Hamilton County Ohio
Genealogy and History

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The CARY Sisters
Robert Cary, the father of Alice and Phoebe Cary, came to the "Wilderness of Ohio," from New Hampshire, in 1803. He was then but fifteen years of age. The family of which he was a member, travelled in an emigrant wagon to Pittsfield, and thence on a flat-boat down the Ohio river to Fort Washington. After remaining there a few years a purchase of land was made, eight miles north of this "settlement," on the Hamilton road.
In 1814 Robert Cary was married to Elizabeth Jessup, and a home was established upon a quarter section of the original purchase of the father, Christopher Cary. The farm afterwards became the "Clovernook"of Alice Cary's charming stories. But it was a home by actual possession only after long years of the closest economy and industry. Debt hung over the toiling parents like a dark cloud, and its influence was not unfelt by even the smaller children. In the year 1831 was born the youngest of nine children, of whom Alice was the fourth and Phoebe the sixth. Quoting from Alice's words, she once said: "The first fourteen years of my life it seemed as if there was actually nothing in existence but work. The whole family struggle was just for the right to live free from the curse of debt. My father worked early and late; my mother's work was never done."
But even in such a plain, unpretentious place as the little unpainted story-and-a-half house was, in which so many years of the poets' lives were passed, there was something worthy of a tender love and remembrance. Again and again, in poetry and prose, the blessed old home of their girlhood comes into view. Phoebe's poem, "Our Homestead," is especially simple and beautiful in its description of the old brown dwelling and its surrounding apple and cherry trees, old- fashioned roses and sweetbriar. And nothing could go more directly to the heart than Alice's words on the same theme in that sweetest of descriptive poems, "An Order for a Picture." Out of all she had ever written, that was the poem she most loved. We give the poem entire:
[long poem omitted]

