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Perry County, Ohio


Janarius A. MacGAHAN
Janarius MacGahan

ON the 19th of May, 1900, there came to the village of New Lexington, Perry County, a stranger. He was a young man just graduated from Harvard University, and was preparing to return to his native land Bulgaria. His mission to New Lexington was to visit the grave of a noted Perry County boy who is held most dear in the affections of the Bulgarian people. Such honors are rarely bestowed upon Americans by foreigners. This honor, however, was not unmerited. You ask, perhaps, why a boy reared among the hills of Perry County, taught in the rude schools of half a century ago, should receive such attention from a foreign people. There is the best reason in the world. Do we not have a great deal of respect for Lafayette, because he came to America and helped us gain our independence? Then why should not the people of Bulgaria love Janarius A. MacGahan, the Perry County boy, for securing their independence? The story of the life of this man reads like a page from a romance. He was born in a log cabin, the roof of which was held on by long poles. To enter the doorway you must climb over a log. The only window was a small affair. A huge fireplace occupied one end of the room. The sleeping apartment of our young hero was in the loft, which was reached by a ladder. There he could lie at night and, looking through the clapboard roof, see the stars shine down upon him clear and cold. We wonder if he, like the astrologers of old, could read those stars and from them learn what the future had in store for him. We wonder if, while lying asleep, with the snow sifting in upon him, he ever dreamed of the time, when he would ride alone through the deserts of Asia, when he should knock at palace gates and stand before kings. Perhaps, had some fairy whispered to him the things he should experience within a few years, he would have thought it only the idle fancy of a dream and would have awaked in the morning to the realization of the hardships of pioneer life.

The Knight of the Pen.
The parents of young MacGahan were Irish Catholics. Their home was near a place called Pigeon Roost. Here was a school that was then, as it is now, called "Pigeon Roost." This school Janarius attended till he was seventeen. He must have been a good student for at that age he was given a certificate to teach. He at once applied for his home school. But the directors thought him too young to teach and they refused him the position. This was one of the very best things that could have happened to him. Determining to leave home, he set his face toward the great world without, where he would carve out his destiny.
The day he left his hillside home in Perry County, with all of his earthly possessions tied in a very small package, he was seventeen years old. Half of his life had already been spent, for just seventeen years afterward he gave up his life for a friend, under the shadows of the minarets of Constantinople. He first went into the Western States, where he pursued several vocations. Finally he went to Europe to study, and entered the law school at Brussels. Whento study, and entered the law school at Brussels. When the Franco- Prussian War broke out he went into the field as correspondent for the New York Herald. Journalism was henceforth to be the work of his life.
During the time of the Commune in Paris, we find him busy writing such glowing accounts and descriptions of the scenes, as to call particular attention to his ability. During this time he was arrested by the Communists and only escaped death through the intervention of the American Minister.
In the fall of 1871, when Russia was about to move on Khiva, our hero was ordered by the Herald to accompany the army of the Czar. MacGahan was at Saratof on the Volga. The Russian army was 2,000 miles away at Kazala. It was the dead of winter, but no weather or distance was too great for the intrepid journalist. For six weeks, when the mercury was thirty degrees below zero, he continued his journey across the ice bound steppes of Russia, the Ural Mountains, and the boundless wastes of Siberia, where the howling wind of the north swept in fierce blasts. Reaching Kazala he discovered that the Russian army had already gone and was nearing Khiva. He prepared at once to leave. The natives tried to prevent him, but slipping away in the night, he started upon what is one of the most daring rides in history.
Alone and unattended, a mere speck on the desert, he searched for the Russian army. For twenty-nine days under the broiling sun, which poured down its pitiless heat, he went without a plan except to ride as fast and far as possible. Without a sufficient amount of water and food; with a boiling sun by day and a deadly chill by night; sleeping on the desert sands; chased by Cossacks, he at last reached the goal, just as the first column of the Russian hosts was attacking the enemy. Dashing into the hottest of the fight, he wrote such a vivid description that it won the admiration of the Russian generals and army.
When Khiva fell he was one of the first to enter its portals, and his account of the city's capitulation stands as a masterpiece of military journalism. Returning to Russia the Czar bestowed upon him the Order of St. Stanislaus. For the next five years his experience is varied and hurried. He visits his home in Perry County for the last time. He goes to Cuba to report the Virginius complication. He hurries to Spain to report the Carlist outbreak. For ten months he accompanies the army of Don Carlos. He is captured by the Republicans, who mistake him for a Carlist, and condemned to death. He is again saved through the intervention of the American Minister. Then he goes to England, where he accompanies Captain Young into the Arctic regions in search of Sir John Franklin.
In 1876, he read a brief sketch of the atrocities the Turks were committing in Bulgaria. He surmised at once what it all meant. Going into the employ of the London Daily News, he took his departure to join the Turkish army. This was to prove the great work of Janarius A. MacGahan. In depicting the horrors and brutalities of the scenes, his description was so thrilling that the world stood aghast. He told how the Bulgarian Christians were being robbed and murdered by Mohammedan Turks; how their fields and homes and cities were being burned and laid waste; and of the commission of many almost unmentionable crimes. It was too much for the civilized world to stand. Men paled with anger and involuntarily clenched their hands as the burning words of MacGahan struck into their hearts. Gladstone was fired into a revolt against such barbarities. But Lord Bea- consfield, the Premier, winked at it. Under pressure, he sent a man by the name of Baring to investigate and break down the testimony of MacGahan. But Baring returned and not only substantiated what MacGahan bad written but stated that the half had not been told. England was compelled to stand aside!
She withdrew her fleet and Turkey was without a protector. MacGahan, in the meantime, went from village to village in Bulgaria, assuring the people that the Czar would avenge all this and that he himself would be back again within a year with a Russian army for their release. The people had faith in his words and wherever he went, he was hailed as "MacGahan, the Liberator of Bulgaria." Hastening to St. Petersburg, he laid the matter before the Czar, and in a very short time an order went forth for the immediate mobilization of the Russian forces. MacGahan rode with the advance guard. During the war that followed, in which the Turk was driven from Bulgaria, MacGahan was alike the idol of the Russian army and Bulgarian people. He continued to write reams of description. At last Plevna fell and, in the mad rush that followed, our Knight-errant went with the army, which did not stop until the spires and minarets of Constantinople were in sight. A treaty of peace was signed in which Bulgaria's independence was recognized. All of this because one boy, reared in the woods of Perry County, had lived. But the war clouds had scarcely rolled away when a friend of his fell sick with a malignant fever. MacGahan nursed him into health, but he himself was stricken and in a few days died at San Stefanoa suburb of Constantinople, (June 9, 1878). The next day they laid him in his far-off foreign grave, around which stood weeping mourners of a dozen nationalities.
Here for six years his body rested, but, in 1884, the Ohio legislature arranged for its removal to the land of his nativity. On the 9th of September, 1884, his remains were laid in their final sepulcher in the beautiful cemetery at New Lexington, where only a few years ago the teachers of the County placed a granite boulder to his memory. But the true monument to MacGahan is greater than chiseled granite, marble column or tablet of bronze. His monument is free Bulgaria.

