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The History of Oklahoma Biographies Vol. II
by Luther B. Hill
Page 15


HE IS one of the members of the Constitutional Convention held before the statehood of Oklahoma, was born in Wayne County, Illinois, in 1871, and is a son of W. A. and Louisa (Riggs) Cain, natives of Kentucky and Illinois, respectively. W. A. Cain, Sr., was a farmer and the son was reared on a farm. The latter received his education in the public common and high schools, and at the age of twenty-five came to Indian Territory and settled in the Cherokee Nation, in what is now Muskogee county. The country was then sparsely settled, and oil had not yet been found. The oil land could then be leased for grazing at the rate of fifteen cents per acre, and the same is now worth hundreds of dollars an acre. Mr. Cain engaged in farming and stock raising on leased land, which he continued until statehood, when he purchased a farm adjoining the town of Oktaha. He paid twenty-five dollars per acre, and the value has now increased to seventy-five dollars per acre. He carries on general farming and also owns other farms.

In 1899 Mr. Cain purchased the interests of R. R. Eidson, the pioneer merchant of Oktaha, and August 6, 1900, was appointed postmaster by a large petition, becoming the first postmaster of Oktaha. He also came to own practically the first store in this town. His predecessor leased the land on which Oktaha is now built and after statehood Mr. Cain purchased the land and built a handsome mercantile building, besides a residence, thus gaining the honor of owning the first extensive business of the town. Since retiring from the mercantile business Mr. Cain has devoted his time to farming and stock raising. He has had other business interests in this section of Oklahoma, and is a man of unusual energy and intelligence. In 1903 Mr. Cain was elected by the Republican party of the Seventy-fourth district as the party's delegate to the Constitutional Convention which met at Guthrie and framed the constitution for the new state. He was one of the twelve Republicans elected from Oklahoma, and although they were greatly in the minority, Mr. Cain served on several important committees, and took a fairly prominent part in affairs. He introduced the prohibition plank, also the clause relating to the present banking system and the legal rate of interest. At that time he was vice president of the bank at Oktaha, the first bank of the village. The bank was established in 1904 and Mr. Cain was one of the first stockholders; Tool Middleton was president and D. H. Middleton vice president, and about 1906 A. M. Darling was made president and Mr. Cain vice president. Mr. Cain has since sold his interest.
Mr. Cain is considered one of the substantial business men of McIntosh county, and he has been very successful in his enterprises. He is politically a Republican and actively interested in political matters. He is a member of Oktaha Lodge Number 138, Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

Mr. Cain married, in 1901, Ruth, daughter of Melvin C. and Jane Reynolds, of Siloam Springs, Arkansas. Mr. and Mrs. Cain have no children of their own, but have one adopted son, Frank.
Mr. Cain has the following brothers and sister, namely: John, of Arkansas; W. A.; James, of Fort Gibson, Oklahoma; Nathan, of Conway, Arkansas; and Tempy, wife of W. T. Gooch, of Muskogee county. Their parents reside in Oktaha.

Mrs. Cain has only one sister, Mary or Molly, wife of David G. Cowin, of Douglas, Arizona.


Who is one of the most prominent young physicians of Oktaha and Muskogee county, is a native of Illinois, born in Warren county and a son of Charles and Annie (Townsend) Jewell. His father was a successful farmer, although he was still a comparatively young man when he met his death by being accidentally shot. His widow was left with the care of five children, three of whom were boys. Both daughters and sons became assistants in the family support as they reached years of capability, so that the heaviest burdens fell on the mother when the children were still immature. The members of the family who thus reached useful maturity were as follows: Olive, who became the wife of W. H. Brown, of Little York, Illinois; M. S., of this sketch; H. T., who is now a farmer of Monmouth, Illinois; Frances, wife of Arthur Patterson, of that place; and E. C., also a resident of Monmouth.

Dr. Jewell received his preliminary education at the Baptist College of Burlington, Iowa, and completed his professional course in the Louisville Medical College, graduating with his degree of M. D. in the class of 1898. Immediately afterward, being then twenty-three years of age, he located at Olena, Henderson county, Illinois, where he practiced eighteen months and then went east to take a post-graduate course in New York. In 1908 the Doctor located at Checotah and, in connection with his practice, engaged in the drug business. He has also become interested in farming and other local enterprises, and in every way is one of the leading men of the locality. In 1900 he married Miss Mary A. Blake, of Burlington, Iowa, daughter of M. E. and Nancy (Braham) Blake. Her father was one of the leading attorneys and citizens of that city. Mr. and Mrs. Blake were the parents of Marv A., Henry G. (of the City of Mexico), Myra, William G., Ruth and Edgar (also a resident of Mexico). Dr. and Mrs. Jewell have two children, as follows: Charles Blake and Merritt Schofield Jewell. The former is a Republican in politics and affiliates with the Congregational church.


A prominent pioneer of Oktaha, Muskogee County, he was born in DeWitt County, Illinois, in 1849. He is a son of Benjamin and Adeline (Herley) Newberry, natives respectively of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. They were pioneer settlers of Herleys Grove, DeWitt county, Illinois, named for the father of Mrs. Newberry. The Herley family is one of the oldest in the state, and the Newberrys date back almost as far. Benjamin Newberry was a farmer, and when a young man worked on the Illinois river, most products being then sent down the river on barges. He lived in Illinois almost his whole life, and died there about 1890, leaving a widow and four children, namely: Armilda, wife of Isaac Gardner, of Kansas; John; N. A., deceased, whose family now live in Harper county, Kansas; and Mariah, wife of Robert Johnson, of DeWitt County, Illinois. Mrs. Newberry died about 1896.

John Newberry received his education in the public schools of his native county, and remained with his father on the farm until September, 1870, when he removed to Kansas. Shortly afterward he came back to Wisconsin, and in 1873 went to Texas. From Texas he removed to Muskogee in 1876. At this time Muskogee did not have more than three hundred population and only five or six business houses of any kind, and these were conducted in one-story frame buildings. Many people were interested in stock raising, though little farming was carried on. Most of the farming was done on leased land, and most of the white men were stockmen, merchants and clerks. Chief Poter and a few others carried on farms. Although there were then a few bad characters in the section, most of the inhabitants were men and women of high character and purpose. The town of Muskogee then had no regular police, but peace was kept by the Indian Light Horse, who seldom had to look after any worse crime than boot-legging. When they found anyone with whiskey they were allowed a bonus of a certain amount per gallon for all they destroyed. This was found to be frequently sold by women who refused to pay the police for destroying it, and the police helped themselves to anything portable on the premises to the amount of the bonus on the whiskey destroyed.

For the first five years of his stay in Muskogee Mr. Newberry ran the ferry between Muskogee and Fort Gibson on the Arkansas river, and during the time thus spent he says he seemed to ferry enough people to settle one family in every quarter section of land in what is now Oklahoma. At his rate of twenty-five cents per wagon he has taken in as much as fifty dollars a day, meaning that two hundred wagons were ferried across. This included, besides families coming into the territory, persons who were hauling meat and other provisions in.

Since 1881 Mr. Newberry has devoted his time to farming and stock-raising. He moved to Oktaha in July, 1891, and located on land afterward allotted to his wife, on part of which Oktaha is now located. The site for this town was selected some years before the allotment, but no permanent homes were erected until Mrs. Newberry removed her restrictions, which was done before statehood. It is now a thriving village of five hundred persons, with some seven dry goods and grocery stores, one bank and several smaller places of business, such as blacksmith shops, livery stables, etc.