Although the life of a pioneer in "the Far West" was surrounded by privations of every kind, Robert Cary and his wife must have made excellent use of their scanty privileges. Phoebe thus describes her father in her memorial of her older sister: "He was a man of superior intelligence, of sound principles, and blameless life. He was fond of reading, especially romance and poetry, but early poverty and the hard exigencies of pioneer life had left him no time for acquiring anything more than the mere rudiments of a common school education, and the consciousness of his want of culture, and an invincible diffidence, born with him, gave him a shrinking, retiring manner, and a want of confidence in his own judgment, which was inherited to a large measure by his offspring. He was a tender, loving father, who sang his children to sleep with holy hymns, and habitually went to work repeating the grand old Hebrew poets, and the sweet and precious promises of the New Testament of our Lord." Ada Carnahan, the child of Rowena, his oldest daughter, thus speaks of him: "Of his children, Alice the most resembled him in person, and all the tender and close sympathy with nature, and with humanity, which in her fond expression had in him an existence as real, if voiceless." The wife of this man, the mother of the poet sisters, was by every one called beautiful Among the many loving words his gifted daughters spoke of her are the following: "My mother was a woman of superior intellect and of good, well-ordered life. In my memory she stands apart from all others, wiser, purer, doing more and living better than any other woman. She was fond of history, politics, moral essays, biography, and works of religious controversy. Poetry she read, but cared little for fictitious literature." From such a parentage, what a wealth of intellectual and moral strength might their children receive. From their father they inherited the poetic temperament, the love of nature, their loving and pitying hearts that reached out even to poor dumb creatures. From their mother they inherited their interest in public affairs, their .passion for justice, their devotion to truth and duty as they saw it, their clear perceptions, and sturdy common sense.
The year 1837 found the poets, aged respectively seventeen and thirteen, just beginning to put into broken measure the songs their full hearts could no longer conceal. During the preceding four years they had learned unwilling lessons in the school of sorrow, Rhoda, the sister next older and the beloved companion of Alice had died, the little household pet, Lucy, had followed a month later, and the weary mother soon after had been laid away to rest.
Now a new hand was at the helm. An unsympathetic presence was in the home of their girlhood-work was the ultimatum of all human endeavor-study was a waste of time, and candle-light could not be squandered on writing when a single piece of knitting or needlework remained incomplete. But what opportunities for mental improvement there offered in the little old district school-house, a mile distant, or on the meagre bookshelves at home or in the neighborhood were as well improved as their leisure moments would permit. When candles were denied them, a saucer of lard with a rag wick served instead, and thus, "for ten long years, they studied and wrote, and published without pecuniary recompense." The Trumpet, a paper published by the Universalists, read by Robert Cary and his wife from its first issue to the close of their lives, was for many years the only paper Alice had any opportunity of seeing, and its Poet's Corner was the only source from which she could draw. With such meagre fare her genius was slow of growth. Before the age of fifteen we only find revisions of old poems found in her school-books, and here and there in her copy-books a page or two of original rhymes.
Phoebe, at the age of fourteen, secretly sent a poem to a Boston newspaper, and while waiting in suspense its acceptance, was astonished to find it copied in a Cincinnati paper.
For several years of their early lives as poets, the various publications of Cincinnati formed the principal medium through which they began to be known. The Ladies' Repository, of Boston, Graham's Magazine, and the National Era, of Washington, also received and published their productions. The first money received by Alice for her literary work was from the Era, after which she furnished that paper contributions regularly, for a small sum in payment.
After a time responses began to come to that western home Edgar Allan Poe named Alice's Pictures of Memory one of the most musically perfect lyrics in our language. Words of encouragement had come to the sisters from not a few men of letters, among them John G. Whittier. In 1849 Horace Greeley visited them at their home. The same year Phoebe writes: "We have been very busy collecting and revising all our published poems. Rev. R. W. Griswold, quite a noted author, is going to publish them for us this summer." This little volume, entitled Poems of Alice and Phoebe Carey, was the first condensed result of their twelve years of study, privation, aspiration, labor, sorrow, and youth.
In the late autumn of 1850, Alice set out alone to seek her fortune. A shy, sensitive young person would hardly be the one to brave the terrors of city life, and that city New York. But something besides ambition and fame drove her to undertake this perilous work in her own girlish strength. Naturally loving, tender, devoted to her friends, she did what any true feminine nature would have done-received and returned tenfold the love proffered her by one who was the centre of every picture of her future life. "A proud and prosperous family brought all their pride and power to bear on a son, to prevent his marrying a girl to them uneducated, rustic, and poor." "I waited for one who never came back," she said. But she was not weak enough to relinquish her life because of one sad experience. Under her feminine sympathy and tenderness lay a strong foundation of will, common sense, and love for justice and truth. She outlived the pain and humiliation, and could even look upon the circumstance with pity. She had many and flattering offers of marriage in after years, but would never again promise her hand.
The following year the older sister was joined by Phoebe and their younger sister, Elmina. They at once rented a modest suite of rooms in an unfashionable neighborhood, and proceeded to maintain a home by their work. They papered the walls, painted the doors, and framed the pictures with their own hands. Limiting themselves to such necessities as their pens could pay for, they gradually improved their surroundings and added luxuries as their poems and prose productions became more and more in demand.
With increasing fame and recompense, came the power to surround themselves with articles of elegance and beauty, for which in their early poverty they had so pined. The home on Twentieth street, on which they bestowed so much taste and in which they afterward passed their last days on earth, became theirs through long years of industry. Their writings were copied widely, and, alone or conjoined, grew into many volumes. The "Clovernook Papers" were translated into French, and the London Literary Gazette commended them in no doubtful terms. During twenty years Alice produced eleven volumes, and Phoebe, besides aiding in the editing of several books, the most important of which was "Hymns for all Christians," published two books; and at their death there remained uncollected poems enough to form two volumes for each name.
Mary Clemmer, in her graceful and loving tribute to these sister singers, says: "I have never known any other woman so systematically and persistently industrious as Alice Cary. Hers was truly the genius of patience. No obstacle ever daunted it, no pain ever stilled it, no weariness ever overcame it, till the last weariness of death."
In 1862 Elmina died, after which event the older sister seemed struggling hourly with disease. The year 1871 found the two remaining hard at work, but the following year looked out upon their graves. On Tuesday, February 7th, Alice wrote her last poem, of which the last line was- "The rainbow comes but with the cloud."
As her strength left her, she asked her friends frequently to sing the hymns of her childhood, such as "Jesus, Lover of my Soul," and "Show pity, Lord; O, Lord, forgive;" and she wished also the old tunes. February 13th a telegram swept through the country, saying: "Alice Cary died yesterday." The announcement called out a response from every journal in the land, and the biographical notices that followed everywhere spoke of her rather as a beloved friend than a talented author.
The effort Phoebe made to be brave after Alice's death was almost pitiful to her friends. "She opened the windows to admit the sunlight, she filled her room with flowers, she refused to put on mourning, and tried to interest herself in general plans for the advancement of woman." But it was a vain attempt. The life so bound up in another's for a period of years, drooped when left alone. Phoebe Cary died July 31, 1871. Greenwood cemetery is honored with their last remains. Phoebe's poem of poems, from which came to her the fame of which her simple heart so little dreamed, is "Nearer Home." It has filled a page in nearly every book of sacred song printed since its composition. It has been the favorite in Sabbath-school melody, and in the services of the church of every denomination. Its measures have given voice to the sufferer as the last hour approached, and convicted the child of sin far away from the restraints of friends and home; and yet the writer claimed for it little intellectual worth.
[another poem omitted] [Source: "History of Cincinnati, Ohio: with illustrations and biographical sketches",compiled by Henry A. Ford and Kate B. Ford. L.A. Williams & Co., 1881. KS - Sub by FoFG]