"Your years, though few, to shield the weak you spent;
Your life, though brief, accomplished its intent;
All diplomatic Shylocks, bloody Turks, despite, '
Twas not in vain the Lord gave you a pen to write."

William L. Maginnis, who died in Ogden, October 26, 1910, was born in Somerset, Ohio, November 4, 1858. His boyhood was spent in Ohio, where he studied law and in 1882 he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Ohio. He practiced his profession in Zanesville, Ohio, for several years, until the possibility of a more extended field of usefulness presented itself, when he moved to Colorado, where for some time he was engaged in newspaper work. On October 12, 1886, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Wyoming by President Cleveland. The office he held until the expiration of his term in 1890, when he moved to Ogden, Utah, where he engaged in the general practice of law. During the second administration of President Cleveland, he was appointed Assistant United States District Attorney of the then First District of Utah. He continued in the active practice of law in Ogden until his death, October 26, 1910 his practice extending over the Intermountain States.
For many years Judge Maginnis has been considered one of the best criminal as well as civil lawyers of this state. One case which stands ever as a monument to his memory is the Johnson vs. S. P. Co., known as the "Car Coupler Case," which he carried through all the courts to the Supreme Court of the United States. The decision in this case made the Safety Appliance Law provide for Universal Coupler on all railroads. Chief Justice Fuller of the United States Supreme Court, amongst others, complimented Judge Maginnis upon his masterful argument, which he said was one of the best and most forceful ever made before that court.
He took an active part in Democratic politics and his death left a vacancy in the foremost ranks of the party in Utah. He was a member of the Knights of Columbus. B. P. O. E., M. W. A., K. O. T. M., and Weber Club During the years of his residence in Utah, he practiced before the bar of every court in this and surrounding states. His activities covered every department of the law. His intellectual vigor, alertness of mind and great natural powers, faithfully disciplined and completely developed, expanded by large requirements, kept vigorous and alert by strenuous exercise, applied to noble uses, marked his long and conspicuous career in his profession. His faculty for lucid statements and cogent reasoning was ever brought by him to the support of every cause.
[Source: History of the bench and bar of Utah; By Interstate Press Association; Publ. 1913; Transcribed and submitted by Andrea Stawski Pack.]