Politically Mr. Newberry is independent, and he is actively interested in public affairs. He is very successful in his farming interests, and stands well in the community. He belongs to Muskogee Lodge Number 25, Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

Mr. Newberry married, May 17, 1891, Jennett, daughter of David and Elinora (Perryman) Sizeman, both full-blood Creeks. David Sizeman was one of the leading Creeks of the section, and served as a scout in the United States army during the Civil war. He was a deputy United States marshal, and on July 30, 1890, while taking a prisoner to Fort Smith, he stopped on the Canadian river among the Creeks, who were fishing, to enjoy the sport of shooting fish with a bow and arrow. He had set his Winchester down, and his prisoner reached it and killed him. Mr. Sizeman left a family of only two children, his wife having died some years previous. The children were: William, of Okmulgee, and Mrs. Newberry. The Perryman family were also among the prominent Creek families; both families came from Alabama and settled in what is now Wagoner. The Perryman family were farmers and stock raisers, and Mrs. Newberry's grandfather, James Perryman, was a pioneer Creek minister of the Baptist faith, who traveled and preached to the different tribes of the Creek nation scattered over the eastern portion of the territory. He was noted for his benevolence and high character, and was one of the best known men among the Indians. Both the Sizeman and Perryman families were slave owners previous to the Civil war.

Mr. and Mrs. Newberry are the parents of seven children, namely: Lula, Maude, Millard F., Corral, Beauford, Beulah and Merry Christmas, who was born on Christmas day of 1909. Mrs. Newberry and the children are members of the Baptist church.


A prominent citizen of Eufaula and the oldest attorney of that town, was born at Atlanta, Georgia, May 12, 1867. He is a son of Colonel S. S. and Mattie E. (Tidwcll) Fears, both natives of Georgia. The Fears family came originally from Wales, and settled in Georgia previous to the Revolution; the Tidwell family came to Georgia from Virginia and are supposed to be of English origin. The father of Mrs. S. S. Fears was a well-known criminal lawyer, whose services were in demand in all parts of Georgia; he was well known and highly respected. The father of S. S. Fears was a well-known minister in the Christian church. Both families had a number of children.

Colonel Fears was reared on a farm near Atlanta, Georgia, where his father was a large slave-owner. He received his education in Bethany College in Virginia, and graduated about the time of the breaking out of the Civil war. He immediately enlisted in the Confederate army, raising the first company from Jonesboro, Georgia, of which he became captain, and he served with Lee in Virginia, participating in all the battles fought by that general. Captain Fears took part in the important battles of Manassas, Bull Run and Gettysburg, and in 1863 or 1864 was made colonel of the regiment in which he enlisted. At the close of the war he returned home and married Mattie, daughter of Miles and Mattie (Goddard) Tidwell, of Atlanta. Colonel Fears had previously studied law in the office of Mr. Tidwell, and practiced in Atlanta until 1872, when he removed to Sherman, Texas. Here he continued the practice of his profession until 1889, when the United States Court was established at Muskogee, with Judge James M. Shackelford presiding. The first suit tried in this court in Muskogee, Indian Territory, was a civil one, with Colonel Fears an advocate on one side, and his opponent was Judge N. B. Maxey. Colonel Fears won the case. He was one of the best known attorneys of the territory, being known throughout Arkansas also, where he had a large practice, principally at Fort Smith. He continued to live at Muskogee until his death in 1904. His first wife died at Denison, Texas, in 1884, leaving six children, namely: Walter T.; W. S., of Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, who served as private secretary to Chief Poter and court stenographer to Judge William M. Springer, of Muskogee; L. E., a farmer of Wealaka, Oklahoma; Ruby, wife of George E. Cullen, of Cleveland, Ohio, commissioner of emigration, and formerly stationed at Honolulu; Millie, wife of W. A. Poter, son of Chief Poter of Muskogee; and Mattie. In 1895 Colonel Fears married Mrs. Bruce, of Fort Smith, who still resides in Muskogee.

The education of Walter T. Fears was obtained mostly in the public schools of Sherman, Texas, and in the Austin University, of Austin. He took a course in law at the University of Texas, graduating at the age of twenty-four years. His first practice was in Muskogee, where he entered his father's office and became his business associate. Mr. Fear continued here until 1893 and was then appointed master in chancery of the northern district of Indian Territory, under Judge Charles B. Stuart, of McAlester, which position he held until April 1, 1895, when he received the appointment, through Judge William M. Springer, of United States commissioner for the northern district of Indian Territory, and located at Eufaula, which has since been his home. He held this office until January 1, 1900, when he was succeeded by Judge H. L. Marshall, who filled the office until statehood. During the seven years that Judge Fears held these two federal positions he became well known throughout the northern part of the territory, and was held in high esteem by all. He was a member of the Sequoyah convention that met at Muskogee to adopt a separate state constitution for the Indian nation.

Politically Judge Fears is one of the leading Democrats of the region, well known throughout the state in both parties as an earnest partisan of his principles and party. He holds large tracts of farming land, and takes an active interest in the development of the country. He is an influential and highly esteemed citizen of Eufaula, and is a successful member of his profession. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church.

Judge Fears was married, October 17, 1893, to Edna Carter, of Arkansas, daughter of Dr. Thomas and Elizabeth (Dotson) Carter, natives respectively of Virginia and Mississippi. Dr. Carter was a third cousin of General Robert E. Lee, his grandmother being a sister of General Lee's mother. Dr. Carter and his wife were parents of ten children, seven of whom survive, namely: Benham (deceased), president of the Ozark Valley Bank; Henry, a merchant of Ozark; Sulu, wife of Captain Frank Fleming, of Ozark, Arkansas; Hattie, wife of Fount Crabtree, of Muskogee; Anna, wife of M. G. Butler, of Muskogee; Mrs. Oscar Toyler, of Memphis, Tennessee; and Edna, wife of Judge Fears. Judge Fears and his wife are the parents of five children, namely: Walter T., Jr., Morris S., Elizabeth M., Edna Jean and Carter M.


One of the oldest settlers in McIntosh County, Oklahoma, was born in Greene county, Illinois. He is a son of William L. and Martha L. (Phillips) Wells. William L. Wells was also a native of Greene county, born in 1831, and his wife was born in Ohio. His father, Samuel S. Wells, was one of the first settlers of central Illinois, and first lived in Macoupin county, being almost the first settler of that county. William Wells married a daughter of Anthony Phillips, also a pioneer of Illinois; he removed with his family to Texas previous to the Civil war, becoming a pioneer settler of that state. Mr. Phillips settled in Denton county, Texas, where his family was mostly reared.

William L. Wells was a farmer and served in Company H, Ninety-first Illinois Infantry, being sergeant of the company. He took part in many engagements in the southeastern portion of the United States and was captured during the first battle in which he participated, being held a prisoner for some time. He also had a brother in the Union army, Captain Joseph Wells, now of Erie, Kansas. He died February 17, 1900. Soon after the war Mr. Wells moved to Texas, where his wife died in 1871, near Denton; he remained there until February 27, 1872, and then removed with his family to Indian Territory. He settled first at Webbers Falls, and in 1873 came to what is now McIntosh county. He and his wife had eight children, of whom one died young. They were: Frank P.; Samuel, deceased; Mary, deceased, wife of John McDonald; W. Henry; Elizabeth, wife of John Simmons; George, of Bebee, Oklahoma; Alice, wife of Frank Cook, of Bebee; and Melvina, deceased, wife of J. M. Carner. After the death of his first wife Mr. Wells married Mrs. Martha Clay, by whom he had two daughters, namely: Ellen, wife of Fayette Kindred, and Emma, wife of Elmer Bevins.

