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Ohio Genealogy and History
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County Description
and Early History


Source: "Historical Collections of Ohio: An Encyclopedia of the State; ..." By Henry Howe
Pg. 237 - 247

JACKSON COUNTY was organized in March, 1816. Area about 410 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 43,961 ; in pasture, 101,544 ; woodland, 42,499 ; lying waste, 5,226 ; produced in wheat, 96,726 bushels ; rye, 2,890 ; buckwheat, 137; oats, 66,488; corn, 214,006; meadow hay, 12,918 tons; potatoes, 15,759 bushels; butter, 262,410 lbs. ; cheese, 100; sorghum,-4,197 gallons; maple syrup, 194; honey, 2,833 lbs.; eggs, 307,191 dozen; grapes, 1,400 lbs.; sweet potatoes, 293 bushels; apples, 13,571; peaches, 9,094; pears, 76; wool, 47,491 lbs. ; milch cows owned, 4,125. School census, 1888, 10,201 ; teachers, 167. Miles of railroad track, 125.


















































Also Coal township, formed in 1881. Population of Jackson in 1820 was 3,842; 1830, 5,941; 1840, 9,744; 1860, 17,941; 1880, 23,686, of whom 19,598 were born in Ohio; 1,003 Virginia, 814 Pennsylvania, 277 Kentucky, 71 Indiana, 55 New York, 770 England and Wales, 319 German Empire, 245 Ireland, 14 British America, 9 Scotland, and 7 France. U. S. Census, 1890, 28.408. In our original edition we said: "The early settlers were many of them Western Virginians; and a considerable portion of its present inhabitants are from Wales and Pennsylvania, who are developing its agricultural resources. The surface is hilly, but in many parts produces excellent wheat. The exports are cattle, horses, wool, swine, millstones, lumber, tobacco, and iron. The county is rich in minerals, and abounds in coal and iron ore; and mining will be extensively prosecuted whenever communication is had with navigable waters by railroads."

Well, that prediction is now fact. Jackson is one of the great mining counties of Ohio ; in coal it stands second only to Perry. The "Ohio Mining Statistics for 1888"gave these items: "Coal, 1,088,761 tons mined, employing 2,228 miners, and 332 outside employees ; iron ore, 42,206 tons ; fire clay, 9,720 tons ; limestone, 21,125 tons burnedfor fluxing ; 1,036 cubic feet of dimension stone."Prof. Orton, in his "Geological Report for 1884,"states : "Four seams of coal are mined in shipping banks in Jackson county. They are as follows : the Shaft seam, the Wellston coal, the Canuel coal, the Limestone coal. "The Shaft seam supports two shipping banks at Jackson, in addition to the several furnace mines. There are also several small shipping mines along the railroad, west of Jackson. "The Wellston coal is the mainspring of the coal-mining industry of the country.

The development of this field has advanced with great rapidity. In 1878 not more than 10,000 tons of coal were shipped from Jackson county. During that year two new lines of railway, built with the special object of reaching this coal, entered the field. The roads are the Ohio Southern (I. B. & W.) and the Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway (narrow gauge). In 1880 the shipments reached nearly 300,000 tons, and in 1883 nearly 400,000 tons."Now, as above stated, it exceeds a million of tons.

The old history of Jackson county is very interesting. The famous "old Scioto Salt-works"are in this region, on the banks of Salt creek, a tributary of the Scioto. The wells were sunk to the depth of about thirty feet, but the water was very weak, requiring ten or fifteen gallons to make a pound of salt. It was first made by the whites about the year 1798, and transferred from the kettles to pack-horses of the salt purchasers, who carried it to the various settlements, and sold it to the inhabitants for three or four dollars per bushel, as late as 1808.
This saline was thought to be so important to the country that, when Ohio was formed into a State, a tract of six miles square was set apart by Congress, for the use of the State, embracing this saline. In 1804 an act was passed by the legislature regulating its management, and appointing an agent to rent out small lots on the borders of the creek, where the salt water was most abundant to the manufacturers.
As better and more accessible saline springs have been discovered, these were now abandoned.