A native of Ohio, he was born February 24, 1875, on a farm situated in Perry County, near Portersville, being a descendant in the fourth generation from the immigrant ancestor, Maurice Maullar, the line being continued through his son, William Maullar, and his grandson, George William Maullar.
A native of Holland, Maurice Maullar came to America in early life, locating in Pennsylvania ere the days of railroads or canals. At the foot of the Allegheny Mountains, on the main thoroughfare leading from the East to the West, he opened a public house widely known as the "Stone Tavern." It became a stage station, and had not only good accommodations for man and beast, but had stockyards connected with it, making it a convenient and favorite stopping place for drovers traveling across the country with cattle and swine. There he lived to a good old age, being a very popular "mem host." His wife, whose maiden name was Evon Stenlof, was also born and bred in Holland. William Maullar was born in 1810, in the Stone Tavern, in Western Pennsylvania, and was there brought up and educated. After serving an apprenticeship at the blacksmith 's trade, he came to Ohio, and having established a shop at Harrisville, Harrison County, operated it successfully until his death, in 1843, while yet in manhood's prime. He married, after coming to Ohio, Elizabeth Davies, who was born in Belmont County, where her parents, John and Rachel (Collins) Davies, settled on coming from Wales, their native country, to Ohio. Her father was a stone mason, and in 1841 erected, on' Captina Creek, a commodious stone house, in which both he and his wife spent their last years. Left a widow with three small children, Mrs. Elizabeth (Davies) Maullar kept her family together, and lived with her children until her death, at the age of seventy-six years. Her children were named; John W., Jordan, and George William. Jordan enlisted in the Union army during the Civil war, and died while in the service, at Corinth, Mississippi.

George William Maullar, father of Frank Byron, was born in Harrisonville, Harrison County, Ohio, July 4, 1843, and was but an infant when his father died. Having unfortunately lost an eye when a small boy, he was not eligible for the army at the outbreak of the Civil war, but he enlisted as a drummer boy in Company E, Seventy-eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and went to the front with his command. At Fort Donelson, while the battle was raging the fiercest, he seized a gun, and from that time on fought in the ranks until late in 1862, when he was honorably discharged from the service on account of disability. Returning to Ohio, he engaged in farming, first in Morgan County, and then on his mother-in-law's estate, in Perry County. Coming from there to Ross County in 1877, he bought a home in Harrison Township, and eight
years later removed to Londonderry, where he is now residing. Sarah Virginia Waterhouse. She was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, a daughter of James and Octavia J. (Clayton) Waterhouse, the former of whom was born in New York State, of English and Scotch ancestry, and the latter in Culpeper County, Virginia. The mother married for her second husband, Street King, of Oakfield Township, Perry County, where she spent the closing years of her life. Mrs. Sarah V. (Waterhouse) Maullar died in 1884, leaving three children, Frank Byron, James A., and Bertha, and Mr. Maullar subsequently married for his second wife Rilla Phillips.
Attending first the rural schools, Frank Byron Maullar continued his studies in the graded schools of Londonderry, and at the age of nineteen years began his career as a teacher in Vinton County, teaching for a term at Cox Postoffice. As a teacher he earned the money to further advance his education, and after attending the Ohio University four terms, went to Valparaiso, Indiana, where he was for one term a student at the National Normal School. Mr. Maullar was subsequently successfully engaged in his pedagogical work until 1906, when he came to Cillicothe to establish himself in the real estate business, with which he has since been actively identified.
Mr. Maullar married, November 18, 1909, Almyra Donelson Woodruff, a daughter of John E. Woodruff, and granddaughter of Joseph Day and Susan Ann (Raynor) W'oodruff, natives of New York State, and early settlers of Muskingum County, Ohio. Her paternal greatgrandfather, Daniel Woodruff, a lifelong resident of New York State, married Hanna Trichtner. Her paternal grandmother, Susan Ann Raynor, was a daughter of Henry and Lois (Smith) Raynor, the former of whom was a native of England. Mrs. Maullar 's father, John E. Woodruff, was born in the Empire State. He married Almyra Donelson, whose father, Levi Donelson, a native of Maryland, married, in Chillicothe, Elizabeth Roby, who was a Virginian by birth. Mr. and Mrs. Maullar have one child, Myron E. Maullar. Religiously, Mrs. Maullar is a member of the Walnut Street Methodist Episcopal Church.
Since casting his first presidential vote for William McKinley, Mr. Maullar has been a faithful adherent of the republican party, for sixteen years having been a member of the republican executive committee. He has served on the state senatorial committee, and has been a delegate to various district and state conventions. Fraternally, Mr. Maullar is a member of Scioto Lodge, No. 6, Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons; of Chillicothe Chapter, No. 6, Royal Arch Masons; of Chillicothe Council, No. 6, Royal and Select Masters; and of Chillicothe Lodge, No. 52, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. C. H. A
[Standard History of Ross County, Ohio...Under the Editorial Supervision of LYLE S. EVANS, VOLUME II, THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY, CHICAGO AND NEW YORK, 1917 -- Transcribedby Sandra Cummins]