Frank P. Wells was educated in the public schools of Greene county, Illinois, and went to Texas with his father. He came with his father to Oklahoma, and remained with him some time. He then engaged in farming on his own account, and located where he now resides about 1874. At the time he first came to this community there were very few white men, he and his brother and a Mr. Hughes being the only ones now living who were residents of this section of the country at that time. The land was almost entirely settled by full blood Indians, and there were a few negroes. The land was taken up with horse and cattle ranges, and the wild game was plentiful, such as deer, turkey and prairie chickens, with an occasional bear or panther.

Farming was carried on only on a small scale, and the inhabitants in the main were honest, peaceful citizens, and but little whiskey was "boot-legged" into the territory. The most of the trading of the vicinity was carried on at Muskogee, then a village of three or four hundred persons. For many years after this twenty-five acres was a large tract to cultivate, and most of the people did not even raise sufficient corn to feed their teams. During a large part of the year the horses were dependent upon the prairie grass for feed. There were plenty of horses and the houses were built of logs, with stick and dirt chimneys, puncheon floors and clapboard doors. The entire neighborhood would attend any social gathering, whether it was a dance or a devotional service.

Mr. Wells married, in April, 1873, Liddie H. Davis, daughter of William and Sallie (Holt) Davis. Mr. Davis was a full blood Creek Indian and his wife was white. They were the parents of two children, Mrs. Wells being the only one who lived to maturity. After the death of her husband Mrs. Davis married John Simmons, also a full blood Creek, and they raised one daughter, Melvina, who married William Hughes.

Mr. Wells and his wife became the parents of eleven children, two of whom are dead, namely: Lou, wife of John Storms; Martha, wife of Ed Wright; Joseph, who died November 16, 1909, at the age of twenty-seven; Ellen, wife of Oscar Lewis; Loyal; Wato; Elizabeth, wife of A. K. Presco; Walter; Lee; Viola; and one son, Claud, who died in childhood. Mr. Wells and his wife are members of the Missionary Baptist church and he is a member of Checotah Lodge Number 28, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. Wells is actively interested in public affairs, and politically is a Republican. He is one of the substantial and successful farmers of McIntosh county, and is highly respected.

William M. CARR

Of one of the old families of McIntosh County, Oklahoma, was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas, a son of Albert and Susan E. (Sheley) Carr, the former a three-quarter Creek and his wife of white parents. Albert Carr was reared principally around Okmulgee, Oklahoma, and was married in Fort Smith. He was a son of Thomas Carr, a half blood, who married a full blood Creek. The father of Thomas Carr was a white man and married a Creek Indian woman. Thomas Carr came to the Indian Territory with the McIntosh party of the Creek tribe.

Albert Carr was a farmer and stock man, and after his marriage moved to what is now McIntosh county, settling on Carr Creek, near where his son now resides. He was one of the successful men of the county and served in the Confederate army during the Civil war. He served during the last two years, and was once wounded. Mr. Carr died March 7, 1909, at Ramona, Oklahoma, where he had lived but a short time. He was three times married, and by his first wife had one son, John. By his second wife he had five children, namely: William M.; Sallie, wife of Fred Coon, of McIntosh County; Thomas; Severs; and Frank.

William Carr was educated in Eufaula High School, which was kept up by the Creek fund. Upon reaching manhood he engaged in cattle raising and farming. He has been very successful in this line and now owns a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres, well improved, with good house, barns, etc. He is actively interested in public affairs and politically is a strong Democrat. He and his children own a large tract of several hundred acres of land, considerable of which is improved. He is a member of Checotah Lodge Number 28, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In 1907 Mr. Carr was elected the first Constable of Checotah township, the Carr Creek District, and in connection with this office was appointed deputy sheriff. He took the first prisoners from McIntosh county to the state penitentiary at McAlester in 1909, the charge on which they were convicted being robbery and larceny.

Mr. Carr married, December 5, 1900, Vida, daughter of Louis and Adline (Goins) Mulkey, natives of Georgia. Mr. Mulkey and his wife were Cherokee and Choctaw, he one-eighth and she three-quarters. After their marriage they removed to Texas and lived there thirty years. He then came to Oklahoma and settled in what is now McIntosh county. He is now seventy-nine years of age and his wife seventy-five. He was a slave owner before the war and served in the Confederate army. He and his wife had ten children, the following living to maturity: Lucinda, wife of William Askins; Angie, wife of James Kay, of Rodgers county, Oklahoma; Belle, wife of Ferdinand Farmer, of McIntosh county, Julia, James; and Vida, Mrs. Carr. Mr. Carr and his wife have three children, Lillian, Ollie and Cecil.
Mr. Carr is considered one of the enterprising and substantial farmers of the county, where he is well known and highly respected.


A prominent citizen of Checotah, is a native of Mississippi and son of Rev. John and Elizabeth (Honnoll) McElhannon. The father of Rev. John McElhannon, Cooper McElhannon was born in the north of Ireland and came to America when a young man; he settled in Georgia in 1834. The Honnoll family were from Scotland, and Mrs. McElhannon came to the United States with her father, Peter Honnoll, who settled first in North Carolina, later removed to Tennessee and thence to Mississippi, where Rev. McElhannon and his wife were married. He was educated at the subscription schools of Georgia and Mississippi, and was an example of the great work a minister could do even though he did not have the advantages of a college education. He was reared on a farm, at a time when books and periodicals were not as plentiful as in present day homes, yet under these difficulties managed to master thirteen different languages so that he could speak and write them. He was a good Greek and Latin scholar, and has also considerable knowledge of Hebrew, besides French, German, etc., and the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw and Seminole languages. When a small boy he became connected with the Methodist Episcopal church, South, and became a minister at the age of twenty-two or three, working in the North Mississippi conference. In 1888 he transferred his field of labor and began doing missionary work in the Choctaw Nation, which he continued until 1904, and died in June of that year. Rev. McElhannon was one of the best known ministers in the nation, and his services were frequently in demand at Washington, both by the government and by the Five Nations, as he had the full confidence of both, and the Indians considered him fully able to understand and tell their needs, believing in his singleness of purpose.

In 1861 Rev. McElhannon joined the Confederate forces and served until the battle at Franklin, Tennessee, where he lost his right arm; he fell on the breastwork by the side of General Claybourne, who lost his life in this battle. Rev. McElhannon was taken prisoner at this time and confined at Point Lookout, New York, until the spring of 1865. At the close of the war he returned to Mississippi. Ho served part of his time as chaplain in the army, and participated in many hard-fought battles, among them Bull Run, Corinth, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Murfreesboro, in the campaign around Atlanta, and served under General Johnson until he was succeeded by General Hood, under whom he served until the battle of Franklin, which was the last in which he took part. He was a stanch Democrat, but never took an active part in political affairs. His wife died in 1898. They were the parents of eleven children, seven of whom reached maturity, namely: Elnora. wife of J. F. Evans, of Wilburton, Oklahoma; Marcus K.; Onada, wife of L. B. Williams, of Wilburton: James H., of Paden. Oklahoma; B. K., of Henryetta, Oklahoma; and John M. and G. L., deceased.