The expression, very common in this region, "shooting one with a pack-saddle,"is said to have originated, in early days, in this way. A person, who had come on horseback from some distance, to the salt-works to purchase salt, had his pack-saddle stolen by the boilers, who were a rough, coarse set, thrown into the salt, furnace, and destroyed. He made little or no complaint, but determined to have revenge for the trick: played upon him. On the next errand of this nature, he partly filled his pack-saddle with gunpowder, and gave the boilers another opportunity to steal and burn it, which they embraced - when, lo ! much to their consternation, a ter-rific explosion ensued, and they narrowly es-caped serious injury. These old salt-works were among the first worked by the whites in Ohio. They had long been known, and have been indicated on maps published as early 1755.

The Indians, prior to the settlement of the country, used to come from long distances to make salt at this place; and it was not uncommon for them to be accompanied by whites, whom they had taken captive and adopted. Daniel Boone, when a prisoner, spent some time at these works. Jonathan Alder, a sketch of whom is under the head of Madison county, was taken a prisoner, when a boy, by the Indians, in 1782, in Virginia, and adopted into one of their families, went the head-waters of Mad river. He had been with them about a year, when they took him with them to the salt-works, where he met a Mrs. Martin, likewise a prisoner. The meeting between them was affecting. We give the particulars in his own simple and artless language:

Mrs. Martin's Story. - It was now better than a year after I was taken prisoner, when the Indians started off to the Scioto salt-springs, near Chillicothe, to make salt, and took me along with them. Here I got to see Mrs. Martin, that was taken prisoner at the same time I was, and this was the first time that I had seen her since we were separated at the council-house. When she saw me, she came smiling, and asked me if it was me. I told her it was. She asked me how I had been. I told her I had been very unwell, for I had had the fever and ague for a long time.
So she took me off to a log, and there we sat down ; and she combed my head, and asked me a great many questions about how I lived, and if I didn't want to see my mother and little brothers. I told her that I should be glad to see them, but never expected to again.

She then pulled out some pieces of her daughters scalp that she said were some trimmings they had trimmed off the night after she was killed, and that she meant to keep them as long as she lived. She then talked and cried about her family, that was all destroyed and gone, except the remaining bits of her daughter's scalp. We stayed here a considerable time, and, meanwhile, took many a cry together ; and when we parted again, took our last and final farewell, for I never saw her again.


Mr. Samuel Davis, who is now (1846) residing in Franklin county, near Columbus, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and made his escape while within the present limits of this county. He was born in New England, moved to the West, and was employed by the governor of Kentucky as a spy against the Indians on the Ohio. The circumstances of his captivity and escape are from his biography, by Col. John McDonald :

In the fall of 1792, when the spies were discharged. Davis concluded he would make a winter's hunt up the Big Sandy river. He and a Mr. William Campbell prepared themselves with a light canoe, with traps and ammunition, for a fall hunt. They set off from Massie's station (Manchester), up the Ohio; thence up Big Sandy some distance, hunting and trapping as they went along. Their success in hunting and trapping was equal to their expectation. Beaver and otter were plenty. Although they saw no Indian sign, they were very circumspect in concealing their canoe, either by sinking it in deep water, or concealing it in thick willow brush. They generally slept out in the hills, without fire. This constant vigilance and care was habitual to the frontier men of that day. They hunted and trapped till the winter began to set in. They now began to think of returning, before the rivers would freeze up. They accordingly commenced a retrograde move down the river, trapping as they leisurely went down. They had been several days going down the river ; they landed on a small island covered with willows. Here they observed signs of beaver. They set their traps, dragged their canoe among the willows, and remained quiet till late in the night. They now concluded that any persons, white, red, or black, that might happen to be in the neighborhood, would be in their camp. They then made a small fire among the willows, cooked and eat their supper, and lay down to sleep without putting out their fire. They concluded that the light of their small fire could not penetrate through the thick willows. They therefore lay down in perfect self-security. Some time before day, as they lay fast asleep, they were awakened by some fellows calling in broken English : "Come, come; get up, get up."Davis awoke from sleep, looked up, and, to his astonishment, found himself and companion surrounded by a number of Indians, and two standing over him with uplifted tomahawks. To resist in such a case would be to throw away their lives in hopeless struggle. They surrendered themselves prisoners.