Cary, Miss Alice, poet, born near Cincinnati, Ohio, in April, 1820, died in New York City, 12th February, 1871. The family to which she belonged claimed kindred with Sir Robert Cary, who was a doughty knight in the reign of Henry V of England, and with Walter Cary, who fled with the Huguenots from France to England after the revocation by Louis XIV of the Edict of Nantes. His son Walter, educated in Cambridge, came to the Colonies soon after the landing of the Mayflower and settled in Bridgewater. Mass., only sixteen miles from Plymouth Rock. He there opened a grammar school, probably the first one in America. He w as the father of seven sons. One of the seven, John, settled in Windham, Conn., and of his five sons, the youngest, Samuel, was the great-grandfather of Alice and Phoebe Cary. Samuel was graduated from Yale College, studied medicine and practiced in Lyme. His son, Christopher, at the age of eighteen entered the Revolutionary army. After peace was declared, Christopher received a land grant, or warrant, and settled in Hamilton county, Ohio. His son, Robert, was the father of the famous Cary Sisters, and of several other children, all of whom were persons of poetic temperament and fine intellectual powers. Alice Cary began to show her poetical talent at an early age. She wrote poetry when she was eighteen, much of which was published. Her mother, a woman of English descent, died in 1835, and her father married a second time and maintained a separate home near the cottage in which Alice, Phoebe and Elmira lived. In 1850 Alice and Phoebe decided to remove to New York City. They had won a literary reputation, and they had means to carry out their ambitious projects. Alice made her first literary venture in a volume of poems, the work of herself and her sister Phoebe, which was published in Philadelphia in 185o. Its favorable reception had much to do in causing the sisters to leave "Clovernook" and settle in New York. In 1851 Alice brought out the first series of her "Clovernook Papers," prose sketches of character, which won immediate success. Several large editions were sold in the United States and Great Britain. A second series, issued in 1853, was equally successful. In 1854 she published ''The Clovernook Children," a juvenile work, which was very successful. Alice published her first volume of verse in 1853, entitled " Lyra and Other Poems." It met with ready sale, and a second and enlarged edition was published in 1855, which contained "The Maiden of Tlascala," a long narrative poem. Her first novel, "Hagar," published as a serial in the Cincinnati "Commercial," was issued in a volume in 1852. Another novel, "Married, not Mated," appeared in 1856, and her last novel, "The Bishop's Son," was published in 1867. Her "Pictures of Country Life" appeared in 1859. Alice Cary contributed many articles to "Harper's Magazine" to the "Atlantic Monthly," to the New York "Ledger" and the "Independent."
In those periodicals she published her earlier stories as serials. Her latest volumes were " Lyrics and Hymns" (1866), "The Lover's Diary" and "Snow Berries, a Book for Young Folks" (1867). Miss Cary and her sister entertained many prominent persons of their day in their New York home, among whom were Horace Greeley, John Greenleaf Whittier, Bayard Taylor and his wife, Mrs. Croly, Miss Anna E. Dickinson, Madame Le Vert, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Mrs. Mary E. Dodge and others. Her home was a social and literary center. When Sorosis was formed, she became its first president. She was an invalid for several years before her death, and was tenderly cared for by her stronger sister. She is today more generally remembered by her poems than for her numerous and valuable prose works. The one romance of Alice Cary's life is told in the story of an engagement, in her early days of poverty and obscurity, to a young man who was forced by his family to break his plighted troth. Her poems reflect the sadness of her temperament that was supposed to have been influenced by that occurrence. She was a Universalist, and her religion was summed up in the simple creed of serving humanity, doing good and blessing the race.
[Source: American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow]