Dr. Marcus K. McElhannon received his early education at Hiram and Lyda, Arkansas, and when eighteen years of age took his first course of lectures at the medical college at Memphis, Tennessee. Returning home he engaged in teaching school, which he continued several years after locating in Oklahoma, and completed his literary education. He taught some time in the Choctaw Nation. Dr. McElhannon completed his medical course at the medical department of the University at Little Rock, Arkansas, although he had passed the examination of the state medical board and had practiced some before graduating from this institution. He located first in Henryetta, Oklahoma, for the practice of medicine, and in 1906 came to Checotah to continue his career. While living at the former town he suffered severely from hemorrhages, and spent some time in Florida and California for the benefit of his health; upon returning to Oklahoma he spent some time on a ranch sixteen miles west of Checotah, having an office in the town. In 1908 he located permanently in Checotah, and has built up a good practice. Aside from his professional activities he is greatly interested in cattle and other stock, and owns a fine ranch which he has now leased; here he has a number of cattle and horses. He has become well known in the community, and has won universal confidence and esteem.
In 1891 Dr. McElhannon married Georgia Loveless, of Mississippi, a daughter of G. W. Loveless and a Miss Hanks, both now deceased. Besides Mrs. McElhannon their children were: James; Luther; Houston; and Emma, wife of J. M. Bynum. of Wilburton, Oklahoma. To the Doctor and his wife the following children were born: Fannie May, Elnora, Addie, John and Marcus. The Doctor and his family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, South. He is a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, being affiliated with the lodge at Henryetta, Oklahoma. Politically he is a Democrat, and takes an active interest in the success of the party. He is a member of the Democratic State Central Committee and is president of the Board of Health of McIntosh County. Dr. McElhannon is also a member of the State Medical Association. He has filled nearly all the minor county offices, and for a short time by appointment held the office of sheriff.


Lone of the large stock farmers of McIntosh County, Oklahoma, was born in Hopkins County, Texas, in 1869. a son of Eli and Sallie (Moore) Minton. Mrs. Minton's parents came to Texas before the Civil war and were counted among the pioneers. Eli Minton came to Texas also some years before the war, and was the pioneer saddler of Hopkins County. He joined the Confederate army and served throughout the war. He was married in 1866, and worked at his trade until 1877. He then traveled some time for the benefit of his wife's health and was accidentally killed in 1878. His wife died in January, 1879, and they left a family of four children, namely: Jarritt, editor of the "Texas Advertiser," of Sherman, Texas; Chanie H.; Mollie, wife of Reverend Sample of Texas, and who was twice married, first to Samuel McDermott; and Laura, deceased.

C. H. Minton received a limited education in the public schools of Hopkins County, Texas, and never attended school after the death of his parents. After his tenth year he had to make his own way in the world. He spent five years at farm work, the first work being for eight dollars per month for the time he worked, and during the time there was nothing to do he paid his board by doing chores. After his fifteenth year he worked on ranches in different parts of Texas, and when he reached his majority he married Ida, daughter of W. 0. and Mary Clark Price, one-eighth Creek. Mr. Price and his family were among the early settlers of Hopkins County. He was a farmer and ?tock raiser, and had children as follows: Ida, Mrs. Minton; Sophia, wife of G. W. McGuire, of Checotah; Lela, wife of C. D. Reynolds, of Porum, Muskogee County, Oklahoma; Oscar B., of Bigsby, Oklahoma; and Owen and Benjamin, of Checotah. Mr. Price died about 1888, and in 1900 Mrs. Price married F. A. Wineblood, of Checotah, and they have two children, Laurel George English and Eva Rex Parker.

Mr. Minton came to what is now McIntosh County, Oklahoma, April 10, 1894, and spent six years at various occupations. He then located where he now resides, one hundred and sixty acres of unimproved land. Ho has improved the land and now has it under cultivation, with comfortable house and outbuildings. There are one hundred and sixty acres in the home place and the family owns eight hundred acres altogether with four hundred acres under a fine state of cultivation. Mr. Minton raises cereals and breeds hogs, horses, mules and cattle. He deals in all kinds of stock, and is one of the largest stock handlers in the county. He takes an active interest in all matters pertaining to the public welfare and progress and supports every good cause according to his means. Politically he is a Republican, and his wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, South.

Mr. Minton and his wife became the parents of six children, of whom three survive, namely: Nona, wife of Charles Aultman, of McIntosh County; Malvin and Ada. The two last named attend school in Checotah.


Of Checotah, one of the oldest citizens of the Creek Tribe of Indians now residing in McIntosh County, was born in what is now Muskogee County, in 1842. He is a son of Sandy and Lucy Grayson. Sandy Grayson's grandfather was a Scotchman, and he married a full-blood Creek woman. His son, Walter Grayson, father of Sandy, came to the Nation about 1834 and settled with his family in what is now Muskogee County. The Grayson family were always able to talk good English, and on that account were often employed as interpreters in early days. Sandy Grayson was often so employed by the government. He was one of the largest farmers and stock men of the community, and represented his tribe in the Creek Council, being one of its most progressive men. He died about 1869. Mr. Grayson was three times married. By his first wife, who died when William was a small boy, he had two children, William and Henry. Henry is now deceased, leaving one son, Ben, of Okmulgee. By his second marriage Mr. Grayson had two sons, Robert and Walter, both deceased, and by his third marriage he had no children.

William Grayson was reared on his father's farm, and lived the simple life of the early days in the territory. At the age of nineteen years he joined the Union army at Fort Gibson, under General Blunt and under the direct command of Captain Nucosillie. He served as a scout, mostly in the territory, going as far north as Fort Scott and as far east as Fort Smith, Arkansas. He served three years and took part in several minor engagements. His family were slave holders before the war, and for many generations the Graysons had been staunch patriots and had done gallant service in behalf of their country.
At the close of the war Mr. Grayson returned home and engaged in farming and stock raising, in which he has been very successful. He is an intelligent farmer and an enterprising, public-spirited citizen. Mr. Grayson has received his education since the war and as a result of his own efforts, not having attended school in his youth. He is a member of Checotah Lodge Number 88, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and politically is a Republican.

Mr. Grayson married Nancy, daughter of James and Sarah (Christie) Gore. James Gore was a full-blood Indian, but his stepfather, whose name he assumed, was a white man, and the father of Sarah Christie was a white man. Mrs. Grayson is one-third Creek, one-eighth white and the remaining part Cherokee. Both families came from Alabama. Mr. and Mrs. Gore had children as follows: Lizzie, deceased; Jane, Mrs. Wolf, a widow; Sieve, deceased; Nancy, Mrs. Grayson; Ollie, deceased; and one child who died in infancy. Mrs. Gore had been previously married and had one daughter by her former husband, Pollie, now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Grayson have three children who reached maturity, namely: John, of Eufaula, Oklahoma; Lucy, wife of George Hill of McIntosh County; and Van, also of McIntosh County. Mrs. Grayson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, South.


HE was formerly United States Commissioner for the Sixth Commissioner's District of the Northern Judicial District of the Indian Territory, and since statehood has practiced law with signal success at Tahlequah. He was born on a farm near Morgantown, Virginia, October 16, 1856. His father, John Payne Keenan, was born on a farm in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in 1824, and died near Morgantown, West Virginia, on a farm he had cultivated for fifty years.