The party of Indians, consisting of upwards of thirty warriors, had crossed the Ohio about the mouth of Guyandotte river, and passed through Virginia to a station near the head of Big Sandy. They attacked the station and were repulsed, after continuing their attack two days and nights. Several Indians were killed during the siege and several wounded. They had taken one white man prisoner from the station, by the name of Daniels, and taken all the horses belonging to the station. The Indians had taken, or made, some canoes, in which they placed their wounded and baggage, and were descending the river in their canoes. As they were moving down in the night they discovered a glimpse of Davis' fire through the willows. They cautiously landed on the island, found Davis and Campbell fast asleep, and awakened them in the manner above related.

Davis and Campbell were securely fastened with tugs, and placed in their own canoe. Their rifles, traps, and the proceeds of their successful hunt, all tell into the hands of the Indians. The Indians made, no delay, but immediately set off down the river in their canoes with their prisoners, while their main force went by land, keeping along the river bottoms with the horses they had taken from the station - keeping near the canoes, so as to be able to support each other in case of pursuit or attack. Early the next day they reached the Ohio. The wounded and prisoners were first taken across the Ohio, and placed under a guard. They returned with the canoes (leaving their arms stacked against a tree), to assist in getting the horses across the river. It was very cold, and as soon as the horses would find themselves swimming they would turn round and land on the same shore. The Indians had a great deal of trouble before they got the horses across the Ohio. The guard who watched Davis and his companions were anxious, impatient spectators of the restive disposition of the horses to take the water. Upon one occasion the guard left the prisoners twenty or thirty yards, to have a better view of the difficulty with the horses. Davis and his fellow-prisoners were as near to where the arms were stacked as were the Indian guard. Davis, who possessed courage and presence of mind in an eminent degree, urged his fellow-prisoners to embrace the auspicious moment, seize the arms, and kill the guard. His companions faltered ; they thought the attempt too perilous. Should they fail of success, nothing but instant death would be the consequence. While the prisoners were hesitating to adopt the bold plan of Davis, their guard returned to their arms, to the chagrin of Davis. This opportunity of escape was permitted to pass by without being used. Davis ever after affirmed that if the opportunity which then presented itself for their escape had been boldly seized their escape was certain.

He frequently averred to the writer of this narrative, that if Duncan M'Arthur, Nat Beasly, or Sam M'Dowel, had been with him upon this occasion, similarly situated, that he had no doubt they would not only have made their escape, but killed the guard and the wounded Indians, and carried off or destroyed the Indians' arms. He said, if it had not been for the pusillanimity of his fellow-prisoners they might have promptly and boldly snatched themselves from captivity, and done something worth talking about. The opportunity, once let slip, could not again be recalled. The Indians, after a great deal of exertion, at length got the horses across the Ohio, and hastily fixed litters to carry their wounded. They destroyed their canoes, and went ahead for their own country.

This body of Indians was commanded by a Shawnee chief, who called himself Captain Charles Wilkey. After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, when peace blessed our frontiers, the writer of this sketch became well acquainted with this Captain Wilkey. He was a short, thick, strong, active man, with a very agreeable and intelligent countenance. He was communicative and social in his manners. The first three or four years after Chillicothe was settled, this Indian mixed freely with the whites, and upon no occasion did he show a disposition to be troublesome. He was admitted by the other Indians who spoke of him to be a warrior of the first order - fertile in expedients, and bold to carry his plans into execution. Davis always spoke of him as being kind and humane to him.

The Indians left the Ohio and pushed across the country in the direction of Sandusky ; and as they were encumbered with several wounded and a good deal of baggage, without road or path, they travelled very slow, not more than ten or twelve miles a day. As many of the prisoners, taken by the Indians, were burned with slow fires, or otherwise tortured to death, Davis brooded over his captivity in sullen silence, and determined to effect his escape the first opportunity that would offer, that would not look like madness to embrace. At all events, he determined to effect his escape or die fighting.

The Indians moved on till they came to Salt creek, in what is now Jackson county, 0., and there camped for the night. Their manner of securing their prisoners for the night was as follows : They took a strong tug made from the raw hide of the buffalo or elk. This tug they tied tight around the prisoner's waist. Each end of the tug was fastened around an Indian's waist. Thus, with the same tug fastened to two Indians, he could not turn to the one side or the other without drawing an Indian with him. In this uncomfortable manner the prisoner had to lie on his back till the Indians thought proper to rise. If the Indians discovered the prisoner making the least stir they would quiet him with a few blows. In this painful situation the prisoners must lie till light in the morning, when they would be unconfined. As the company of Indians was numerous, the prisoners were unconfined in daylight, but were told that instant death would be the consequence of any movement to leave the line of march, upon any occasion whatever, unless accompanied by an Indian.