Miss Phoebe Cary
Cary, Miss Phoebe, poet, born in Hamilton county, near Cincinnati, Ohio, 24th September, 1824, and died in Newport, R. I., 31st July, 1871. Her early educational advantages were superior to those of her sister Alice, whose constant companion she was through life, and from whom she differed radically in person, in mind and in temperament. Phoebe, like her sister, began to write verses at the age of seventeen. One of her earliest poems, "Nearer Home," written in 1842, has achieved a world-wide reputation. The story of her early life, the loss of her mother, the re-marriage of her father, the want of harmony with the stepmother, and the maintenance of a separate home, is told in the story of her sister's life. Her poems are her chief productions Her genius did not take kindly to prose. Her verses were very diferent from those of her sister. Phoebe was a woman of cheerful and independent temper, and her verses were sparkling and hopeful, sunny and cheering, while those of Alice were more somber and redolent of the mournfulness of life. Some of her earlier productions were published in the "Ladies' Repository," in "Graham's Magazine," and in the Washington "National Era." Phoebe was in society a woman of wit and brilliancy, but always kind and genial. She and her sister, in their New York City home, after they had become famous and popular, did many kindly deeds to encourage and bring out obscure young authors of promise. Phoebe was the more robust of the sisters, and, after they had settled in New York City, she from choice assumed the greater share of the household duties, and thereby shortened her time for literary labor, while giving Alice, who was in delicate health for many years, greater opportunities for her literary musings. One of the most touching tributes to the dead ever written is the tribute to Alice, written by Phoebe only a few days before her own death. It was published in the "Ladies' Repository." Phoebe's robust health was not sufficient to carry her through the trial of her sister's death. Weakened by intense sorrow, she began to fail after Alice's death. Her prostration was intensified by a malarial attack, and she was taken to Newport, R. I., for a change of air and scenes. The change delayed, but could not avert, the blow. She grew gradually weaker and died there. Like her sister, Phoebe is mainly regarded as a poet. Her contributions to the " Poems of Alice and Phoebe Cary" (Philadelphia, 1850), number one-third of those contained in that volume. Her independent volumes are "Poems and Parodies" (Boston, 1854), "Poems of Faith, Hope and Love" (New York, 1867), and a large number of the poems in "Hymns for all Christians" (1869). Both of the sisters were women of great native refinement.
[Source: American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow]