His grandfather, Hugh Keenan, emigrated from Ireland, Fermanagh County, to New York early in the nineteenth century, and soon moved to southwest Pennsylvania, where he married an English lady by the name of Payne, who died early, leaving three children, Richard Keenan, John P. Keenan and Mary A. Courtney, of Marion, Iowa. Hugh Keenan, the grandfather, was a Catholic in belief but the children were brought up in an atmosphere that militated against the Romish creed and they all adhered to the then new creed of Methodism. In 1845, Hugh Keenan having remarried, the family, except Richard, drifted with the throng of western homeseekers to Iowa and located in Linn County of that state, about ten miles cast from Cedar Rapids. At that time there were no railroads to the west, and travel was by water and overland. The company embarked at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and floated down the Ohio to the Mississippi, and thence by the Mississippi to Davenport, Iowa. John P. Keenan earned his passage by stoking the boat on its journey.

The country was new in Iowa then; and there was some danger of fever and chills along the water ways and low places. The party located a claim, built a cabin, broke the prairie and raised a crop of corn. John Payne Keenan, being one of the victims to the chills and fever, made up his mind to return to Pennsylvania. So he offered his crop of corn for sale in the field. The price he got seems now remarkably low, five cents a bushel. Not having sufficient means to pay his passage back to civilization he gathered wild hops and sacked them and had them hauled to the Mississippi and forever turned his back on what seemed to him fever stricken Iowa. With the sale of hops to supplement the fund received from his corn he found his way safely to Pennsylvania, where his health was soon restored, but he had lost zeal for western adventure. Hugh Keenan and familv, including the second set of children by the second wife, remained in Iowa, where he died in 1873. The location in Linn County was a good one, and some of the best farming land in the state is found in the vicinity of Springville and west to the Cedar river.

In 1853 John Payne Keenan married Nancy Scott, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Lazzell (born Bowlby) and settled on a farm in Virginia, near Morgantown, now West Virginia, where he died. He had but one term of school in all his life. He was self educated to the extent of the three rules - reading, writing and arithmetic. He kept himself well informed on what went on in the world according to what the newspapers said. He was a Democrat in politics, but he believed in America against the world and the Union above the rights of the states. When the rebellion was begun at Fort Sumter by firing on the flag he was actuated by one sentiment - the preservation of the Union. He gave his adherence to the administration of Abraham Lincoln, offered his services to the Union army, which was declined on account of his health, and he never again voted the Democratic ticket. Thomas Lazzell, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was one of the largest land owners in his section and a firm believer in the evil of slavery, and his was one of the two votes cast for Lincoln in his township in 1860. And it was he and men like John P. Keenan who put that county (Monongalia) in the Republican list in West Virginia, where it has ever since remained. Nancy Scott Keenan still survives, and her children are Leonidas H., a lawyer at Elkins, West Virginia, Bruce Lazzell, hereafter further mentioned; Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Davis, of Morgantown, West Virginia; and Thomas Grant and John Franklin, who reside on the home farm near the same place.

Bruce L. Keenan was an average country boy and attended such schools as were established after the war. He had no literary environments. He says there were but five books about the place-the Bible, Frost's Annals of American History, the Life of John Wesley, a "calculator" (arithmetic) and a speller. He learned to read from two terms of private school, and by chance there fell into his hands Ray's Practical Arithmetic (3rd part), and this he practically mastered by his own work, incited by curiosity more than anything else. He knew the speller by "heart"; competed for a prize by reciting more verses from the Methodist hymnal than any person in his neighborhood; and at nineteen was teaching a country school. He entered the West Virginia University and graduated with the class of 1880, Congressman George A. Pearre of Cumberland, Maryland, being a member of the class. The greatest revelation in his college life was the world of books and the vast ramification of knowledge that lay before him. When he entered college from the country he had no conception of the meaning of a library of books. It dawned on him that instead of learning all there is to know in a few years in college, life is too short a time to master even a few things in this world of thought. He went to work with a will, and whenever he had time from his college work he acquainted himself with standard works of literature. He quit college in 1880, well acquainted with what is best in English literature, and had a wide knowledge of the Darwinian theory of evolution. He wrote a thesis during his college course on the "Biblical Objection to Evolution." He took the rather unpopular ground then that the theologians did not understand the Bible in its teaching as to creation. He contended that the Bible does not teach fiat creation but that the sea brought forth and the earth brought forth the living things of sea and land. Man was brought forth out of the dust of the earth and made a living mortal by the "breath of life"; and it is just as easy to understand this to be through long ages of evolution to the point where the man is differentiated from the unthinking ancestor as it is to determine where the embryo child ceases to be a protoplasm and becomes an immortal being. Thirty years have gone by and the church has come to this conclusion generally. His graduating subject was the "Religious Spirit of Science." Here he took advanced ground for the time. The Bible is not inerrant. It could not be transmitted and copied and recopied and preserved from error except by miracle. It could not be introduced in court by the rules of evidence because not identified as being preserved from the originals. But the truth in it, subjected to the spirit of true scientific investigation will save it. Science calls for soberness, self-control, physical self-denial, purposeful industry, obedience to higher law, honest thinking, just living and for a religious spirit. This was then regarded as "Blasting at the Rock of Ages." Thirty years have revolutionized thought on this subject. From the time of his entrance in college he paid his own expenses with the exception of three hundred and forty-five dollars of borrowed money; and he was in school five years counting one year in the law school. The cost of such a course must have exceeded one thousand dollars.

In 1879 he was elected to the county school superintendency of the schools of Monongalia County, West Virginia, a position he held for two years; and in 1881 he went to Piedmont, West Virginia, as principal of the public schools where he remained for two years, when he received his degree of Master of Science from his alma mater. He spent one year teaching in the High School of Crete, Nebraska, and studied law at odd times. He returned to the West Virginia University and graduated from the law department in 1885; passed the examination before the Supreme Court of that state and located in Wichita, Kansas, in the same year. After four years of practice he was elected a justice of the peace for the city of Wichita, Kansas, and served four years. He resumed his profession and was employed by the city council of Wichita to revise and remodel their city ordinances; a work which was done with gratifying success to all interested.

In politics he has always acted with the Republican Party. He believes the doctrine of the protective tariff is a world-wide policy: it is the sword of commerce by which nations fight their battles for commercial conquest. This nation needed it in the stage of infant industries to build up manufacturing and to protect the higher scale of wages to labor. This nation still needs it for our industries, for our higher paid labor and as the weapon and shield for our home market, the greatest on earth. Whatever may be its errors and abuses, under it we have built a great country; and the South has increased its manufactured products six fold in value in less than thirty years, and has in the same time advanced her cotton manufactures from fourteen per cent to fifty-two per cent of our nation's output.
Judge Keenan fought the battles for his party in Kansas when the silver craze carried some of the best men out of the Republican party. Money does not make business, but business calls for money; the value of money depends on the standard out of which it is coined; value is not created by coinage, for coinage is not consumption of the standard; the relative value of gold and silver is not the relative amounts mined, nor the relative amounts coined, but the relative amounts undemanded by the arts and manufactures. The demand for unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 is the strangest and most unexplained error the west ever committed itself to. He was special agent for the Interior Department from 1900 to 1904, spending much of his time in Washington, and making his field investigations in Kansas and Missouri. On the 21st of April, 1904, he was appointed by Judge Joseph A. Gill, United States Commissioner to succeed Frank N. Hamilton, at Tahlequah. As commissioner he had jurisdiction over what is now Adair and Cherokee counties, Oklahoma, and his administration was marked by rare discipline and splendid public order was preserved throughout the district for that day. His official association and his relations with the bar of the district were most harmonious.