Few men in Perry county have a wider acquaintance than James F. McMahon, who is now living a retired life, but for many years he was an active factor in journalistic circles and owned and edited the New Lexington Tribune, making it a paper of much value to the community.
Mr. McMahon is a native of Coshocton county, Ohio, and when a young man he came to Perry county
in 1851. He first embarked in merchandising in Somerset and continued business along that line for twenty years, or until 1871, when he established the Somerset Tribune. In 1873 he removed the paper to New Lexington and changed its name to the Xew Lexington Tribune, continuing the publication of the journal until 1900. He made this paper a strong influence in Republican circles in Perry county. His editorials were strong, forceful and presented facts in a clear and logical manner. At the same time he labored earnestly for the promotion of all interests contributing to local advancement and progress. His paper was one of the best country journals in the state and had a very wide circulation. Through the columns of the Tribune Mr. McMahon was largely instrumental in securing the building of the Cincinnati, Sandusky and Hamilton Railroad from Columbus to the coal fields of Perry county, a work that has proven of great practical value in the development of the rich mineral industries of this state.
McMahon was united in marriage in this county to Miss Charlotte Maines, a daughter of Frederick Maines, one of the old and respected citizens of Somerset. Two children have been born unto them : Sallie Emma and R. R. McMahon. For a half century Mr. McMahon has been a representative of the Masonic fraternity, taking nearly all of the degrees in the various branches of the order. In his life he exemplifies its beneficent and helpful spirit, recognizing the brotherhood of man.
[Source: A Biograpical Record of Fairfield County, Ohio, The S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1902; Transcribed by Sandra Cummins]

Bernard Mechling, now deceased, was a highly respected farmer of Perry county and one whose life contained in it many elements worthy of commendation and of emulation. He resided in Hopewell township upon a farm where his birth occurred and it remained his place of residence throughout his entire life. He passed away April 17, 1896, while he was born April 21, 1837. His parents were Samuel and Magdelene (Poorman) Mechling. He was a native of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania.
The paternal grandfather was Jacob Mechling, who with his family came to Ohio about 1811, settling in Hopewell township, Perry county, where he entered eight tracts of land of a half section each and this is still in possession of the Mechling family. He became a very prominent and influential fanner of his day and was an active memljer of the Lutheran church. The Mechling family is one of the oldest and most prominent in this part of the county, representatives of the name have taken a very active part in the welfare and upbuilding of the town and county along political, religious and social lines, and the family record is a creditable one. Bernard Mechling, the subject of this review, pursued his education in the district schools and at an early day began to assist his father upon the home farm. As soon as old enough to handle a plow he began work in the field and became an active factor in the cultivation and improvement of his father's land.
On the 26th of May, 1859, he was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Humberger and unto them were born two sons, Owen H., who resides in Hopewell township and married Miss Emma Burkett, by whom he has two children, Luke and George; and Albert W., who married Cora Springer and resides in Hopewell township. They also have two children, Florence and Helen. After the death of his first wife Mr. Mechling was again married on the 17th of January, 1867, his second union being with Miss Leah Zartman, who was born in Hopewell township. Perry county, and is a daughter of Isaac and Rebecca (King) Zartman. Her mother was a native of Hopewell township, while the father was also a native of Perry county, and was a son of Alexander and Salome (Cobel) Zartman. both of whom were natives of Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, whence they removed to Hopewell township, Perry county, about 1810, settling in the southern part of the township, where Mrs. Rebecca Zartman is now living at the age of eighty-six years. Unto Alexander Zartman and wife were born nine children, all of whom are deceased with the exception of Margaret. They were Sarah, who became the wife of George Mechling; Catherine, who died in childhood;
Israel; Isaac, the father of Mrs. Bernard Mechling; Joshua; Henry: Levi; Mrs. Margaret Foucht, a resident of Upper Sandusky, Ohio; and Magdelene, who became the wife of Joel Smith. Isaac Zartman, the father of Mrs. Mechling, was a very successful farmer and a man well liked by all who knew him. He was a Democrat in his political views and for a number of years served as treasurer of Hopewell township, while for a long time he was justice of the peace. He was also an active member of the Reformed church and led the music in the organization to which he belonged. Isaac Zartman and his wife were the parents of nine children: Leah A., the wife of Bernard Mechling; Solomon K., who married Malinda Foucht and resides in Dayton, Ohio; Sarah, who is the widow of Noah Swinehart and is living in Somerset, Ohio; Levi, who died at the age of seven years; Magdelene, the wife of Jacob Foucht, a resident of Dayton, Ohio; Angeline. who is the wife of Benjamin Alspaugh and resides with her mother in Hopewell township; Allen K., who married Libbey A. Conrad, of Canton, Ohio, and is a minister of the Reformed church now located at Fort Wayne, Indiana: Margaret J., the wife of William H. Parks, a resident of Hopewell township: and Rufus Calvin, who wedded Hattie Eaton, of Fostoria, Ohio, and is a minister of the Reformed church, now preaching at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Isaac Zartman was the owner of about one hundred and seventeen acres of valuable land at the time of his death. He and his wife had lived together in the holy bonds of matrimony for nearly sixty-six years. His death occurred March 5, 1901, when he was eighty-seven years of age and his remains were interred in St. Paul's cemetery in Hopewell township. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Mechling were born three children : Mary Estella became the wife of August H. Dornbirer, a Lutheran minister of Sandusky, Ohio, and they have two sons, Wayne Mechling and Elmer Robert. Sylvia R., the second child, died at the age of four months. Homer C. married Miss Gertrude Gordon, a daughter of Le Roy and Almetta (Rousculp) Gordon. They reside with his mother. Mrs. Mechling.
In his political views Bernard Mechling was a stanch Democrat and supported his honest convictions without fear or favor. He owned about two hundred acres of fine farming land and devoted his time and attention to general farming and to stock-raising. He prospered in both branches of his business and annually raised and sold a large number of cattle. In 1874 he erected a fine large brick residence and a commodious barn. His was one of the fine homes of the county and everything about his place indicated the careful supervision of a progressive, practical and enterprising owner. He took great delight in providing well for his family, counting no personal sacrifice too great that would promote the welfare or enhance the happiness of his wife and children. Mr. Mechling held membership in the Lutheran church, while his widow, a most estimable lady, having many warm friends throughout the community, is a member of the Reformed church. In his church Mr. Mechling led the singing for many years and was the Sunday-school superintendent for over thirty years. He passed away April 17. 1896, and his remains were interred in St. Paul's cemetery. His was largely a blameless life and his entire life was characterized by industry, by perseverance, by honorable principles and by his Christian faith. He treated his fellow men fairly, was loyal in friendship, faithful in citizenship and was a devoted husband and father. He made friends wherever he went and when called to the home beyond his death was widely and deeply mourned throughout the entire community, in which he had spent his entire life. To know Bernard Mechling was to esteem and honor him.
[Source: A Biograpical Record of Fairfield County, Ohio, The S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1902; Transcribed by Sandra Cummins]