Charles E. M. Champ
CHAMP, Charles E. M., manufacturer vehicle and automobile springs; born, Cincinnati, Apr. 11, 1853; son of Charles and Sarah (Barnard) Champ; educated in public schools of Cleveland; married, Cleveland, Nov. 26, 1876, Sophia F. Farrell; children: Lulu M., Ina E., Norman B. Began business career as an apprentice in spring factory in Cleveland; removed to St. Louis, 1881, and established in manufacture of vehicle springs; in 1896 organized Champ Spring Co., of which is president and general manager; in 1900 organized the Cincinnati and Hammond Spring Co., of Cincinnati, of which is president; vice president and general manager Western 8pring and Axle Co.; general manager Rice Coil Spring Co., of St. Louis. Member Business Men's League (made Panama trip, February, 1912). Member Implement and Vehicle Board of Trade. Republican. Presbyterian. Member Royal Arcanum, Legion of Honor. Clubs: Missouri Athletic, Arcadia Country. Favorite recreations: farming and fishing. Office: 2109 to 2119 Chouteau Ave. Residence: Good Wood Farm, St. Louis Co.
[Source: "The Book of St. Louisans", Publ. 1912. Transcribed by Charlotte Slater]

Mrs. Caroline Van Deusen Chenoweth
Chenoweth, Mrs. Caroline Van Deusen, vice-consul and educator, born at the summer home of her parents, on the Ohio river, opposite Louisville, Ky., 29th December, 1846. She is the youngest daughter of Charles Van Deusen and Mary Huntington, his wife. The winters of her early life were passed in New Orleans, La., where was also the residence of her mother's family. Her academic training was had in the St. Charles Institute, New Orleans, and Moore's Hill College, near Cincinnati. She became the wife, while still in her girlhood, of Col. Bernard Peel Chenoweth, the son of Rev. Alfred Griffith Chenoweth, of Virginia. Mrs. Chenoweth has always held liberal views relative to woman's work, and the simple naturalness with which she has lived according to her faith is hardly less remarkable than the unusual and brilliant character of her achievements. For fourteen months following her marriage in 1863, she performed faithfully and with patriotic fervor the onerous duties of a military clerk to Col. Chenoweth, thereby returning to duty in the ranks, and as her substitute on the field, the soldier detailed for this clerical work. When Col. Chenoweth was made superintendent of schools in Worcester, Mass., Mrs. Chenoweth took the examination required for teachers, that she might be of service in the event of need. It was during her husband's term of office as United States Consul in Canton, China, that she was able to render her most efficient aid. Upon one occasion she sat as vice-consul in an important land case between one of the largest American houses and a wealthy Chinese. She reserved her decision for several days, until it could be submitted to Col. Chenoweth, then some eighty miles distant, under medical care, who promptly returned it unchanged, with direction that she should officially promulgate it as his duly accredited representative. Thenceforth, until Col. Chenoweth's death, several months later, the affairs of the consulate were conducted by Mrs. Chenoweth. She is believed to be the only woman who has ever held diplomatic correspondence with a viceroy of China upon her own responsibility. She was officially recognized in her vice-consular capacity upon her return to Washington to settle her husband's affairs with the Department of State, and was cordially complimented by Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, for the thoroughness and skill with which her mission was accomplished. The effort was made by influential friends in Massachusetts to return Mrs. Chenoweth to Canton as United States consul, a measure to which President Grant extended his warm approval and the promise of his support, provided his Secretary of State could be won over. The later life of Mrs. Chenoweth has been a most studious and laborious one, the more so that the support and education of her two sons fell to her unaided care. For some years she taught private classes in Boston, and was for a time professor of English literature in Smith College. Her interests are varied, and her literary work is graceful as well as full of energy. Her essays relating to experimental psychology are scholarly and abreast of the freshest thought. She is a member of the London Society for Psychical Research, as well as of many other working societies, among which are the Brooklyn Institute, the New York Dante Society, and the Medico-Legal Society of New York. Her sketches of child-life in China are quaint and sweet. Her "Stories of the Saints " (Boston, 1882) is rich in an old-world charm. The book was written for some children of Dr. Phillips Brooks' parish in Boston, of which she was for twenty years a member. She now resides in New York City.
[Source: American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow]