One morning, just before day began to appear, as Davis lay in his uncomfortable situation, he hunched one of the Indians to whom he was fastened, and requested to be untied. The Indian raised up his head and looked round, and found it was still dark, and no Indians up about the fires. He gave Davis a severe dig with his fist and bid him lie still. Davis's mind was now in a state of desperation. Fire and faggot, sleeping or awake, were constantly floating before his mind's eye. This torturing suspense would chill his soul with horror. After some time a number of Indians rose up and made their fires. It was growing light, but not light enough to draw a bead. Davis again jogged one of the Indians to whom he was fastened, and said the tug hurt his middle, and again requested the Indian to untie him. The Indian raised up his head and looked round, and saw it was getting light, and a number of Indians about the fires; he untied him. Davis rose to his feet, and was determined, as soon as he could look around and see the most probable direction of making his escape, to make the attempt, at all hazards. He "screwed his courage to the sticking point."It was a most desperate undertaking. Should he fail to effect his escape, death, instant, cruel death, was his certain doom.

As he rose up to his feet, with this determined intention, his heart fluttered with tremors - his sight grew dim at the thought of the perilous plunge he was about to make. He rose up to his feet - stood a minute between the two Indians to whom he had been fastened, and took a quick glance at the Indians who were standing around him. In the evening the Indians had cut two forks, which were stuck into the ground ; a pole was laid across these forks, and all their rifles were leaned against the pole. If he made his start back from the Indian camp, the rifles of the Indians, who were standing round the fires, and who, he knew, would pursue him, would be before them ; and as they started after him they would have nothing to do but pick up a rifle as they ran. On the contrary, if he made his plunge through the midst of them, they would have to run back for their guns, and by that time, as it was only twilight in the morning, he could be so far from them that their aim would be very uncertain. All this passed through his mind in a moment. As he determined to make his dash through the midst of the Indians who were standing around the fires, he prepared his mind and body for the dreadful attempt.

The success of his daring enterprise depended on the swiftness of his heels. He knew his bottom was good. A large, active Indian was standing between Davis and the fire. He drew back his fist and struck that Indian with all his force, and dropped him into the fire; and with the agility of a buck, he sprang over his body, and took to the woods with all the speed that was in his power. The Indians pursued, yelling and screaming like demons ; but as Davis anticipated, not a gun was fired at him. Several Indians pursued him for some distance, and for some time it was a doubtful race. The foremost Indian was so close to him, that he sometimes fancied that he felt his clutch. However, at length Davis began to gain ground upon his pursuers - the breaking and rustling of brush was still farther and farther off. He took up a long, sloping ridge ; when he reached the top, he, for the first time, looked back, and, to his infinite pleasure, saw no person in pursuit.

He now slackened his pace, and went a mile or two farther, when he began to find his feet gashed and bruised by the sharp stones over which he had ran, without picking his way, in his rapid flight. He now stopped, pulled off his waistcoat, tore it into pieces, and wrapped them around his feet instead of moccasons (sic). He now pushed his way for the Ohio. He crossed the Scioto river, not far from where Piketon, in Pike county, now stands. He then marched over the rugged hills of Sunfish, Camp creek, Scioto Brush creek and Turkey creek, and struck the Ohio river eight or ten miles below the mouth of Scioto. It was about the first of January. He was nearly three days and two nights without food, fire, or covering, exposed to the winter storms. Hardy as he undoubtedly was, these exposures and privations were almost too severe for human nature to sustain. But as Davis was an unwavering believer in that All-seeing eye, whose providence prepares means to guard and protect those who put their trust in him, his confidence and courage never forsook him for a moment during this trying and fatiguing march.