Through toil and tribulation, through effort and vicissitude, through faith in planting and hope deferred and finally disappointed in reaping, but in all changes of fortune with persistent courage and stern endurance, William E. Rhinehart, one of the energetic and successful fruit-growers of Mesa county, living on a fine fruit farm of thirty acres located two miles east of Fruita, has come to substantial prosperity and a position wherein his faith in the bounty of nature is fully justified and his labors to win her continued favor are duly rewarded. He was born at New Lexington, Perry county, Ohio, on August 18, 1866, and is the son of William and Eva E. (Sellers) Rhinehart, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Ohio. The father was a farmer and moved his family to Illinois about 1868, and after living there and farming many years, again moved west, settling in 1885 in Republic county, Kansas, where he died on September 11, 1889, and where the mother is still living. Their son William E. was less than two years old when they moved to Illinois. He was reared to the age of nineteen in McDonough county, that state, and there receiving a district-school education. In the Spring of 1885 he accompanied the family to Kansas, and in the autumn of 1887 came to Colorado and located in Mesa county, where he farmed for a year. He then married and moved to Thayer county, Nebraska, and there again engaged in farming and continued his operations five years at the end of which he changed his base to California, where he remained an equal period and followed the same pursuit.
Because of the drought in both Nebraska and California he was unable to make any headway and had to abandon his efforts at husbandry. He turned his attention to operating a hay press for two seasons in California, and by this means managed to accumulate enough money to bring him back to Mesa county, this state, in the spring of 1898. Soon after his arrival he rented a farm of twenty acres, which had a small orchard of three hundred to four hundred trees on it, but no other improvements worthy of mention. Before the summer ended he bought this land on contract and he has since purchased ten acres additional. He has paid or the land out of its fruit products, and has improved it with a comfortable dwelling and good outbuildings. His orchards now number some two thousand trees, nearly all apple, and about half in good bearing order. His crop of 1902 was seven carloads of superior fruit, and that of 1903 was eight carloads, and he had in addition two carloads of potatoes and an abundance of small fruits, his gross returns for the year being over four thousand dollars. Mr. Rhinehart's achievements in the short space of six years are really worthy of special mention. He is now practically out of debt, has some of the best improvements in the valley on his place, his orchards are of cumulative and rapidly expanding value, and his profits from year to year are continually on the rise. The story forcibly illustrates the possibilities for properly applied energy in this favored section and suggests the much wider range they are likely to show within the near future. To his wife he gives credit for a large share of his success, for her energy has been potential, her sagacity has been marked and her enthusiasm in the business has never waned, he has also bought and shipped apples to the markets for a number of years in addition to those he has produced on his own land. In politics he is a Republican, but is not an active partisan, although warmly interested in the welfare of his party. On August 23, 1888, he was married to Miss Mary S. Johnson, a native of Republic county, Kansas, where she grew to maturity and was educated. She is a daughter of Daniel H. and Julia A. (Jones) Johnson, and a sister of Lester C. Johnson, of Fruita, a sketch of whom will he found on another page of this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Rhinehart have two children, their son Willis E. and their daughter N. Marjorie.
 (Source: Progressive Men of Western Colorado, Publ 1905. Transcribed by Tracy McAllister)