Mrs. Eliza Archard Conner
Conner, Mrs. Eliza Archard, journalist and lecturer, was born on a farm near Cincinnati, Ohio. Her ancestors were among the pioneers of southern Ohio, and one of them founded the town of New Richmond. Her maiden name was Eliza Archard. She was educated in Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, taking the full course in classics and higher mathematics. In 1869 she became the wife of Dr. George Conner, of Cincinnati. In her early years she was a teacher, part of the time instructor in Latin and German in the Indianapolis high school. There her persistent refusal to accept less wages than had been previously paid to a man teacher for doing the same work resulted in the passing of a rule by the school board that teachers of both sexes in the high school should receive the same salary, a rule that remains in force to this day. Her first newspaper contribution was printed when she was thirteen years old. In 1865 she became a regular contributor to the "Saturday Evening Post," of Philadelphia, under the name of "Zig." Later she wrote for the Cincinnati "Commercial," signing the initials E. A. Her contributions attracted attention. In 1878 she became a member of the editorial staff of the "Commercial." She went to New York City in 1884 as literary editor of the "World" In 1885 she accepted a place on the editorial staff of the American Press Association syndicate in New York. She is a member of Sorosis and of the New York Women's Press Club. Mrs. Conner has probably written as much newspaper matter as any other woman living. In editorial writing she furnishes regularly two columns daily of a thousand words each. She has done all kinds of newspaper work, from police-court reporting up. Her letters to the Cincinnati "Commercial" from Europe were published in a volume called "E. A. Abroad" (Cincinnati, 1883). She has also written several serial stories. An important part of her work for the American Press Association has been the preparation of a series of newspaper pages of war history, descriptive of the battles of the Civil War. In her girlhood Mrs. Conner entered enthusiastically into the struggle for the emancipation and advancement of women. She originated classes in parliamentary usage and extempore speaking among women. Wherever occasion permitted, she has written and spoken in favor of equal pay for equal work, and of widening the industrial field for women. As a speaker she possesses the magnetic quality. She is deeply interested in psychological studies and in oriental philosophy, accepting the ancient doctrine of repeated incarnation for the same individual. She is an enthusiast on the subject of physical culture for women, believing that mankind were meant to live out-doors and sleep in houses.
[Source: American Women Fifteen Hundred Biographies Vol. 1, by Frances Elizabeth Willard & Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, Publ. 1897. Transcribed by Marla Snow]

Lafayette Crowley
A man of broad experience and fine technical ability in connection with his chosen line of endeavor, the late Lafayette Crowley was for many years actively and prominently identified with industrial interests in Detroit, where he was an interested principal in the Detroit Stove "Works, of the great plant of which he was superintendent for more than a quarter of a century. He wielded much influence in furthering the success of the splendid enterprise and continued the incumbent of the position noted until his death which occurred on the 10th of May, 1909. He brought to bear a thorough knowledge of all details of the business, was possessed of distinctive executive and administrative ability, was indefatigable in his application, and his unassuming sincerity and inviolable integrity of purpose gained and retained to him the confidence and esteem of those with whom he came in contact. He was held in the highest regard by his associates and also by the many employees of the great concern over whose practical workings he had charge. In his death Detroit lost a vigorous and productive business man and a citizen of sterling character, his standing in the community having been such as to justify emphatically a tribute to his memory in this history of the city in which he so long maintained his home.