When the preliminaries for statehood were being arranged he aided in planning for constitutional delegates and was the first candidate for County Attorney for Cherokee County, Oklahoma, being defeated with his ticket. He was nominated for presidential elector in 1908, and during the campaign made the astonishing statement and proposition to the local Democrats that he would support Mr. Bryan if he would advocate the elimination of the 15th amendment from the constitution. He told the local Democrats that there was no such a thing as a political question on account of the Negro in national politics; that the question was the South's question: and that he would support Mr. Bryan if he would indicate that there was a political race question and say what it is. Mr. Bryan refused to answer.
Judge Keenan is a successful lawyer and does not waste much time in his practice in motions and dilatory pleas. Demurrers and motions to make more definite and certain he thinks too often help the other fellow to construct his pleading correctly. He is not paid to help the other side. His advice to the young lawyer is to go direct to the heart of his own case and seek results by clearness of statement. Opportunity for orations may be found on Independence day and in political campaigns-they are too often dangerous in the trial of a lawsuit.

In his mental qualities he has a decided literary bent, and his reading since he left college has taken him into science, philosophy, history, the new theology and the deeper significance of politics. Science deals with the orderly meaning of all things in nature, their existence and the laws of continuation; history considers the romance of man in his efforts to maintain what he calls civilization-the marvelous story of error and truth mingled in government and subsistence and in the production and distribution of life's necessities; the new theology points the way to a harmonious relation of right living here as the only real preparation to the hereafter-to a creedless but not divineless Christian unity; the real significance of politics is the practical science of self-government - the test as to whether we will or will not succeed in our experiment in Republicanism or Democracy.

We are living in an age of unrest and yet we are conservative. We are progressive but not revolutionary. We froth and foam over politics. We want things to come to pass but do not know exactly what. Mr. Bryan, who is conceded to be one of the greatest leaders of men in history, while in private life, has inculcated more error than any living man. A man who stands deservedly high as a man of integrity, yet by becoming the voice of the undigested appeal for reformation in politics he has fallen into errors and inconsistencies which greatly damage his reputation.

And now we have the west alive with "Insurgentism" and anti-"Cannonism." Anti "Cannonism" is simply a question of Congress rules and a mere question of parliamentary law and not an issue in politics - both the old parties stand for "Cannonism" for this is but standing for organization. Anti-"Cannonism," however, is a revolt against party organization - the Insurgent leaders will not admit it, but it is the truth just the same. It signifies whether party solidarity wall remain, or will make way for a course of political independence. The fact that both sides appeal to the name "Republican" does not change this significant fact.

Judge Keenan believes in education, but it must be practical. The colleges of the past have spoiled quite as many men as they have helped-educated them away from what they were fit for. Education is but the awakening of the individual to know his own capacity and limitations and to fit himself accordingly. A farmer may spend a thousand dollars to spoil his son for farming, only to find he is a dismal failure at anything else. The schools do not create capacity, but they fit capacity for opportunity. You do not enter physical cripples to win in the Marathon races; but too many mental cripples are entered in our colleges without being helped to find their limitations. You cannot put a quart of water in a pint cup without running it over.

Judge Keenan's library indicates the variety of his reading; but he insists that men read too much for the thinking they do-live too o much in the shadow of other men's ideas. He enjoys the conversation of well informed people and talks interestingly. He is rather abrupt with the uninformed fogy. He has ideas on all subjects of the day. Woman suffrage for instance; that he says is the woman's question. When women unite and ask for the ballot, if they ever do, that will end it-there will be no room for debate then.

He is a stockholder in the Oklahoma State Bank at Tahlequah, and President of the Commercial Club, and takes a prominent part in the social and public life at the old Cherokee capital and enjoys a large circle of personal and political friends. If the Republicans succeed in carrying the next election in the First Judicial District of Oklahoma he will probably be made District Judge.
On October 16, 1890, he and Alice M. Overstreet were married at Emporia, Kansas; her father, Robert M. Overstreet, was a pioneer of that place and still resides there. He was a Presbyterian preacher and helped to found the Georgetown College in Texas, but left during the war on account of his adherence to the cause of the Union. Alice M. Overstreet was educated in the Kansas State Normal at Emporia, where she received a diploma and a teacher's life certificate. She is a woman of domestic tastes, but with rare intellectual attainments and very popular. Rev. Robert M. Overstreet and Margaret Baugh were married, and the children living of this marriage are: Miss Mayme, a teacher in the public schools at El Reno, Oklahoma; Dr. Joseph Addison Overstreet, of Kingfisher, Oklahoma; Mrs. Alice M. Keenan; Mrs. Madge M. Wright, wife to Lee R. Wright, of Kansaa City, Missouri; Frances, wife of Dr. John M. Parrington, of Emporia, Kansas; Jesse D. Overstreet, a farmer at Chillicothe, Texas.
Mr. and Mrs. Keenan met while she was teaching in Lewis Academy at Wichita, Kansas. They have five children, namely: Robert Bruce, born July 26, 1891, who finished the course in the Tahlequah high school in 1909; Marguerite, born October 3, 1892; Hypatia, born November 1, 1894; Claude Overstreet, born July 14, 1898; and John Kenneth, born September 22, 1900; they are all students in the North Eastern Normal School at Tahlequah.


One of the largest farmers and stock dealers in McIntosh County, was born in Pike County, Illinois. He is a son of Sterling and Sarah (Starks) Combs, the former a native of Indiana, the latter of Illinois, and the families of both were pioneer settlers of Pike County, Illinois. Mr. Combs and his family moved to Missouri and settled in the southern portion of Taney County, where the children were mostly reared. Mrs. Combs died in the territory of Idaho while on a visit, and her husband died in Taney County, Missouri. They reared nine children to maturity, namely: W. L., of McIntosh County, Oklahoma; James, deceased; Rebecca, wife of H. D. Goodale, of Marionville, Missouri; John W.; Newton and Jasper, twins, the former a resident of Idaho and the latter deceased; Margaret, wife of Milton Harper, of Idaho; Alice, wife of James Homeston, and Annie, wife of Dan Farmer, of Idaho.

J. W. Combs received a limited education in the common schools of Missouri, and started in life for himself at the age of eighteen, farming in Taney County, Missouri. Later he spent two years in Cass County, of same state, also spent some time in other parts of the state, and from Greene County removed to the Indian Territory in 1891, locating for a short time at Eufaula. He came to Checotah when the Indians were under Creek rule and the whites under government supervision.

When Mr. Combs came to Checotah he had but small capital. He was accompanied by his wife and they had two horses, a wagon and very little money. Soon afterward he leased the land on which he now lives, on which he carried on farming and stock raising with great success. At first there was only one white family between his place and Checotah, a distance of eight miles, Mr. Kingsbury being his nearest white neighbor. At this time the country was covered with cattle, mostly belonging to the whites, although the Indians also owned some, and some of the negroes who were formerly slaves of the Creek Indians, owned a number. There was at that time little farming carried on, and that mostly done by negroes. Cattle and horse thieves were carrying on their depredations, and when a man lost a horse he would rarely spend more than a half day looking for it, as he knew it would be a waste of time. Mr. Combs suffered mostly through the loss of fat hogs.