When he arrived at the Ohio he began to look about for some dry logs to make a kind of raft on which to float down the stream. Before he began to make his raft he looked up the Ohio, and to his infinite gratification he saw a Kentucky boat come floating down the stream. He now thought his deliverance sure. Our fondest hopes are frequently blasted in disappointment. As soon as the boat floated opposite to him he called to the people in the boat - told them of his lamentable captivity and fortunate escape. The boatmen heard his tale of distress with suspicion. Many boats about this time had been decoyed to shore by similar tales of woe, and as soon as landed their inmates cruelly massacred. The boatmen heard his story, but refused to land. They said they had heard too much about such prisoners and escapes to be deceived in his case. As the Ohio was low he kept pace with the boat as it slowly glided along.

The more pitiably he described his forlorn situation the more determined were the boat crew not to land for him. He at length requested them to row the boat a little nearer the shore and he would swim to them. To this proposition the boatmen consented. They commenced rowing the boat towards the shore, when Davis plunged into the freezing water and swam for the boat. The boatmen seeing him swimming towards them, their suspicion gave way, and they rowed the boat with all their force to meet him. He was at length lifted into the boat almost exhausted. (Our old boatmen, though they had rough exteriors, had Samaritan hearts.) The boatmen were not to blame for their suspicion. They now administered to his relief and comfort everything that was in their power. That night, or the next morning, he was landed at Massie's station (Manchester), among his former friends and associates, where he soon recovered his usual health and activity.

JACKSON IN 1846. - Jackson, the county-seat, was laid out in 1817, and is seventy-three miles southeast of Columbus, and twenty-eight from Chillicothe. It contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist Episcopal, and 1 Protestant Methodist church, 6 or 8 stores, 1 newspaper printing office, and in 1840 had 297 inhabitants; since which the town has rapidly improved, and is turn judged to contain a population of 500. In this vicinity are several valuable mineral springs, and also remains of ancient fortifications ; and in this county, about ten years since, was found the remains of a mastodon, described in the public prints of the time. - Old Edition.

JACKSON, county-seat of Jackson, is seventy-five miles south of Columbus, on the Portsmouth branch of the C. W. & B. Railroad ; on the O. S., and on the D. & I. Railroads. The surrounding country is rich in iron ore, and a superior quality of coal for smelting purposes is found in unlimited quantities.

County Officers. - Auditor, George J. Reiniger ; Clerk, T. J. Williams ; Com-missioners, Stephen M. Tripp, David D. Edwards, John E. Jones ; Coroner, J. F. Morgan ; Infirmary Directors, Joseph Hale, Jr., J. H. Harshbarger, Patrick H. Garrett ; Probate Judge, Jesse W. Laird ; Prosecuting Attorney, Ambrose Leuch ; Recorder, James J. Bennett ; Sheriff, Isaac C. Long ; Surveyor, Evan C. Jones ; Treasurer, Lot Davies, City Officers. - T. A. Jones, Mayor ; J. S. Johnson, Clerk ; W. J. Jones, Treasurer ; Jared Martin, Marshal ; Henry Shuter, Street Commissioner ; David Griffith, Weighmaster.

Newspapers. - Jackson Herald, Democratic, Johnson & Hinkle, publishers ; Jackson Journal, Republican, Gerken & Tripp, publishers.

Churches. - 1 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Colored Methodist Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Colored Baptist, 1 Catholic, 1 German Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Welsh Presbyterian.

Manufactures and Employees. - Tropic Iron Co., pig-iron, 30 hands; May Brothers, cigars, 3; Ruf Leather Co., oak harness-leather, 14; Peters & Huntsinger, flour, meal, and feed, 2 ; John Dauber, furniture, etc., 4 ; Franklin Mill Co., flour, etc., 6 ; Globe Iron Co., pig-iron, 30 ; Jackson Electric Light Co., electric light, 3 ; Star Furnace Co., pig-iron, 30 ; Jackson Mill and Lumber Co., doors, sash, etc., 8 ; Buckeye Mill and Lumber Co., doors, sash, etc., 8 ; Franklin Mill Co., blankets, flannels, etc., 17. - State Reports, 1888.

Banks. - First National, T. S. Matthews, president, D. Armstrong, cashier ; Iron, Isaac Brown, president, T. P. Sutherland, cashier.

Population in 1880, 3,021. School census, 1888, 1,476 ; J. E. Kinnison, school superintendent. Census, 1890, 4,275. Capital invested in industrial establishments, $47,700; value of annual product, $57,500.--Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887.