MAJOR-GENERAL PHILIP HENRY SHERIDAN was born in Perry County, Ohio, in 1831. He graduated at West Point in 1853, and as brevet second lieutenant was sent to Texas. In the spring of 1855, he was exchanged into another regiment, and ordered to San Francisco. He remained six years on the Pacific coast, and won the confidence of the Indian tribes. In 1861, he was promoted to first lieutenant. When the war commenced, he was captain in the Thirteenth United States infantry, stationed at St. Louis, and was made acting-quartermaster under General Curtis. He became colonel of cavalry in 1862, and with his regiment, on the 14th of July of that year, defeated a rebel brigade, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from July 1st, 1862. October 8th, he held the key of the Union position at Perryville, and saved the army from defeat. He displayed great heroism at the battle of Stone river, and for meritorious services therein, was made major-general of volunteers. He warded off serious disaster from Wood's corps, at the battle of Chickamauga, where, as well as at Chattanooga, his bravery shone conspicuous. In the severe march of Sherman, to raise the siege of Knoxville, he accompanied that general. Lieutenant-general Grant, on assuming the command of all the armies, made him chief of the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac, and he conducted two successful expeditions in the rebel rear. In the summer of 1864, he was placed in command of the Army of the Shenandoah valley, where he won unfading laurels, defeating Early in several battles. In March, 1865, he moved up the Shenandoah to Staunton and Waynesboro, routed Early again, and destroyed the enemy's communications, together with fifty million dollars' worth of property. He then marched by way of the White House, and joined Grant on the 27th of March. The capture of Five Forks, and the surrender of General Lee, were in a great measure due to Sheridan. He was sent to Texas to command an army of eighty thousand men, against Kirby Smith, and on the 27th of June, 1865, was appointed commander of the Military Division of the Gulf with his headquarters at New Orleans.
(Source: A Complete History of the Great Rebellion of the Civil War in the U.S. 1861-1865 with Biographical sketches of the Principal actors in the Great Drama. By Dr. James Moore, Published 1875)

Robert M. Small is a practitioner of law in New Lexington, having been admitted to the bar in 1900. He is therefore in the initial years of his professional career, but he has by close study well prepared himself for his chosen vocation, and possessing a laudable ambition and indefatigable energy, he will doubtless win a very creditable position as a lawyer; in fact, he is already well known in this connection and is likewise an active factor in business circles, being the secretary of the Junction City Building & Loan Association, which is one of the leading financial institutions 435 of Perry county. He has filled the office for three years and his management of the affairs of the company has brought to it creditable success.
Mr. Small is a native of Wood county, Virginia, born in 1871. The family is of Scotch-Irish descent and was established in North Carolina prior to the Revolutionary war. Robert Small, the father of our subject, was born in that state and after arriving at years of maturity he wedded Mary Swink, a native of Virginia, her people having been pioneer settlers of the south. After acquiring his preliminary education Robert M. Small, of this review, continued his studies in the Ohio State University, at Columbus. Later he received the degree of M. Ph. from Mt. Hope College, having completed the three courses in philosophy, civil engineering and law. Prior to his admission to the bar he was engaged in teaching school in Montgomery county, Ohio, for three years. Later he filled the position of superintendent of the Junction City schools, Perry county, from 1897 until 1900. In December, 1900, he opened an office in New Lexington and has gained a good clientage for one so young. He is determined that success shall attend his efforts and strong determination is always an important factor in business. He realizes that advancement must come through capability and close application and these qualities have already been manifest in his career. Mr. Small is a member of New Lexington Lodge. No. 509, B. P. O. E. In politics he is a Democrat, active and earnest in support of his party and in 1895 he was a candidate for the state legislature from Montgomery county. He has served on the county executive committee here and puts forth every effort in his power to secure the success of the Democracy.
[Source: A Biograpical Record of Fairfield County, Ohio, The S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1902
Transcribed by Sandra Cummins]