After statehood Mr. Combs began buying land, and now owns two hundred acres. His family owns altogether some twelve hundred acres of fine land, and most of it is under a good state of cultivation. He has paid close attention to his business interests and has attained his success through his industry and energy. Politically Mr. Combs is a Republican. He is a public-spirited citizen, and takes an active interest in all matters pertaining to the welfare of the county and state.

Mr. Combs has been three times married, first to Veolania Stockstill, of Taney County, Missouri, daughter of Richard and Mary (Weatherman) Stockstill; and to this marriage eight children were born, of whom six lived to maturity, namely: Albert, of McIntosh County; Howard, deceased; Hettie, wife of Steve Fielden; Louise; Thomas; and Benjamin. By his second marriage, to Cela Hopkins, one son was born, Herbert. She died in 1896. In 1898 Mr. Combs married Kate, daughter of Thomas Grayson; she was reared as an orphan. By this marriage eight children have been born, namely: Ralph, Burl, Joseph, Rena, Pearl, John, Roosevelt and Rachel.


One of the prominent citizens of Checotah is R. F. West, a native born son of Oklahoma, his birth occurring in what is now Muskogee County in 1872, born to the marriage union of Captain J. C. and Margarette E. (Hickey) West. J. C. West was born in Oklahoma in 1843, his father, John W. West, having come with the Cherokees from Tennessee in 1832. The latter's father was an Irishman and Cherokee who had married a Cherokee maiden named Ruth Fields, she being of three-fourths Indian blood. The grandmothers of Mr. R. F. West on both the paternal and maternal side were Fields and Grandmother West was a daughter of Captain George Fields. The Fields were of white blood, and from that time to the present they as well as the West family have been among the most prominent of the Cherokee race. Mrs. J. C. West was a daughter of J. H. Hickey, an American, and his wife was a three-fourths Cherokee who came from middle Tennessee with her race in 1832. Both of the families settled in what is now Muskogee County, and since the settlement of the country they have been numbered among the leading and most progressive families of the territory and of the state. J. W. West was considered the most powerful man physically in the Cherokee tribe, and the council passed a law forbidding him to hit a man with his fists, for they were considered deadly weapons. He was a slave owner and a large farmer and stock raiser for his time. He and his wife reared a family of nine children, and the following eight reared families of their own: Martha, now deceased; William, who is also dead and his family is living in Oklahoma; George, who was killed at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, while serving in the Confederate army; Captain J. C. West, living in Muskogee; Ruth, wife of William Finley, of Nowata; James, deceased, and his family is living in McIntosh County; Mishia, the deceased wife of Allen Gilbert; and Frank, who was killed by Sam Starr, and the latter was killed at the same time, both dying where they were shot. Frank West was the deputy sheriff at the time and Sam Starr headed what was known as the Belle Starr gang of desperadoes. Mr. West's family reside in Muskogee County.

Captain J. C. West was educated at a private school, and since early life he has been interested in the military matters of the Indian Territory, while since May of 1882 he has been connected with the Indian police. He entered the department as a private, with the same powers as a U. S. marshal, and during his life time he has perhaps broken up more desperate gangs of men than any other man now living in the eastern portion of the state. He was made captain of the Indian Mounted Police in 1902, his authority being confined to the Five Civilized Tribes, and thus he is not thrown with the rough element as in former days, when his labors were of such untold hardships and dangers as only those who lived in this section of Oklahoma at that time can understand. He now resides with his wife in Muskogee, honored and revered by his many friends as well as by the government officials. Mr. and Mrs. West reared the following eight children: J. H., of Vian, Oklahoma; E. C., living in Porum, this state; R. F., the subject of this review; Laura, wife of John Cofield, of Muskogee; Louellen, wife of Frank Chouch, of Porum; Frank, living in Okmulgee; Mary, wife of Dean Sampson, of Artesia, New Mexico; and Nannie, wife of Bert Bricco. of Porum.

R. F. West received his educational training at Tahlequah, and attaining to manhood's estate on his father's ranch he, at the age of twenty-one began farming and stock raising for himself, thus continuing until in 1899 he moved to Muskogee and for some time was engaged as a salesman. Shortly afterward he was made a member of the Indian mounted police force, a position he yet holds and subject to calls from any of the Five Civilized Tribes, and although this work is not as arduous as in former years it is yet exacting and calls for long and tiresome rides. He moved to the town of Checotah from one of his farms in December of 1908, and during the intervening period he attended only to his official duties until recently he embarked in other lines of business, and he is an excellent farmer and a large holder of valuable farming properties, having many acres under a fine state of cultivation.

In 1894 Mr. West was married to Miss Alma Lippard, from Mansfield, Arkansas, a daughter of Aaron and Susannah (Bowman) Lippard, early residents of that commonwealth. Mr. Lippard moved to Scott County, Arkansas, from North Carolina, where he was a farmer. He served as a private in the Confederate service, and he died in the year of 1903, his wife having passed away in 1901. Their nine children are: R. C.", W. J., D. T., Martha, wife of W. J. Hooper, J. L. and Mary, twins, the latter the wife of J. R. Camp, Ella, wife of W. R. Alexander, Alma, wife of Mr. West, and Mabel, wife of E. C. West. The two children of Mr. and Mrs. R. F. West are Delbert E. and John A., their only daughter Mamie being deceased. The family worship at the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. West is one of the leading Democratic workers in McIntosh County, taking an active interest in the success of his party as well as in the welfare of his town and County. He is numbered among the representative citizens of his community.


A hardware merchant of Council Hill, Oklahoma, was born in Corinth, Mississippi, March 20, 1873, and is a son of M. H. and Texana (Woodard) Hensley, natives, respectively, of North Carolina and Mississippi. M. H. Hensley was a planter, and in 1901 came to Oklahoma, locating at Checotah when it was only a village. At that time there was considerable farming done in the neighborhood, and he engaged in the hardware business. He is one of the firm known as the Checotah Hardware Company.

Arthur L. Hensley was educated in Jackson, Tennessee, and on attaining his majority engaged in the furniture business at Corinth, Mississippi, under the name of Hensley Brothers. He came with his father to Oklahoma in 1901, and worked four years at Checotah for him. In 1906 he came to Council Hill and opened the first hardware store in the town, in the fourth building erected. He began business in a very modest way, but has increased his business until now he has a large line of hardware and accessories and a fine line of farm machinery, such as plows, wagons, drills, etc. He does a good business, and is one of the most enterprising and progressive citizens. He is well known and liked, having the respect and esteem of his associates. He is a member of the Masonic Order, being affiliated with Council Hill Lodge, and also belongs to Council Hill Lodge Number 228, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Politically he is a strong Democrat, such as are generally reared in Mississippi.
Mr. Hensley married October 16, 1907, Edna Asbill. Mr. Asbill, of Checotah, was an early settler in the territory and his wife, Sarah, is about one-sixteenth Creek Indian. They have three children, namely: Edna and Edith, twins, and Bryan. Edna is the wife of Mr. Hensley and Edith is the wife of Homer Spaulding, of Council Hill. Mr. Asbill was twice married, and by his first wife had three children, James, John and Phebe. Mrs. Asbill had also been previously married, and by her first husband, a Mr. Yargie, had two children, William and Emma, the latter the wife of Art Asbill, postmaster of Checotah.