On my original tour I visited every county in the State but Jackson and three of the Black Swamp counties, viz., Ottawa, Paulding, and Williams, where there was little or no history and mostly all a wilderness, with few inhabitants other than, wild animals. When near the close of that tour, the last of February, 1847, I arrived at Chillicothe, I designed to ride over to Jackson Court-House, as they then called it; but the roads were breaking up with the oncoming of spring, and "Old Pomp "had acquired such a habit of stumbling to his knees, that I felt to attempt the journey over the rough road then intervening between the places would be at too serious a peril to life and limb. Since that day Jackson has been a desire for my eyes, and now, on a March day, 1886, I breathe more free, for I have reached Jackson.

When this county was formed Gen. Jackson was in the height of his military glory, and so it was named in his honor. And thus the name is a key to the date of its formation, as it is with other counties around, as Perry, Lawrence, etc.

Jackson is one of the best of sites for a village. It lies upon the summit or backbone of a gentle rolling ridge, about fifty feet above Salt creek. The streets are of great width. Main street, the principal one, on which are the county buildings and most of the business places, crowns the ridge. From it the land falls away gently in all directions, until the scene is closed by a circumference of low hills a mile or two away. Thus a free circulation of air, perfect drainage, health, and free prospects are supplied to its inhabitants. No gas nor water-works arc established here with bills to send out, and no tall, ambitious structures to require a laborious getting tip-stairs. At night several furnaces send up from the outskirts
their lurid light. The basis for these smelting establishments is "the excellent Jackson block coal,"or "the shaft coal."

The town has a large proportion of Welsh people, who are given to mining. The whole country, north and east of Jackson, teems with veins of coal, while iron is found everywhere in vast quantities.

There is not enough of wheat, oats and hay raised in this county for home consumption. Cattle, horses and sheep are raised largely. It is fair for grass and excellent for fruit, and for the production of a healthy, strong people. In this vicinity were the old Scioto Salt Works, and near here once lived a very valuable man to Ohio, a sketch of whom follows :

William Williams Mather, LL.D., born May 4, 1804, in Brooklyn, Conn., a descendant from the family of' Cotton and Increase Mather. At an early age he showed great aptitude for chemical analysis and the study of mineralogy. When he entered West Point Academy, in June, 1823, he was already proficient in chemical analysis, and soon went to the head of his classes in chemistry and mineralogy.

On graduating, he remained in the United States service about eight years. In 1829 he was detailed as acting professor of chemistry and mineralogy at West Point. In August, 1836, he resigned from the army to take part in the geological survey of New York, and in 1837 came to Ohio to superintend the first geological survey of this State. After the suspension of the Ohio survey he purchased a tract of several hundred acres, including the Pigeon Roost, north of the court-house in Jackson county, on which he built a house, cleared a farm, and became a citizen of Ohio. Professor Mather was large and dignified in person and an indefatigable worker. He held professorships in the Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Conn. ; w:st="on">Marietta College and the Ohio University, at Athens, of which he was vice-president from 1850 to 1854, during which time he was also chemist and secretary of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture. He died February 26, 1859, of paralysis of the heart while rising from his bed. His first wife, Emily M. Baker, died in November, 1850. In August, 1851, he
married Mrs. Mary Curtis, of Columbus, Ohio.

A West Point classmate, Col. Charles Whittlesey, has given the following synopsis of his character :

"Not possessing the genius which dazzles, he had an intellect which continually improved by exercise, achieving valuable results by patient and conscientious industry¬Ö.

Not indifferent to fame, he never sought it by doubtful or devious courses. His object was to enhance his reputation, but faithfully to do the work before him. ... In his extensive knowledge of the physical world, in all his scientific investigations, he found nothing to foster the barren spirit of scepticism or a cold and cheerless infidelity. . . . The deep recesses of the earth which he explored taught him lessons of the infinite wisdom, force and goodness of the Deity. "

WELLSTON is eighty-five miles southeast of Columbus, 126 miles east of Cincinnati, and ten miles northeast of Jackson, on the Portsmouth branch of the C. W. & B. Railroad, at the terminus of the O. S. Railroad, and on the D. Ft. W. & C. Railroad. Located in the centre of large and valuable fields of iron ore, coal and limestone, practically inexhaustible, it is more than likely to become a great manufacturing and mining centre.

