, of Leetonia. They also operate between twenty and thirty coke ovens.
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