Head of the mercantile establishment conducted by Mayo and Company of Sallisaw, Oklahoma, has been a resident of the county seat of Sequoyah County since 1899, and is now among the most stirring and successful citizens of that place, important in business, farming and finances. He is a native of Monroe County, Arkansas, born October 25, 1879. The family is of old southern traditions, the paternal grandfather, Captain William Mayo, migrating from his native North Carolina home to Fayette County, Tennessee, in the early years of the nineteenth century. There he reared his family and at the opening of the Civil war was an extensive planter depending upon the customary slave labor. The personal result of the conflict was to maim his fortune, but he gathered its remains, resumed farming on several thousand acres of bottom lands in Monroe County, Arkansas, and so recuperated that at his death he was again in independent circumstances. He earned his military title for valiant service in the Confederate army; was an educated man and became prominent in the civic affairs of Monroe County, passing away in 1890 as a man who had made a brave and successful fight in the world and a Christian gentleman of the Cumberland faith. Captain William Mayo married Miss Jane Anderson, whose family was a prominent one about LaGrange, Tennessee, and who died in 1905, mother of Frank A., who is an ex-Confederate soldier and a lawyer, having also extensive planting interests at Turner, Arkansas; Richard D., father of Willie P., who is mentioned below and who is one of the largest planters and one of the most influential men of Monroe County, Arkansas; Laura, who is now the widow of W. H. Boyce, a resident of Tiptop, Tennessee; Fannie, widow of Samuel Black, of Jackson, that state; William M., Jr., deceased, who at the time of his death was County Judge and a lawyer at Clarendon, Arkansas: and Lillie, who married John S. Black and died at that place. Richard D. Mayo, the father, is a native of Fayette County, Tennessee, but was very young when his father moved to Arkansas, completing his childhood and receiving a common school education in that state. He married Miss Willie Pointer, daughter of Samuel R. and Sue (Mooring) Pointer. Her parents were North Carolinians of the substantial planter class and her father was a soldier of the Confederacy. The children of their union were Willie Dale and James Mooring, of Sallisaw; Bessie and Walter Pointer, who are on the old Arkansas homestead; and John Edwin, also of Sallisaw.

Willie D. Mayo attended the public schools and the University of Arkansas and completed a commercial course at Little Rock, Arkansas. He then returned to his father's farm and was a factor in its operation until 1899, when he located at Sallisaw and engaged in a small hardware business with his uncle, E. M. Pointer. Not long afterward he became associated with J. M. and J. E. Mayo, brothers, and E. M. Pointer, uncle, the partnership being concerned in the establishment of an extensive business both in hardware and dry goods. The enterprise, conducted by them under the style of Mayo and Company, has become one of the leading elements in the mercantile activity and progress of Sallisaw as a town. Its head is also a stockholder in the Farmers' State Bank and has large agricultural interests in the county. As a worker and advocate of fraternalism, he is a member of the Woodmen of the World and the Knights of Pythias. His wife, to whom he was married May 8, 1901, was Miss Jessie V. Wheeler, daughter of Captain Will Watie Wheeler, of Sallisaw, and from this union was born Richard Wheeler, Francis Willie, Virginia Dale, Bessie and John Mooring. The two last named are deceased.


One of the large land owners of McIntosh County, was born near Jefferson, Marion County, Texas, and is a son of James N. and Mattie (Drew) Scott. James N. Scott is generally known as Captain Scott; his wife, one-eighth Cherokee, is a daughter of William and Delilia (McIntosh) Drew, the latter a daughter of Chief McIntosh, of Georgia, by his Cherokee wife. She is mentioned in connection with the sketch of Cheesie McIntosh, found elsewhere in this work. Captain Scott's father, John W. Scott, was a white man, of Scotch-Irish parentage. He settled in what is now Scottsville, Texas, when James was two years old, and there died shortly afterwards, leaving four sons, namely: Thomas (deceased), who had one daughter, Mrs. Aurora Collins, of Oktaha; Daniel N., of Texas; John W., of San Antonio; and Captain James N.

Captain Scott grew to manhood near Jefferson, Texas, and was educated in Kentucky. He was married soon after leaving school and at the beginning of the war raised a company for the Confederate service, in which he was elected captain; he was attached to Colonel Leroy Morgan's Regiment of Cavalry. He served in the trans-Mississippi department, and fought in most of the battles through Arkansas and Louisiana, especially at the time of the Federal raid on Shreveport, when they secured most of the cotton lying in the warehouses and the homes of the farmers. At the close of the war he returned to his family and engaged in farming and stock raising until 1872, when he removed to the Creek Nation. Captain Scott settled on the land now owned by his son, George W. At that time there was no railroad and no settlement at Checotah. He erected the first house in what is now Checotah, the nearest dwelling then being that of Mrs. Drew, a mile and a half north. A few other families lived from three and a half to eight miles out, not more than a half dozen altogether. At Honey Springs were two small stores, and the country around Checotah was known as Elk Creek settlement. At that time there were not the large herds of cattle roaming over the country as there were later, but there were deer, turkey, prairie chickens and squirrels. There were then no buffalo or antelope. Captain Scott erected a log house, weather-boarded with clapboards, and dug a well soon after locating there, as it was summer and there was a scarcity of water. This was the route generally taken from the states into Texas, and was the old military road. The other settlers knew Mr. Scott's place as one where they could get water in the summer time, and he became one of the best known men in the section. In the summer time people traveled generally by night, as the days were so hot and the flies troublesome, and generally after arriving they would spend a day at the Scott home. He was also well known to people outside of the territory, as people going to or leaving Baxter Springs, Missouri, were before they made a start furnished with a list of watering places along the old military road. A few years later he removed from this place to the north fork of the Canadian river, where Wells Switch is now located. Here he resided until his death. As a white man he could hold no official position, but was a man of considerable influence with the people of the country who were citizens and the families moving in. His first wife died in 1875, and in 1879 he married Fannie Morris. By his first marriage he had four children who reached maturity, namely: George W., Spire H. (deceased), Anna C. and Dorah. Spire left two children, James and Buck, both residing in Muskogee. Anna is the wife of Dr. C. H. Davis, of Old Mexico. Dorah is the wife of John G. Liber, of Muskogee. Captain Scott's wife was a woman of unusual gifts, and before the war received a good education at a flourishing female academy of Holly Springs, Mississippi. By his second marriage Captain Scott had two children who reached maturity, John W., of Texanna, and Howell, attending the medical department of the University of Tennessee at Nashville.

George W. Scott received his education at Tahlequah and Asbury Missions and at Eufaula, Oklahoma. At the age of twenty-three he engaged in farming on the place his father first located in Oklahoma. He remained with his father until his death. At the time he began farming the place was very little under cultivation. Mr. Scott is one of the most successful and prominent farmers of the county, being widely known and highly respected. He partially cultivated four hundred and eighty acres, with three hundred and fifty acres under a high state of cultivation, said to be the finest land in the county.
Mr. Scott is a strong Democrat, and before statehood had the honor of being Democratic delegate to every convention, save one, held by the Five Civilized Tribes. However, since the advent of statehood he has not taken a prominent part in public affairs.

In 1888 Mr. Scott married Cora, daughter of Dr. Barney and Eveline (Berry) Evans, and to them two children were born, James G. and Frederick T. Mrs. Scott died in 1903, and in 1907, Mr. Scott married Kattie, daughter of Joseph and Maggie (Jumps) Daily.

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