William T. Stevens, who is an honored veteran of the Civil war and is the present postmaster of Thornville, was born in the village in which he still makes his home, on the 11th of July, 1844, his parents being John B. and Lucy (Scarbaugh) Stevens. The father was a native of Virginia and in 1833, when seventeen years of age, came to Ohio, locating near Thornville, Perry county. He was accompanied by his parents, Thomas and Nancy Stevens, who were also natives of Virginia. A carpenter by trade he followed that occupation throughout the years of his active business career and many evidences of his handiwork are still seen in substantial structures in this county. He died at his home in Thornville at the advanced age of eighty-two years, in 1898. He held membership in the Methodist church and for many years served as one of its trustees, taking an active part in everything tending to advance the growth of the church and extend its influence. He was an Odd Fellow for over fifty years and for many years was chaplain of the lodge.
His widow is still living, making her home in Thornville. She is a most estimable lady, highly esteemed throughout the community. Her mother was the first white child born in Newark county. By her marriage Mrs. Stevens became the mother of four children, all of whom are yet living, namely : William T., of this review : Oliver J., who is engaged in the undertaking business in Thornville, Ohio; Noble L., a practicing dentist of Thornville: and Attie V., the wife of John Conklin, who is engaged in the poultry business in Thornville.
Mr. Stevens, who is well known and highly esteemed throughout this community, remained at home until eighteen years of age, but the country was then engaged in Civil war and he could no longer content himself to remain in Ohio while many brave sons of the north were battling for the Union. Accordingly he enlisted in 1862, becoming a member of Company K. One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with which he served for three years. He was then mustered out at Elmira, New York, having participated in the battle of Martinsburg, Virginia. After receiving his discharge Mr. Stevens returned to Ohio and has resided con- tinuously in Thornville, with the exception of a period of four years. He is a carpenter by trade and for many years he followed that occupation, being actively identified with building interests of this, place. An expert workman he has always been kept busy in the line of his chosen pursuit and has thus been enabled to provide comfortably for his family. In February, 1899, he was appointed postmaster of the village to serve for a term of four years and is now the incumbent in that office, his administration being practical and progressive and giving good satisfaction to his fellow townsmen.
In 1871 Mr. Stevens was united in marriage to Miss Sidney Trovinger, a daughter of Benjamin Trovinger, one of the early settlers of Perry county, living in Thorn township. He became a prosperous and enterprising agriculturist there and was a leading and influential citizen at at: early date, but he died forty years ago. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Stevens has been born, one son, George, who is a resident farmer of Thorn township. He married Miss Lizzie Zollinger and they have two children, John William and Alice M. Mr. Stevens enjoys in a high degree the confidence and respect of his fellowtownsmen and recognizing his worth and ability they have several times called him to positions of public trust. He has served as infirmary director for one term and has also been a member of the council of Thornville. He maintains pleasant relations will his old army comrades through his membership in Reuben Lampion Post, G. A. R., of this place, and his religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. Having spent almost his entire life here he is widely known and that many of his wannest friends are numbered among those who have known him from boyhood is an indication that his has been an honorable and upright career. In manner he is pleasant and cordial and the qualities of his nature are such as to have made him a popular and representative citizen of his community.
[Source: A Biograpical Record of Fairfield County, Ohio, The S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1902 -- Transcribed by Sandra Cummins]

JACOB TROUT, farmer and stock raiser, section 24, was born October 19, 1823, in Perry County, Ohio. His father, Hall Trout, was a native of Virginia, while his mother, Mary (Atkins) Trout, was born in Ohio. When Jacob was twelve years of age he accompanied them to Hocking County, Ohio, where he was reared, passing his youth on the farm and receiving a common school education. During the war he served for 100 days in Company A, One Hundred and Fiftieth National Volunteer Guards, and guarded Washington. These guards were made up after Morgan made his raid through Ohio, for home protection and were called into active service. Mr. T. came west and settled in Atchison County, in the spring of 1866. In 1869, he located where he now resides. He owns 240 acres of improved land, watered and well adapted to stock raising. He has a neat residence, a good barn, etc. He has filled the position of school director and road overseer. He is a member of the Ancient Odd Fellows. Mr. Trout was married February 19, 1850, to Miss Elizabeth Crawford, a native of Coshocton County, Ohio, born October 31, 1831. She was a daughter of James and Ursula Crawford. They have five children living: Mary E., born March 6, 1851 (now Mrs. W.S. Wood, of this county); Ursula, born November 29, 1854, (now Mrs. Maitland Brown, of Kansas); Hannah J., born July 30, 1852 (now Mrs. Philipp Dragoo, of this county); James C., born August 7, 1859; Noah C., born October 14, 1861. Two are deceased. They are members of the M.E. Church of Tarkio, in which he holds the position of trustee.
 [The History of Holt and Atchison Counties, Missouri; St. Joseph, Mo.: National Historical Company, 1882. Transcribed by K. Mohler]