Newspapers : Argus, Republican, W. E. Bundy, editor; Ohio Mining Journal, Hon. Andrew Roy and W. E. Bundy, editors; Central Free Will Baptist, religious, Rev. T. E. Peden, editor. Churches : one Methodist Episcopal, one Catholic, one Presbyterian, one United Brethren, one Baptist, one Welsh.

Bank : First National, H. S. Willard, president, J. H. Sellers, Jr., cashier. City Officers : Mayor, Adam Scott ; Clerk, J. M. Baker; Marshal, J. B. Hutchison; Treasurer, George W. Andrews ; Solicitor, Thomas Moore ; Street Commissioner, Henry Hadker.

Manufactures and Employees. - Hahn, Kruskamp & Murphy, flour, etc., 7 hands, A. B. Leach, doors, sash, etc., 10; Wellston Argus, printing, etc., 4; Milton Furnace, pig-iron, 32 ; Wellston Foundry and Machine Works, foundry and machine work, 45. - State Report, 1888. Population in 1880, 952. School census, 1888, 1,395 ; T. S. Hogan, school superintendent.
Capital invested in industrial establishments, $318,000. Value of annual product, $485,000. - Ohio Labor Statistics, 1887. U. S. census, 1890, 4,694.

The development of Wellston and surroundings, showing, as it does, the vast stores of undeveloped mineral wealth in Southern Ohio, only awaiting the master mind to make it productive, requires that something more than a brief description should be given of a town which, in little more than a decade, developed from a farm to a place of more than 5,000 inhabitants.

In 1869 the discovery of inexhaustible beds of coal of a superior quality attracted the attention of capitalists to this region, and in November, 1873, the town of Wellston (named in honor of its founder, Harvey Wells) was laid out on a farm purchased of Hon. H. S. Bundy. The new town was well planned, no street being less than seventy-four feet and some of them more than 100 feet in width. February 2, 1874, contracts were made for the construction of the first iron furnace, double blast, for the Wellston Coal and Iron Company. Other furnaces followed, and notwithstanding the panic and hard times prevalent throughout the country, the young town grew and prospered, railroads were projected and
built, and new enterprises were entered into. In February, 1876, the village was incorporated; in 1880 the United States Census Reports gave it a population of 952, but in 1887 a conservative estimate placed its population at 5,000, or more, and its sure, rapid and steady growth is destined to make it a large mining and manufacturing centre. In 1885 an important experiment in co-operation was started here by Mr. Harvey Wells, viz., The Wellston Steel and Nail Company. It is the only concern of its kind in the country ; its prospects are bright, and its progress as a factor in solving the all-important labor problem will be watched with interest.

We make some quotations as to the resources of this region from an article by Hon. Andrew Roy, which was published in the Wellston Argus, April 30,1887 :

"No mineral region in Ohio or in the United States can bear comparison with Wellston and its surroundings, whether we consider the extent and quality of the mineral treasures or the unparalleled development of the coal and iron industries. There are twelve shafts for mining coal in active operation within a radius of two miles of the town, besides four blast furnaces and one rolling or steel and nail mill. These industries give direct employment to 2,000 men. The capacity of the mines is equal to half a million tons annually, while the capacity of the blast furnaces is fully 300,000 tons of pig-iron.

"The quality of the coal has become so fully established in market that there is no longer cavil or dispute in regard to its rank. It stands at the head of the bituminous coals of the United States.

"The quality of the limestone ore of this region need hardly be alluded to now, after forty years of successful effort. The Wellston coal does not more surely surpass all other coals in Southern Ohio, than that the limestone iron ore surpasses all other ores.

"The Hanging Rock iron is known all over the United States for its superior quality and its adaptability for the finest purposes of trade - for the manufacture of car-wheels, ordnance, and other castings which require to be made out of unusually tough and strong iron.

The supply siderate iron ore is practically inexhaustible in Jackson county.

OAK HILL is ten miles southeast of Jackson, on the C. W. & B. Railroad. Population in 1880, 646. School census, 1888, 283.

COALTON, five miles north of Jackson, at the point where the O. S. & T. and C. & St. L. Railroads meet, is a great mining centre ; another is GLEN ROY, a few miles east of it.




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