Lafayette Crowley was born in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 16th of August, 1846, and was a son of John B. and Julia (McCarthy) Crowley, both of whom were of staunch Irish lineage. Limited educational advantages were the portion of Mr. Crowley in his youth, but through self-discipline, in night study and well directed reading, as well as through close association with the practical affairs of life, he became a man of broad information and fine intellectual ken, thus effectively making good the handicap of earlier years. He was specially well informed concerning mechanical matters and was a recognized authority in connection with details of the iron-manufacturing industry, with some form of which he was identified during the entire course of his long and worthy business career. When but a boy he entered upon an apprenticeship in a foundry in his native city, and he learned both the practical and scientific details of the business, in connection with which he became an expert artisan. He finally went to the city of St. Louis, Missouri, where for many years he was one of the most valued employees of the Excelsior Manufacturing Company, in which he was advanced to an executive office of important order. He continued to maintain his home in the Missouri metropolis until 1880, when he came to Detroit and assumed the office of superintendent of the Detroit Stove Works, in which he became a stockholder. With all of energy and discrimination he supervised the practical affairs of the great industrial enterprise during the years which marked its up building to its present important, status, and he held the position of superintendent until he was summoned from the scene of life's mortal endeavors.

An alert mentality and mature judgment characterized Mr. Crowley, and not only was his nature one of intrinsic strength and nobility but he was also kindly and tolerant in his association with others, buoyant and optimistic in temperament, and ever considerate of the rights and opinions of those with whom he came in contact in the various relations of life. In short, his was a symmetrical character, and while he never sought public office or had any desire for its plaudits, he was broad-minded and progressive as a citizen and ever loyal to civic duties and responsibilities. He won and retained friends, and of this fact marked evidence was given when he was summoned to eternal rest, for from many and widely varying sources came expressions of sincere loss and deep appreciation. His remains were laid to rest in Woodlawn cemetery, and the record of his life constitutes his most worthy and enduring monument. He was the architect of his own fortune and made the most possible of his life.-a true type of the world's constructive worker.

Mr. Crowley's political allegiance was given to the Republican party and his religious faith was that of the Protestant Episcopal church, which he regularly attended with his family. His interests centered in his home, whose relations were of ideal order, and when not applying himself to his business affairs, which engrossed the major part of his time and attention, he found his greatest solace and pleasure in his home. Thus he did not manifest a predilection for identification with clubs and fraternal organizations, though he was a popular member of the Detroit Club for many years prior to his demise, lie died at Atlantic City, New Jersey, where the family maintained a summer home, and his remains were brought to Detroit for interment. Of Mr. Crowley it may well be said, in the words of Victor Hugo, that "he could toil terribly" and his active career was one of the closest and most assiduous application to business. He developed the resources of his individuality to the fullest extent and made his life count for good in its every relation, so that he left not only the heritage of a good name but also the record of work well done.

On the 4th of January. 1890, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Crowley to Miss Lavinia Borgman, who was born and reared in Detroit and who is a daughter of Martin V. and Bessie A. (Welbon) Borgman, who still reside in this city, where the father has long been prominent in business and public affairs. He served many years as chief of the Detroit police department and later held for a number of years the office of superintendent of the Detroit House of Correction. Mrs. Crowley still resides in the beautiful home at 192 McDougall avenue, and the same, under her gracious supervision, is a center of unassuming and generous hospitality. Mr. and Mrs. Crowley became the parents of two children, ? Fayetta Cecelia, who is the wife of Donald M. D. Thurber, of Detroit: and Catherine B., who remains with her widowed mother and is a popular factor in the social activities of the younger folk in her native city.
[Source: "History of Detroit: A chronicle of its progress and its industries... " Volume 2 by Paul Leake, 1912 - CW - Sub by FoFG]

Giffen Culbertson
Culbertson, Giffen, banker of Long Island, N.Y., was born in 1857 in Pennsylvania. He is president of the Commercial State bank. Culbertson, John James, manufacturer of 45 Cedar st., New York City, was born March 16. 1853. in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is president of the Jackson Cotton Oil company and other corporations.
[Source: "Herringshaw's American Blue-Book of Biography" by Thomas William Herringshaw and American Publishers' Association, 1914 - TK - Sub by FoFG]


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