For half a century the Rev. Samuel Clevenger Tussing has been a potent factor in the moral development of this portion, of the state. His influence has been of no restricted order. He came to the county in 1850, locating first in Monday Creek township, and six years later he entered the ministry of the Baptist church. Although in recent years he has accepted no regular pastorate he has continued his active interests in church work and his efforts have proved most beneficial in augmenting the moral development of this community.
Mr. Tussing is a native of Franklin county, Ohio, his birth having occurred in Patterson township, April 28, 1828. He is a son of Nicholas and Margaret Tussing and the former was born in Pennsylvania in 1779. At the age of four years he went to Rockingham county, Virginia, with his- parents, the year of their removal being 1783. There he was reared and about 1812 he went to Franklin county, Ohio. He had previously entered a quarter section of land there in 1809 and clearing and improving - thus he transformed it into a good farm, upon which he reared his family. He was married in Franklin county, but his wife died six months later and for his second wife he chose Miss Margaret Switzer, a native of Switzerland. Nicholas Tussing died at the age of seventy-two years, while the mother of our subject passed away at the age of sixty-four years. They were both consistent Christian people, holding membership in the Baptist church. In their family were seven children: John, who died in Lima, Ohio; Jacob, who died near Winchester, Ohio; George N., who is a Baptist minister and lives at Bullitt Park, Columbus, Ohio; Christine, who is the wife of George N. Harris, a resident of Fort Dodge, Iowa; Samuel, of this review; Adam, who died in Fairfield county, Ohio; and Philip C., who made his home in Winchester, this state, but died in Florida.
Rev. Samuel C. Tussing, whose name introduces this review, pursued his education in the public schools of his native county and through reading and study outside of the schoolroom. In April, 1850, he was united in the holy bonds of matrimony to Miss Juliet Marlow, of Monday Creek township, Perry county, a daughter of Hanson and Margaret (Holmes) Marlow. Her parents removed to Monday Creek township in 1838, when Mrs. Tussing was six years of age, coming to this state from Warren county. Virginia, although they lived for a time in West Virginia. Mr. Marlow became a leading and influential citizen here, and his worth and ability being recognized by his fellow townsmen, he was called to public office. He served for six years, covering two terms, as county commissioner and for some time was township trustee. He died in 1881 at the age of seventy-eight years, his birth having occurred on the 4th of July, 1803. Mrs. Marlow died in 1870 at the age of sixty-four years. Mr. Marlow was a man of great business capacity, was frugal and industrious, honorable and reliable and was a man of strong Christian character. He became one of the five charter members of the Ebenezer Baptist church.
His wife, who preceded him to the home prepared for the righteous, also possessed a strong religious nature and was a most able and faithful assistant to her husband. Her home was celebrated for its gracious and sincere hospitality. She found great delight in attending church service and Sunday after Sunday she heard with the greatest pleasure the preaching of her son, the Rev. William W. Marlow, and her son-in-law, the Rev. Samuel C. Tussing. She was an affectionate wife and mother and the influence of her life is yet felt by all who knew her. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Tussing have been born two children : Lawson Aquilla, bom in Monday Creek township. Perry county, is now an attorney at law in New Lexington and a very prominent and influential citizen. He was educated here, also in Dennison University and in Greeneville, Ohio, and in 1877 at Zanesville, this state, was admitted to the bar, since which time he has been an active practitioner in Perry county, having attained a large and important clientage, which connects him with much of the litigation tried in the courts of his district. He is a Democrat in his politics and' takes a very active interest in public affairs, having served as mayor of New Lexington from 1878 until 1882. In early manhood he engaged in teaching school for four years, being superintendent of the Shawnee schools for three years. He married Miss Augusta Achaner, a daughter of J. J. Achaner, of New Straitsville, who came from Muskingum county, Ohio, to Perry county. They have two children — Florence Lucile and Gladys Meredith. Hanson Marlow, the younger son, has also been mayor ofNew Lexington, his incumbency in the office continuing from 1888 until 1892. He studied law, but abandoned the profession for a general business life. He was deputy clerk of the county for six years under his uncle. John H. Marlow, and was deputy sheriff under Mr. Crosby, for three years. He was also employed for five years in indexing the county records and books and for four years he served as postmaster of New Lexington under President Cleveland. He has been most faithful, prompt and reliable in the discharge of his official duties and is regarded as a valued and loyal citizen of his community. Very prominent in Masonic circles he has served as district lecturer and is now worthy master of New Lexington Lodge, No. 250, F. & A. M.
He married Miss Finch, a daughter of Rev. J. T. Finch, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church. They have three children: Wiley Edwin, J. Bryant and Dale Marlow. Mrs. Tussing died in 1888 and for his second wife Hanson M. Tussing chose Miss Eva Stewart, of McConnellsville, Morgan county, Ohio. They have two children — Clara and Wayland. It was in the year of his marriage that Rev. Samuel C. Tussing came to this county. Six years later he determined to devote his life to the work of the Baptist church as a minister of the gospel and he has done much evangelical work in Ohio. He has always made his home in Perry county with the exception of fourteen months spent in Greene county. In September, 1875, he located in New Lexington, where he has since resided. He was pastor of the church here for four years and was supply for seven years. He has baptized over four hundred converts and has preached five thousand four hundred and seventy-two sermons outside of addresses and talks. He has kept an account of all of these, having a record of when and where he preached. He has been very closely identified with Sunday-school work and has put forth every effort in his power to promote the cause of Christianity. He has also been an active factor in temperance work and has endorsed the Prohibition party since 1872. His life has been most honorable and upright. He has never lived unto himself alone and has labored earnestly and effectively for the benefit of his fellow men. knowing that character is all that there is of value in this world. His influence has been widely felt not only in his own denomination but among all Christian people Rev. Tussing is held in the highest esteem.
[Source: A Biograpical Record of Fairfield County, Ohio, The S. J. Clark Publishing Co., 1902 - Transcribed by Sandra Cummins]



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